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DIFFERENT GENERATOR

TOPOLOGIES USED IN WIND


TURBINE APPLICATIONS
A Case Study

SUBMITTED BYSHAILESH TRIPATHY


NIT ROURKELA

Under The Guidance and Supervision of Dr. C.N Bhende

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to express my deep gratitude to Dr. C.N. Bhende, Professor of IIT Bhubaneswar,
for recognising me as capable enough to carry out this extensive case study and for entrusting
me to do the same and also for being a constant source of inspiration. I would like to thank
the Department of Electrical Sciences, IIT Bhubaneswar for constantly providing all the help
needed to complete this piece of study. I would also like to thank all the people including my
family for providing their firm support during the process of completion of this Case Study.

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ABSTRACT
Wind power is one of the most reliable sources of renewable energy in 21st century. Modern
wind farms use generators for the production of electricity. They include wind turbines
connected to the prime mover either directly or through a gear box arrangement. The prime
mover is connected to the shaft of the generators rotor, while the stator is connected either to
standalone loads or the electrical grid. This arrangement converts energy from mechanical
domain to magnetic domain and subsequently to electrical energy at the grid.
Broadly, there are two types of generators:a) Induction Generators
b) Synchronous Generators

Induction Generators are essentially those in which the prime mover and consequently the
rotor rotate at super-synchronous speeds (for generating mode), thereby transferring energy
from the generator to the load. In case of standalone loads, a capacitor bank is used to provide
the magnetising current and hence establish the magnetising flux. If it is connected to the
electrical grid, then the magnetising current is taken from the grid. Under this category, the
Squirrel Cage, Wound Rotor and Doubly Fed type of generators are investigated.

Synchronous Generators are those in which the rotor rotates at exactly the synchronous
speed. In a synchronous machine when the air-gap emf lags the excitation emf by an angle
(0<<180) the machine acts as a generator. In such a case energy is supplied to the grid or the
load connected. The rotor of the generator in this case is excited either electrically or by a
permanent magnet. The Wound Rotor and Permanent Magnet types of this category have
been described.
In this paper both these categories and their sub-categories are discussed in detail. Theres
also a brief description on the various power converter concepts used in generating operations
around the world and how those concepts are specifically applied in Wind Energy
Conversion Systems (WECS).

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CONTENTS
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.

VII.
VIII.

IX.
X.

PAGE NO.

Acknowledgement.........................................................................................2
Abstract..........................................................................................................3
Introduction....................................................................................................5
Different Converter Topologies used with Generators ..................................8
Induction Generators......................................................................................9
Types of Induction Generators used in Wind turbines
a) Squirrel Cage Induction Generator...................................................11
b) Wound Rotor Induction Generator...................................................14
c) Doubly Fed Induction Generator......................................................16
Synchronous Generators.................................................................................18
Types of Synchronous Generators used in Wind Turbines
a) Wound Rotor Synchronous Generator...............................................21
b) Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator.......................................23
Summary.........................................................................................................26
References.......................................................................................................27

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INTRODUCTION
Wind energy has been used for thousands of years for milling grain, pumping water and other
mechanical applications. But it is the use of wind energy as a pollution-free means of
generating electricity on a significant scale that is attracting most current interest on the
subject. Strictly speaking, a windmill is used for milling grain, so modern windmills tend to
be called wind turbines partly because of their functioning similarity to the steam and gas
turbines that are used to generate electricity, and partly to distinguish them from their
traditional forbears. They are also sometimes referred as wind energy conversion systems
(WECS) and those used to generate electricity in these systems are generally described as
wind generators or aerogenerators.
BENEFITS OF WIND POWER:
1. Clean and endless fuel- Wind power does not produce emissions and is not run down
with time.
2. A 1MW wind turbine operating for one year can displace over 1500 tons of carbon
dioxide, 6.5 tons of sulphur dioxide, 3.2 tons of nitrogen oxide and 60 pounds of
mercury (based on US average utility generation fuel mix).
3. Modular and scale-able technology
4. Energy price stability- by reducing dependence on conventional fuels, it takes off the
extra burden on them and helps in regulating their price, indirectly.
INDIAN SCENARIO:
In the early 1980s, the Government of India established Ministry of Non-Conventional
Energy Sources (MNES) to promote diversification of the countrys energy supply and
satisfy the ever-increasing energy demand of its rapidly growing economy. In 2006, this
ministry was renamed as Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE). During the first
decade of the 21st century India emerged as the second leading market of Wind power in
Asia. Currently its cumulative installed capacity is close to 13GW with the market growing at
an average rate of over 20% over the past 5 years [1].

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Modern wind power technology has come a long way in the last two decades, both globally
and in India. Improved technology has slowly and steadily increased capacity efficiency. A
key trend in the Indian industry has been the installation of multi-megawatt turbines installed
at greater hub heights. Larger rotor diameters enable a single turbine to capture more energy
or power per tower. The following pie chart is an indicator to the dominance of wind power
in the renewable energy market in India.

WIND ENERGY GENERATION SYSTEMS:


Wind turbines produce electricity by using the power of the wind to drive an electrical
generator. Passing over the blades, wind generates lift and exerts a turning force. The rotating
blades turn a shaft inside a nacelle which goes into the gearbox. The gearbox adjusts the
rotational speed to that which is appropriate for the generator. The generator converts the
rotational energy to electrical energy. The power output goes to a transformer connected to
the grid, which converts electricity from the generator at 700V to the appropriate voltage for
the power collection system, typically 33kV.

A wind turbine extracts energy from the swept are of the blades. The power contained in the
wind is given by the kinetic energy of the flowing air mass per unit time. That is,

Pair = 0.5mV2 = 0.5AV3


Where Pair is the power contained in the wind (in watts)

is the air density (1.225 kg/m3 at 15 oC ), A is the swept area (m2 ), V is the velocity of the
wind without any rotor interference i.e wind speed at infinite distance from the rotor blades.

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Although the above equation gives the power available in wind, the power transferred to the
wind turbine rotor is reduced by an amount called the Power coefficient CP which is given
by-

CP = Pwind turbine / Pair


3

Therefore, Pwind turbine = 0.5 CP AV

Maximum value of CP is defined by the Betz limit which states that a turbine can never
extract more than 59.3% power from an air stream. In reality wind turbine rotors have
maximum CP values in the range of 25-45%.

Tip speed: It is the tangential velocity of the rotor at the tip of the blades, measured in m/s.
Mathematically it is the product of angular velocity, (rad/s) of the rotor and the tip radius, R
(m),
i.e. V= R

Tip Speed ratio: It is defined as, = R/V

Solidity: It describes the fraction of the swept area that is solid i.e. wind turbines with greater
number of blades are called high-solidity wind turbines and vice-versa. Modern electricitygenerating wind turbines have low-solidity rotors.

Types of Wind Turbines:


i.

ii.

Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs): They are of the axial flow type which
means that wind flowing in a direction parallel to the axis is harnessed. These are
mostly used in modern day electricity generation purposes. But their disadvantage is
that they can harness speed only in a particular direction. As the direction of the wind
can fluctuate quite routinely, this becomes a major drawback [4].
Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs): They are of the cross flow type which
means that wind flowing in a direction perpendicular to the axis is harnessed.
Theoretically these should have better efficiency as compared to their horizontal
counterparts, but they usually have very complex shapes and are therefore very
difficult and economically unviable to manufacture [4].

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DIFFERENT CONVERTER TOPOLOGIES USED


WITH GENERATORS
Different power converter topologies are: [2]
1. Soft Starter
2. Diode rectifier
3. Back-to-back converter
4. Multilevel Converters
5. Matrix converter
6. Resonant converters
7. B-4 Converters

Hence we introduce the various topologies based on the two major types of generators:
I.
II.

Induction Generator or Asynchronous Generator


Synchronous Generator

While comparing and considering the best generator topology among all, the main criteria is
the type of converter used.
Some of the critical points that have to be kept in perspective arei.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Converter rating.
Number of converters used, in case additional converters are required, that becomes a
drawback.
Converter cost.
Added advantage of a converter providing active power, reactive power control and
power factor control (by Pulse Width Modulation) is also considered.

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INDUCTION GENERATORS
It is a type of AC electrical generator with principle of operation similar to an Induction
motor, only difference being that it runs at super-synchronous speed, thereby converting the
input mechanical energy from the prime mover as electrical energy at the output. It has two
componentsa) Stator b) Rotor
The stator itself is fixed, while the flux produced due to the three phase windings rotates at a
speed called the synchronous speed Ns. The rotor is the movable part of the machine and the
speed at which it rotates is called mechanical speed Nm. The ratio of difference between
synchronous and mechanical speed to the synchronous speed is termed as slip s.
Mathematically,
s= (Ns Nm)/Ns

For Generating mode, Slip s has to be negative as Nm>Ns.

Ns= 120fs/P; fs- stator current frequency, P is the number of poles per phase of the stator.

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT

Where,
o
o
o
o
o

Is - stator current; Ir rotor current when referred to primary (stator).


Rs stator resistance; Xs stator reactance
Rr/s rotor resistance; Xr - rotor reactance
Im -No load current; Rm working component; Xm -magnetising component
Vr/s Voltage across rotor; Vs stator voltage or grid terminal voltage

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TORQUE-SLIP CHARACTERISTICS

The graph clearly shows that for generating mode, the slip s is negative. The generating
region is pretty similar to the motoring region, but the curve of the generating mode is just
inverted version of that of the motoring mode i.e. the locus points of the generating mode are
negative of that of the motoring mode.

The three types of Induction generators used in wind power generation are:i.
ii.
iii.

Squirrel Cage Induction Generator (SCIG)


Wound Rotor Induction Generator (WRIG)
Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG)

Though these belong to the same category of generators, they use different power converters
depending on which, there are different speed concepts (fixed, limited variable or variable).
As Induction Generators are asynchronous generators i.e. they can have variable speeds,
therefore they are said to be best suited for wind power generation because of the wide range
wind speeds involved. But even among this class of generators, DFIG is the most popular,
and the reason for this has been explained later, in detail.

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Types of Induction Generators used in Wind


Turbines:a) SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION GENERATOR (SCIG)CONSTRUCTION
It has a unique construction with the rotor having solid bars of conducting material placed in
rotor slots and shorted through end rings on each side. In large machines alloyed copper bars
are driven in the slots and are brazed onto the copper end-rings, while smaller ones have
diecast aluminium bars. The rotor circuit cannot be tempered with and the machine has a low
starting torque, while it has excellent running performance. Another important aspect of
construction is that the number of stator slots must be a non-integral multiple of the number
of rotor slots so as to prevent magnetic locking of rotor and stator teeth at the time of starting.
For the same purpose the rotor teeth are skewed slightly.

The construction is similar to that of a traditional squirrel cage, prominently used in the past
and hence the name given to the Induction Generator.

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SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM

The SCIG uses a power converter and a capacitor bank, for maintaining the magnetising
current. A multiple-stage gearbox is used and the SCIG is directly connected to the Grid
through a transformer as shown. Because the SCIG operates only in a narrow range around
the synchronous speed (that too at speeds greater than the synchronous speed), the wind
turbine equipped with this type of generator is often called the fixed speed wind generator
system. This is the conventional concept applied by many Danish wind turbine manufacturers
in the 1980s and 1990s that is, an upwind, stall regulated, three bladed wind turbine system
using an SCIG, so it is also referred to as Danish concept [3]. Smoother Grid connection was
achieved by incorporating a soft starter as power converter. Further, a pole changeable SCIG
can be used which leads to rotation speeds [3].

ADVANTAGES [3, 5]

It is simple and robust.


Easy and cheap for mass production.
It enables stall regulated machines to operate at a constant speed when it is connected
to a large grid, which provides a stable control frequency.
It doesnt have current harmonics since it has no frequency conversion.

DISADVANTAGES [3, 5]

The speed is not controllable and variable only over a very narrow range, in which
only speeds higher than the synchronous speed are possible for generator operation.
It has less efficiency.
Wind speeds can vary to a large extent, therefore the turbine speed cannot be adjusted
with the wind speed to obtain aerodynamic efficiency.
There is a very big problem with gear box maintenance.
It is highly noisy.

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ANOTHER TYPE OF CONVERSION

This is a variable rotor speed concept WECS in which SCIG is directly connected to the
turbine through a multi-stage gearbox. Stator is connected to the grid through an uncontrolled
rectifier and a force commutated PWM inverter. The objective is to contain power flow over
DC link. It uses a full-scale back to back power converter in place of capacitor bank and soft
starter. It is a very popular machine due to its mechanical simplicity and construction.
Methods of control include uncontrolled rectifier with inverter full power frequency
converter, thyristor and static VAR controller, matrix converter [2].

ADVANTAGES [2]

It captures better energy than fixed speed SCIG concept.


There is no need of capacitor bank.
Variable speed concept reduces the mechanical stress on the turbine.
Electrically isolated from the grid.

DISADVANTAGES [2]

Problem with gearbox maintenance remains.


Problem with obtaining excitation current from stator terminal remains same.
Converter rating is high, so it increases the converter cost.

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b) WOUND ROTOR INDUCTION GENERATOR (WRIG)CONSTRUCTION


It differs from the SCIG only in the construction of the rotor. The winding of this woundrotor is polyphase with coils placed in the slots of the rotor core. It is similar to that of stator
except that the number of slots is smaller and fewer turns per phase of a heavier conductor
are used. The rotor is wound and star connected with three leads brought out of the machine
via slip rings placed on the shaft with the slip rings tapped by means of copper-brushes.
External resistance can be included in the rotor circuit through slip rings for reducing the
starting current and in case of motoring to improve the starting torque. The fact that WRIG
has a flexible rotor circuit is used effectively for wind turbine applications for dynamic speed
control.

The diagram shows an air-cooled wound rotor

The rotor core is of laminated construction with slots suitably punched in for accommodating
the rotor winding/bars. The punched laminations are stacked and fitted directly onto a shaft in
case of small machines while in the case of large machines a stack of annular punching of a
suitable cross-sectional area are fitted onto a spider-web arrangement on the shaft.

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SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM

The schematic shows a limited variable speed concept with multiple-stage gearbox is known
as the Optislip Concept [3]. This uses WRIG with a variable resistance and a power
electronic converter. The stator of the IG is connected to the grid via a power converter and a
transformer, whereas the rotor winding is connected in series with a controlled resistor.
Variable-speed operation can be achieved by controlling the energy extracted from a WRIG
rotor; however this power must be dissipated in the external resistor. With increase in
variable speed range, a higher slip means a high power extracted by the rotor and lower
generator efficiency, so that the rating of the resistor must also be higher. Therefore the
dynamic speed control range depends on the size and rating of the variable rotor resistance,
and the energy extracted from the external resistor is dumped as heat loss across the
controllable rotor resistance [3]. A typical limited variable speed range is less than 10%
above the synchronous speed. Furthermore reactive power compensation (capacitor bank)
and a soft starter are used in this concept. Additionally slip rings may be avoided by building
the power converter and external resistor on the rotor and transmitting the control signals to
the rotating electronics by an optical coupling [3].

ADVANTAGE [3]

As compared to the SCIG, this configuration has a wider range of speeds above
synchronous speed, thus making it more suitable.

DISADVANTAGES [3]

Much of the essential rotor energy is dissipated across the external rotor resistance.
A separate arrangement of capacitor bank is still required for reactive power
compensation.
It has lower efficiency decreasing its viability as a profitable concept.
Even though the speed range is comparatively wider as compared to SCIG, it isnt
enough as wind speed applications require still larger ranges of speeds.
It uses a multiple-stage gearbox and is therefore prone to mechanical inefficiency and
defects.

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c) DOUBLY FED INDUCTION GENERATOR (DFIG)This type of Induction generator is mostly similar in construction to WRIG with the
exception that the rotor is fed from the grid through a rotating or static frequency converter.
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM

It consists of a stator connected directly to the Grid and a rotor- via slip rings- is connected to
grid through four-quadrant ac-to-ac converter based on Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors
(IGBTs). This system offers the following advantages1. Reduced inverter cost, because inverter rating is almost 30% of the total system
power.
2. Improved system efficiency.
3. Power-factor control can be implemented at a lower cost without the use of capacitor
bank.
4. It has a complete control of active and reactive power.
The Doubly Fed Induction Generator with a power controller as shown in the figure is a
simple and highly controllable way to transform the energy from the variable speed rotor to a
constant frequency electrical utility grid. The main reason for the popularity of DFIG
connected to the national networks is their ability to provide power at constant voltage and
frequency while the rotor speed varies.
Currently DFIG wind turbines are increasingly used in large wind farms. A typical DFIG
system is as shown in the figure. The AC/DC/AC converter consists of two components: the
rotor side converter Crotor and Grid side converter Cgrid. These converters are voltage source
converters that use forced commutation power electronic devices (IGBTs) to synthesize AC
voltage from DC voltage source. A capacitor connected on DC side acts as a DC voltage
source. The generator slip rings are connected to rotor side converter, which shares a DC link
with the grid side converter in a back-to-back configuration. The wind power captured by the
turbine is converted into electric power by the Induction Generator and is transferred to the
grid by stator and rotor windings. The control system gives the pitch angle command and the
voltage commands for the Crotor and Cgrid to control the power of the wind turbine, DC bus
voltage and reactive power or voltage at the grid terminals.

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OPERATION

With the DFIG, slip control is provided by the rotor and grid side converters. At high rotor
speeds, the slip power is recovered and delivered to the grid, resulting in high overall system
efficiency. If the rotor speed range is limited, the ratings of the frequency converters will be
small compared with the generator rating which helps in reducing converter losses and
system cost. Since the mechanical torque is positive for power generation and since the
rotational speed of the magnetic flux is positive and constant for a constant frequency grid
voltage, the sign of the rotor electric power output is a function of the slip sign. Crotor and Cgrid
have the capability of generating or absorbing reactive power and can be used for controlling
the reactive power or the grid terminal voltage. The pitch angle control is used for controlling
the generator output power to its normal value for high wind speeds. The grid provides
necessary reactive power to the generator.
ADVANTAGES
1. Ability to produce more output than its rated power without being overheated.
2. Ability of transferring maximum power both in sub-synchronous and super
synchronous modes.
3. Converter is connected to rotor, so its power rating is reduced and the whole power
flows through the stator.
All these advantages make it a preferable choice for WECS.

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SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS
Synchronous Generator as the name suggests is an electric machine where the rotor runs at
exactly the synchronous speed i.e. the speed of the stator flux and rotor is the same. The rotor
is magnetised by an excitation field produced electrically or through a permanent magnet, the
rotor is the rotating assembly in the centre of the generator and the stator is the stationary
armature that is electrically connected to a load or the grid. A set of three conductors make up
the armature winding in standard utility equipment, connected to the transmission lines. The
excitation mmf in the rotor produces excitation emf, whereas the vector combination of
armature reaction with excitation mmf produces resultant mmf. This resultant mmf gives rise
to air-gap emf. When the excitation emf vectorically leads the air-gap emf by an angle , then
this implies that mechanical energy from the prime mover is transferred to the rotor in the
magnetic domain which then transfers it across the stator in electrical form.
CONSTRUCTION
There are mainly two types of rotor used in construction of SG:

Salient pole type


Cylindrical rotor type

SALIENT POLE TYPE

This type of rotor is used for slow speed machines having large diameters and relatively
small axial lengths. The pole in this case are made of thick laminated steel sections riveted
together and attached to a rotor with the help of a joint. A synchronous generator is mostly
responsible for the generation of very high electrical power. To enable that, the mechanical
torque given to the machine in terms of input must also be very high. This high torque results

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in oscillation or hunting effect of the alternator or synchronous generator. To prevent these


oscillations from going beyond bounds the damper windings are provided in the pole faces as
shown in the figure. The damper windings are mainly copper bars short-circuited at both ends
placed in the holes made in the pole axes. When the machine is driven at steady speed, the
relative velocity between the damper winding w.r.t the resultant field will be zero. But as
soon as it departs from the synchronous speed there will relative motion between the damper
winding and the main field which is always rotating at the synchronous speed. This relative
difference will induce electric current in the damper windings which will exert a torque on
the field poles in such a way as to bring the generator back to synchronous speed operation.
The features associated with the field pole construction are: - [6]
1. They have a large horizontal diameter compared to a shorter axial length.
2. The pole shoes cover only 2/3rd of the pole pitch.
3. Poles are laminated to reduce eddy current losses.
CYLINDRICAL ROTOR TYPE
This type of rotor is generally used for high speed operation and is usually employed in turbo
generators. It has uniform length in all directions giving a cylindrical shape to the rotor thus
providing uniform flux cutting in all directions. The rotor in this, consists of a smooth solid
steel cylinder, having a number of slots along its periphery for housing the field coils. It does
not have any projections coming out from the surface of the rotor, rather central polar area
are provided with slots for housing the field windings as we can see in the figure. The field
coils are so arranged around these poles that flux density is maximum on the polar central
line and gradually falls away as we move out towards the periphery. Its advantages are- [6]
1. It gives better balance.
2. Lesser windage losses.
3. It also has a quieter operation.

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EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
The per-phase equivalent circuit is

Where,
Ea excitation emf
Xs = Xar+Xl; Xar armature inductive reactance (Ear = -jIaXar); Xl armature leakage
reactance.
Va terminal voltage
Ia armature current
V-CURVES

The graph for generating mode shows that at low excitation, Ia is large and pf is leading. As
the excitation is increased Ia and pf both reduce till at normal excitation Ia is minimum and pf
is unity. As the excitation current is increased further Ia begins to increase and pf reduces
becoming lagging pf. The full load, half of full load and no load are identified and have been
pointed out in the figure. Basically, Synchronous generators are of two major typesi.
ii.

Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG)


Wound Rotor Synchronous Generator (WRSG)

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Types of Synchronous Generators used in Wind


Turbines:a) WOUND ROTOR SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR (WRSG)- Also named
Electrically Excited Synchronous Generator (EESG)
CONSTRUCTION
The WRSG is usually built with the rotor carrying a field system provided with a DC
excitation. The stator carries a 3-phase winding similar to that of an induction machine. The
rotor may have salient poles or may be of cylindrical type. Salient poles are more usual in
low-speed machines and therefore may be the most useful version for application to directdrive wind turbines. The diagram for it is given below-

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM (WRSG direct-drive wind turbine)

The amplitude and frequency of the voltage can be fully controlled by the power electronic
converter at the generator side, so that the generator is fully controllable over a very wide
range, even to very low speeds. In addition, the WRSG has the opportunity of controlling the
flux for minimised loss in different power ranges, because the excitation current can be

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controlled by means of the power converter on the rotor side. Moreover it does not require
the use of permanent magnets which would represent a large fraction of the generator costs,
and might suffer from performance loss in harsh atmospheric conditions. Therefore it is the
most used direct-drive generator in market [3].
The detailed description of the converter used is-

The load characteristics and power factor can be controlled by controlling magnetizing
current i.e DC excitation provided to rotor winding. A back to back converter is used to
improve the performance [2,3].
ADVANTAGES [2]

This is suitable for high power generation.


Independent control of real and active power.
Improved power factor since it is self-excited generator.
There is no need of gearbox.
Since it is electrically isolated from grid so it is less sensitive to grid fault connection.

DISADVANTAGES [2]

In order to arrange space for excitation winding and pole shoes, the pole pitch has to
be large enough for large-diameter specific design, so a larger number of parts and
windings make it a heavy and expensive solution.
It is necessary to excite the rotor with DC, with slip rings and brushes or brushless
exciter, employing a rotating rectifier and the field losses are inevitable.
It requires additional converter to excite the winding of the rotor.
Higher maintenance cost in comparison with induction generator.

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b) PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR (PMSG)CONSTRUCTION


A Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator is a generator where the excitation field is
provided by a permanent magnet instead of a coil. The rotor contains the permanent magnet
and the stator is the stationary armature that is electrically connected to a load. A set of 3
conductors make up the armature winding in standard utility equipment, placed 120o apart in
space, this provides for a uniform force or torque on the generator rotor. The uniformity of
the torque arises because the magnetic field resulting from the currents in the three
conductors of the armature winding combine spatially in such a way as to resemble the
magnetic field of a single rotating magnet. The stator magnetic field appears as a steady
rotating field and spins at the same frequency as the rotor when the rotor contains a single
dipole magnetic field. The two fields move in synchronicity and maintain a fixed position
w.r.t each other as they rotate. The armature mmf combines vectorically with the persistent
flux of the permanent magnets, which leads to higher air-gap flux density and eventually
core saturation. In PMSG, the output voltage is proportional to the speed.

Types of PMSG rotor construction

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM (Simple model)

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In permanent magnet based WECS the output voltage and current is proportional to
electromagnetic torque and rotor speed. A diode rectifier with a dc link capacitor followed by
inverter circuit is most widely used converter with PMSG based WECS as shown in the
figure below. It has the benefit of being simple and there is no need of controlling at rectifier
side. On the other hand, it has some limitations. The dc link capacitor is bulky and having
short life-span. There are much more ripples in inverter voltage [2].

In place of dc link capacitor a dc/dc boost stage (by diode rectifier) can also be used as shown
in the figure below. It provides control of generator side dc voltage through variation in
switching ratio. Since one additional switching stage is used, it decreases its efficiency and
increases the cost [2].

But the most popular converter topology for PMSG based WECS is back to back frequency
converter. Advantages of this technology are that, it provides active and reactive power
control and also increases power factor because of Pulse Width Modulation techniques. The
schematic diagram showing the use of this converter is shown in the figure next page.

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Other methods include the use of multilevel converter, matrix converter and B-4 converter for
PMSG based WECS. The topology using B-4 converter is used to increase the efficiency and
decrease the cost. If we use a matrix converter, it has the advantage of being an option for
high power generation with small level of harmonics and low-voltage rating of power
devices. But it has low voltage gain and increases complexity of the circuit by requirement of
nine bi-directional switches. But nevertheless matrix converter gives a choice to get rid of DC
link stage [2].
ADVANTAGES [2,3]

Light weight and small size in construction.


Low losses and high efficiency.
No need of external excitation current.
No need of gearbox.

DISADVANTAGES [2,3]

It is useful for small wind turbines, but for large wind turbines the size of the magnet
has to be increased.
Demagnetization of permanent magnet due to atmospheric conditions is a big
problem.

But because of the advantages above, especially those featuring high efficiency and directdrive applications make PMSG based WECS very promising. Therefore this area is attracting
a lot of research.

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SUMMARY
The paper provides a brief insight into the generators used in Wind Energy Conversion
Systems (WECS). The basic distinctions between Induction Generator and Synchronous
Generator are described along with various explanations of the different rotor constructions in
both these generators.
All the topologies SCIG, WRIG, DFIG, WRSG (EESG) and PMSG have been lucidly
explained with the various power converters that are used with them. The DFIG still
dominates the market, but the fact that it includes a drive train or gearbox, thereby making it
prone to some degree mechanical inefficiency.
But direct-drive PMSG having higher efficiency provides a lot of promise and therefore
researchers from around the world are making a concerted effort to make it more market
friendly. The performance of Permanent magnets is increasing while their cost is decreasing
in recent years which make variable-speed direct-drive PMSG with a full-scale power
converter more attractive for offshore wind power generations.
Current developments of wind turbine concepts are mostly related to offshore wind energy
while variable speed concepts with power electronics will continue to dominate and be very
promising for large wind farms.
With increasing levels of wind turbine penetration in modern power systems, grid connection
issues pose several challenges to wind turbine design and development. The future success of
different wind turbine concepts will strongly depend on their ability of complying with both
market expectations and the requirements of grid utility companies.

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REFERENCES
[1] Energy Statistics 2012 19th issue by Central Statistics Office, Ministry of Statistics and
Programme Implementation, Government of India, New Delhi.
[2] Akhilesh Kumar Gupta, Himanshu Bhushan, Paulson Samuel, Generator Topologies
with Power Electronics Converters for Wind Energy Conversion System: A Review.
[3] H.Li, Z Chen, Overview of Different Wind Generator Systems and their Comparisons,
published in IET Renewable Power Generation, 24 January 2007.
[4] Godfrey Boyle, Renewable Energy.
[5] Marta Molinas, Bjarne Naess, William Gulvik, Tore Undeland, Cage Induction
Generators for Wind Turbines with Power Electronics Converters in the light of New Grid
Codes. Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
[6] www.electrical4u.com/construction-of-alternator/

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