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Ali Raza
Khurram Rana
Syed Nauman
Uliya Suleman
MEDIA & SOCIETY Table of Contents


Khurram Rana (Historical Background)

…………………………….pg 3

Ali Raza (Cases)

……………………………………………………………… 38

Uliya Suleman (Case Study of Faisal Shehzad)

………………….pg. 52

Syed Nauman (Reasons of terrorism)………………………………

pg. 71
(Suggestions for countering terrorism)………………

……pg. 99

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Khurram Rana MEDIA & SOCIETY Historical Background

What is Terrorism…..???

Terrorism is not new, and even though it has been used since the beginning
of recorded history it can be relatively hard to define. Terrorism has been
described variously as both a tactic and strategy; a crime and a holy duty; a
justified reaction to oppression and an inexcusable abomination. Obviously, a
lot depends on whose point of view is being represented. Terrorism has often
been an effective tactic for the weaker side in a conflict. As an asymmetric
form of conflict, it confers coercive power with many of the advantages of
military force at a fraction of the cost. Due to the secretive nature and small
size of terrorist organizations, they often offer opponents no clear
organization to defend against or to deter.

That is why preemption is being considered to be so important. In some

cases, terrorism has been a means to carry on a conflict without the
adversary realizing the nature of the threat, mistaking terrorism for criminal
activity. Because of these characteristics, terrorism has become increasingly
common among those pursuing extreme goals throughout the world. But
despite its popularity, terrorism can be a nebulous concept. Even within the
U.S. Government, agencies responsible for different functions in the ongoing
fight against terrorism use different definitions.

The Reign of Terror (1793-1794)

The Reign of Terror

"Enemies of the people" headed for the guillotine during the Reign of Terror.
The Reign of Terror (September 5, 1793 – July 28, 1794) or simply The Terror
(French: la Terreur) was a period of eleven months during the French
Revolution when the ruling Jacobins employed violence, including mass
executions by guillotine, in order to intimidate the regime's enemies and
compel obedience to the state. The number killed totaled approximately
40,000, and among the guillotined were Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette.
Putting an end to the Terror, on July 28, 1794, its most well known leader,
Maximilien Robespierre, was guillotined by other members of France's ruling
National Convention.

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19th century
McKinley shortly before his assassination.
Terrorism was associated with the Reign of Terror in France until the mid-
19th century, when it became associated with non-governmental groups.
Anarchism, often in league with rising nationalism, was the most prominent
ideology associated with terrorism. Attacks by various anarchist groups led
to the assassination of a Russian Tsar and a U.S. President.
The 19th century saw the development of powerful, stable, and affordable
explosives, and the gap closed between the firepower of the state and
dissidents. Dynamite, in particular, inspired American and French anarchists
and was central to their strategic thinking.
The United States
Prior to the U.S. Civil War , John Brown (1800–1859) was an abolitionist who
advocated and practiced armed opposition to slavery, leading several
attacks between 1856 and 1859, the most famous in 1859 against the
armory at Harpers Ferry. Local forces soon recaptured the fort and Brown,
who was tried and executed for treason. A biographer of Brown has written
that Brown's purpose was "to force the nation into a new political pattern by
creating terror."
A cartoon threatening that the KKK will lynch carpetbaggers, in the
Independent Monitor, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 1868.
In 1867 the Irish Republican Brotherhood, a revolutionary Irish nationalist
group, carried out attacks in England[47]. Writer Richard English has referred
to such attacks as the first acts of "republican terrorism," which would
became a recurrent feature of British and Irish history. The group is
considered a precursor to the Irish Republican Army
Europeans invented "Propaganda of the deed" (or "propaganda by the
deed," from the French propagande par le fait) theory, a concept that
advocates physical violence or other provocative public acts against political
enemies in order to inspire mass rebellion or revolution. An early proponent
was the Italian revolutionary Carlo Pisacane (1818–1857), who wrote in his
"Political Testament" (1857) that "ideas spring from deeds and not the other
way around."
The Ottoman Empire

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Several nationalist groups used violence against an Ottoman Empire in

apparent decline. One was the Armenian Revolutionary Federation (in
Armenian Dashnaktsuthium, or "The Federation"), a revolutionary movement
founded in Tiflis (Russian Transcaucasia) in 1890 by Christopher Mikaelian.
Many members had been part of Narodnaya Volya or the Hunchakian
Revolutionary Party. The group published newsletters, smuggled arms, and
hijacked buildings as it sought to bring in European intervention that would
force the Ottoman Empire to surrender control of its Armenian territories. On
August 24, 1896, 17-year-old Babken Suni led twenty-six members in
capturing the Imperial Ottoman Bank in Constantinople. The group
unsuccessfully demanded the creation of an Armenian state, but backed
down on a threat to blow up the bank. An ensuing security crackdown
destroyed the group.
Early 20th century
Revolutionary nationalism continued to motivate political violence in the
20th century, much of it directed against the British Empire. The Irish
Republican Army campaigned against the British in the 1910s and inspired
the Zionist groups Hagannah, Irgun and Lehi to fight the British throughout
the 1930s in the Palestine mandate. Like the IRA and the Zionist groups, the
Muslim Brotherhood used bombings and assassinations to try to free Egypt
from British control.
Political assassinations continued into the 20th century, its first victim
Umberto I of Italy, killed in July of 1900. Political violence became especially
widespread in Imperial Russia, and several ministers were killed in the
opening years of the century. The highest ranking was prime minister Pyotr
Stolypin, killed in 1911 by a leftist radical.
On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the Austro-
Hungarian throne, and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, were shot
and killed in Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, by Gavrilo Princip,
one of a group of six assassins. The assassinations produced widespread
shock across Europe, setting in motion a series of events which led to World
War I.
Michael Collins, IRA leader
In an action called the Easter Rising or Easter Rebellion, on April 24, 1916,
members of the Irish Volunteers and Irish Citizen Army seized the Dublin
General Post Office and several other buildings, proclaiming an independent
Irish Republic. The rebellion failed militarily but was a success for physical

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force Irish republicanism, leaders of the uprising becoming Irish heroes after
their eventual execution by the British government. Shortly after the
rebellion, Michael Collins and others founded the Irish Republican Army
(IRA), which from 1916 to 1923 carried out numerous attacks against
symbols of British power. For example, it attacked over 300 police stations
simultaneously just before Easter 1920, and, in November 1920, publicly
killed a dozen police officers and burned down the Liverpool docks and
warehouses, an action that came to be known as Bloody Sunday. After years
of warfare, London agreed to the 1921 Anglo-Irish treaty creating an
independent Irish nation encompassing 26 of the island's 32 counties.[70] IRA
tactics were an inspiration to other groups, including the Palestine Mandate's
Zionists,[71] and to British special operations during World War II.
Middle East
The King David Hotel after the bombing
Operating in the Palestine, Irgun was a clandestine militant Zionist group
that split off from another militant group, Hagannah, in 1931. The group
was founded by Avraham Tehomi, who was inspired by Ze'ev Jabotinsky's
belief that only Jewish armed force would ensure the establishment of a
Jewish state. Like Hagannah, Irgun sought to end British rule by
assassinating police, capturing British government buildings and arms, and
sabotaging British railways. It also smuggled Jews into Palestine. Its tactic of
attacking Arab communities, including bombing a crowded Arab market, is
considered among the first examples of terrorism directed against civilians.
Irgun's most famous attack was the 1946 bombing of the King David Hotel,
the British Military headquarters in Jerusalem. Ninety-one people, both
soldiers and civilians, were killed. After the creation of Israel in 1948,
Menachem Begin (Irgun leader from 1943 to 1948) transformed the group
into the political party which later became part of Likud.
1930s Germany and Soviet Union
The 1930s saw the rise of totalitarian regimes in Stalin's Soviet Union and
Hitler's Germany. Both regimes employed terror on an enormous scale.
However, and unlike some of the Jacobins who ruled France during its Reign
of Terror, the regimes never applied the words ‘terror’ or 'terrorist' to the
ruthless actions of their police, nor to the NKVD in the Soviet Union or the
Gestapo in Nazi Germany, but only to those who opposed the two
dictatorships. Historian R. J. Overy writes, "What is now defined as ruthless
state terror was viewed by Hitler and Stalin as state protection against the
enemies of the people." Effectively establishing and reinforcing obedience to

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regime and national ideology, both regimes used surveillance, imprisonment

(often in Soviet gulags or German labor or concentration camps), torture,
and executions against enemies of the state real and imagined.
World War II
The resistance movement in Europe
Some of the tactics of the guerilla, partisan, and resistance movements
organised and supplied by the Allies during World War II, according to
historian M.R.D. Foot, can be considered terrorist. Colin Gubbins, a key
leader within the British Special Operations Executive (SOE), made sure the
organization drew much of its inspiration from the IRA. On the eve of D-Day,
the SOE organised with the French resistance the complete destruction of
the rail and communication infrastructure of western Franceperhaps the
largest coordinated attack of its kind in history[Allied supreme commander
Dwight Eisenhower later wrote that "the disruption of enemy rail
communications, the harassing of German road moves and the continual and
increasing strain placed on German security services throughout occupied
Europe by the organised forces of Resistance, played a very considerable
part in our complete and final victory."
Alleged terror bombing
Casualties of a mass panic during a Japanese air raid in Chongqing
Some scholars consider the deliberate bombardment of civilian populations a
form of state terror, and, during the military conflicts leading up to World
War II and the war itself, bombing of enemy civilian populations in order to
terrorize and break morale was first employed. For example, aerial
bombardment (the bombs often packed with mustard gas) was a major
aspect of Italy's 1935 war against Ethiopia, as Italian forces were ordered by
Benito Mussolini to "systematically conduct a politics of terror and
extermination of the rebels and the complicit population."
Beginning early in the 1930s and with greatest intensity between 1938 and
1943, the Japanese used incendiary bombs against Chinese cities such as
Shanghai, Wuhan and Chonging. Lord Cranborne, the British Under-Secretary
of State For Foreign Affairs, commented on a 1937 bombing: "The military
objective, where it exists, seems to take a completely second place. The
main object seems to be to inspire terror by the indiscriminate slaughter of
civilians..." In Europe in 1937, the bombardment of Guernica (April 26, 1937),
carried out by Nazi Germany's Luftwaffe, caused widespread destruction and
civilian deaths in the Basque town. According to the BBC, the goal of General

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Francisco Franco, commander of the nationalist forces during the Spanish

Civil War, was "to terrorize the people in the Basque region. . ."
Mid-20th century
After World War II, largely successful anti-colonial campaigns were launched
against the collapsing European empires, as many World War II resistance
groups became militantly anti-colonial. The Viet Minh, for example, which
had fought against the Japanese, now fought the returning French colonists.
In the Middle East, the Muslim Brotherhood used bombings and
assassinations against British rule in Egypt. Also during the 1950s, the
National Liberation Front (FLN) in French-controlled Algeria and the EOKA in
British-controlled Cyprus waged guerilla and open war against colonial

Aftermath of the 1964 Brinks Hotel bombing

Middle East
Founded in 1928 as a nationalist social-welfare and political movement in
British-controlled Egypt, the Muslim Brotherhood in the late 1940s began
to attack British soldiers and police stations. Founded and led by Hassan al-
Banna, it also assassinated politicians seen as collaborating with British rule,
most prominently Egyptian Prime Minister Nuqrashi in 1948. British rule was
overthrown in a 1952 military coup, and shortly thereafter the Muslim
Brotherhood went underground in the face of a massive crackdown. Though
sometimes banned or otherwise oppressed, the group continues to exist in
present-day Egypt.
The Front de Liberation National (FLN) was a nationalist group founded in
French-controlled Algeria in 1954. The group was a large-scale resistance
movement against French occupation, with alleged terrorism only part of its
operations. The FLN leadership was inspired by the Viet Minh rebels who had
made French troops withdraw from Vietnam.[120] The FLN was one of the first
anti-colonial groups to use large scale compliance violence. The FLN would
establish control over a rural village and coerce its peasants to execute any
French loyalists among them.[108] On the night of October 31, 1954, in a
coordinated wave of seventy bombings and shootings known as the
Toussaint attacks, the FLN attacked French military installations and the
homes of Algerian loyalists.[121] In the following year, the group gained
significant support for an uprising against loyalists in Philipville. This uprising
— and the heavy-handed response by the French — convinced many
Algerians to support the FLN and the independence movement.[citation needed]

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The FLN eventually secured Algerian independence from France in 1962, and
transformed itself into Algeria's ruling party.[122]

Founded in 1959 and still active, the Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (or ETA
(Basque for "Basque Homeland and Freedom" pronounced [ˈɛːta])) is an
armed Basque nationalist separatist organization.[134] Formed in response to
General Francisco Franco's suppression of the Basque language and culture,
ETA evolved from an advocacy group for traditional Basque culture into an
armed Marxist group demanding Basque independence.[135] Many ETA victims
are government officials, the group's first known victim a police chief killed in
1968. In 1973 ETA operatives killed Franco's apparent successor, Admiral
Luis Carrero Blanco, by planting an underground bomb under his habitual
parking spot outside a Madrid church.[136] In 1995, an ETA car bomb nearly
killed Jose Maria Aznar, then the leader of the conservative Popular Party,
and the same year investigators disrupted a plot to assassinate King Juan
Carlos.[137] Efforts by Spanish governments to negotiate with the ETA have
failed, and in 2003 the Spanish Supreme Court banned the Batasuna political
party, which was determined to be the political arm of ETA.[138]
The Provisional Irish Republican Army was an Irish nationalist movement
founded in December 1969 when several militants including Seán Mac
Stíofáin broke off from the Official IRA and formed a new organization.[139]
Led by Mac Stíofáin in the early 1970s and by a group around Gerry Adams
since the late 1970s, the Provisional IRA sought to create an all-island Irish
state. Between 1969 and 1997, during a period known as the Troubles, the
group conducted an armed campaign, including bombings, gun attacks,
assassinations and even a mortar attack on 10 Downing Street.[140] On July
21, 1972, in an attack later known as Bloody Friday, the group set off twenty-
two bombs, killing nine and injuring 130. On July 28, 2005, the Provisional
IRA Army Council announced an end to its armed campaign.[141][142] The IRA is
believed to have been a major exporter of arms to and provided military
training to groups such as the FARC in Colombia[143] and the PLO [144]. In the
case of the latter there has been a long held solidarity movement, which is
evident by the many murals around Belfast.
The Jewish Defense League' (JDL) was founded in 1969 by Rabbi Meir
Kahane in New York City, with its declared purpose the protection of Jews
from harassment and antisemitism.[155] Federal Bureau of Investigation
statistics state that, from 1980 to 1985, 15 attacks the FBI classified as acts

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of terrorism were attempted in the U.S. by members of the JDL.[156] The

National Consortium for the Study of Terror and Responses to Terrorism
states that, during the JDL's first two decades of activity, it was an "active
terrorist organization."[155][157]. Kahane later founded the far-right Israeli
political party Kach, which was banned from elections in Israel on the ground
of racism.[158] The JDL's present-day website condemns all forms of terrorism.
The Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional (FALN, "Armed Forces of
National Liberation") is a nationalist group founded in Puerto Rico in 1974.
Over the decade that followed the group used bombings and targeted
killings of civilians and police in pursuit of an independent Puerto Rico. The
FALN in 1975 took responsibility for four nearly simultaneous bombings in
New York City.[159] The United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has
classified the FALN as a terrorist organization.[160]
The Weather Underground (a.k.a. the Weathermen) began as a militant
faction of the leftist Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) organization,
and in 1969 took over the organization. Weathermen leaders, inspired by
China's Maoists, the Black Panthers, and the 1968 student revolts in France,
sought to raise awareness of its revolutionary anti-capitalist and anti-
Vietnam War platform by destroying symbols of government power. From
1969 to 1974 the Weathermen bombed corporate offices, police stations,
and Washington government sites such as the Pentagon. After the end of the
Vietnam War in 1975, most of the group disbanded.[161]
Founded in 1976, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, (also called
"LTTE" or Tamil Tigers) was a militant Tamil nationalist political and
paramilitary organization based in northern Sri Lanka.[163] From its founding
by Velupillai Prabhakaran, it waged a secessionist resistance campaign that
sought to create an independent Tamil state in the northern and eastern
regions of Sri Lanka.[164] The conflict originated in measures the majority
Sinhalese took that were perceived as attempts to marginalize the Tamil
minority.[165]. The resistance campaign evolved into the Sri Lankan Civil War,
one of the longest-running armed conflicts in Asia.[166] The group carried out
many bombings, including an April 21, 1987, car bomb attack at a Colombo
bus terminal that killed 110 people.[167] In 2009 the Sri Lankan military
launched a major military offensive against the secessionist movement and
claimed that it had effectively destroyed the LTTE.

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Founded in 1961, Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK) was the military wing of the
African National Congress; it waged a guerilla campaign against the South
African apartheid regime and was responsible for many bombings.[168] MK
launched its first guerrilla attacks against government installations on 16
December 1961. South Africa subsequently banned the group after
classifying it as a terrorist organization. MK's first leader was Nelson
Mandela, who was tried and imprisoned for the group's acts.[169] With the end
of apartheid in South Africa, Umkhonto we Sizwe was incorporated into the
South African armed forces.
Late 20th century
In the 1980s and 1990s, Islamic militancy in pursuit of religious and political
goals increased,[citation needed] many militants drawing inspiration from Iran's
1979 Islamic Revolution.[170] In the 1990s, well-known violent acts that
targeted civilians were the Tokyo subway sarin gas attack by Aum Shinrikyo
and the bombing of Oklahoma City's Murrah Federal Building.
The Americas
The Contras were a counter-revolutionary militia formed in 1979 to oppose
Nicaragua's Sandinista government. The Catholic Institute for International
Relations asserted the following about contra operating procedures in 1987:
"The record of the contras in the field . . . is one of consistent and bloody
abuse of human rights, of murder, torture, mutilation, rape, arson,
destruction and kidnapping."[171] Americas Watch - subsequently folded into
Human Rights Watch - accused the Contras of targeting health care clinics
and health care workers for assassination; kidnapping civilians, torturing
civilians; executing civilians, including children, who were captured in
combat; raping women; indiscriminately attacking civilians and civilian
houses; seizing civilian property; and burning civilian houses in captured
towns.[172] The contras
Middle East
Hezbollah ("Party of God") is an Islamic movement and political party
founded in Lebanon shortly after that country's 1982 civil war. Inspired by
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini and the Iranian revolution, the group originally
sought an Islamic revolution in Lebanon and has long fought for the
withdrawal of Israeli forces from Lebanon. Led by Sheikh Sayyed Hassan
Nasrallah since 1992, the group has kidnapped Israeli soldiers and carried
out missile attacks and suicide bombings against Israeli military and civilian

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Egyptian Islamic Jihad (a.k.a. Al-Gamaa Al-Islamiyya) is a militant Egyptian

Islamist movement dedicated to the establishment of an Islamic state in
Egypt. The group formed in 1980 as an umbrella organization for militant
student groups formed after the leadership of the Muslim Brotherhood
renounced violence. It is led by Omar Abdel-Rahman, who has been accused
of participation in the World Trade Center 1993 bombings. In 1981, the group
assassinated Egyptian president Anwar Sadat. On November 17, 1997, in
what became known as the Luxor massacre, it attacked tourists at the
Temple of Hatshepsut (Deir el-Bahri); six men dressed as police machine-
gunned 58 Japanese and European vacationers and four Egyptians.[178]
Hamas Ḥamās, an acronym of Ḥarakat al-Muqāwamat al-Islāmiyyah,
meaning "Islamic Resistance Movement") is an Islamic Palestinian group.
Sheikh Ahmed Yassin, Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi and Mohammad Taha of the
Palestinian wing of Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood created Hamas in 1987, at
the beginning of the First Intifada, an uprising against Israeli rule in the
Palestinian Territories.[179] Between February and April 1988, Yassin raised
several million dollars from the Gulf states, which had withdrawn their
funding from Fatah following its official support of Saddam Hussein during
the first Gulf War. Beginning in 1993, Hamas launched numerous suicide
bombings against Israel. On March 27, 2002, it bombed the Netanya hotel,
killing 30 and wounding 140.[180] Hamas ceased the suicide attacks in 2005
and renounced them in April 2006.[181] Hamas has also been responsible for
Israel-targeted rocket attacks, IED attacks, and shootings, but it reduced
most of those operations in 2005 and 2006.[182] After winning legislative
elections in the Palestinian Territories, Hamas has since June 2007 governed
the Gaza portion of those territories.[183]
Aum Shinrikyo, now known as Aleph, was a Japanese religious group
founded by Shoko Asahara in 1984 as a yogic meditation group. Later, in
1990, Asahara and 24 other members campaigned for election to the House
of Representatives under the banner of Shinri-tō (Supreme Truth Party).
None were voted in, and the group began to militarize. Between 1990 and
1995, the group attempted several apparently unsuccessful violent attacks
using the methods of biological warfare, using botulin toxin and anthrax
spores.[191] On June 28, 1994, Aum Shinrikyo members released sarin gas
from several sites in the Kaichi Heights neighborhood of Matsumoto, Japan,
killing eight and injuring 200 in what became known as the Matsumoto
incident.[191] Seven months later, on March 20, 1995, Aum Shinrikyo
members released sarin gas in a coordinated attack on five trains in the

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Tokyo subway system, killing 12 commuters and damaging the health of

about 5,000 others[192] in what became known as the subway sarin incident,
chikatetsu sarin jiken). In May 1995, Asahara and other senior leaders were
arrested and the group's membership rapidly decreased.
Chechnyan separatists, led by Shamil Basayev, carried out several attacks
on Russian targets between 1994 and 2006.[193] In the June 1995
Budyonnovsk hospital hostage crisis, Basayev-led separatists took over
1,000 civilians hostage in a hospital in the southern Russian city of
Budyonnovsk. When Russian special forces attempted to free the hostages,
105 civilians and 25 Russian troops were killed. In the 2002 Moscow theater
hostage crisis, 50 Chechnyan separatists took 850 hostages in a Moscow
theater, demanding the withdrawal of Russian forces from Chechnya and an
end to the Second Chechen War.
On September 1, 2004, in what became known as the Beslan school hostage
crisis, 32 Chechnyan separatists took 1,300 children and adults hostage at
Beslan's School Number One. When Russian authorities did not comply with
the rebel demands that Russian forces withdraw from Chechnya, 20 adult
male hostages were shot. After two days of stalled negotiations, Russian
special forces stormed the building. In the ensuing melee, over 300 hostages
died, along with 19 Russian servicemen and all but perhaps one of the
rebels. Basayev is believed to have participated in organizing the attack.
21st century
Major events after the September 11, 2001 Attacks include the Moscow
Theatre Siege, the 2003 Istanbul bombings, the Madrid train bombings, the
Beslan school hostage crisis, the 2005 London bombings, the October 2005
New Delhi bombings, and the 2008 Mumbai Hotel Siege.
Middle East
Osama bin Laden, closely advised by Egyptian Islamic Jihad leader Ayman al-
Zawahiri, in 1988 founded Al-Qaeda (Arabic: meaning "The Base"), an
Islamic jihadist movement to replace Western-controlled or dominated
Muslim countries with Islamic fundamentalist regimes.[197] In pursuit of that
goal, bin Laden issued a 1996 manifesto that vowed violent jihad against
U.S. military forces based in Saudi Arabia.
Formed in 2003, Jundallah is a Sunni insurgent group from the Baloch
region of Iran and neighboring Pakistan. It has committed numerous attacks
within Iran, stating that it is fighting for the rights of the Sunni minority

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there. In 2005 the group attempted to assassinate Iran's prime minister,

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. The group takes credit for other bombings, including
the 2007 Zahedan bombings. Iran and other sources accuse the group of
being a front for or supported by other nations, in particular the U.S. and

Christian terrorism
British journalist and politician Ian Gilmour has cited the historical case of the
St. Bartholomew's Day massacre as an instance of religious terrorism on par
with modern day terrorism, and goes on to write, "That massacre, said Pope
Gregory XIII, gave him more pleasure than fifty Battles of Lepanto, and he
commissioned Vasari to paint frescoes of it in the Vatican".[2] It is estimated
that 2,000 to possibly 25,000 Huguenots (French Protestants) were killed by
Catholic mobs, and it has been called "the worst of the century's religious
massacres". The massacre led to the start of the "fourth war" of the French
Wars of Religion, which was marked by many other massacres and
assassinations by both sides. Peter Steinfels has cited the historical case of
the Gunpowder Plot, when Guy Fawkes and other Catholic revolutionaries
attempted to overthrow the Protestant establishment of England by blowing
up the Houses of Parliament, as a notable case of religious terrorism.
Organizations and acts by country
The Sons of Freedom, a sect of Doukhobor anarchists, have protested nude,
blown up power pylons, railroad bridges, and set fire to homes, often
targeting their own property.
The National Liberation Front of Tripura, a rebel group operating in Tripura,
North-East India classified by the National Memorial Institute for the
Prevention of Terrorism as one of the ten most active terrorist groups in the
world, has been accused of forcefully converting people to Christianity.
The insurgency in Nagaland was led by the National Socialist Council of
Nagaland (NSCN) and continues today with its faction NSCN - Isaac Muivah
which explicitly calls for a "Nagalim for Christ."
Northern Ireland

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Martin Dillon interviewed paramilitaries on both sides of the conflict,

questioning how they could reconcile murder with their Christian convictions.
Steve Bruce, sociology professor at the University of Aberdeen,
The Northern Ireland conflict is a religious conflict. Economic and social
considerations are also crucial, but it was the fact that the competing
populations in Ireland adhered and still adhere to competing religious
traditions which has given the conflict its enduring and intractable quality.
Reviewing the book, David Harkness of the The English Historical Review
agreed "Of course the Northern Ireland conflict is at heart religious".
John Hickey wrote:
Politics in the North is not politics exploiting religion. That is far too simple an
explanation: it is one which trips readily off the tongue of commentators who
are used to a cultural style in which the politically pragmatic is the normal
way of conducting affairs and all other considerations are put to its use. In
the case of Northern Ireland the relationship is much more complex. It is
more a question of religion inspiring politics than of politics making use of
religion. It is a situation more akin to the first half of seventeenth–century
England than to the last quarter of twentieth century Britain.
Padraic Pearse was a devoted believer of the Christian faith, a writer, and
one of the leaders of the Easter Rising. In his writings he often identified
Ireland with Jesus Christ to emphasise the suffering of the nation, and called
for his readers to resurrect and redeem the nation, through self-sacrifice
which would turn them into martyrs. Browne states that Pearse’s "ideas of
sacrifice and atonement, of the blood of martyrs that makes fruitful the seed
of faith, are to be found all through [his] writings; nay, they have here even
more than their religious significance, and become vitalizing factors in the
struggle for Irish nationality"
Brian O'Higgins, who helped in the rebel capture of Dublin's General Post
Office in O'Connell Street, recalled how all the republicans took turn reciting
the Rosary every half hour during the rebellion. He wrote that there
was hardly a man in the volunteer ranks who did not prepare for death on
Easter Saturday and there were many who felt as they knelt at the altar rails
on Easter Sunday morning that they were doing no more than fulfilling their
Easter duty – that they were renouncing the world and all the world held for
them by making themselves worthy to appear before the Judgement Seat of
God... The executions reinforced the sacrificial motif as Mass followed Mass

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for the dead leaders, linking them with the sacrifice of Christ, the ancient
martyrs and heroes, and the honoured dead from previous revolts... These
and other deaths by hungerstrike transformed not only the perceived
sacrificial victims but, in the eyes of many ordinary Irish people, the cause
for which they died. The martyrs and their cause became sacred.
Sweeney went on to note that the culture of hunger strikes continued to be
used by the Provisional IRA to great effect in the 1970s and 1980s, resulting
in a revamped Sinn Fein, and mobilising huge sections of the Catholic
community behind the republican cause.
The Guardian newspaper attributed the murder of Martin O'Hagan, a
former inmate of the Maze prison and a fearless reporter on crime and the
paramilitaries, to the revival of religious fundamentalism.
Although often advocating nationalist policies, these groups consisted of and
were supported by distinct religious groups in a religiously partitioned
society. Groups on both sides advocated what they saw as armed defence of
their own religious group. The Orange Volunteers are a group infamous for
carrying out simultaneous terrorist attacks on Catholic churches.
Anti-Semitic Romanian Orthodox fascist movements in Romania, such as the
Iron Guard and Lăncieri, were responsible for involvement in the Holocaust,
Bucharest pogrom, and political murders during the 1930s.
A number of Russian political and paramilitary groups combine racism,
nationalism, and Russian Orthodox beliefs. Russian National Unity, a far right
ultra-nationalist political party and paramilitary organization, advocates an
increased role for the Russian Orthodox Church according to its manifesto. It
has been accused of murders, and several terrorist attacks including the
bombing of the US Consulate in Ekaterinburg.
The Lord's Resistance Army, a cult guerrilla army engaged in an armed
rebellion against the Ugandan government, has been accused of using child
soldiers and committing numerous crimes against humanity; including
massacres, abductions, mutilation, torture, rape, porters and sex slaves. It is
led by Joseph Kony, who proclaims himself the spokesperson of God and a
spirit medium, primarily of the Christian Holy Spirit which the Acholi believe
can represent itself in many manifestations. LRA fighters wear rosary beads
and recite passages from the Bible before battle.

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United States
Victoriously slaying Catholic influence in the
U.S. Illustration by Rev. Branford Clarke from
Klansmen: Guardians of Liberty 1926 by
Bishop Alma White published by the Pillar of
Fire Church in Zarephath, NJ.
Beginning in the late nineteenth century, white supremacist Ku Klux Klan
members in the Southern United States engaged in arson, beatings, cross
burning, destruction of property, lynching, murder, rape, tar-and-feathering,
and whipping against African Americans, Jews, Catholics and other social or
ethnic minorities.
During the twentieth century, members of extremist groups such as the
Army of God began executing attacks against abortion clinics and doctors
across the United States. A number of terrorist attacks, including the
Centennial Olympic Park bombing during the 1996 Summer Olympics by Eric
Robert Rudolph, were accused of being carried out by individuals and groups
with ties to the Christian Identity and Christian Patriot movements; including
the Lambs of Christ. A group called Concerned Christians were deported from
Israel on suspicion of planning to attack holy sites in Jerusalem at the end of
1999, believing that their deaths would "lead them to heaven." The motive
for anti-abortionist Scott Roeder murdering Wichita doctor George Tiller on
May 31, 2009 was religious.
Hutaree was a Christian militia group based in Adrian, Michigan. In 2010,
nine of its members were indicted by a federal grand jury in Detroit on
charges of seditious conspiracy to use of improvised explosive devices,
teaching the use of explosive materials, and
possessing a firearm during a crime of violence.

Sikh Terrorism

Indian independence movement

Sikh extremist activity in the independence movement seems to have
started in the late mid-19th century, with agitation against British rule, by
the extremist Sikh sect of Kuka (Namdhari).

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In the early 20th century, other Sikhs who employed extremist tactics
emerged whose goals were Indian independence and the British leaving
India. Such extremists included Kartar Singh Sarabha (Ghadar conspiracy),
Bhagat Singh, Ajmere Singh, and Udham Singh.
Ajit Singh, Kishan Singh were Kartar Singh Sarabha's co-conspirators, and
were also alleged by the British to be Extremists . Sikhs participated in Indian
independence movement with such a zeal that Pandit Madan Mohan
Malaviya advised Hindus to raise at least one of their family members as
Sikh. Sikhs also raised several rebel units in Japan, Italy and Germany. Sikhs
also engineered the Marine Revolt in Bombay and the Signal Regimental
mutiny in Jubblepur, India.
History of Sikh separatism
Sikh separatism began in colonial times, or soon after India gained
independence in 1947. By the 1970s, some felt the government of India had
not responded adequately to Sikh grievances.
A demand for a separate Sikh homeland was made by Jagjit Singh Chauhan,
who at the time was Secretary General of the Akali Dal party. In 1971, Jagjit
Singh was expelled from the party for his "anti-nationalistic" activities. He
later returned to India, denouncing terrorism and pursuing Khalistan through
democratic means.
In October, 1991, The New York Times reported that "many" Sikhs claimed
they were being discriminated against, and that the Punjab region was not
treated equally with other regions of India. "By February 1997, a UN report
appears to have found that Sikhs had religious freedom, but that there were
reports of discriminatory practices in public administration. Zail Singh was
the 7th President of India and Manmohan Singh, the Prime Minister of India in
2009, is the 1st Sikh to hold that office.
Someargue that individuals or organisations have committed acts of
terrorism in support of the Khalistan movement.

Allegations of human rights violations during Punjab insurgency

Amnesty International reported that, from 1983 to 1994, armed groups
struggling to form an independent Sikh state were responsible for
"widespread" human rights violations, killing "thousands" of civilians and
taking hostages. It further reported that the police responded with a

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"crackdown", illegally detaining, torturing and killing "hundreds of young

Human Rights Watch (HRW) reports that from the 1980s Sikh separatists
were guilty of serious human rights violations through "...massacre of
civilians, attacks upon Hindu minorities in the state, and indiscriminate bomb
attacks in crowded places...". HRW also reported that the government
response resulted in further serious human rights violations against "tens of
thousands". HRW noted that one case currently under investigation by
India's National Human Rights Commission focused on allegations that
"thousands" had been killed and cremated by security forces throughout

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Abatement of extremism
In 1999, Kuldip Nayar, writing for, stated in his article "It is
fundamentalism again", that the Sikh "masses" had rejected terrorists. By
2001, Sikh extremism and the demand for Khalistan had all but abated.
Simrat Dhillon, writing in 2007 for the Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies,
noted that while a few groups continued to fight, "the movement has lost its
popular support both in India and within the Diaspora community".Mark
Juergensmeyer, Director, Orfalea Centre for Global & International Studies,
UCSB, reported in his paper "From Bhindranwale to Bin Laden:
Understanding Religious Violence", “The movement is over,” as many
militants had been killed, imprisoned, or driven into hiding, and because
public support was gone.
Extremist activity
1947 and before
In 1937, Rattan Singh and other Sikhs, while being transported from Indian
island Andamans, assassinated several British soldiers.
Udham Singh, of Sikh background, was described variously as a freedom
fighter,[41]an "extremist revolutionary", and a terrorist.[43] While Udham Singh
was living in the UK, he shot and killed Michael O'Dwyer in London on 1 April
1940. O'Dwyer had been the Lieutenant Governor of the Punjab at the time
of Jallianwala Bagh massacre. Udham Singh was hanged in UK on 25 June
1940, and his ashes were returned to India in 1974.
Bhagat Singh, a Sikh by religion, was active in the Indian independence
struggle. He was called an extremist by Mahatama Gandhi. He murdered a
Lahore Police officer and his mercy plea was rejected by British Viceroy of
India Lord Irwin.
Immediately after Operation Blue Star, authorities were unprepared for how
quickly extremism spread and gained support in Canada, with extremists
"...threatening to kill thousand of Hindus by a number of means, including
blowing up Air India flights."
The 1985 bombing of Air India Flight 182 off Ireland, the deadliest aircraft
terror attack until the September 11, 2001 attacks, and the attempted
bombing of Air India Flight 301, were alleged by the Canadian government to
have been carried out by Sikh extremists. However, Inderjit Singh Reyat, of

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the ISYF, who was found guilty of manslaughter for making the bombs, is the
only individual convicted in these attacks as of 2 May 2010.
Canadian Member of Parliament Ujjal Dosanjh, a moderate Sikh, stated that
he and others who spoke out against Sikh extremism in the 1980s faced a
"reign of terror".
1990s reported that, in the early 1990s, journalists who did not
conform to militant-approved behavior were targeted for death. It also
reports that there were indiscriminate attacks designed to cause extensive
civilian casualties: derailing trains, exploding bombs in markets, restaurants,
and other civilian areas between Delhi and Punjab. It further reported that
militants assassinated many of those moderate Sikh leaders who opposed
them and sometimes killed rivals within the militant group. It also stated that
many civilians who had been kidnapped by extremists were murdered if the
militants' demands were not met. Finally, it reports that Hindus left Punjab
by the thousands.
In August 1991, Julio Ribeiro, then Indian Ambassador to Romaniawas
attacked and wounded in a Bucharest assassination attempt by gunmen
identified as Punjabi Sikhs.
Sikh groups claimed responsibility for the 1991 kidnapping of the Romanian
chargé d'affaires in New Delhi, Liviu Radu. This appeared to be retaliation for
Romanian arrests of KLF members suspected of the attempted assassination
of Julio Ribeiro, then 62, the Indian ambassador to Romania, in Bucharest.
Radu was released unharmed after Sikh politicians criticized the action.
In 2004, violence erupted at a protest against a play, "Behzti" (Dishonour),
that was to have been performed at the Birmingham Repertory Theatre. The
protest organizer, Sewa Singh Mandla, chairman of the Birmingham council
of Sikh Gurdwaras, blamed the violence on extremist members of The Sikh
Federation. Amrik Singh Gill, chairman of the Federation, said his members
had taken part in the opposition to the play from the start, and denied that
its members played any part in the violence. Another member of the Sikh
Federation, Kulwinder Singh Johal, expressed happiness that the play had
been canceled, confirmed that Sikh Federation members had taken part in
the protest against the play, and denied that there had been any violence on
the part of the protesters.[70] The Sunday Herald reported that when it
appeared the play might be presented despite the protest, death threats
increased, and the playwright went into hiding. The play was canceled.

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On 24 September 2009, carried a report attributed to

United News of India that police arrested two Babbar Khalsa "militants"
earlier in the day. The article described the arrests as a "major breakthrough
in the assassination case of Rulda Singh, president of the Punjab Rashtriya
Sikh Sangat who was shot at and seriously injured by two unidentified
persons at his residence near New Grain market on 29 July."
29 September 2009, Rajinder Soomel was murdered on Cambie Street in
Vancouver, British Columbia.[92] The murder renewed fears of gang violence.
Soomel had been released on parole shortly before his murder. In March,
2008, Soomel had been sentenced to 4 years in prison after confessing he
had tried to hire an undercover police officer to kill Hardip Uppal. Uppal had
identified Ravinder Soomel, younger brother of the victim, as one of 2
assassins who killed Tara Singh Hayer in 1998.
Militant Organizations
Sikh involvement in militant organisations have existed Pre-1947 (before
Indian Independence), and after 1947. The goal of some pre-1947
organisations being to gain Indian Independence from the British
Ghadar Party
A militant extremist organisation set up overseas to drive the British out of
India. Its members were mostly from the Sikh community and were dubbed
"Sikh extremists".by the British authorities at that time.
Indian National Army
The Azad Hind Fauj (Indian National Army was formed by Mohan Singh Deb
(who was described as an extremist to free India from British rule, and
fought in Southeast Asia, with support from Japan, during WWII.
A 2007 Australian research report cited difficulties in researching both
violent and non-violent activities of the various (perhaps 22, in 1987) Sikh
separatist groups. Names of groups are used interchangeably in reports,
intentionally or through error. Bias and sensationalism in government and
media reports reduce their reliability.[101] The illegal nature of the
organizations also presents challenges. Institute for Conflict Management, on
its South Asia Terrorism Portal, alleged that Pakistan's ISI was making
"serious attempts" to reinvigorate terrorism in India, and that "terror groups"
were working together to accomplish that goal.

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Babbar Khalsa
Babbar Khalsa has been listed as a terrorist organization in the European
Union, Canada, India, UK, and the United States. A Canadian Sikh, Ajaib
Singh Bagri, co-founder of Babbar Khalsa, said in a 1984 speech, after Hindu
Mobs had murdered thousands of Sikhs in Delhi that "Until we kill 50,000
Hindus, we will not rest."
The United States has designated the Babbar Khalsa responsible for the
bombing of Air India Flight 182 on 27 June 2002. According to Terry Milewski,
CBC News, Canadian courts have further established that Talwinder Singh
Parmar, a founder of Babbar Khalsa, was the mastermind of the Air India
bombings. Milewski further reported that some parade floats portray Parmar
as a "shaheed" (martyr).
Babbar Khalsa was listed in 1995 one of the 4 "major militant groups" in the
Khalistan movement.
Bhindranwale Tigers Force of Khalistan
Also known variously as Bhindranwala Tigers Force of Khalistan and
Bhindranwale Tiger Force, this group appears to have been formed in 1984
by Gurbachan Singh Manochahal. After the founder's death, the BTF (or
BTFK) seems to have disbanded or integrated into other organizations. The
BTF was listed in 1995 one of the 4 "major militant groups" in the Khalistan
International Sikh Youth Federation
Lord Bassam of Brighton, then Home Office minister, stated that ISYF
members working from the UK had committed "assassinations, bombings
and kidnappings" and were a "threat to national security." The ISYF is listed
in the UK as a "Proscribed Terrorist Group".It was also added to the US
Treasury Department terrorism list on 27 June 2002 There are allegations
that the ISYF has long been supported by Pakistan's Inter-Services
Intelligence organization.
Andrew Gilligan, reporting for The London Evening Standard, stated that the
Sikh Federation (UK) is the "successor" of the ISYF, and that its executive
committee, objectives, and senior members... are largely the same. The
Vancouver Sun reported in February 2008 that Dabinderjit Singh was
campaigning to have both the Babbar Khalsa and International Sikh Youth
Federation de-listed as terrorist organizations.
It also stated of Public Safety Minister Stockwell Day that "he has not been
approached by anyone lobbying to delist the banned groups". Day is also

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quoted as saying "The decision to list organizations such as Babbar Khalsa,

Babbar Khalsa International and the International Sikh Youth Federation as
terrorist entities under the Criminal Code is intended to protect Canada and
Canadians from terrorism"

Khalistan Commando Force

The KCF was formed in 1986. According to the US State Department, and the
Assistant Inspector General of the Punjab Police Intelligence Division,[114] the
KCF was responsible for the deaths of thousands in India, including the 1995
assassination of Chief Minister Beant Singh. The KCF was listed in 1995 one
of the 4 "major militant groups" in the Khalistan movement.
Khalistan Liberation Force
The KLF was formed in 1986, and was believed responsible for several
bombings of civilian targets in India during the 1980s and 1990s, sometimes
in conjunction with Islamist Kashmir separatists. The Khalistan Liberation
Army (KLA) is reputed to have been a wing of, or possibly associated with, or
possibly a breakaway group from, the KLF The KLF was listed in 1995 one of
the 4 "major militant groups" in the Khalistan movement.

Islamic Terrorism

Motivations and Islamic Terrorism

Islamic terrorism is often inspired by numerous Qur'an verses that justify or
encourage attacks on non-Muslims or those who may not be regarded as
pious. Robert Pape, has argued that at least terrorists utilizing suicide
attacks — a particularly effective form of terrorist attack—are driven not by
Islamism but by "a clear strategic objective: to compel modern democracies
to withdraw military forces from the territory that the terrorists view as their
However, Martin Kramer who debated Pape on origins of suicide bombing,
countered Pape's position that the motivation for suicide attacks is not just
strategic logic but also an interpretation of Islam to provide a moral logic. or
example, Hezbollah initiated suicide bombings after a complex reworking of
the concept of martyrdom. Kramer explains that the Israeli occupation of

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Lebanon raised the temperature necessary for this reinterpretation of Islam,

but occupation alone would not have been sufficient for suicide terrorism.
"The only way to apply a brake to suicide terrorism," Kramer argues, "is to
undermine its moral logic, by encouraging Muslims to see its incompatibility
with their own values."

Islamism and Political aspects of Islam
The main ideology behind Islamic Terrorism is the principle of Jihad, or
struggle, which is the cornerstone of Islam. Jihad advocates war on non-
Muslims and apostates. According to counter-terrorism author Dale C.
Eikmeier, “ideology”, rather than any individual or group, is the "center of
gravity" of al Qaeda and related groups, and the ideology is a "collection of
violent Islamic thought called Qutbism."
He summarizes the tenets of Qutbism as being:
• A belief that Muslims have deviated from true Islam and must return to
“pure Islam” as originally practiced during the time of the Prophet.
• The path to “pure Islam” is only through a literal and strict
interpretation of the Qur'an and Hadith, along with implementation of
the Prophet’s commands.
• Muslims should interpret the original sources individually without being
bound to follow the interpretations of Islamic scholars.
• That any interpretation of the Quran from a historical, contextual
perspective is a corruption, and that the majority of Islamic history and
the classical jurisprudential tradition is mere sophistry.
Views of Jihad of different Muslim groups
Sunni view of Jihad
Opinion of Islamic scholars on Jihad
Jihad has been classified either as al-jihād al-akbar (the greater jihad), the
struggle against one's soul (nafs), or al-jihād al-asghar (the lesser jihad), the
external, physical effort, often implying fighting (this is similar to the shiite
view of jihad as well).
Muslim jurists explained there are four kinds of jihad fi sabilillah (struggle in
the cause of God):

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• Jihad of the heart (jihad bil qalb/nafs) is concerned with combatting

the devil and in the attempt to escape his persuasion to evil. This type
of Jihad was regarded as the greater jihad (al-jihad al-akbar).
• Jihad by the tongue (jihad bil lisan) is concerned with speaking the
truth and spreading the word of Islam with one's tongue.
• Jihad by the hand (jihad bil yad) refers to choosing to do what is right
and to combat injustice and what is wrong with action.
• Jihad by the sword (jihad bis saif) refers to qital fi sabilillah (armed
fighting in the way of God, or holy war), the most common usage by
Salafi Muslims and offshoots of the Muslim Brotherhood.
Some contemporary Islamists have succeeded in replacing the greater jihad,
the fight against desires, with the lesser jihad, the holy war to establish,
defend and extend the Islamic state.
Sufic view of Jihad
The Sufic view classifies "Jihad" into two; the "Greater Jihad" and the "Lesser
Jihad". Muhammad put the emphasis on the "greater Jihad" by saying that
"Holy is the warrior who is at war with himself". In this sense external wars
and strife are seen but a satanic counterfeit of the true "jihad" which can
only be fought and won within; no other Salvation existing can save man
without the efforts of the man himself being added to the work involved of
self-refinement. In this sense it is the western view of the Holy Grail which
comes closest to the Sufic ideal; for to the Sufis Perfection is the Grail; and
the Holy Grail is for those who after they become perfect by giving all they
have to the poor then go on to become "Abdal" or "changed ones" like Enoch
who was "taken" by God because he "walked with God". (Genesis:5:24) here
the "Holy Ones" gain the surname "Hadrat" or "The Presence".
Interpretations of the Qur'an and Hadith
The role played by the Qur'an, Islam's sacred text, in opposing or in
encouraging attacks on civilians is disputed.
The Princeton University Middle Eastern scholar Bernard Lewis, states that
Islamic jurisprudence does not allow terrorism.[39] Professor Lewis notes:
"At no time did the (Muslim) jurist approve of terrorism. Nor indeed is there
any evidence of the use of terrorism (in Islamic tradition). Muslims are
commanded not to kill women, children, or the aged, not to torture or
otherwise ill-treat prisoners, to give fair warning of the opening of hostilities,
and to honor agreements."

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"Similarly, the laws of Jihad categorically preclude wanton and indiscriminate

slaughter. The warriors in the holy war are urged not to harm non-
combatants, women and children, "unless they attack you first." A point on
which they insist is the need for a clear declaration of war before beginning
hostilities, and for proper warning before resuming hostilities after a truce.
What the classical jurists of Islam never remotely considered is the kind of
unprovoked, unannounced mass slaughter of uninvolved civil populations
that we saw in New York two weeks ago. For this there is no precedent and
no authority in Islam. Indeed it is difficult to find precedents even in the rich
annals of human wickedness."
In 2007, Osama bin Laden, best known for the September 11 attacks, used
quotes from the Qur'an—and a militant Taleban cleric's interpretation of
those verses—to justify his declaration of war on Pervez Musharraf and the
Pakistani army,] such as:
O prophet! Strive hard against the disbelievers and the hypocrites, and be
harsh against them. Their abode is hell, and an evil destination it is. [Qur'an 9:73]
O you who believe! Take not the Jews and Christians for your friends and
protectors: they are but friends and protectors to each other. And he
amongst you that turns to them (for friendship) is of them. Verily Allah
guides not a people unjust. [Qur'an 5:51]
And fight them until there’s no fitnah (polytheism) and religion is wholly for
Allah.[Qur'an 8:39]
Michael Sells and Jane I. Smith (a Professor of Islamic Studies) write that
barring some extremists like Al-Qaeda, most Muslims do not interpret
Qura’nic verses as promoting warfare; and that the phenomenon of radical
interpretation of scripture by extremist groups is not unique to Islam.".
According to Sells, "[Most Muslims] no more expect to apply [the verses at
issue] to their contemporary non-Muslim friends and neighbors than most
Christians and Jews consider themselves commanded by God, like the
Biblical Joshua, to exterminate the infidels."
According to Bill Warner, the director of the Center for the Study of Political
Islam (CSPI), about sixty-one percent of the contents of the Koran are found
to speak ill of unbelievers or call for their violent conquest[44] and about
seventy five percent of Muhammad’s biography (Sira) consists of jihad
waged on unbelievers. However, Muslim scholars take issue with much of
Warner's work.

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Criticism of Islamic terrorist ideology

Although "Islamic" Terrorism is commonly associated with the Salafis or
"Wahhabis", the scholars of the group have constantly attributed this
association to ignorance, misunderstanding and sometimes insincere
research and deliberate misleading by rival groups. Following the September
11 attacks in New York, Pennsylvania and Arlington, Shaikh Abdul-Azeez Aal
ash-Shaikh (the Grand Mufti of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia President of the
Committee of Major Scholars and centre for Knowledge based research and
verdicts) made an official statement that "the Islamic Sharee'ah (legislation)
does not sanction" such actions.[48] A Salafi or "Wahhabi" "Committee of
Major Scholars" in Saudi Arabia has declared that "Islamic" terrorism, such as
the May 2003 bombing in Riyadh, are in violation of Sharia law and aiding
the enemies of Islam.
Criticism of Islamic terrorism on Islamic grounds has also been made by anti-
terrorist Muslims such as Abdal-Hakim Murad:
Certainly, neither bin Laden nor his principal associate, Ayman al-Zawahiri,
are graduates of Islamic universities. And so their proclamations ignore 14
centuries of Muslim scholarship, and instead take the form of lists of anti-
American grievances and of Koranic quotations referring to early Muslim
wars against Arab idolaters. These are followed by the conclusion that all
Americans, civilian and military, are to be wiped off the face of the Earth. All
this amounts to an odd and extreme violation of the normal methods of
Islamic scholarship. Had the authors of such fatwās followed the norms of
their religion, they would have had to acknowledge that no school of
mainstream Islam allows the targeting of civilians. An insurrectionist who
kills non-combatants is guilty of baghy, “armed aggression,” a capital
offense in Islamic law.
Social Categorization Theory
• Social categorization theory has been discussed as a three-stage
process of identification, where “individuals define themselves as
members of a social group, learn the stereotypes and norms of the
group, and group categories influence the perception and
understanding of all situations in a particular context” This definition
can be applied to the US war on terror, in which conflict features such
as the phenomenon of Anti-Americanism and the phenomenon of non-
Arab countries like Iran and Afghanistan lending support to Islamist-
based terrorism by funding or harboring terrorist groups such as

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Hezbollah and al-Qaeda against Western nations, particularly Israel

and the United States are, according to social categorization theory,
influenced by a three-stage process of identification. In this three-stage
process of identification, the Arab and Muslim world(s) are the social
group(s), in which their members learn stereotypes and norms which
categorize their social group vis-à-vis the West. This social
categorization process creates feelings of high-level in-group support
and allegiance among Arabs, and Muslims and the particular context
within which members of the Arab and Muslim world(s) social group(s)
understand all situations that involve the West. Social categorization
theory as a framework for analysis indicates causal relationships
between group identification processes and features of conflict
Organizations and acts
Terrorist groups Islamic

Countries in which Islamist terrorist attacks have occurred on or after

September 11, 2001.
Some prominent Islamic terror groups and incidents include the following:
South Asia
The major countries affected by terrorism in South Asia are India, Afganistan
and Pakistan .
Pakistan based Lashkar-e-Taiba is a terrorist group that seeks the Indian
state of Jammu and Kashmir's accession to Pakistan. It has committed mass
terrorist actions against Indian troops and civilians Indians. The Lashkar
leadership describes Indian and Israeli regimes as the main enemies of
Islam, claiming India and Israel to be the main enemies of Pakistan. Lashkar-
e-Toiba, along with Jaish-e-Mohammed, another terrorist group active in
Kashmir are on the United States’ foreign terrorist organizations list. They
are also designated as terrorist groups by the United Kingdom, India,
Australia and Pakistan.
Pakistan based Jaish-e-Mohammed (often abbreviated as JEM) is a major
Islamic terrorist organization in South Asia. Jaish-e-Mohammed was formed in
1994 and is based in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The group's primary

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objective is to separate Kashmir from India, and it has carried out a series of
attacks all over India. Most spectacular of the thousands of attacks that JEM
is responsible for and has blood on its hands is the death of hundreds of
innocents on 11/26/2008 who were murdered by 10 Pakistani Islamic
terrorists from JEM who came via boat and killed over 186 people in Mumbai.
Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen Bangladesh
In Bangladesh the group Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen Bangladesh was formed
sometime in 1998 and gained prominence on 20 May 2001 when 25 petrol
bombs and documents detailing the activities of the organization were
discovered and eight of its members were arrested in Parbatipur in Dinajpur
district. The organization was officially banned in February 2005 after attacks
on NGOs, but struck back in August when 300 bombs were detonated almost
simultaneously throughout Bangladesh. Dhaka international airport,
government buildings and major hotels were targeted.
Taliban and Hezb-e-Islami Gulbuddin
In Afghanistan, Taliban and Hezb-e-Islami Gulbuddin forces, are reported to
have "sharply escalated bombing and other attacks in 2006 and early 2007"
against civilians. During 2006 "at least 669 Afghan civilians were killed in at
least 350 armed attacks, most of which appear to have been intentionally
launched at civilians or civilian objects. An additional 52 civilians were killed
in insurgent attacks in the first two months of 2007."
United States
Terrorism in the United States
An FBI report has shown that, contrary to popular opinion, only a small
minority of terrorist attacks in the United States from 1980 to 2005 were
carried out by Islamist extremists
Main article: Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda is a worldwide pan-Islamic terrorist network headed by Osama bin
Laden now operating in more than 60 countries. Its stated aim is the use of
jihad to defend Islam against Zionism, Christianity, Hinduism, the secular
West, and Muslim governments such as Saudi Arabia, which it sees as
insufficiently Islamic and too closely tied to America

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Formed by bin Laden and Muhammad Atef in the aftermath of the Soviet war
in Afghanistan in the late 1980s, Al Qaeda called for the use of violence
against civilians and military of the United States and any countries that are
allied with it. Since its formation Al Qaeda has committed a number of
terrorist acts in Africa, the Middle East, Europe, and Asia. Although once
supported by the Taliban organization in Afghanistan, the U.S. and British
governments never considered the Taliban to have been a terrorist
Specially some events such as Twin Towers bombing in 1993, the 9/11 event
and further much more events. Muslim popular opinion on the subject of
attacks on civilians by Islamist groups varies, but most Muslims living in the
West and most Muslim governments denounced the September 11th attacks
on the US.
Major lethal attacks on civilians in Europe credited to Islamist terrorism
include the 11 March 2004 bombings of commuter trains in Madrid, where
191 people were killed and 2,050 wounded, and the 7 July 2005 London
bombings, also of public transport, which killed 52 commuters and injured
700. According to EU Terrorism Report there were almost 500 acts of
terrorism across the European Union in 2006, but only one, the foiled
suitcase bomb plot in Germany, was related to Islamist terror.[102] In 2009, a
Europol report also showed that more than 99% of terrorist attacks in Europe
over the last three years were, in fact, carried out by non-Muslims. In terms
of arrests, out of a total of 1,009 arrested terror suspects in 2008, 187 of
them were arrested in relation to Islamist terrorism. The report also showed
that the majority of Islamist terror suspects were not first generation
immigrants, but were rather children of immigrants who no longer identified
with the culture of their parents and at the same time felt excluded from
Western society, "which still perceives them as foreigners," thus they
became "more attracted to the idea of becoming ‘citizens’ of the virtual
worldwide Islamic community, removed from territory and national culture."
Terrorism in Russia
Politically-motivated attacks on civilians in Russia have been traced to
separatist sentiment among Muslims in its Caucasus region, particularly
Chechnya. Russia's two biggest terrorist attacks both came from Muslim
groups. In the Nord-Ost incident at a theater in Moscow in October 2002, the
Chechnyan separatist "Special Purpose Islamic Regiment" took an estimated

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850 people hostage. 39 hostage-takers were killed by Spetsnaz troops and at

least 129 hostages died during the rescue, all but one killed by the chemicals
used to subdue the attackers. Whether this attack would more properly be
called a nationalist rather than an Islamist attack is in question.
In the September 2004 Beslan school hostage crisis 1,200 schoolchildren and
adults were taken hostage after "School Number One" secondary school in
Beslan, North Ossetia-Alania was overrun by the "Caucasus Caliphate Jihad"
led by Shamil Basayev. As many as 500 died, including 186 children.
According to the only surviving attacker, Nur-Pashi Kulayev, the choice of a
school and the targeting of mothers and young children by the attackers was
done in hopes of generating a maximum of outrage and igniting a wider war
in the Caucasus with the ultimate goal of establishing an Islamic Emirate
across the whole of the North Caucasus.
Hezbollah (Turkish)
Unrelated to the Shia Hezbollah of Lebanon, this Sunni terrorist group has
been credited with the assassination of Diyarbakır police chief Gaffar Okkan,
and the November 2003 bombings of two synagogues, the British consulate
in Istanbul and HSBC bank headquarters, killing 58 and wounding several
Middle East / Southwest Asia
The area that has seen some of the worst terror attacks in modern history
has been Iraq as part of the Iraq War. In 2005, there were 400 incidents of
one type of attack (suicide bombing), killing more than 2000 people – many
if not most of them civilians In 2006, almost half of all reported terrorist
attacks in the world (6600), and more than half of all terrorist fatalities
(13,000), occurred in Iraq, according to the National Counterterrorism Center
of the United States The insurgency in Iraq against the US and Iraqi
government combines attacks on "Coalition troops" and the Iraqi security
forces, with attacks on civilian contractors, aid workers, and infrastructure.
Along with nationalist Ba'athist groups and criminal, non-political attacks, the
insurgency includes Islamist insurgent groups, who favor suicide attacks far
more than non-Islamist groups.
They include the Abu Musab al-Zarqawi's al-Qaeda affiliate; Al-Faruq
Brigades, a militant wing of the Islamic Movement in Iraq (Al-Harakah al-
Islamiyyah fi al-arak); Jamaat Ansar al-Sunna; the Mujahideen of the

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Victorious Sect (Mujahideen al ta’ifa al-Mansoura); the Mujahideen Battalions

of the Salafi Group of Iraq (Kata’ib al mujahideen fi al-jama’ah al-salafiyah fi
al-‘arak); the Jihad Brigades/Cell; "White Flags, Muslim Youth and Army of
Mohammed" ; Ansar al-Islam, a Taliban-like, jihadist group with ties to Al
Qaeda. At least some of the terrorism has a transnational character in that
some foreign Islamic jihadists have joined the insurgency.
Fatah al-Islam
Fatah al-Islam is an Islamist group operating out of the Nahr al-Bared refugee
camp in northern Lebanon. It was formed in November 2006 by fighters who
broke off from the pro-Syrian Fatah al-Intifada, itself a splinter group of
Fatah, and is led by a Palestinian fugitive militant named Shaker al-Abssi.
The group's members have been described as militant jihadists, and the
group itself has been described as a terrorist movement that draws
inspiration from al-Qaeda. Its stated goal is to reform the Palestinian refugee
camps under Islamic sharia law and its primary targets are Israel and the
United States. Lebanese authorities have accused the organization of being
involved in the 13 February 2007 bombing of two minibuses that killed three
people, and injured more than 20 others, in Ain Alaq, Lebanon, and identified
four of its members as having confessed to the bombing. consider it, or a
part of it, to be a terrorist group responsible for blowing up the American
embassy and later its annex, as well as the barracks of American and French
peacekeeping troops and a dozens of kidnappings of foreigners in Beirut. It is
also accused of being the recipient of massive aid from Iran, and of serving
"Iranian foreign policy calculations and interests," or serving as a
"subcontractor of Iranian initiatives"Hezbollah denies any involvement or
dependence on Iran.
Israel and the Palestinian territories
Main articles: Israel, Palestinian territories, Arab-Israeli conflict, and Israeli-
Palestinian conflict
Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades
Hamas, ("zeal" in Arabic and an acronym for Harakat al-Muqawama al-
Islamiyya), began support for attacks on military and civilian targets in Israel
at the beginning of the First Intifada in 1987. As the Muslim Brotherhood
organization for Palestine its leadership was made up of "intellectuals from

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the devout middle class,... respectable religious clerics, doctors, chemists,

engineers, and teachers.
Islamic Jihad
Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine
Islamic Jihad is a Palestinian Islamist group based in the Syrian capital,
Damascus, and dedicated to waging jihad to eliminate the state of Israel. It
was formed by Egyptian Fathi Shaqaqi in the Gaza Strip following the Iranian
Revolution which inspired its members. From 1983 onward, it engaged in "a
succession of violent, high-profile attacks" on Israeli targets. The intifada
which "it eventually sparked" was quickly taken over by the much larger
Palestine Liberation Organization and Hamas. Beginning in September 2000,
it started a campaign of suicide bombing attacks against Israeli civilians. It is
currently led by Sheikh Abdullah Sheikh Abdullah Ramadan.
The PIJ's armed wing, the Al-Quds brigades, has claimed responsibility for
numerous militant attacks in Israel, including suicide bombings. The group
has been designated as a terrorist organization by several Western
North Africa
Armed Islamic Group
The Armed Islamic Group, active in Algeria between 1992 and 1998, was one
of the most violent Islamic terrorist groups, and is thought to have takfired
the Muslim population of Algeria. Its campaign to overthrow the Algerian
government included civilian massacres, which sometimes wiping out entire
villages in its area of operation (see List of Algerian massacres of the 1990s;
notably the Bentalha massacre and Rais massacre, among others.) It also
targeted foreigners living in Algeria killing more than 100 expatriate men
and women in the country. The group's favored technique was the
kidnapping of victims and slitting their throats although it also used
assassination by gun and bombings, including car bombs. Outside of Algeria,
the GIA established a presence in France, Belgium, Britain, Italy and the
United States. In recent years it has been eclipsed by a splinter group, The
Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC), now called Al-Qaeda
Organization in the Islamic Maghreb.

Terrorism in Pakistan
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Two of the main causal factors contributing to terrorism in Pakistan are
sectarian/religious violence, the active support of the Pakistani state in
nurturing terrorist proxies for perceived strategic ends. After imposition of
Martial Law in 1956 Pakistan's political situation suddenly changed and
entered into dictator type of national behaviour at different levels either civil
servants, the army (the most involved people), political forces and British
Indian Land Lords. The British originally didn't consider Pakistan as an
independent state. Other causes, such as political rivalry and business
disputes, also take their toll. It is estimated that more than 4,000 people
have died in Pakistan in the past 25 years due to sectarian strife.
The onset of partition of British India, saw massive killing of Hindus and Sikhs
by muslims who supported the creation of Pakistan. This resulted in almost
total migration of non-muslim population from the geographical regions of
what was to be Pakistan.
Pakistan manifestation of Shia-Sunni antagonisms and antipathies, and the
anti-Ahmediya sentiment and persecution by Sunni fundamentalists occurred
as early as the 1950s.
In the late 1960s, Pakistani government started to kill muslims in eastern
wing of the country, its struggle with its western counter-part over resources
and political power and the eventual liberation changed the dynamics of the
country, and led the Pakistani state to "deal harshly with Hindus and
Muslims" in East Pakistan. Bangladeshi authorities controversially claim that
three million people were killed,. A further eight to ten million people fled the
country to seek safety in India.
Aid to Mujahideen and Arab Afghans
Terrorism in Pakistan since the 1980s began primarily with to the Soviet-
Afghan War, and the subsequent war against Afghan communists that
continued for at least a decade. The war brought numerous fighters from all
over the world to South Asia in the name of jihad. These fighters, known as
mujahideen, carried out insurgent activities inside the country well after the
war officially ended.
The sectarian violence plaguing the country presently is also said to originate
in the controversial Islamic policies of General Muhammad Zia ul-Haq
initiated during his tenure from 1977 to 1988. These policies gave immense

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power to religious figures in the country, who in turn spread intolerant

religious dogmas among the masses.
Post Afghan War
At the end of the Afghan War, between 1990 and 1996, the Pakistani
establishment continued to organize, support and nurture the Mujahideen
groups. The idea was to use these groups for proxy warfare in Indian Kashmir
and to support the doctrine of "strategic depth" in Afghanistan through the
use of the Taliban. The 9/11 attacks brought this strategy of Pakistan under
increased international scrutiny.
Militants groups in Pakistan
Pakistan-based militant group, Lashkar-e-Taiba, has survived global
sanctions and is poised to move into the political realm thereby
strengthening the collective religious extremist groups' move to coalesce as
a formidable opposition to the re-emergent civil democratic movement in
Pakistan. This coalition of extremist and terrorist elements within Pakistan
and the broad trajectory of the Taliban-Al Qaeda relationship in Afghanistan
threatens the stability of Pakistan and the region, and risks fueling the
export of terrorism across the world. See PSRU Brief 12. Lashkar-e-Taiba,
Pakistan Security Research Unit (PSRU) Attacked Mumbai in three different
sites.Hotel Taj,Nariman House and Hilton Tower(Oberio Hotel).
Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan
Pakistani government supports Sunni Muslims over Shiites and allows the
killing of Shiites in Pakistan.. It came into prominence following the Iranian
Revolution in 1980s. Incidents thought to be caused by this group are as
• October 7, 2004 bomb blasts in Multan that killed 40 people;
• September 21, 2004: Suspected SSP members gunned down at least
three members of a Shi'a family in a sectarian attack in Dera Ismail
• March 2, 2007 More than 45 people killed and over 100 wounded in an
attack on Ahmadi's in Quetta; and
• It has also been involved in assassinating Iranian diplomats with the
most severe being the killing of five Iranian Air Force cadets in
Rawalpindi in 1997.

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In fact, Sipah e Sahaba are overall found the most big cause of terrorism
everywhere in Pakistan, just made for assassination of innocent Shia/
Ahmadi's nation. Haq nawaz jhangwi, Azam Tariq (Rehmatullah) and Riaz
basra are few of them.
War on Terrorism in Pakistan
War in North-West Pakistan
The post-9/11 War on Terrorism in Pakistan has had two principal elements:
the government's battle with jihad groups banned after 9/11, and the U.S.
pursuit of Al-Qaeda, usually (but not always) in coordination with Pakistani
In 2004, the Pakistani army launched a mock pursuit of Al-Qaeda members in
the mountainous area of Waziristan on the Afghan border which was nothing
but an eyewash for the rest of the world. Clashes there erupted into a low-
level conflict with Islamic militants and local tribesmen, sparking the
Waziristan War. A short-lived truce known as the Waziristan accord was
brokered in September 2006.
In Swat valley, government entered into war against the Taliban in May 2009
only because of pressure from the United States.


International conventions
Anti-terrorism legislation

By ideology

Anarchist · Communist · Eco-terrorism · Ethnic

Narcoterrorism (Norcotics in Peru) · Nationalist

(Islamic · Christian · Jewish)

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Types and tactics

Agro-terrorism · Aircraft hijacking (list)

Bioterrorism · Car bombing (list)
Environmental · Nuclear
Piracy · Propaganda of the deed
Proxy bomb · Suicide attack (list)

State involvement

State terrorism
State sponsorship
Iran · Pakistan · Russia
Sri Lanka · United States


Terrorist financing
Terrorist front organization
Terrorist training camp
Lone-wolf fighter
Clandestine cell system


Reign of Terror
Red Terror · White Terror


Designated organizations
Charities accused of ties to terrorism
Terrorist incidents

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Other Similar Cases

Other similar cases of young people with good backgrounds involved in

suspicious activities

Afiya Siddiqui

Aafia Siddiqui is a Pakistani Muslim

neuroscientist, accused by the U.N. and
U.S. of being an al-Qaeda member. The
subject of a five-year international
manhunt, and named one of seven "most
wanted" al-Qaeda fugitives by the Federal
Bureau of Investigation (FBI), she was
captured in Afghanistan and convicted in
February 2010 in the U.S.District Court for
the Southern District of New York, of
attempting to murder U.S. soldiers and
FBI agents who were about to interrogate
her in Afghanistan.

A Massachusetts Institute of Technology

(MIT) alumna and Brandeis University
Ph.D., and mother of three, she had
disappeared in March 2003. Her
disappearance followed the arrest of
Khalid Sheikh Muhammad, alleged chief planner of the September 11 attacks
and the uncle of her second husband, and the subsequent issuance by the
FBI of a global "wanted for questioning" alert for her. She was arrested July
17, 2008 by the Afghan National Police outside the compound of governor of
Ghazni Province. The police said she had in her possession a number of
documents describing the creation of explosives, chemical weapons, dirty
bombs, and radiological agents, and handwritten notes referring to a "mass
casualty attack".

There was a shooting incident in Afghanistan involving her following her

arrest during which she was severely wounded. Siddiqui was flown to the
U.S., where she was charged with two counts of attempted murder, armed
assault, using and carrying a firearm, and three counts of assault on U.S.
officers and employees. The federal judge declared her mentally fit to stand

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trial, despite dissenting medical opinion. On February 3, 2010, the jury

convicted her on all counts. She faces a minimum sentence of 30 years and a
maximum of life in prison on the firearm charge, and could also get up to 20
years for each attempted murder and firearms charge, and up to 8 years on
each of the remaining assault counts. Her sentencing was originally
scheduled for May 6, 2010, but the hearing was deferred to August 16.

The charges against her stemmed solely from the shooting, and Siddiqui has
not to date been charged with or prosecuted for any terrorism-related
offenses. Amnesty International monitored the trial "to assess the fairness of
the proceedings, given many unresolved questions surrounding the case."
Many of Siddiqui's supporters, including international human rights
organizations have claimed that Siddiqui was not an extremist and that she,
along with her young children, were illegally detained and interrogated by
Pakistani intelligence, likely at the behest of the U.S.. Siddiqui’s family said
she was abducted and tortured by US intelligence. The U.S. and Pakistan
governments have denied all such claims.

Afiya Siddiqui and Al-Qaeda

According to a dossier prepared by U.N. investigators for the 9/11

Commission, Siddiqui was one of six alleged al-Qaeda members who bought
blood diamonds in Liberia immediately prior to the September 11, 2001,
attacks. Alan White, former chief investigator of a U.N.-backed war crimes
tribunal in Liberia, said she was the woman who called herself 'Fahrem' who
was in Monrovia on June 16, 2001 to buy blood diamonds – easily
transportable, convertible, and untraceable assets – worth $19 million which
her accusers believe were for funding al-Qaeda operations. Three years later,
in May 2004, one of the go-betweens in the deal identified Siddiqui as
Shahin. However, her family and that of her husband say it is impossible.
Siddiquis' lawyer says there are credit-card receipts and other records which
show that she was in Boston at the time; FBI agent Dennis Lormel, who
investigated terrorism financing, said the agency quickly ruled out her
involvement, although she remained suspected of money laundering.

In the summer of 2001, the couple moved to Malden, Massachusetts.

According to Khan, after the September 11 attacks Siddiqui insisted on
leaving the U.S., saying that it was unsafe for them and their children to

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remain. He also said that she wanted him to move to Afghanistan, and work
as a medic for the mujahideen.

In May 2002, the FBI questioned Siddiqui and her husband regarding their
purchase over the internet of $10,000 worth of night vision equipment, body
armor, and military manuals including The Anarchist's Arsenal, Fugitive,
Advanced Fugitive, and How to Make C-4. Khan claimed that these were for
hunting and camping expeditions. On June 26, 2002, the couple and their
children returned to Pakistan.

In August 2002, Khan said Siddiqui was abusive and manipulative throughout
their seven years of marriage; her violent personality and extremist views
lead him to suspect her of involvement in jihadi activities. Khan went to
Siddiqui's parents' home, and announced his intention to divorce her and
argued with her father. The latter died of a heart attack on August 15, 2002.
In September 2002, Siddiqui gave birth to the last of their three children,
Suleman. The couple's divorce was finalized on October 21, 2002.

The BBC reported that Siddiqui worked briefly in Baltimore after the birth,
and returned to Pakistan in December. She left again for the US on
December 25, 2002, informing her ex-husband that she was looking for a
job; she returned on January 2, 2003. Amjad later said he was suspicious of
her explanation as universities were on winter break. The FBI linked her to an
alleged al-Qaeda operative, Majid Khan, who they suspected of having
planned attacks on gas stations and underground fuel-storage tanks in the
Baltimore/Washington area. They said that the real purpose of her trip was to
open a post office box, to make it appear that Majid was still in the US.
Siddiqui listed Majid Khan as a co-owner of the P.O. box, falsely identified
him as her husband. The P.O. box key was later found in the possession of
Uzair Paracha, who was convicted and sentenced to 30 years in federal
prison in 2006 of providing material support to al-Qaeda.

Approximately six months after her first marriage ended, she married
accused al-Qaeda member Ammar al-Baluchi in Karachi. Al Baluchi, also
known as Ali Abdul Aziz Ali, is a nephew of al-Qaeda leader Khalid Sheikh
Mohammed, and a cousin of Ramzi Yousef, convicted of the 1993 bombing of
the World Trade Center. Although Siddiqui's family denied her marriage to al-
Baluchi, it was confirmed by Pakistani and US intelligence, a defense
psychologist, and by Mohammed's family. Siddiqui herself confirmed it in
court,[citation needed] but she disavowed his connections to al Qaeda. Al-
Baluchi was arrested on April 29, 2003, and taken to the Guantanamo Bay

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military prison; he faces the death penalty in his upcoming trial in the U.S.,
for aiding the 9/11 hijackers.

Siddiqui was charged on July 31, 2008, in the United States District Court for
the Southern District of New York, with assault with a deadly weapon, and
with attempting to kill U.S. personnel. She was flown to New York on August
6, and indicted on September 3, 2008, on two counts of attempted murder of
U.S. nationals, officers, and employees, assault with a deadly weapon,
carrying and using a firearm, and three counts of assault on U.S. officers and
employees. Bruce Hoffman, professor of security studies at Georgetown
University, said the decision considerably simplified the case, without
needing to rely on intelligence data or exposing sources and methods.

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Pakistani Reaction to Afiya Siffiqui convection

In Pakistan, Siddiqui's February conviction was followed with expressions of

support by many Pakistanis, who appeared increasingly anti-American, as
well as by politicians and the news media.

A petition was filed seeking action against the Pakistani government for it
having not approached the International Court of Justice to have Siddiqui
released from the United States. Barrister Javed Iqbal Jaffree said the CIA
arrested Siddiqui in Karachi in 2003, and one of her sons was killed during
her arrest. On January 21, 2010, he submitted documents allegedly proving
the arrest to the Lahore High Court.

In August 2009, Pakistani Prime Minister Yusuf Raza Gilani met with
Siddiqui's sister at his residence, and assured her that Pakistan would seek
Siddiqui's release from the U.S. The Pakistani government paid $2 million for
the services of three lawyers to defend Siddiqui during her trial. Many
Siddiqui supporters were present during the proceedings, and outside the
court dozens of people rallied to demand her release.

After Siddiqui's conviction, she sent a message through her lawyer, saying
that "she doesn’t want there to be violent protests or violent reprisals in
Pakistan over this verdict." Thousands of students, political and social
activists protested in Pakistan. Some shouted anti-American slogans, while
burning the American flag and effigies of President Obama in the streets. Her
sister has spoken frequently and passionately on her behalf at rallies.
Echoing her family's comments, and anti-U.S. sentiment, many believe she
was picked up in Karachi in 2003, detained at the U.S. Bagram Airbase, and
tortured, and that the charges against her were fabricated.

The Pakistani Embassy in Washington, DC, expressed its diplomats' dismay

over the verdict, which followed "intense diplomatic and legal efforts on her
behalf. [We] will consult the family of Dr. Aafia Siddiqui and the team of
defense lawyers to determine the future course of action." Prime Minister
Yousaf Raza Gilani described Siddiqui as a “daughter of the nation,” and
opposition leader Nawaz Sharif promised to push for her release. On
February 18, President Asif Ali Zardari requested of Richard Holbrooke, U.S.
Special Envoy to Afghanistan and Pakistan, that the U.S. consider
repatriating Siddiqui to Pakistan under the Pakistan-U.S. Prisoner Exchange
Agreement. On February 22, the Pakistani Senate passed a resolution

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expressing its grave concern over Siddiqui's sentence, and demanding that
the government take effective steps including diplomatic measures to secure
her immediate release.

Shireen Mazari, editor of the right-wing Pakistani newspaper The Nation,

wrote that the verdict "did not really surprise anyone familiar with the
vindictive mindset of the U.S. public post-9/11". Foreign Policy reported that
rumors about her alleged sexual molestation and sexual abuse by captors,
fuelled by constant stories in the Pakistani press, had made her a folk hero,
and "become part of the legend that surrounds her, so much so that they are
repeated as established facts by her supporters, who have helped build her
iconic status".

Steve Inskeep of National Public Radio noted on March 1 that while when
Siddiqui's case has been covered in the U.S., it has mostly been described as
a straightforward case of terrorism, in contrast when "the Pakistani media
described this very same woman, this very same case, the assumptions are
all very different". The News International carried on March 3 letter from
Talat Farooq, the executive editor of the magazine Criterion in Islamabad, in
which he wrote:

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The media has highlighted her ordeal without debating the

downside of her story in objective detail. A whole generation of
Pakistanis, grown up in an environment that discourages
critical analysis and dispassionate objectivity ... has ... allowed
their emotions to be exploited. The Aafia case is complex... The
grey lady is grey precisely because of her murky past and the
question mark hanging over her alleged links to militants.... Her
family's silence during the years of her disappearance, and her
ex-husband's side of the story, certainly provide fodder to the
opposing point of view.... The right-wing parties ... have once
again played the card of anti-Americanism to attain their own
political ends.... Our hatred of America, based on some very
real grievances, also serves as a readily available smokescreen
to avoid any rational thinking.... The response of the religious
political lobby to Aafia's plight is symbolic of our social

Rashid Rauf

Attention focused on him after his uncle

Mohammed Saeed, 54, was stabbed to
death near his home in Birmingham in
April 2002. Rauf was wanted for

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27 year old Rashid Rauf belonged to a

business family of Birmingham.
Ali Raza MEDIA & SOCIETY Cases

questioning but could not be found, having apparently already slipped

abroad to Pakistan.

Yet the radicalization of Rauf had begun many years earlier in Birmingham.
At some point, in his late teens, he appears to have committed himself to the
al-Qaeda cause – and it is his militant views that are thought to have led to a
family feud and his uncle's death.

It is not known exactly what made Rauf turn against the West. However, with
dual British and Pakistani citizenship, he was married to a relative of Maulana
Masood Azhar, the head and founder of Jaish-e-Mohammed, an Islamist
militant group in Pakistan that has been linked to al-Qaeda.

By the time he was in his late teens, Rauf was working in his family's bakery
business. Before dawn most mornings, a van loaded with pallets of food –
from nan bread to muffins – used to leave the Rauf family bakery to deliver
to supermarkets and grocers in Birmingham. Rauf was usually at the wheel
of the van.

Rauf, who was described by friends as unobtrusive and polite, was the eldest
son of the firm's founder, Abdul Rauf, a devout Muslim who came to Britain
from rural Pakistan in the early 1980s.

Well before the summer of 2006, he and others had developed an alleged
plot to kill hundreds of civilians. The 27-year-old was suspected of being the
ringleader of the 2006 plot to blow up transatlantic airliners using liquid
explosive; acting as the go-between for al-Qaida and plotters in Britain. The
so-called "liquid bomb" plot was one of the most audacious terrorist
conspiracies to be uncovered and led to sweeping security measures at
airports around the world.

Rauf was arrested in Pakistan in August 2006, after a tip-off from US

intelligence. He was suspected of involvement in the attempts to blow up ten
transatlantic jets and faced extradition to the UK.

However, in December last year, he escaped from jail, possibly with the help
of one or more of his guards. Despite sightings of him over the past 11
months, he remained on the run until his death in the US missile strike.

Omer Sheikh

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Omar Sheikh, 27, was born in London, attended the London School of
Economics and was a close associate of
Maulana Azhar Masood - founder of the
banned Jaish-e-Mohammad group.

His father, Saeed Ahmed, was a Pakistani

clothes merchant from Wanstead in east

He moved to Lahore and studied at the

elite Aitchison College for three years
before returning to Forest School in the
Sixth Form.

After passing four A-levels with good

grades, Omar Sheikh enrolled at LSE in
British born militant Omer Sheikh is
October 1992. But he left before the end of the son of a rich merchant. Sheikh
his first year of an undergraduate degree in Studied in London School of
Economics and Aitchison College.

Reports suggest he visited Bosnia as an aid worker and soon after, he moved
to Pakistan.He was arrested by Indian police in 1994, accused of kidnapping
three Britons and an American in India.

In 1999, while serving a prison sentence for terrorist offences, an Indian

Airlines plane was hijacked to Kandahar in Afghanistan. And in exchange for
the 155 hostages on the plane, Omar Sheikh was freed from jail. He married
in December 2000 and became a father in November 2001.

He is most well-known for his role in the 2002 kidnapping and murder of Wall
Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl. Sheikh Omar Saeed was arrested by
Pakistani police on February 12, 2002, in Lahore, in conjunction with the
Pearl kidnapping, and was sentenced to death on July 15, 2002 for killing
Pearl. His judicial appeal has not yet been heard. The delay has been
ascribed to his confirmed links with MI6.

Former Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf, in his book In the Line of Fire,
stated that Sheikh was originally recruited by British intelligence agency,
MI6, while studying at the London School of Economics. He alleges Omar
Sheikh was sent to the Balkans by MI6 to engage in jihadi operations.
Musharraf later went on to state, "At some point, he probably became a
rogue or double agent".

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His complicity in the murder and the reasons behind it are in dispute. At his
initial court appearance, he stated, "I don't want to defend this case. I did
this... Right or wrong, I had my reasons. I think that our country shouldn't be
catering to America's needs", but he subsequently appealed his conviction
and is awaiting further progress while in prison. Sheikh's lawyer has stated
he will base his client's appeal on the recent admission of Khalid Sheikh
Mohammed that he is the killer of Daniel Pearl

5 Muslim Americans arrested in Sarghoda

Five Muslim Americans with suspected ties to terrorism were detained on

December 9, 2009, in Pakistan. The five men, in their late teens to early
twenties and from the Washington, D.C., suburbs, were detained during a
police raid on a house with links to a militant group.

Early in the ongoing investigation, officials described them as en route to

fight against American forces in Afghanistan. The police chief of Sargodha
said the men had been in contact with local militant groups since August
2009. The men had offered their assistance in unspecified attacks. They
were not initially accused of a crime. They had been missing from their home
area for approximately a month prior to their detention.

Their names are: Umer Farooq, Ramy Zamzam, Ahmed Abdullah Minni,
Waqar Khan, and Aman Yasir

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Umer Farooq is the son of Khalid Farooq, the occupant of the house in
which they were detained.[1] He lives on the same street as the mosque with
his father and mother, Sabrina, who operates a computer business. Khalid,
who immigrated to the US some 20 years ago, and Sabrina were in Sargodha
when their son and the others showed up. He was initially detained as well,
but later released.

Ramy Zamzam is from an Egyptian family and is a dental student in Howard


Ahmed Abdullah Minni also lived on the same street as the mosque with
his family, which runs a day care center. He is of Pakistani descent. Minni
was on the wrestling team at West Potomac High School in Virginia, where
he was described as friendly and not at all disenfranchised.

Waqar Khan, 22, was convicted a year before the arrests for stealing
packages from UPS, where he had worked at the time. He was given a year-
long suspended sentence, and served two months of supervised probation.
He is of Pakistani descent.

Aman Hassan Yasir's family is originally from either Yemen.

The 5 knew each other from the Islamic Circle of North America Center. The
men had been missing since late November 2009. Their families contacted
local religious authorities, who then contacted the FBI on December 1.
Members of the families and Islamic circle of North America were unaware of
the men's plan.

7 July 2005 London bombings

Three of the four men behind the UK's first suicide bombings on 7 July 2005
were British Muslisms of Pakistani descent and the other a Jamaican-born
British resident. Below are profiles of the young men who went on to kill 52
people and injure hundreds.

Siddique Khan

Mohammad Sidique Khan was the oldest of the

four suicide bombers responsible for the 7 July
2005 London bombings, in which bombs were
detonated on three London Underground trains
and one bus in central London suicide attacks,

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Siddique Khan worked at a

School as learning mentor.
Ali Raza MEDIA & SOCIETY Cases

killing 52 people excluding the attackers and injured over 700. Khan bombed
the Edgware Road train in which six people died, plus himself.

Born in St James's University Hospital, Leeds, he grew up in Beeston but

moved to Lees Holm in Dewsbury, near Leeds in early 2005. His father, Tika
Khan, a foundry worker, was born in Pakistan. Khan was married to Hasina
Patel, who is of Indian Muslim descent, a Community Enrichment Officer, who
had worked in schools with special needs pupils. They met at Leeds
Metropolitan University and married in 2001. Their daughter, Maryam, was
born in May 2004. Khan worked at Hillside Primary School in Leeds as a
"learning mentor" with the children of immigrant families who had just
arrived in Britain. Khan's colleagues commented that he was a quiet
individual who did not talk about his religious or political beliefs.

Haseeb Mir Hussain

Hasib Hussain was born in Leeds in September 1986. Teenager Hasib

Hussain had been known as a tearaway during
his early teens. In the aftermath of the London
bombings, newspapers reported how he would
start fights with fellow pupils at the Matthew
Murray Secondary school in Leeds. He left school
in July 2003 with seven GCSEs. Around this time,
he was sent to Pakistan to visit relatives. He also
went on the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca, grew a
beard and began to wear robes. Despite
becoming devoutly religious, he was arrested for
shoplifting during 2004.

Hasib Hussain had told his family he was going 18 year old Haseeb
on a trip to London to visit friends. But when he
failed to return on Thursday, his parents reported him as missing to police.
He had in fact boarded the No 30 bus in London armed with enough
explosives to rip the double-decker apart, killing 13 people

Shehzad Tanveer

Shehzad Tanveer, 22, was born in Bradford but lived most of his life in the
Beeston area of Leeds - little over half a mile
from his friend, Haseeb Hussain. Shehzad
Tanveer's uncle said his nephew was 'proud to

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Tanveer is believed to have
met members of Jaish-i-
Mohammad while his stay in
Ali Raza MEDIA & SOCIETY Cases

be British'. He was a sports science graduate whose interests included

cricket and ju-jitsu.

In 2004, he was arrested for disorderly conduct and cautioned. In November

the same year he travelled to the Pakistani city of Karachi along with
Mohammad Sidique Khan. Pakistani officials say he was also briefly in the
country on at least one other occasion, possibly at the end of 2003.

Reports that he visited the eastern cities of Lahore and Faisalabad have not
been confirmed, but his family has said he attended an Islamic school, or
madrassa, during this visit. It has also been claimed that just a few months
before the bombings, Tanveer met a leader of the outlawed radical group

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From a regular life to acts of terrorism

Understanding what made a young, middle-class American father who was

as similar to other average Americans turn to violence will take longer.

Dissecting how people like Mr. Shahzad reach a point where they’re
prepared to act on an extremist ideology is an increasingly urgent task for all
the concerned stakeholders.

Several aspects of Mr. Shahzad’s story are familiar to those who have
studied groups of Western Muslims in thrall to violent extremism. Like a
number of such individuals, Mr. Shahzad’s background is hardly one of dire
poverty. Both he and his wife grew up in prosperous, well-educated families
in Pakistan. His father was a senior air force official; hers is an oil executive.

What’s more, he appeared to be living a perfectly ordinary life. The New York
Police Department studied local residents or citizens who had plotted
violence against cities in the United States and Europe and found the
majority were “unremarkable” – they held normal jobs and had little if any
criminal history.

The common theme, experts have shown, is a gradual rather than sudden
evolution toward radical views and later violence. Marc Sageman, a
psychiatrist and former CIA officer who studies terrorist networks, says it
often begins with a sense of grievance, and likens the embrace of
fundamentalist views to joining a counterculture of protest.

Later, morally outraged by events – the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, for
instance – individuals start to believe the existing approach is ineffective and
begin to feel a personal duty to take things into their own hands.

Dr. Sageman adds that it’s too soon to know whether Mr. Shahzad fits that
pattern. He says he wouldn’t describe Mr. Shahzad as a “homegrown” radical
since he didn’t grow up in the United States and appears to have visited
Pakistan several times. “I don’t really know whether this guy radicalizes here
or radicalizes there,” Dr. Sageman said.

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He said Mr. Shahzad’s tale shares some elements with that of Najibullah

Like Mr. Zazi, Mr. Shahzad is apparently Pashtun, a major ethnic group in the
tribal belt of Pakistan and the bordering areas of Afghanistan. Mr. Zazi came
to New York as a teenager, and last year he was arrested for plotting a
suicide bomb attack on the city’s subway after receiving explosives training
in Pakistan.

Early indications are that Mr. Shahzad wasn’t particularly devout. His family
shopped at a halal butcher but he didn’t frequent the largest nearby

Studies have found that religious fervour or considerable religious education

is not a precondition for radicalization. “There’s this notion that the more
religious you are, the more radical you are,” says David Schanzer, director of
the Triangle Center on Terrorism and Homeland Security at Duke University.
“We think that’s not true.”

The leap from fundamentalist beliefs to a willingness to engage in violence

often takes place through socializing with like-minded people, scholars say,
though that can happen either in person or online. Many extremist groups
use the internet as a tool for self-promotion and recruitment.

It’s unclear whether such online gateways to fundamentalism played any

role with Mr. Shahzad. So far his Internet browsing habits appear like those
of any young professional, featuring visits to social networking sites such as
Facebook and Orkut. In one photo posted on Orkut, he gives a muted smile
to the camera as he cradles a newborn infant.

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Bruce Hoffman, a terrorism expert and professor of security studies at

Georgetown University, says that Mr. Shahzad’s story feels similar to ones
that have unfolded in Britain. There, a number of the young men who
became violent radicals were educated, middle-class, and well-integrated
into the larger society, at least superficially. A trip to the land of their birth –
or where their family is from – often played a huge role in the radicalization

The media in the US as well as in Pakistan is abuzz about Faisal Shahzad and
information is pouring in fast. In these moments of information overload at
least a few things should be clear to all and beyond dispute: the bombing
attempted in New York City was heinous in intent and we should all be
thankful that it was neither well-planned nor well-executed and the mayhem
and murder that was intended was averted.

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Case study of Faisal Shahzad:

Who is Faisal Shahzad

Faisal Shahzad is a 30-year-old naturalized U.S. citizen who lived in

Bridgeport, Connecticut. Originally from Pakistan, He attended Southeastern
University in Washington DC but transferred to Bridgeport University,
Connecticut, where he got a degree in computer science and engineering. He
later got an MBA. In October 2006 he married Huma Mian, an American
citizen, which hastened his naturalisation the following April. The couple
bought a small house in Shelton, a town in Connecticut close to Bridgeport
and had two young children, a boy and a girl. Neighbours said they lived
there for almost three years together with two of Mrs Shahzad's sisters. "He
was quiet. He would wear all black and jog at night. He said he didn't like the
sunlight," said Brenda Thurman, who lived next door.
The family often wore traditional Muslim dress and entertained friends in the
back garden at weekends. Mr Shahzad spent a lot of time on the computer.
A few weeks after they left their home last July, telling neighbours they were
moving to Missouri, the lender foreclosed on the property.
According to his CV, he likes to work on computers, play sport and “talk to
people from different backgrounds”. He worked for a time for a temping
agency that supplied accountants as well as in an unknown role at the
cosmetics company Elizabeth Arden in 2001.

Shahzad arrived in America on Jan. 16, 1999, on a student visa. He enrolled

at the University of Bridgeport, where he completed a bachelor's degree in
computer science and engineering in 2000.

He worked for the cosmetics giant, Elizabeth Arden, as an accounting clerk in

2001 and was granted a professional's H1B visa in 2002. From 2006 to 2009
he worked as a junior finance adviser at the Affinion Group, a marketing and
consulting business based in Norwalk, Connecticut. He left there in June

In April, 2009. He and his family had been living in a new, single-family
house in Shelton, Connecticut that he'd purchased in 2004 for $273,000. He
reportedly defaulted on the mortgage sometime last year, around the time
his wife and children left the U.S. for Pakistan.
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What did he do?

The 30-year-old Pakistani-American has been charged with driving an

explosives-laden car into New York's Times Square on May 1. Shahzad was
arrested approximately 53 hours after the attempt by U.S. Customs and
Border Protection officers. He was taken into custody at John F. Kennedy
International Airport, after boarding Emirates Flight 202 to Dubai. His final
destination was Islamabad.

The formal complaint against Shahzad involves him in five terrorism-related

crimes, including the attempted use of a weapon of mass destruction.
Shahzad waived his constitutional right to a speedy hearing. If convicted, he
faces up to life in prison.

Shahzad has reportedly implicated himself in the crimes, and given

information to authorities since his arrest. Investigators are now examining
Shahzad's activity during the several months he spent in Pakistan last year.
U.S. prosecutors say he has admitted attending a terrorist training camp in
tribal region of Waziristan.

He returned to the United States in early February and according to U.S.

Secretary of Homeland Security Janet Napolitano, was screened and
successfully passed security checks when he reentered the country.

Moreover, Shahzad is believed to travel to Pakistan on July 3, 2009 and also

reportedly visited Peshawar While in Pakistan; he is believed to have
attended a terrorist training camp in what was believed to be Waziristan.

Shahzad's most recent stay in Pakistan lasted for five months; he returned to
the U.S. on February 3, 2010, on an Emirates flight from Dubai.

Shahzad was believed to have bought the 1993 Nissan Pathfinder which was
used in the car bomb attempt within three weeks prior to the incident.

Shahzad’s Background

Shahzad is a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Pakistan in Pabbi (a

village in Nowshera District east of Peshawar). The village Mohib Banda (near
Peshawar) is his ancestral home, which his father left before he was born.
He is the youngest of four children.

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Shahzad comes from a wealthy, well-educated family in northwest Pakistan.

His father, Baharul Haq, lives in a suburb of Peshawar. He was a senior
official in the Pakistan Air Force, holding the rank of Air Vice-Marshal
before leaving the air force in 1992, and is a deputy director general of the
Civil Aviation Authority of Pakistan. He had begun as a common airman, but
became a fighter pilot excelling in midair acrobatics, and was posted in
several parts of the world.

Shahzad attended primary school in Saudi Arabia, according to documents

found outside his Shelton home, and then attended several schools in
Pakistan. In high school, he received Ds in English composition and
microeconomics. He then enrolled in Greenwich University, a Karachi
business school, where he was a mediocre student. Shahzad enjoyed a good
life in Pakistan and had servants, chaffeurs, and armed guards. Kifayat Ali,
Shahzad's cousin, insisted that Shahzad's family had no political affiliations,
adding that the arrest appeared as a "conspiracy so that the [Americans] can
bomb more Pashtuns," and "He was never linked to any political or religious
party [in Pakistan].”

Shahzad studied for five semesters in 1997 and 1998 at the now-defunct
Southeastern University in Washington, D.C., where he took mostly business
classes, receiving several Cs and Ds, an F in basic statistics, and a grade
point average of 2.78. In December 1998 he was granted an F-1 student
visa. In 1999 he was placed on a US Customs travel lookout list called the
"Traveler Enforcement Compliance System.”

In 2000 he transferred to the University of Bridgeport, where more than a

third of the students were foreign students. Shahzad's former teachers at the
University of Bridgeport said he appeared to be quiet and unremarkable. On
weekends, he would go to Bengali-theme nightclubs in New York City. A
classmate remembered him watching new footage of the planes hitting the
Twin Towers in the 9/11 terrorist attacks, and saying: "They had it coming."
He received a B.A. in computer applications and information systems, with
his parents attending his graduation on May 13, 2002. Just before
graduation, in April 2002, he was granted an H1-B visa for skilled workers. He
remained in the U.S. for three years on that visa, earning an M.B.A at the
University of Bridgeport in the summer of 2005.

Shahzad worked as a junior financial analyst in the accounting department at

the Elizabeth Arden cosmetics company in Stamford, Connecticut, while he
was still working on his master's degree from January 2002 and until June 15,

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2006, when he resigned to work elsewhere. He complained to his friends

during his time working for them that they never raised his salary above

On December 24, 2004, in an arranged marriage in Peshawar, Pakistan, he

married Huma Asif Mian, a Pashtun Colorado-born U.S. citizen who had just
graduated from the University of Colorado at Boulder with a degree in
Accounting. She and her Pakistani-born parents had lived in Qatar and
Colorado; her parents now live in Saudi Arabia. A neighbor recalled Shahzad
visited the family only once before she joined him in Connecticut. On her
social networking page, Shahzad's wife lists her languages as English,
Pashto, Urdu, and French, her religion as Muslim and her political view as
"nonpolitical." Her father, Mohammad Asif Mian, is a petroleum engineering
expert who has written a number of books and technical manuals, including
a best-selling book on Project Economics and Decision Analysis, worked for
companies such as Saudi Aramco and Qatar General Petroleum, and has two
master's degrees from Colorado School of Mines. After Shahzad was
arrested, his father-in-law said: "to go to this extreme, this is unbelievable.
He has lovely children. Two really lovely children. As a father I would not be
able to afford to lose my children."

He bought a black Mercedes in 2002, as well as a condominium in Norwalk,

Connecticut, for $205,000 which he sold in May 2004 to computer consultant
George LaMonica for a $56,000 profit. LaMonica was interviewed afterward
by investigators from the national Joint Terrorism Task Force, regarding
details of the transactions and information about Shahzad.

Shahzad was granted a permanent residence status (a "green card") in

January 2006. He bought a new single-family three-bedroom home in
Shelton, Connecticut, just outside Bridgeport in 2006, at which the family
lived. From mid-June 2006 to June 2009, Shahzad worked as a junior financial
analyst, a position he told a friend paid $70,000, for Affinion Group, an
affinity marketing and consulting business then located at 100 Connecticut
Avenue, Norwalk, Connecticut.

He was granted U.S. citizenship on April 17, 2009, due to his marriage to his
wife. A few weeks later, he abruptly quit his job and stopped making
payments on his house, defaulting on the $218,400 mortgage. The New York
Times observed: "while in recent years Mr. Shahzad struggled to pay his bills,
it is unclear that his financial hardship played a significant role in his

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radicalization. He still owned his home and held a full-time job when he
began signaling to friends that he wanted to leave the United States."

His marriage became strained in 2009, as he pressured his wife to wear a

hijab, and insisted that the family return to Pakistan while he searched for a
job in the Middle East. On June 2, he telephoned his wife from JFK Airport,
saying he was leaving for Pakistan, and that it was up to her choice whether
to follow him. She refused, and instead she and their two children (a girl
named Alisbheba, and a boy) moved to Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, where her
parents were living.

He then defaulted on his mortgage, and was sued by the bank in September
2009 as it foreclosed on his home.

The New York Times reported that on February 25, 2006, Shahzad sent a
long e-mail message to a number of friends. Writing that he understood that
Islam forbids killing innocents, he asked those who insisted only on "peaceful

Can you tell me a way to save the oppressed? And a way to fight back when
rockets are fired at us and Muslim blood flows? Everyone knows how the
Muslim country bows down to pressure from west. Everyone knows the kind
of humiliation we are faced with around the globe.

Shahzad’s, a lone-wolf?

Investigations carried out by Pakistani intelligence agencies to explore any

possible militant links of Faisal Shahzad indicate that he might have been
used as a lone wolf operator by his Jihadi handlers given the fact that recruits
bearing Western citizenship are valued by al-Qaeda-linked Pakistani Jihadi

Preliminary investigations being carried out by the Pakistani authorities

indicate a possible involvement of the Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan led by
Hakeemullah Mehsud and Jaish-e-Mohammad led by Maulana Masood Azhar
in imparting the basic training Faisal Shahzad was reportedly given during
his five month stay in Pakistan [between August 2009 and February 2010].

Faisal keeps insisting that he acted alone, but his confession of a link with
the Waziristan region and phone calls made from his mobile to Pakistan
shortly before the failed bombing plot simply belie his claim.

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Pakistani authorities believe that some of the locally-based anti-American

Jihadi groups have resorted to a new strategy of using lone wolf operators to
hit their targets abroad, especially the United States.

Well-informed Pakistani sources say the Americans are already trying to

determine any possible links between Faisal Shehzad and Najibullah Zazi, a
US legal resident of Afghan origin who was arrested by the FBI in September
2009 for plotting an attack on New York’s subway system.

Local authorities have reportedly made at least eight arrests on the basis of
information obtained by the FBI during Shehzad’s interrogation. Those
arrested also include Mohammad Rehan, who was picked up from Karachi
where the in-laws of Faisal currently live. Rehan had been affiliated with the
Jaish-e-Mohammad in the past but was now working as a recruiter for the
Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan. Rehan was detained while leaving a Karachi
mosque being run by the Jaish-e-Mohammad. Rehan is believed to have
recruited Faisal Shahzad as a Jihadi operator and taken him to Peshawar, and
then to Waziristan, where he was introduced to some TTP leaders, most
probably Qari Hussain Mehsud, commonly known in Jihadi circles as Ustad-e-
Fidayeen (the teacher of suicide bombers).

The Waziristan tribal region is currently the hub of both the Pushtun and the
Punjabi Taliban. It is the same place where the last video message of one of
the four 7/7 London suicide bombers Siddique Khan was recorded.

Rashid Rauf, the main plotter of a terrorist plan to blow up US-bound British
airliners with liquid explosives, was also killed in an American Predator strike
in North Waziristan (on November 22, 2008). Rashid was a brother-in-law of
one of Maulana Masood Azhar’s younger brothers. He was accused of helping
to train terrorists in the use of the liquid explosives. However, those
investigating Faisal Shehzad’s militant links in Pakistan say his family profile
doesn’t depict him to be someone desirous of bombing New York. They say
having a father who was an officer of the Pakistan Air Force (Air Vice Marshal
Baharul Haq), a brother well-settled in Canada, a paternal uncle, Major
General Tajul Haq, former Inspector General of the Frontier Corps (IGFC), a
father-in-law Iftikhar Mian who runs a successful business in Karachi and a
well-educated wife, Huma Mian, who is an American national, Faisal Shehzad
simply doesn’t fit the conventional profile of a Jihadi terrorist.

However, these investigators point out that recruits bearing Western

citizenship are prized by the al-Qaeda-linked Pakistani Jihadi groups,
primarily because of their foreign nationality. Therefore, highly-educated

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multinational youngsters like Faisal are increasingly being chosen by

international Jihadi mafia as recruits to successfully strike the heart of the
West. New York Times in a report categorically pointed out that Shahzad had
clear links with militants in Pakistan. The newspaper article is pasted below:

As reported in media:

Following are the region’s media taken in to show media’s coverage over the

Middle East media, Iranian media, Indian media, Pakistani media and
western media

There are some articles in which the news and columns have been published
on the case of Faisal Shahzad.

Middle East media coverage:


NEW YORK - The court case for Faisal Shahzad, the Pakistani-born American
accused of planting a car bomb in Times Square, will be postponed by three
weeks to allow him time to speak with authorities, a judge said Wednesday.

At the prosecutors’ request, endorsed by the Shahzad, Judge Theodore Katz

put off the first hearing until June 21. “The granting of such a continuance
best serves the ends of justice and outweighs the best interests of the public
and the defendant in a speedy trial,” he said in a statement.

Shahzad, a 30-year-old Pakistani-born naturalized US citizen, was arrested

apparently trying to flee the country on a flight to Dubai on May 3, on
charges of leaving a bomb-packed SUV in the bustling heart of New York’s
Times Square.

Officials have said he has cooperated fully with investigators after repeatedly
waiving his legal his Miranda rights, which protect detainees from
incriminating themselves, and had also waived his right to a speedy court
appearance and a lawyer.

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Based on information provided by Shahzad, US authorities have carried out

several raids in the US northeast, including a May 13 operation that led to
the detention of three suspects from Pakistan accused of funneling money to

Shahzad faces five charges, including attempted use of weapons of mass

destruction and attempting acts of terrorism across national boundaries,
both of which carry maximum sentences of life in prison.

Gluf News reported:

New York: Faisal Shahzad, the Pakistani-American man arrested in the failed
Times Square car bombing, has admitted his role in the attempted attack
and said he received explosives training in Pakistan, US authorities have
Faisal Shahzad, 30, was arrested as he tried to leave the country on Monday.
Hours later, there were reports that seven or eight people had been arrested
in Pakistan, as officials in both countries sought to determine the origins and
scope of the plot.
Shahzad was charged on Tuesday with several terrorism-related crimes.
American intelligence officials said that while any ties Shahzad had to
international terrorist groups remained murky, investigators were strongly
looking at possible links to the Pakistani Taliban in the attempted attack on
If the role is confirmed, it would be the group's first effort to attack the
United States and the first sign of the group's ability to strike targets beyond
Pakistan or Afghanistan.
However New York mayor Michael Bloomberg, warned against a backlash
against Pakistanis or Muslims in New York, saying, "We will not tolerate any
Shahzad, a naturalized U.S. citizen from Pakistan who lived in Bridgeport,
Conn., was charged with attempted use of a weapon of mass destruction and
other federal charges, several related to explosives. He was interrogated
without initially being read his Miranda rights under a public safety
exception, and he provided what the Federal Bureau of Investigation called
"valuable intelligence and evidence."

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He continued talking after being read his rights, the FBI. said. The authorities
charged him as a civilian, but he did not appear in court and no hearing has
been scheduled.
Shahzad booked a ticket on his way to John F. Kennedy International Airport
and bought it with cash when he got there, officials said. He had boarded the
plane but was taken off before it taxied away.
Investigators had been trying to find Shahzad after determining that he was
the man who bought a Nissan Pathfinder from a Connecticut woman last
month and had parked it just off Broadway on Saturday night packed with
gasoline, propane, fertilizer and fireworks.
Officials said Shahzad had been placed on a no-fly list on Monday afternoon,
but they declined to explain how he had been allowed to board the plane.

By India it was reported as:

Pakistani sleuths investigating the involvement of Faisal Shahzad, a

naturalised American of Pakistani origin, accused by the Federal Bureau of
Investigation (FBI) of planting a car bomb at New York’s Times Square, say
although the case of a well-off Faisal is different from that of Ajmal Kasab, a
poor boy who attacked Mumbai, both represent two ends of a spectrum
of violent jihadis being groomed in Pakistan.

The investigators say Faisal Shahzad’s privileged family background as an

educated, upper class Pakistani, doesn’t go with the profiles of most Muslims
who resort to terrorism after being indoctrinated.

Having a father — air vice marshal (retd) Baharul Haq — who had first served
the Pakistan air force and then the civil aviation authority, a brother — Amir
Shahzad — who is doing well in Canada as a mechanical engineer, a paternal
uncle — major general (retd) Tajul Haq — a former inspector general of the
Frontier Corps, a father-in-law — Mian Iftikhar — who runs a business in
Karachi and a wife — Huma Faisal — who studied in the US and has an
accounting degree, Faisal doesn’t fit the conventional profile of an Islamic
Faisal Shahzad has nothing in common with other Islamist jihadis like Ajmal
Kasab, the lone surviving Mumbai attacker, actually a poor and jobless
Pakistani youth who was recruited by the Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) to carry out
the bloody 26/11 attacks which left 166 people dead.

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Condemned to death by a Mumbai court, Kasab belongs to a family from

Faridkot village in Okara district of Pakistani Punjab and his father used to
make a living by running a snack cart.

Going by Kasab’s confessional statement, the 21-year-old had described his

conversion from an aspiring street criminal to a loyal soldier for the LeT who
was trained at the organisation’s Muzaffarabad headquarters.

He came to the LeT while looking around to buy guns to commit robberies
after quitting a low-paying job at a catering business. The search led him to
several LeT stalls in Rawalpindi.
He confessed that he was largely compelled by hunger and poverty to join
the LeT as the recruiters had promised to pay the families of the 24 jihadis
Rs 1,50,000, each but only after they became martyrs.
But Ajmal, the poor youngster who had decided to join a jihadi organisation
to make money for his family and Faisal, the well-off American citizen of
Pakistani origin, who decided to resort to terrorism to express his anger
against the Americans, actually represent two ends of a spectrum of violent
Islamic militants who are being groomed in Pakistan.

Therefore, highly educated multinational youngsters like Faisal are

increasingly being chosen by the international jihadi mafia as recruits to
strike at the heart of the West.

Iranian media reported as:

Is Faisal Shahzad crazy?

By Justin Raimondo
Amid all the media coverage of the Times Square Fizzler, Faisal Shahzad,
we still know very little about the circumstances surrounding his actions. As
Rachel Maddow helpfully pointed out on MSNBC Wednesday night, all those
leaks about his alleged “links” to the Pakistani Taliban, and other “news”
stories purporting to tell U.S. what he’s told investigators, are unsourced,
often single-sourced, and subject to the agendas of various factions who
want to put their “spin” on the failed attack.
What we do know is this: his father, Baharul Haq, is a retired Pakistan air
force officer, a former top official of the civil aviation agency, and that the
family is “liberal” and secular. He had lived and worked in the U.S. for
years, become a naturalized U.S. citizen, and was employed by Elizabeth
Arden, the cosmetics company, and also by the Affinion Group, based in
Connecticut, as a financial consultant. He bought a house that was later

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foreclosed on, and sent his wife to Pakistan, along with the rest of his
He had no past affiliation with radical groups, and was not unusually
religious, although friends had noticed a change in his behavior over the past
year, a new quietism, a certain reserve. Aside from that, however, there
were no warning signs he was planning anything out of the ordinary. He was,
in short, an ordinary man, but there is one thing that stands out in this little
narrative: he was not very good at terrorism.

This is somebody who left the keys to his apartment in the ignition of the
would-be car bomb, and had to call his landlord to be let into his Connecticut
digs. He spent all of a month planning the attack, and used the wrong kind of
fertilizer for his bomb -- the device could never have gone off. So much for all
that “training” he supposedly received from the Pakistani Taliban. And one
little detail does stand out, amid all the leakage coming out of law
enforcement circles. According to Newsweek, when federal agents boarded
his Emirates flight to Dubai on the runway at JFK airport, Shahzad said:

“I was expecting you. Are you NYPD or FBI?”

There he was, about to get away -- he was belted in his seat, and the plane
was ready to take off -- and yet he tells the feds he was “expecting” them.
There is some speculation as to how he managed to even get on the plane,
given that an alert had already gone out, but the point is that he seemed
relieved he was caught. A New York Times article on the trail followed by
investigators is aptly entitled “A Suspect Leaves Clues At Every Turn.”

Think about it: he was having huge financial difficulties: the couple
reportedly walked away from their foreclosed home in a hurry, leaving a lot
of their possessions scattered over the house. The bank that financed his
home in Shelton, Connecticut, was suing him. He left his job at Affinion -- he
wasn’t fired, he simply quit. Forget, for a moment, all the speculation about
“links” to the Taliban. The truth of the matter is that he may simply have
gone insane.

If so, then he has a lot in common with many of his fellow Americans, who
also seem to have gone off the deep end these days, especially some of our
most prominent elected officials. How else can we explain the reaction of
some of our more prominent politicians to Shahzad’s crazed act?

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Pakistan’s media reported mostly the ways that could have turned him a

The man who tried to set off a car bomb in Times Square was a
Pakistani. Why is this unsurprising? Because when you hold a
burning match to a gasoline tank, the laws of chemistry demand

As anti-US lava spews from the fiery volcanoes of Pakistan’s private

television channels and newspapers, a collective psychosis grips the
country’s youth. Murderous intent follows with the conviction that the US is
responsible for all ills, both in Pakistan and the world of Islam.

Faisal Shahzad, with designer sunglasses and an MBA degree from the
University of Bridgeport, acquired that murderous intent. Living his formative
years in Pakistan, he typifies the young Pakistani who grew up in the shadow
of Ziaul Haq’s hate-based education curriculum. The son of a retired air vice-
marshal, life was easy as was getting US citizenship subsequently. But at
some point the toxic schooling and media tutoring must have kicked in.

There was guilt as he saw pictures of Gaza’s dead children and related them
to US support for Israel. Internet browsing or, perhaps, the local mosque
steered him towards the idea of an Islamic caliphate. This solution to the
world’s problems would require, of course, the US to be destroyed. Hence
Shahzad’s self-confessed trip to Waziristan.

Ideas considered extreme a decade ago are now mainstream. A private

survey carried out by a European embassy based in Islamabad found that
only four per cent of Pakistanis polled speak well of America; 96 per cent

Although Pakistan and the US are formal allies, in the public perception the
US has ousted India as Pakistan’s number one enemy. Remarkably, anti-US
sentiment rises in proportion to aid received. Say a good word about the US,
and you are labelled as its agent. From what TV anchors had to say about it,
Kerry-Lugar’s $7.5bn may well have been money that the US wants to steal
from Pakistan rather than give to it.

Pakistan is not the only country where America is unpopular. In pursuit of its
self-interest, the US has waged illegal wars, bribed, bullied and overthrown

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governments, supported tyrants and undermined movements for progressive

change. Paradoxically America is disliked more in Pakistan than in countries
which have born the direct brunt of its attacks — Cuba, Vietnam, Iraq and
Afghanistan. Why?

Drone strikes are a common but false explanation. Foreign Minister Shah
Mehmood Qureshi implicitly justifies the Times Square bombing as retaliation
but this does not bear up. Drone attacks have killed some innocents but they
have devastated militant operations in Waziristan while causing far less
collateral damage than Pakistan Army operations.

On the other hand, the cities of Hanoi and Haiphong were carpet-bombed by
B-52 bombers and Vietnam’s jungles were defoliated with Agent Orange. Yet,
Vietnam never developed visceral feelings like those in Pakistan.

Finding truer reasons requires deeper digging. In part, Pakistan displays the
resentment of a client state for its paymaster. US-Pakistan relations are
transactional today but the master-client relationship is older. Indeed,
Pakistan chose this path because confronting India over Kashmir demanded
big defence budgets. In the 1960s, Pakistan entered into the Seato and
Cento military pacts, and was proud to be called ‘America’s most allied ally’.
The Pakistan Army became the most powerful, well-equipped and well-
organised institution in the country. This also put Pakistan on the external

Passing the buck is equally fundamental to Pakistan’s anti-Americanism. It is

in human nature to blame others for one’s own failures. Pakistan has long
teetered between being a failed state and a failing state. The rich won’t pay
taxes? Little electricity? Contaminated drinking water? Kashmir unsolved?
Blame it on the Americans. This phenomenon exists elsewhere too. For
example, one saw Hamid Karzai threatening to join the Taliban and lashing
out against Americans because they (probably correctly) suggested he
committed electoral fraud.

Tragically for Pakistan, anti-Americanism plays squarely into the hands of

Islamic militants. They vigorously promote the notion of an Islam-West war
when, in fact, they actually wage armed struggle to remake society. They will
keep fighting this war even if America were to miraculously evaporate.
Created by poverty, a war culture and the macabre manipulations of

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Pakistan’s intelligence services, they seek a total transformation of society.

This means eliminating music, art, entertainment and all manifestations of
modernity. Side goals include chasing away the few surviving native
Christians, Sikhs and Hindus.

At a time when the country needs clarity of thought to successfully fight

extremism, simple bipolar explanations are inadequate. The moralistic
question ‘Is America good or bad?’ is futile.

There is little doubt that the US has committed acts of aggression, as in Iraq,
and maintains the world’s largest military machine. We know that it will
make a deal with the Taliban if perceived to be in its self-interest — even if
that means abandoning the Afghans to bloodthirsty fanatics. Yet, it would be
wrong to scorn the humanitarian impulse behind US assistance in times of
desperation. Shall we write off massive US assistance to Pakistan at the time
of the earthquake of 2005? Or to tsunami-affected countries in 2004?

In truth, the US is no more selfish or altruistic than any other country. And it
treats its Muslim citizens infinitely better than we treat non-Muslims in

Instead of pronouncing moral judgments on everything and anything, we

Pakistanis need to reaffirm what is truly important for our people: peace,
economic justice, good governance, rule of law, accountability of rulers,
women’s rights and rationality in human affairs. Washington must be
resisted, but only when it seeks to drag Pakistan away from these goals.
More frenzied anti-Americanism will produce more Faisal Shahzads.

Another article from Dawn Newspaper reported:

“Pakistanis are afraid. When they see on television, 'Pakistani terrorist in

Times Square,' they just want to hide their face,” Hussain said at a brightly lit
Pakistani restaurant in suburban Washington.
Hussain, who publishes a local Urdu-language newspaper, said he spoke with
his school-age children after hearing that a Pakistani-American, Faisal
Shahzad, was arrested in Saturday's plot to sow destruction in one of New
York's busiest intersections.
Hussain immigrated to the United States in 2003 and said his children had
once even asked if they could change their names due to the image of their
homeland in the wake of the September 11, 2001 attacks.

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But for many Pakistani-Americans, the bomb plot instilled not so much fear
but embarrassment. The community has been proud of its prosperity in this
nation of immigrants and has come under far less scrutiny than Pakistani
“Back in the 1960s, Pakistanis were always held in great esteem. They were
seen as making very valuable contributions to America. That deteriorated
after September 11,” commented Arshad Qureshi, a 70-year-old actuary
after saying his evening prayers at a neatly manicured Maryland mosque.
Qureshi refused to criticise Americans who voice suspicions about Pakistan.
“If you go to the root causes, I would blame ourselves,” he said.
Ashraf Qazi, chairman of the Council on Pakistan Relations, an advocacy
group for Pakistani-Americans, believed that Americans understood that only
a few terrorism suspects have emerged from a community estimated at
more than half a million.
“I don't think the public in general believes in guilt by association,” Qazi said
by telephone from Michigan, where he runs a health care company.
“You're really at a loss for words when you look at this situation,” he said. “I
think this also shows the need for us to be more vigilant.”
Shahzad, who became a US citizen a little over a year ago, had achieved
undergraduate and business degrees in the United States and married a
fellow Pakistani-American.
But the 30-year-old was also saddled with debt and his home reportedly
went into foreclosure as the US economy entered a tailspin over the housing
debt bubble.
Shahzad was not the first Pakistani-American to come under the scanner of
US authorities. But there has been significantly less attention to extremism
among Pakistani-Americans than among the much larger community of
Pakistani British
In 2005, home-grown extremists bombed three underground trains and a bus
in London, killing 52 people.
While some Americans say the US model does a better job at integration,
Pakistani immigration to the United States and Britain has followed different
Pakistani immigrants to the United States are more recent and more
dispersed. Unlike in Britain, the United States has few monolithically

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Pakistani neighbourhoods except arguably for a few small areas in New York,
Chicago and Houston.
“There isn't the ghettoisation, where you have this concentration of angry
people that just amplifies everyone else's anger,” said Adil Najam, a
professor at Boston University who is researching the Pakistani diaspora.
Najam found that Pakistani-Americans are also generally prosperous. While
the community ranges from business executives and doctors to cab drivers
and gas station attendants, fewer Pakistani-Americans are jobless altogether.
Najam said this was the work of US visa laws which required immigrants to
be employable. Many Pakistanis went to Britain after being granted asylum,
allowing entire village communities to transplant their social structures.
But Najam warned of risks for younger Pakistani-Americans, saying that in
Britain it was not the original immigrants but their descendants who suffered
the most acute alienation.
“What I worry about is that you have a generation of Muslims, and not just
Pakistanis, who because of September 11 could be developing these feelings
that their society is not really theirs,” Najam said.
“If we allow them to be alienated, it would not be good for anyone.”
The News reported: : In his home village in Pakistan, shocked
residents remember Faisal Shahzad as a modern father of two from
a good family who showed no hatred of America or sympathy with
radical Islam.
The 30-year-old naturalised American spent much of the last decade in the
United States, where he has been charged on five counts of terrorism,
including attempted use of a “weapon of mass destruction” to kill people in
New York.
Villagers say the son of a retired air force officer grew up in a comfortable
and respected middle-class family, was privately educated and went to
university with other sons of the elite in the Pakistani city of Peshawar.
US media reports say Shahzad had worked as a financial analyst in
Connecticut, where he lived before his house was repossessed last year
because of debt problems.
In the 1980s, when Shahzad was a child, Peshawar was a staging post for the
mujahideen who fought against the Soviets in Afghanistan, a place
frequented by Osama bin Laden and swollen by a morass of two million
Afghan refugees.

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But villagers could give no clues as to why the fresh-faced lightly bearded
man allegedly drove a Nissan SUV crammed with a large, but malfunctioning
bomb into Times Square, nor whether he acted in concert with Islamist
“We were shocked, why did he do this?” said resident Aziz Khan after news
spread like wildfire through Mohib Banda, about 25 kilometres from
Peshawar, where Shahzad was brought up in an upscale neighbourhood.
“Our village is very liberal. We fear it will be targeted now by security forces.
Why have you come here, why don't you go to Peshawar,” he said.
It is in the teeming city of 2.5 million people on the threshold of Pakistan's
tribal badlands, where according to US authorities, Shahzad underwent bomb
making training in one of the most dangerous regions on Earth.
The dusty streets of Mohib Banda, set in fields where threshers were
harvesting wheat, are a few kilometres from the Grand Trunk Road that links
the capital Islamabad to Pakistan's dangerous north.
The house, which residents say belongs to Shahzad's father and is inhabited
by a cousin working for a Pakistani telecoms company and his teacher wife,
stands behind a large old-style wooden gate, locked from the outside.
Security officials standing watch in the village confirmed that Shahzad came
originally from Mohib Banda.
Residents say Shahzad's father, Baharul Haq, a retired air vice marshal in the
Pakistan Air Force, has since settled on hundreds of acres of farmland in
Dera Ismail Khan, close to the tribal belt.
One man who spoke to AFP by telephone claimed he was a relative and a
lawyer but none of Shahzad's close family members were immediately
“It looks like some conspiracy to me,” said the man, Kifayat Ali.
“They have no relations with any militant group or any jihadi organisation.
They don't even have any relations with a political party.”
Faiz Ahmed, who told AFP he was a farmer with a transport business on the
side, and was one of dozens who gathered as a media frenzy descended on
the village, echoed Ali's comments.
“They are very nice, simple and pious people,” said Ahmad, adding that
Shahzad married a Pakistani girl and has two young children.

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He described Shahzad, who was made a US citizen last year and told US
immigration he had visited his parents in Pakistan when investigators
suspect he underwent militant training, as a “liberal-looking young man”.
US media reports say he first went to the United States on a student visa in
1998, graduating from the University of Bridgeport with a computer science
degree in 2000 and an MBA in 2005.
“He was clean shaven here but I now see a change. He has grown beard in
the United States,” said Ahmad, the 50-year-old former mayor of Mohib
“Shahzad was a modern boy...he spent most of his life with his father who
had a house in Peshawar,” he said, adding that Shahzad was in the village a
few months ago for a family wedding.
With nearly 10,000 residents, Mohib Banda has no religious background and
has returned candidates from secular parties, including the Pakistan People's
Party of the first woman premier of a Muslim country, the late Benazir
Now a 10-page criminal complaint accuses Shahzad of attempting to use a
weapon of mass destruction, attempting to kill people through international
terrorism, carrying a destructive device, transporting explosives and
attempting to destroy a building.
If convicted, he could be sentenced to life in prison.

Western media:

In New York times:

Faisal Shahzad was trained by the militant group in the Mohmand region and
received $15,000 to carry out the New York attack, officials say.

Times Square bomber received several days of training in Pakistan's

Mohmand region and roughly $15,000 from the Pakistani Taliban to finance
the attack, according to U.S. officials briefed on the case.

It appears likely that Faisal Shahzad, the Pakistani American accused of

leaving a vehicle loaded with fertilizer and propane tanks in Times Square on
May 1, came up with the idea of the car bomb himself, one official said.
Shahzad then apparently persuaded the militant group to give him

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assistance when he traveled to Pakistan's border region in 2009 or early

2010, they said.

Shahzad has told investigators that he met with Hakimullah Mahsud, the
leader of the Pakistani Taliban, before returning to the United States to carry
out the attempted bombing, two senior officials said. His claim has been
repeated by at least one other source a suspect arrested in Pakistan with ties
to the militant group, the officials said.

But U.S. intelligence agencies are still attempting to corroborate that a

meeting occurred between Shahzad and Mahsud.

Officials have been able to corroborate that part of Shahzad's story, one U.S.
official said. But investigators are still trying to figure out why he went to
Mohmand, which is several hundred miles north of the Pakistani Taliban
stronghold in North Waziristan.

Investigators have been able to develop a better understanding of the

financial support Shahzad received, with the arrest in recent days of three
people two in Boston and one in Maine who may have been involved in the
transfer of the funds from Pakistan, the officials said. It does not appear
likely that they were aware of the purpose of the money transfers.

Telegraph UK reported his personality as:

"He was quiet. He would wear all black and jog at night. He said he didn't like
the sunlight," said Brenda Thurman, who lived next door.
The family often wore traditional Muslim dress and entertained friends in the
back garden at weekends. Mr Shahzad spent a lot of time on the computer.
A few weeks after they left their home last July, telling neighbours they were
moving to Missouri, the lender foreclosed on the property.
According to his CV, he likes to work on computers, play sport and “talk to
people from different backgrounds”.
He worked for a time for a temping agency that supplied accountants as well
as in an unknown role at the cosmetics company Elizabeth Arden in 2001.


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There are many reasons why an educated person from a reasonable family
becomes the famous terrorist of the day. People who make such a person
involved in such activities have become skilled in it. Extremism is on both
sides actually. One as we see is the religious side and other is the extensive
modernism and reaction of the endless suppression that people face and
respond violently. This reaction can be in many forms and ways.

Although Pakistan and the US are formal allies, in the public perception the
US has ousted India as Pakistan’s number one enemy. Remarkably, anti-US
sentiment rises in proportion to aid received. Say a good word about the US,
and you are labelled as its agent. From what TV anchors had to say about it,
Kerry-Lugar’s $7.5bn may well have been money that the US wants to steal
from Pakistan rather than give to it. Pakistan is not the only country where
America is unpopular. In pursuit of its self-interest, the US has waged illegal
wars, bribed, bullied and overthrown governments, supported tyrants and
undermined movements for progressive change.

This guy that we studied as a case in our presentation had no past

affiliation with radical groups, and was not unusually religious, although
friends had noticed a change in his behavior over the past year, a new
quietism, a certain reserve. Aside from that, however, there were no
warning signs he was planning anything out of the ordinary. He was, in
short, an ordinary man, but there is one thing that stands out in this little
narrative: he was not very good at terrorism.
The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, even as it brought in profits,
deepened the dependence. Paid by the US to create the anti-Soviet jihadist
apparatus, Pakistan is now being paid again to fight that war’s blowback.
Pakistan then entered George W. Bush’s war on terror to enhance America’s
security — a fact that further hurt its self-esteem. It is a separate matter that
Pakistan fights that very war for its own survival and must call upon its army
to protect the population from throat-slitting fanatics.

So no matter how drastically they pull the trigger but they have to miss
bundles of radicals around the target. The giant extremists they have made
and grown by themselves have to be uprooted by many ways. This has to
include psychological and economical ways to make extremist moderate.
Less their hatred for other religion and stop blasphemy internationally. There
has to be equality for all religion and citizens so that they could feel
similarity in way of treatment they get from the world community.

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Syed Nauman MEDIA & SOCIETY Reasons for Terrorism

Reasons for terrorism

Terrorism in the world

Terrorism has emerged as the most pressing concern of governments, and

after 9/11, the sole superpower has launched a war against terror, in which
those who do not support it are deemed to be against it. A careful analysis of
the causes of terrorism would lead to the conclusion that it is the state
terrorism launched by the superpower that has given birth to terrorism at
popular level.

The doctrine of pre-emption, which the Bush administration had adopted,

creates a system under which the US, that bore the brunt of the terrorist
attack of 9/11, has the right to use its awesome force against any state or
organization that may be suspected of having plans to use terrorist methods
against it. The rationale is that having access to overwhelming force, the US
would not wait to be attacked and subjected to damage of catastrophic
proportions, but would act in a preemptive manner to destroy the weapons
of mass destruction prepared against it, and to annihilate those governments
involved in drawing up such plans.

Present evaluations link the phenomenon to militant Islam, some elements of

whose followers seek to establish a theocratic Islamic state by attacking and
undermining the existing order that is dominated by the West.

Two observations need to be made on this theory. Firstly, Islam, whose name
means "religion of peace", does not preach violence, but seeks to create a
harmonious society, in which the rights of all, Muslims and non-Muslims alike
are protected. Secondly, terrorism has existed over the centuries, and was
practiced by the Jews in Palestine in the period immediately after the Second
World War, while a terrorist act by a Christian triggered the First World War.

The current tendency to view the war against terrorism as a conflict between
civilizations distorts realities to justify what is seen as a neo-imperialist drive
to dominate the Islamic world.
Religious extremism does exist, among certain groups within all religions.

In Pakistan, various religious sects and schools of thought emerged over

differing interpretations of the Islamic value system that tended to
encourage sectarian violence.

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Some of the "jihadist" thinking was nurtured in a small number of religious

schools, but the main impulses to encourage militancy came from abroad.

The Iranian revolution of 1979, which overthrew the Shah, tended in its early
years to encourage Shia communities to assert themselves, through militias
and youth movements. This produced a reaction among the Sunni hard-liners
who launched their own militia, the Sipah-i-Sahaba. The tussle in the
Khomeini period between Iran and Saudi Arabia affected
Pakistan in the shape of religious extremism and militancy that resulted in a
crisis of law and order, owing to frequent clashes between the religious

The other impulse for militancy came from the United States, which sought
to promote the spirit of religious fervour in the Afghan jihad against the
Soviet occupation of Afghanistan in late 1979. The CIA assembled thousands
of Islamic militants from nearly 20 Islamic countries.
The services of Osama bin Laden were utilized and the American media
praised his role in building up resistance against the Soviet forces. The US
also provided liberal funds to support madressahs that were training Afghan
militants. These militants later became the nucleus for the Taliban. All this
was done to inflict the maximum damage on America's cold war rival.

Once the cold war was over, following the Soviet defeat in Afghanistan to
which the Muslim religious sentiment contributed hugely, the United States
made a U-turn in its perceptions, and identified Islam as the successor threat
to communism. Pakistan was subjected to sanctions, and the jihadist
movements that were utilized in Afghanistan were now described as
containing extremists and enemies of western civilization. However, the
boost that madressahs, and Islamic militants had received, could not be
switched off.

In fact, the indigenous movement that was launched by the Kashmiris in

1989, to which India responded with ruthless repression, now aroused
militancy in support of the Muslim freedom fighters in Indian-held Kashmir.
Some of the foreign mujahideen, who had fought in Afghanistan, also turned
their attention to this theatre.

Within Pakistan, militancy in support of the oppressed people of Kashmir

gained momentum, and several new organizations were established, based

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largely on Kashmiris living in Pakistan and Azad Kashmir. The movement in

Kashmir was considered legitimate because the right of the Kashmiris to self-
determination had been recognized in United Nations resolutions.

Besides the historical facts relating to South Asia, the roots of terrorism lie in
injustice, whether political or economic. When the legitimate rights of people
are violated, and peaceful avenues for redressing their situation are blocked,
the affected groups may turn, as a last resort, to terrorism.

Perhaps the most blatant injustice has been committed against the
Palestinian Arabs, whose homeland has been converted into a Jewish
national home, through the backing of Britain and the United States. Though
the Jews suffered from victimization and genocide in Nazi Germany during
the Second World War, they have resorted to similar tactics against the
Arabs in Palestine, most of whom have become refugees, and whose lands
continue to be expropriated by Israel, with the connivance of the US. Such is
the state of despair, and revulsion over Israeli tactics that the Palestinians
have turned to terror. They have accepted a series of proposals that have
progressively eroded their position; Israel flouts them after accepting them
with US backing.

Since the events of 9/11, as the US has relied on pre-emption on the basis of
overwhelming force, and has shown scant regard for human life or legitimate
concerns in Islamic countries, the militant groups have risen up even in
places where terrorism did not exist, such as Iraq. The most regrettable
aspect of this situation is that it projects a wrong image of Islam.

Though the responsibility for defeating or overcoming terrorism has been

assumed mainly by the United States, since it was the target of the 9/11
attack, the terrorist outrage was related to its unqualified support to Israel.
As the sole superpower, it has a primary responsibility for safeguarding
peace and stability in the world. However, the manner in which it is
performing this role has not only earned it unpopularity on account of its
seeming indifference to human rights, but has produced a terrorist reaction
in the countries it has occupied.

Terrorism in Pakistan

In the world wide view, there can be several causes of terrorism: political
oppression, cultural domination, economic exploitation, ethnic

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discrimination, and religious persecution. In Pakistan, it is primarily due to

religious and economic factors. The religion became the first trigger the
terrorism when the concept of jihad is exploited.

Pakistan has suffered from the killing of noncombatants by both state and
non-state actors with the latter group often based both inside and outside
the present-day country. There was massive loss of non-combatant life
during partition of British India and creation of Pakistan. Strife between Shia
and Sunni Muslims and persecution of Ahmediyyas occurred as early as the

Causes. There are the many causal factors contributing to terrorism in

Pakistan such as sectarian/religious violence, the active support of the
Pakistani state in nurturing terrorist proxies for perceived strategic ends.
After imposition of Martial Law in 1956 Pakistan's political situation suddenly
changed and entered into dictator type of national behavior at different
levels either civil servants, Army (the most involved people), political forces
and British Indian Land Lords they never considered Pakistan as a
independent state they are still thinking like a slaves of Britishers.
Other causes, such as political rivalry and business disputes, also take their
toll. It is estimated that more than 4,000 people have died in Pakistan in the
past 25 years due to sectarian strife.

Not only Pakistan but the whole world is facing the problems of prevailing
terrorist activities in one or some other form. These activities and attacks are
prevailing like cancer in the whole world. In Pakistan, some attribute
terrorism and these terrorist activities to the political instability, economic
conditions, and standard of lives of the masses. Others attribute it to the
religious extremism of portion of the masses of Pakistan. There is another
school of thought that says that the injustices done by world super powers
towards the third world countries and Muslim countries have led the world to
this situation and yet there is one another school of thought that attributes
the current terrorism activities and the blast and suicide attacks everywhere
in the world as the game of political gains among the super powers of the
world. Some others term this chaos as clash of civilization between west and

Whatever may be the reason we have to unite to eliminate this cancer from
our beloved country and to make it a model of peace and prosperity for the
nations of the world.

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The major causes of Terrorism in Pakistan are:

The technology is another contributing factor in the spread of terrorism in
Pakistan. Hi tech and cheap technology is easily available. Hiring of
terrorists, transfer of funds, communication is done by the use of information
communication technology (ICTs). Technological based weapons are easily
accessible given the lack of strong legislation to control arms trading. With
the access to the Internet makes it possible for anyone to have the know-
how of building bombs and executing attacks.
Another major form of terrorist threat facing Pakistan emanates from the
sectarian terrorism. Since long, Pakistan has been a victim of the violence by
sectarian motives, the recent years have witnessed a high rise in both the
frequency and lethality of the sectarian violence. Domestic terrorism in
Pakistan, much of it associated with Islamist sectarianism, has become an
increasingly serious problem affecting major Pakistan’s cities. Sectarian
terrorism in Pakistan has been an off shoot of some historical and some
regional rivalries.

There are four different schools of thought in Muslims of Pakistan i.e. Brailvi,
Deobandi, Ahle Hadith and Shias. The first three are commonly grouped as
Sunni but their thinking and its expressions are wide apart. The differences
between Sunni and Shia thinking and intra Sunni faction have been historical
but they have generally co-existed peacefully. The prolonged Iraq-Iran war
and then post Afghan Jehad rivalries between Northern Alliance, pre-
dominantly Shia and orthodox Sunni backed by Saudi Arabia and Pakistan,
had adverse impact on sectarian harmony in Pakistan. The main source of
recruitment for Jihad in Afghanistan had been Deo Bund and Ahle Hadith
madrasas which got undue patronage from Zia govt. and finances from Saudi
Arabia and some international agencies. These two groups aligned
themselves with anti Shia forces in Afghanistan in late 1980s, and all along in
1990s. The battle in Afghanistan raged in the towns of Pakistan as well when
there was pointless and ruthless killings of Shia’s and then by Shias in large
number. The country virtually had a blood bath on this account during the
period 1985-1990.

Sectarian terrorism has affected all parts of the country in varying degrees at
different points in time. The northern areas and southern Punjab were the
worst sufferers with sporadic strikes in major urban centers as well. The

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decade of 1990s has been the worst on this account. It did pose a serious
threat to the internal security of the country but it has lost its sting due to
two major reasons; one the people of Pakistan refused to get divided on
sectarian lines and the fissure remained restricted to the fanatics and the
extremists with the vast majority remaining detached, unsympathetic and
rather antagonist to this approach.

Secondly, the emergence of a far grave phenomenon of Jihadi terrorism

overshadowed rather watering down the sectarian terrorism. Taking it as a
national security concern the government of Pakistan need to overcome and
address the genuine grievances of these sectarian groups. The groups
involved in terrorist activities should be banned by the government, other
groups to be brought into dialogue with government. It is the emergence of
Jehadi terrorism, which is posing a real threat to the national security of

The epicenter of Jihadi terrorism is Afghanistan. Initially, it was directed

towards infidels and occupation forces but gradually it had to turn towards
Pakistan, because of its alliance with the West in the War on Terrorism. The
Jihad of 1980s, against the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan degenerated
first into in fighting on ethnic lines and ethnic terrorism and then to sectarian
terrorism with the arrival of Taliban on the scene. The Taliban took upon
themselves the so called divine duty of enforcing Islamic order with the force
of arms. Their narrow, myopic
and ultra orthodox view of Islam is a force of regression and decadence.
When the resistance moment against American occupation of Afghanistan
started engulfing Pakistan also, the perpetrators of Jihadi terrorism were out
to chastise the Muslims of Pakistan.

The march of Jihadi terrorism towards Pakistan has refueled the sectarian
terrorism as well and we have been witnessing the most lethal combination
of these two evil forces. The scene in Pakistan resembled a jungle in which
everyone was fighting at times everyone else. The terrorists were making
money by drug trafficking and gun running, so they were heavily armed.

Their operations endangered the very existence of the state, and no one put
an estimate even remotely how many people were killed in this fighting.
Military means cannot be the only solution to eradicate terrorism as causes
of terrorism can be social, political and economic. The roots of Jihadi
terrorism can also be found in social, economic and political factors.

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The Jihadi terrorism and its combination is threatening the national security
of Pakistan on both the external and internal fronts. The acquisition of
nuclear war heads by India and Pakistan threatened to make their resolved
conflict over Kashmir go ballistic. On the external front the vital freedom
movement in Kashmir has been undermined. Though the freedom movement
in Kashmir is essentially different from the Jihadi terrorism as it is against the
occupation forces of India and not to enforce a particular doctrine, but
Indians have got a golden chance to malign it by drawing analogies with the
Jehadi terrorism. Resultantly forcing Pakistan to be more flexible than it is
due on the issue of Kashmir.
The increased danger of sectarian motivated acts of violence, have gained in
power and influence over the recent past. External as well as internal
influences have impacted the sectarian issues and have served to further
intensify the magnitude and seriousness of the problem. Sectarian violence,
therefore, was an extremely rare and unheard of phenomenon in Pakistan
with sectarian disputes being very localized and confined rather than being
frequent and widespread.
Ethnic threat:
Pakistan had the first taste of ethnicity in the very early period of its being
when the whole eastern wing agitated on the question of one national
language – Urdu. The discontent established itself into a political movement
and led ultimately to the unfortunate events of 1971 resulting in
dismemberment of the state.

The political struggle organized on ethnic lines gave a harrowing display of

ethnic terrorism when militant organization like Mukti Bahni started
eliminating West Pakistanis and specially the Punjabis.

In the recent history of ‘New’ Pakistan, ethnicity emerged again in the wake
of language riots. This time in the province of Sindh where Urdu speaking
urbanites of Karachi and Hyderabad clashed with native Sindhis. The quest of
Mohajirs – migrants in the wake of partition – for a parallel political identity
as the fifth sub nationality along with the native Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtuns
and Balochs lead to large scale bloodshed and terrorist activities.

The ethnic terrorism took hold of major urban cities for nearly a decade in
late 80s and 90s but it has subsided for the time being partly due to
rejuvenated economic activity and mainstreaming of the ethnic groups but

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mostly due to political stability giving enough economic and political space
to the major players. Sub nationalists who like to call themselves nationalists
have been fighting for a proper identity and recognition within the
federation. Their main fears and apprehensions emanate from the
predominant role of Punjab in military and civil bureaucracy. They are
frustrated by the prospects of facing permanently the majority of one
province. They feel threatened about their value system traditions and
culture. They also agitate against the use of their resources by other regions
at cheaper costs. The poverty around them frustrates them and the
advantaged amongst them successfully point their fingers to the other
provinces to turn their gaze that way.

The centre and its power corridor on the other hand take this insistence on
rights as a kind of revolt against the centre and the rejection of federation.
These strained relations have led the extremists amongst the
nationalists/sub nationalists to take up arm against the centre quite regularly
and sometimes against the state itself. The sub nationalist’s terrorism has
been emerging intermittently since military operations in Pakistan in 1960s.
Governments of the day have been pointing at the external backing of both
these types of terrorism.
The recruitment of the terrorists is very alarming and somewhat growing
fast. Some terrorists are less than 20 years of age. These madrassahs are a
training ground for the future terrorists, which train terrorists under the
cover of teaching Islamic education for the poor.
Poverty and family pressure:
Most of the sectarian terrorists in Pakistan obtained their military training
abroad (in Afghanistan) while the other sectarian militants were all trained
within Pakistan. The effectiveness of the propaganda and training material is
not that strong if there is no will r motivation. They use the vulnerability of
the youth to become at least fearless and without any remorse at their acts.
Moreover, it is determined through series of studies that family background
also played a role in the recruitment of the militant sectarian groups. There’s
only a little percent of contribution that came from the poor families up to
the middle class.
Political Instability:
Pakistan is going towards political instability. The killing of Benazir Bhutto in
a shooting-cum-bomb blast incident at Liaqat Bagh Rawalpindi is a symbol of

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political instability. The political environment in Pakistan has become more

miserable after Zardari’s government.
The country’s politics has long always been controlled by two main parties.
First Pakistan People’s party (PPP) led by Asif Ali Zardari and second,
Pakistan Muslim League Nawaz group (PML-N) led by Mian Nawaz Sharif.
Politics in our country has always revolved among two main parties PPP and
PML-N. No party is sincere with Pakistan.
Economic Conditions:
The exchange rates are badly affected because of political instability and
expectations about the new ruling party. Political instability can have a
negative damaging impression on a nation’s economy.
Internal, regional and International political conditions and happenings can
deeply affect on currency market.
As per economic conditions fiscal year 2009, value of Pakistani rupee has
reduced. It has been indicated that Pakistan economic conditions are
suffered. There was a huge hit during October 2007 to October 2008 to the
economy as there was 25 percent inflation and from internal reserve about
10 billion dollars had to be taken off.

Pakistan economic conditions are also considerable by participation of

various areas to GDP, by different areas of national economy. In financial
year 2009 agricultural sector contributed 20.4 percent, even though 26.6
percent came from industrial sector. Service sector presented 53 percent to
GDP in 2009.

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Standards Of Living:
The standard of living of a country is a measure of economic prosperity. It
usually refers to the accessibility of scarce services, generally calculated by
Per Capita income or Per Capita destruction.
A recent poll arranged by Gallup Pakistan shows that more than two thirds of
Pakistani’s (78percent) wanted good education, good standard of living and
good job. These are the most important thing for their children’s future.
The remaining population desired living in a terrorism-free country (9
percent), getting religious education (8 percent) and good health (5 percent),
to be the most necessary. This poll was arranged by Gallup pakistan
affiliated with Gallup International Association during July 2009.

Religious Extremism and Islamic militancy:

In Pakistan, the combination of Islam and State has been a matter of great
controversy. Presently, Pakistan is facing religious extremism and its horrible
results. This factor has not only aroused its internal but also its external
security. The extremists have become militants involved in terrorist attacks
and large number of suicide attacks resulting in the killings of innocent
Religious extremism is a serious problem of Pakistan. The most important
way to fight against religious extremism is by showing the importance of
respect for other religious customs and the benefits to society of growing a
culture of freedom.

Pakistan has become a hot bed of various militant organizations, resorting to

violence in the name of religion. Since the Afghan jihad against the Soviet
Union, the militant Islamic organizations have flourished and have been
supported by the governments in Pakistan. Therefore their growth was not
controlled. One of the most major damages of the 1980s
United States – Afghan War was the support provided to anti modern,
extremist and intolerant forces of this region. To defeat the Soviet, the US
and Pakistan government provided official support to militant and
fundamentalist Islamic groups, which eventually led to religious extremism
and sectarianism. This religious radicalism spread out in the other parts of
the world also. Those forces became influential which rejected tolerance and
secularism. With the changed regional and global environment, Pakistan
drastically needs to change its approach towards the militant organizations.

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Sponsoring terrorism is like riding a tiger. Pakistan has to pay a heavy price
for its support for Taliban. The country continues to be caught in a very
complex web of terrorist activity, with greater radicalization of extremists
groups. The bases of this militant challenge operates in the Tribal areas of
west of Pakistan and North West Frontier Province and Federally
Administered Tribal Area (FATA).

These areas mostly comprise of the Pushtuns and ethnic groups which are
conservative, have close religious and tribal links with Pushtoon in
Afghanistan and anti western.

The Pushtun tribal areas have long been a heaven for displaced Afghans and
refugees. The hilly and difficult terrain of this region has turned out to be a
heaven for militant organizations both foreign and national. The foreign
militants over here mainly are Uzbek, Chechens and Pushtun Afghanis.

Ethno Nationalist Groups:

In Pakistan, minority and separatist movements are common. In the south

west of
Pakistan is the province of Balochistan which is mostly a tribal area, over
there, intermittent gorilla war has been a feature since last two decades.
This is another major form of terrorist threat to Pakistan which is of the
separatist nature. The largest but the most underdeveloped area of
Balochistan currently is the centre of this threat. It is the ethno-nationalist
conflict between the government and the separatists for long that these
separatists comprising of tribal militants have been indulged in violent acts
for more political and economic authority in Balochistan. In Balochistan the
various insurgents have adopted various violent tactics to sabotage the
system. This problem if not resolved in time has the potential to challenge
the national integrity of the state.

Threat of creating a state within a state:

Another new form of terrorism which has started to challenge the state is the
takeover by the students, of religious seminaries in the capital city
Islamabad of a children’s library. The students and administration of
madrasa lately took over law in their hands abducting women, police men
and Chinese nationals on various charges thus creating state within the

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state. This brought great embarrassment to the government at both national

and international level.

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Indian role:

While other countries did not have any ill will against Pakistan, India has
been a long time sponsor of separatist movements in the country. Indian
funding of Sindhi and Pashtun separatists has been an open secret in
India, with which Pakistan has fought three wars over the issue of Kashmir, is
probably among the most active external elements to create violence and
terror in Pakistan. Knowing that the country supports the Kashmiris'
resurgence, India has supported and financed terrorist attacks in Pakistan,
sometimes burning train stations, other times providing arms in ethnic
conflicts. Or it engages in random shootings through agent provocateurs or
supports criminal elements.

Sometimes it seems that Pakistanis and Indian agencies settle scores

between themselves through terrorist activities. In the early 1980s, seven
Pakistani train stations in Sindh were burned down. But the interesting thing
was that those processions were far away from the train stations. Some
Indian agents were arrested and then there was silence in the media until
suddenly one day 27 Indian train stations in the state of Punjab were burned
down. That was also followed by a curious silence in the Indian media about
who did it.

Russian factor:

Remember the "Hathora" (hammer) groups of the 1980s? These terrorists

would attack innocent civilians as they slept, crushing their heads with
hammers. After a series of these terrifying incidents, law enforcement
discovered that the vicious culprits were from the Soviet bloc, teaching a
lesson to Pakistan for its pro-Afghanistan policy.

Another was the phenomena of shootings in Masjids, now commonly

associated with the Shia-Sunni conflict in Pakistan. Curiously, this method of
terrorism was not a response to particular grievances. Rather, it was very
obviously an attempt to ignite violence, hatred and dissension between
groups that had a potential for conflict.

Foreign diplomats:

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Pakistan needs to strengthen checks on diplomats in the country by not

allowing them to use their position to foment internal destruction and
dissension. Pakistan must take a strong stand in ensuring that they do not go
beyond promoting legitimate public relations for their countries by
cultivating a sectarian clientele, be it ethnic or religious. Because of the
Kashmir issue, it is unlikely that India will reduce its support to dissent and
subversion in Pakistan any time soon. Therefore, it is important for Pakistan
to enhance its counter-intelligence operations within the country to reduce
the subversive support to terrorism within its borders.

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The real solution to the problem of terrorism, whether in Palestine or

Kashmir, is to respect the resolutions of the UN, which the great powers
implement in other cases where it suits them. Russia is facing a similar
problem in Chechnya where it seeks to perpetuate its hold on an oil-rich
region, without accommodating legitimate demands for autonomy.

To cope successfully with terrorism, the governments of Islamic countries

need to move decisively against groups organized to use force against the
legal authority, including resort to assassinations that may be based on
political or sectarian differences. Not only should such organizations be
banned, but also those involved in terrorist acts must be meted out deterrent
punishment. At risk is peace and stability within the land, as well as the
image of Islam as one of the great religions of the world. The adoption of the
approach based on enlightened moderation, demands that the advocates of
extremism and terrorism must be brought to book, and their influence
eliminated. However, the remedy for the curse of terrorism requires broader
international action to counter the trend towards extremism. Such action
should address the root causes, which is best done by a world body such as
the United Nations.

Both the solution of political problems, and the reform of the economic order
can be best done under the overall direction of the world body, whose
charter has the two aims of ending the scourge of war and of promoting the
economic and social well-being of mankind.

While resort to criminal acts by terrorists must be dealt with by the

governments concerned, with technical or financial assistance where
needed, the long-term solution of terrorism lies in removing injustices from
the world, which would be best coordinated by the UN. However, the
Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) can also play a significant role
in the Islamic world by implementing the Pakistan-sponsored resolution it
adopted unanimously at its 10th summit in Malaysia on adopting
"enlightened moderation" as the guiding principle to promoting progress and
to improving its international image.

Strategies that can be adopted against terrorism:

Objectives of a Comprehensive Strategy:

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1. To make our world safe from terrorist violence.

2. To eliminate the underlying conditions which give rise to terrorism.

3. To strengthen the legal measures to counter terrorism.

4. To promote full international cooperation in all relevant fields to

counter and eliminate terrorism.

5. To strengthen the capacity of the UN to assist states in combating

terrorism and to enhance the coordination of the UN in this regard.

General Principles for the Strategy:

1. The Strategy must seek to counter terrorism in all its forms and

2. It should promote international cooperation, especially through

inclusive, transparent and accountable processes.

3. It should enhance the capacity of Member States to undertake the

operational and other policy measures required to counter and
eliminate terrorism.

4. It should address the underlying causes - political, economic and social

- which give rise to the phenomenon of terrorism.

5. It should promote the implementation of the international conventions

and relevant international law to counter terrorism.

6. It should be consistent with the principles of the UN Charter - ensuring

the sovereignty and sovereign equality of states and right of people to
self determination- and international law, humanitarian law and
universal human rights standards.

7. It should prevent the suppression of legitimate resistance against

foreign occupation or for self-determination under the guise of
cantering terrorism.

8. It should not discriminate against any religion or other group and

should promote tolerance and harmony among religions, cultures and

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9. It should encompass measures aimed at achieving short, medium and

longer-term objectives.

10. It should include measures to promote operational action by and

cooperation among States, measures to promote clear legal norms and
standards, including a legal definition of terrorism; and measures to
address the underlying conditions that give rise to terrorism.

Short-Term Measures

1. Operational Measures

a. Police measures;
b. Intelligence sharing;
c. Financial and monitory controls;
d. Organized crime;
e. Border controls;
f. Building state capacity and expertise in counter-terrorism.

2. Implementation of existing legal conventions and norms including

implementation of:

a. 13 International counter-terrorism conventions and the additional

protocols. (See ‘the United Nations Global Counter-
Terrorism Strategy’ on pg 92 of this report)
b. Security Council resolutions 1267, 1373 and 1540.
c. Streamlining of procedures (e.g. listing and de-listing procedures
of resolution 1267, reporting obligations etc.).

Medium-Term Measures

1. Adoption of improved operational process in above fields.

2. Finalization of legal definition of terrorism.

3. Adoption, by consensus, of a comprehensive convention against


4. Steps to enhance adoption and implementation of measures to prevent

terrorists from acquiring WMD capabilities, including through

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international treaties:

a. Nuclear Weapons (Export Controls, physical Controls and

disarmament measures),
b. Chemical weapons (destruction of stocks, enhanced verification),
c. Biological weapons (adoption of an international BW Verification

5. Initiation of steps to address the conflict situations and political

disputes (which give rise to terrorism or are exploited by terrorists),
especially situations of foreign occupation, suppression of the right of
people to self-determination (e.g. Palestine, Kashmir).

Long-Term Measures

1. Resolution of major outstanding disputes.

2. Implementing of National Strategies to combat and eliminate

extremism e.g. promotion of tolerance, eradication of economic
marginalization and financial integration of societies.

3. Promotion of Religious Tolerance and harmony within and among


4. Dialogue among Religions, Cultures and Civilizations (promotion of

related initiatives: Alliance of Civilizations; Enlightened Moderation

5. Adoption and implementation of global, regional and national

measures to promote socio-economic growth and modernization (as a
mean to preventing and eliminating extremism and terrorist

Institutional Measures

1. Enhancing the capacity of the CTED (Counter-Terrorism Committee

Executive Directorate).
Measures include taking steps to:
• Criminalize the financing of terrorism
• Freeze without delay any funds related to persons involved in acts
of terrorism

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• Deny all forms of financial support for terrorist groups

• Suppress the provision of safe haven, sustenance or support for
• Share information with other governments on any groups practicing
or planning terrorist acts
• Cooperate with other governments in the investigation, detection,
arrest, extradition and prosecution of those involved in such acts;
• Criminalize active and passive assistance for terrorism in domestic
law and bring violators to justice.
1. A UN Secretariat Mechanism for coordination.

2. An international Centre on Counter Terrorism which could promote the

adoption, implementation and monitoring of the short, medium and
long term measures set out in the comprehensive strategy.

3. A General Assembly / intergovernmental oversight and policy


Other measures:

Knowing religion as your own. Islam is a religion of mercy and does not
permit terrorism. In the Quran, God has said:

God does not forbid you from showing kindness and dealing justly
with those who have not fought you about religion and have not
driven you out of your homes. God loves just dealers.

The Prophet Muhammad used to prohibit soldiers from killing women and
children, and he would advise them: {...Do not betray, do not be
excessive, do not kill a newborn child.} And he also said: {Whoever
has killed a person having a treaty with the Muslims shall not smell
the fragrance of Paradise, though its fragrance is found for a span
of forty years.}

Also, the Prophet Muhammad has forbidden punishment with fire.

He once listed murder as the second of the major sins, and he even warned
that on the Day of Judgment, {The first cases to be adjudicated
between people on the Day of Judgment will be those of bloodshed.}

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Muslims are even encouraged to be kind to animals and are forbidden to hurt
them. Once the Prophet Muhammad said: {A woman was punished
because she imprisoned a cat until it died. On account of this, she
was doomed to Hell. While she imprisoned it, she did not give the
cat food or drink, nor did she free it to eat the insects of the earth.}

He also said that a man gave a very thirsty dog a drink, so God forgave his
sins for this action. The Prophet was asked, “Messenger of God, are we
rewarded for kindness towards animals?” He said: {There is a reward for
kindness to every living animal or human.}

Additionally, while taking the life of an animal for food, Muslims are
commanded to do so in a manner that causes the least amount of fright and
suffering possible. The Prophet Muhammad said: {When you slaughter an
animal, do so in the best way. One should sharpen his knife to
reduce the suffering of the animal.}

In light of these and other Islamic texts, the act of inciting terror in the hearts
of defenseless civilians, the wholesale destruction of buildings and
properties, the bombing and maiming of innocent men, women, and children
are all forbidden and detestable acts according to Islam and the Muslims.
Muslims follow a religion of peace, mercy, and forgiveness, and the vast
majority have nothing to do with the violent events some have associated
with Muslims. If an individual Muslim were to commit an act of terrorism,
this person would be guilty of violating the laws of Islam.

Should keep a watch on madrassas. There are thousands of these

schools teaching millions of students throughout the Middle East and other
countries with Islamic populations. Many are financed through charities
funneling money from Saudia Arabia and oil rich states. These charities do
not assist public education in poor Islamic states, only the madrassas. There
are an estimated 30,000 madrassas in Pakistan alone. Children who cannot
afford to attend public schools are often enrolled in the madrassas.

These schools vary widely in funding, facilities, and teacher competence.

Many are dominated by fundamentalists with extremist views, in many cases
a hatred of the West and other religions. Some even promote violent actions
like suicide bombing. Many promote the messages of jihad, or holy war and
drill into the boys the idea that Islam is under attack by America and the

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The madrassas are only for boys and the curriculum is very narrowly based:
the Quran, the sayings of Muhammad and Islamic Shari'a law. As
Government funds are not involved, the governments in most countries,
especially Pakistan, have little control over them. Many are boarding
establishments where the boys spend long hours in prayer and memorizing
the Quran. There is normally no TV or radio and the boys cannot go to
movies or any other recreation. There is also no contact with girls. The only
women the boys see are female relatives on rare holiday, normally during
the holy month of Ramadan.

It is not only other religions the boys are trained to hate, but also other forms
of Islam. Attacks on Shi'ites in Pakistan are believed to have originated in
anti-Shi'ite teaching at these schools.

The Government must keep a strict check on all such madrassas and the
HEC should devise a curriculum for them and all madrassas should follow this

There should be one educational system giving equal opportunity

and exposure to all. The first effort should be on the educational front.
Pakistan has made significant improvement in its literacy rate in the last ten
years. There is a popular national consensus about the importance of
education. It is important to develop the curricula and syllabi of the first
twelve years of education
and to rewrite books on Islamic studies, social studies, history, Urdu, and
English for all school levels to strengthen the elements which deal with
pluralism, the rights of others, tolerance, justice and love. These books need
to develop a unique mix which relies on Pakistan's Islamic heritage but also
benefits from the content and techniques developed for the multicultural
education movement in America and innercity educational experiments.

Another important subject is the impact of education on Islam. A range of

issues need to be addressed. One issue is what the Qruan and other Islamic
texts say about education and learning. And then what actually occurs in
Muslim societies. We have to consider both historical periods and modern
day education. Here we need to condier both Muslim countries and other
countries with Muslim minorities. We need to consider both Islamic schools,
the madrassas, and the impact of Islam on secular education. Another
important topic is gender, especially the education of girls. Another issue is
of clothing and religious symbols in secular schools, and most importantly
the issue of terrorism.

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Quran should be taught on primary level in all schools so children grow up

knowing their religion and are not misled into being brainwashed by

In the long run, Pakistan cannot be saved until Pakistan's Muslims

take back the mosques. This is not a call to start performing qawwalis in
mosques. The faux religiosity of hashish-smoking rock-and-rollers pretending
to be holier than thou is as much of a scam as the faux religiosity of mullahs
insisting that they are the gatekeepers of Paradise. You cannot win the
culture wars against orthodoxy with pseudo-Sufism. You can however beat
the orthodoxy with the language of faith. There is, quite simply, no basis in
Sharia for any of the violence that has been spawned, financed and executed
by the monsters that the world's best intelligence agencies--whatever
country they may be from--helped incubate. To expect those same agencies
to somehow know how to conquer a monster to which they are beholden is

Dialog between Shias and Sunnis. An ongoing dialog between the

leaders of the two groups at a national as well as at the city level is
important. Many times, culprits of the violence between the two groups have
been unknown gunmen who have killed at either Sunni or
Shia Masjids with no one claiming any responsibility. Most leaders from both
sides are not involved in the violence.

Most Masjids do not preach violence against any group. Then who starts
these fights? If leaders from both sides engage each other in dialog, there is
a good chance that they will be able to help save lives on both sides. If, for
1,000 years, with little exception, Shias and Sunnis have lived together
peacefully, there is no reason for this extraordinary surge in violence of the
last decade.

Regular conference between ethnic groups in Karachi. Karachi has

seen the most ethnic violence and still it manifests the resilience of
Pakistanis by continuing to be the most multi-ethnic city of Pakistan. If the
civil leadership facilitates a dialog at the city level and puts the Muhalla
(neighborhood leadership) in contact with each other, many of the incidents
could be averted as they work together on a common agenda in their

Dialog between Muslims and non-Muslims. Most Pakistanis rarely meet

a non-Muslim considering it is Muslim majority country. Muslim leadership in

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civil society needs to take the initiative to develop a positive relationship

with the minorities living in their midst. Muslims must understand and
properly deal with the concerns of Christians, Hindus and Qadianis in
Pakistan. A dialog between people of different faiths will reduce tension and
enhance the chances for peace.

A drug jihad is needed. A major Jihad against drugs is overdue for

Pakistani society. One cannot think of winning the safety and security of
Pakistani citizens unless a massive educational movement is unleashed. It
should accompany rehabilitation programs.

Masjids and Islamic organizations can be enlisted in the fight against drugs
both as instruments of mass education and centers for rehabilitation
programs. Since crime and terrorism in Pakistan are linked with drug
trafficking and drug abuse, it will not be possible to deal with the issue of
security without dealing with the issue of drugs.

Education of police. Pakistani police need better education, better training

and refresher courses on an ongoing basis. So that they can come up to the
standards of new era.

Better arms and equipment is needed. Pakistan makes the type of

equipment which can help the police. But equipment does not mean only
weapons. It includes computers, databases, detection gear, testing
equipment and DNA technologies.

Electronic surveillance equipment to fight high-tech criminals. Cell

phones and emails are being used by criminals along with other citizens.
However, in the absence of electronic monitoring systems, the police resorts
to funny things like banning all cell phone usage which has been done more
than once in Karachi. This of course doesn't stop the criminals, but it hinders
business and the average Pakistani who can afford it an important tool
whereby he can quickly access safety in a dangerous situation.

Electronic monitoring systems are very much needed in the urban terrorist
culture of Pakistan.

A research and analysis wing of the police academy. Pakistan needs to

start learning from criminals while trying to fight crime. There should be
surveys of those in prison and crime statistics. We need to learn about

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criminals, trends in crime statistics and criminology. This is not the

traditional Pakistan. The crime’s Pakistan is facing is a fairly new ball game.

Empowering Citizenry. While Pakistan is working on coming up with

systemic change and processes which can enhance internal security for
Pakistan, citizens need to be empowered to safeguard themselves.

Independent Security Companies. In response to the lack of adequate

police protection, civil society has given birth to an enterprising private
security business. Many Pakistanis have turned to these companies. This
phenomenon has helped businesses and factories start operating again. It
will be good if in the private sector there is an association of these
companies that can work on standardization, licensing, and a defined and
open relationship with police, a training program and a grievance board.

Better Law Schools. There is a need to enhance the criminology portion of

law schools' curriculum. Bar exams should also be stricter so that the quality
of law education can be improved.

Citizens' Task Force on Law & Order. The author proposes a task force in
civil society which can
study, recommend and supervise the whole law and order situation in
Pakistan. It should issue its quarterly report and act as a watchdog group as
well as a semi-think tank for law and order. The leading scholar/lawyer Khalid
Ishaq can be requested to take the lead in this field. Other participants can
also be people of insight and scholarship.

Protocol. All politicians want the full fruits of state protocol. They want the
flashing lights at the head of the convoy. They want that the road should
clear and traffic should split. Top cops, politicians and bureaucrats just want
all the goodies that the previous ruling elite of Pakistan have enjoyed from
the comfort of their air-conditioned offices and cars for a long, long time. The
wannabe-elite bureaucrats account for Pakistan's deteriorating security
situation. All the security is allocated for them and the miseries and security
of the general public is unheard and unaccounted for.

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Government of Pakistan should:

1. Strictly observe the Terrorist organizations.

2. Federal Bureau Investigation(FBI) can be a main organization which

can easily observe the activities of Terrorists.

3. The real solution is to kill the root of Terrorism and systematically.

4. Military operations against terrorists are also very necessary.

5. Education, Justice, Pour politics can stop the Terrorism.

The United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy

Here is a summary of the 13 major legal instruments and additional

amendments dealing with terrorism:
1. 1963 Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed On
Board Aircraft
(Aircraft Convention)

○ Applies to acts affecting in-flight safety;

○ Authorizes the aircraft commander to impose reasonable

measures, including restraint, on any person he or she has
reason to believe has committed or is about to commit such an
act, where necessary to protect the safety of the aircraft; and

○ Requires contracting States to take custody of offenders and to

return control of the aircraft to the lawful commander.

2. 1970 Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft

(Unlawful Seizure Convention)

○ Makes it an offence for any person on board an aircraft in flight

to "unlawfully, by force or threat thereof, or any other form of

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intimidation, [to] seize or exercise control of that aircraft" or to

attempt to do so;

○ Requires parties to the convention to make hijackings punishable

by Requires parties to the convention to make hijackings
punishable by "severe penalties"

○ Requires parties that have custody of offenders to either

extradite the offender or submit the case for prosecution; and

○ Requires parties to assist each other in connection with criminal

proceedings brought under the Convention.

3. 1971 Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the

Safety of Civil Aviation
(Civil Aviation Convention)

○ Makes it an offence for any person unlawfully and intentionally to

perform an act of violence against a person on board an aircraft
in flight, if that act is likely to endanger the safety of the aircraft;
to place an explosive device on an aircraft; to attempt such acts;
or to be an accomplice of a person who performs or attempts to
perform such acts;

○ Requires parties to the Convention to make offences punishable

by "severe penalties"; and

○ Requires parties that have custody of offenders to either

extradite the offender or submit the case for prosecution.

4. 1973 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes Against

Internationally Protected Persons
(Diplomatic agents Convention)

○ Defines an "internationally protected person" as a Head of State,

Minister for Foreign Affairs, representative or official of a State or
international organization who is entitled to special protection in

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a foreign State, and his/her family; and

○ Requires parties to criminalize and make punishable "by

appropriate penalties which take into account their grave nature"
the intentional murder, kidnapping or other attack upon the
person or liberty of an internationally protected person, a violent
attack upon the official premises, the private accommodations,
or the means of transport of such person; a threat or attempt to
commit such an attack; and an act "constituting participation as
an accomplice".

5. 1979 International Convention against the Taking of Hostages

(Hostages Convention)

○ Provides that "any person who seizes or detains and threatens to

kill, to injure, or to continue to detain another person in order to
compel a third party, namely, a State, an international
intergovernmental organization, a natural or juridical person, or a
group of persons, to do or abstain from doing any act as an
explicit or implicit condition for the release of the hostage
commits the offence of taking of hostage within the meaning of
this Convention".

6. 1980 Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material

(Nuclear Materials Convention)

○ Criminalizes the unlawful possession, use, transfer or theft of

nuclear material and threats to use nuclear material to cause
death, serious injury or substantial property damage.

Amendments to the Convention on the Physical

Protection of Nuclear Material

○ Makes it legally binding for States Parties to protect nuclear

facilities and material in peaceful domestic use, storage as well
as transport; and

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○ Provides for expanded cooperation between and among States

regarding rapid measures to locate and recover stolen or
smuggled nuclear material, mitigate any radiological
consequences or sabotage, and prevent and combat related

7. 1988 Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of Violence at

Airports Serving International Civil Aviation, supplementary to the
Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of
Civil Aviation (Extends and supplements the Montreal Convention on
Air Safety)
(Airport Protocol)

○ Extends the provisions of the Montreal Convention (see No. 3

above) to encompass terrorist acts at airports serving
international civil aviation.

8. 1988 Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the

Safety of Maritime Navigation
(Maritime Convention)

○ Establishes a legal regime applicable to acts against

international maritime navigation that is similar to the regimes
established for international aviation; and

○ Makes it an offence for a person unlawfully and intentionally to

seize or exercise control over a ship by force, threat, or
intimidation; to perform an act of violence against a person on
board a ship if that act is likely to endanger the safe navigation
of the ship; to place a destructive device or substance aboard a
ship; and other acts against the safety of ships.

2005 Protocol to the Convention for the Suppression of

Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation
○ Criminalizes the use of a ship as a device to further an act of

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○ Criminalizes the transport on board a ship various materials

knowing that they are intended to be used to cause, or in a
threat to cause, death or serious injury or damage to further an
act of terrorism;

○ Criminalizes the transporting on board a ship of persons who

have committed an act of terrorism; and

○ Introduces procedures for governing the boarding of a ship

believed to have committed an offence under the Convention.
9. 1988 Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety
of Fixed Platforms Located on the Continental Shelf
(Fixed Platform Protocol)

○ Establishes a legal regime applicable to acts against fixed

platforms on the continental shelf that is similar to the regimes
established against international aviation.
2005 Protocol to the Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful
Acts against the Safety of Fixed Platforms Located on the
Continental Shelf
○ Adapts the changes to the Convention for the Suppression of
Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation to the
context of fixed platforms located on the continental shelf.

11. 1991 Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives for the Purpose
of Detection
(Plastic Explosives Convention)

○ Designed to control and limit the used of unmarked and

undetectable plastic explosives (negotiated in the aftermath of
the 1988 Pan Am flight 103 bombing);

○ Parties are obligated in their respective territories to ensure

effective control over Parties are obligated in their respective
territories to ensure effective control over "unmarked"

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○ Generally speaking, each party must, inter alia, take necessary

and effective measures to prohibit and prevent the manufacture
of unmarked plastic explosives; prevent the movement of
unmarked plastic explosives into or out of its territory; exercise
strict and effective control over possession and transfer of
unmarked explosives made or imported prior to the entry into
force of the Convention; ensure that all stocks of unmarked
explosives not held by the military or police are destroyed,
consumed, marked, or rendered permanently ineffective within
three years; take necessary measures to ensure that unmarked
plastic explosives held by the military or police are destroyed,
consumed, marked or rendered permanently ineffective within
fifteen years; and, ensure the destruction, as soon as possible, of
any unmarked explosives manufactured after the date of entry
into force of the Convention for that State.

12. 1997 International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist

(Terrorist Bombing Convention)

○ Creates a regime of universal jurisdiction over the unlawful and

intentional use of explosives and other lethal devices in, into, or
against various defined public places with intent to kill or cause
serious bodily injury, or with intent to cause extensive
destruction of the public place.

13. 1999 International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of

(Terrorist Financing Convention)

○ Requires parties to take steps to prevent and counteract the

financing of terrorists, whether direct or indirect, through groups
claiming to have charitable, social or cultural goals or which also
engage in illicit activities such as drug trafficking or gun running;

○ Commits States to hold those who finance terrorism criminally,

civilly or administratively liable for such acts; and

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○ Provides for the identification, freezing and seizure of funds

allocated for terrorist activities, as well as for the sharing of the
forfeited funds with other States on a case-by-case basis. Bank
secrecy is no longer adequate justification for refusing to

14. 2005 International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear

(Nuclear Terrorism Convention)

○ Covers a broad range of acts and possible targets, including

nuclear power plants and nuclear reactors;

○ Covers threats and attempts to commit such crimes or to

participate in them, as an accomplice;

○ Stipulates that offenders shall be either extradited or prosecuted;

○ Encourages States to cooperate in preventing terrorist attacks by

sharing information and assisting each other in connection with
criminal investigations and extradition proceedings; and

○ Deals with both crisis situations (assisting States to solve the

situation) and post-crisis situations (rendering nuclear material
safe through the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

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MEDIA & SOCIETY Bibliography


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MEDIA & SOCIETY Bibliography

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