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Problem Books in Mathematics

VladimirV.Tkachuk

A Cp-Theory
Problem
Book
Functional Equivalencies

Problem Books in Mathematics


Series Editor:
Peter Winkler
Department of Mathematics
Dartmouth College
Hanover, NH 03755
USA

More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/714

Vladimir V. Tkachuk

A Cp-Theory Problem Book


Functional Equivalencies

123

Vladimir V. Tkachuk
Departamento de Matematicas
Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapal
Mexico, Mexico

ISSN 0941-3502
ISSN 2197-8506 (electronic)
Problem Books in Mathematics
ISBN 978-3-319-24383-2
ISBN 978-3-319-24385-6 (eBook)
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-24385-6
Library of Congress Control Number: 2015958805
Mathematics Subject Classification (2010): 54C35
Springer Cham Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London
Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016
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Preface

This is the fourth and the last volume of the series of books of problems in Cp theory entitled A Cp -Theory Problem Book, i.e., this book is a continuation of
the three volumes subtitled Topological and Function Spaces, Special Features of
Function Spaces and Compactness in Function Spaces. The series was conceived as
an introduction to Cp -theory with the hope that each volume could also be used as
a reference guide for specialists.
The first volume provides a self-contained introduction to general topology and
Cp -theory and contains some highly nontrivial state-of-the-art results. For example,
Section 1.4 presents Shapirovskys theorem on existence of a point-countable base in any compact space of countable tightness, and Section 1.5 brings the reader
to the frontier of the modern knowledge about realcompactness in the context of
function spaces.
The second volume covers a wide variety of topics in Cp -theory and general
topology at the professional level bringing the reader to the frontiers of modern
research. It presents, among other things, a self-contained introduction to Descriptive Set Theory and Advanced Set Theory providing a basis for working with most
popular axioms independent of ZFC.
The third volume introduces the reader to compactness and its generalizations in
the context of function spaces. It continues dealing with topology and Cp -theory at
a professional level. The main objective is to develop from the very beginning the
theory of compact spaces most used in functional analysis, i.e., Corson compacta,
Eberlein compacta, and Gulko compacta.
This volume presents a reasonably complete and up-to-date information on
preservation of topological properties by homeomorphisms of function spaces. An
exhaustive theory of t -equivalent, u-equivalent and l-equivalent spaces is developed
from scratch. Since the policy of the author is to make this book self-contained,
the reader will find here an introduction to the theory of uniform spaces, the theory
of locally convex spaces as well as to the theory of inverse systems and dimension
theory. The above-mentioned policy also made it necessary to include Kolmogorovs
solution of Hilberts Problem 13 since it is needed for the presentation of the theory
of l-equivalent spaces.
v

vi

Preface

The authors intention was to include in this volume all classical results on
functional equivalencies. In particular, we present the famous theorem of Gulko
and Khmyleva on non-preservation of compactness by t -equivalence as well as
Okunevs results on t -invariance of spread, hereditary density, hereditary Lindelf
number and  -compactness. Of course, it was impossible to omit the fundamental
result of Gulko on preservation of the dimension dim by u-equivalence, a deep
theorem of Marciszewski which states that I and I! are not t -equivalent as well as
the Bouziads result on preservation of the Lindelf number by l-equivalence.
We apply here all topological methods developed in the first three volumes, so we
refer to their problems and solutions when necessary; the abbreviation for the first
volume is TFS, and we will use the expressions SFFS and CFS to refer to the second
and third volumes, respectively. For example, TFS-273 refers to Problem 273 of
the book TFS. The references to the solutions are not that straightforward: the
abbreviation S.115 means solution of Problem 115 of the book TFS, while T.025
stands for solution of Problem 025 of the book SFFS. The expression U.249
abbreviates the phrase solution of Problem 249 of the book CFS, and, finally,
V.411 denotes the solution of Problem 411 of this volume. The author did his best
to keep every solution as independent as possible, so a short argument could be
repeated several times in different places.
The author wants to emphasize that if a postgraduate student mastered the
material of the first three volumes, it will be more than sufficient to understand
every problem and solution of this book. However, for a concrete topic much less
might be needed. Finally, the author outlines some points which show the potential
usefulness of this work.
The only background needed is some knowledge of set theory and real numbers;
any reasonable course in calculus covers everything needed to understand this
book.
The student can learn all of general topology required without recurring to any
textbook or papers; the amount of general topology is strictly minimal and is
presented in such a way that the student works with the spaces Cp .X / from the
very beginning.
What is said in the previous paragraph is true as well if a mathematician
working outside of topology (e.g., in functional analysis) wants to use results
or methods of Cp -theory; he (or she) will find them easily in a concentrated
form or with full proofs if there is such a need.
The material we present here is up to date and brings the reader to the frontier
of knowledge in a reasonable number of important areas of Cp -theory.
This book seems to be the first self-contained introduction to Cp -theory.
Although there is an excellent textbook written by Arhangelskii (1992a), it
heavily depends on the readers good knowledge of general topology.
Mexico City, Mexico

Vladimir V. Tkachuk

Contents

Properties Preserved by Homeomorphisms


of Function Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1 Equivalences that arise from homeomorphisms of Cp .X/ . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Uniformities, Dimension, and u-Equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 Linear Topological Spaces and l-Equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4 Metrizable Spaces and l-Equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5 The Last-Minute Updates. Yet More on l-Equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6 Bibliographic notes to Chapter 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1
4
13
25
37
47
61

Solutions of problems 001500 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63

Bonus results: Some Hidden Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


3.1 Standard spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Compact spaces and their generalizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Properties of continuous maps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4 Cardinal invariants and set theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5 Locally Convex Spaces and Homotopies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6 Zero-dimensional Spaces and Connected Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7 Raznoie (Unclassified results) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

637
639
641
642
643
644
645
646

Open problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1 Mappings which involve Cp -spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Properties preserved by t-equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 Properties preserved by u-equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4 Properties preserved by l-equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5 Generalizations of functional equivalences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6 Fuzzy questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.7 Raznoie (unclassified questions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

649
650
652
655
656
658
661
663

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665
List of special symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 717
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 721
vii

Detailed Summary of Exercises

1.1. Equivalencies That Arise From Homeomorphisms


of Cp .X/.
Easy facts on t -invariance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 001015.
Compactness is not preserved by t -equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 016027.
On t -equivalence of X and Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 028029
Monolithity and stability are t -invariant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 030
Functionally perfect spaces and t -equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 031033
Okunevs method for proving t -invariance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 034046
Zero-dimensional spaces; homeomorphisms of Cp .X; D/ . . . . . Problems 047051
A couple of facts on Cp .P/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 052053
Compactness is preserved by a-equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 054
t -invariance of spread, hl and hd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 055070
Tightness and sequentiality in compact spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 071077
Tightness in compact spaces is preserved by t -equivalence . . . . . . . . . . Problem 078
Sequentiality in compact spaces and t -equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 079
Metrizable t -equivalent spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 080083
A first glance at simplexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 084087
Sperners lemma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 088
Browers fixed point theorem and its applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 089090
Homotopies and Mushroom lemma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 091093
Partitions in finite-dimensional cubes and in Hilbert cube . . . . . . Problems 094095
The Hilbert cube is not t -equivalent to any In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 096099
The space Cp .X / need not be homeomorphic to its square . . . . . . . . . . Problem 100

1.2. Uniformities, Dimension, and u-Equivalence.


Basic facts about uniformities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 101134
ix

Detailed Summary of Exercises

Cp .X / is complete as a uniform space iff X is discrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 135


Preservation of pseudocompactness by u-equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 136
u-equivalence is strictly stronger than t -equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 137
Preservation of compactness by u-equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 138
u-equivalence implies a-equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 139
Basic facts about the dimension dim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 140164
Basic facts about inverse systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 165175
Preservation of the dimension dim by u-equivalence . . . . . . . . . . Problems 176182
Absolute Borel sets and u-equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 183198
Infinite countable compact spaces are u-equivalent . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 199200

1.3. Linear Topological Spaces and l-Equivalence.


General facts about linear topological spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 201232
The topologies of Cp .X / and Lp .X / are weak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 233
General properties of Lp .X / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 234250
R-quotient maps and contracting a set to a point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 251255
Constructing pairs of l-equivalent spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 256262
Non-preservation of some properties by l-equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 263
One-point compactifications of discrete spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 264
Function spaces of discrete unions and l-equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 265
Finite discrete unions of intervals and finite sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 266
Alexandroff double and l-equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 267268
Some more properties that are not l-invariant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 269271
l-equivalence of products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 272276
Hereditary normality is not preserved by l-equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 277
Souslin property is not l-invariant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 278
Continuous linear surjections of function spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 279282
-spaces and l-equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 283286

Cech-completeness
and hyperspaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 287

Cech-completeness
and l-equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 288289
Condensations on  -compact spaces and l-equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 290

Cech-completeness
in countable spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 291
A criterion of l-equivalence for metrizable spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 292
Second countable spaces l-equivalent to standard ones . . . . . . . . Problems 293300

1.4. Metrizable Spaces and l-Equivalence.


More properties not preserved by l-equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 301307

On Cech-complete
l-equivalent spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 308310
Basic facts about L.X / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 311316

Detailed Summary of Exercises

xi

bf -spaces and Cb .X / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 317319


A characterization of the topology of L.X / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 320
Continuous linear functionals on Ck .X / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 321
Some properties of barreled spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 322326
Linear maps between Cb .X / and Cp .X / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 327
bf -spaces, l-equivalence, and L-equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 328331
Weaker metrizable topology on X and L.X / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 332
Spaces l-equivalent to metrizable ones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 333335
Hemicompactness, k-property, and l-equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 336340
General properties of @0 -spaces and l-equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 341351
BanachMazur game, category, and Baire property . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 352353
GruenhageMa game and moving off property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 354358
q-spaces and l-equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 359361
l-equivalence to metrizable spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 362367
l-equivalence in first countable spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 368369
Linear factors of Cp .X / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 370376
Universality in dimension n and l-equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 377378
l-equivalence to finite-dimensional cubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 379388
Linear factors of linear topological spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 389392
l-equivalence to a finite power of the real line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 393394
Linear factors of Cp .X / and dimension dim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 395396
Open Mapping theorem for Banach spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 397
Closed Graph theorem for Banach spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 398
Adding an isolated point to a space and l-equivalence . . . . . . . . . Problems 399400

1.5. The Last-Minute Updates. Yet More on l-Equivalence.


Order of -bases in Cp .X / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 401412
General properties of the point-open game . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 413416
Point-open game in X and the W -property in Cp .X / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 417
A W -space Cp .X / without a point-countable -base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 418
General properties of d -separable spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 419421
d -separability in Cp .X / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 422429
Continuous images of dense subspaces of products . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 430437
-cosmic and strongly -cosmic spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 438442
Compact continuous images of Cp .X / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 443450
Condensations of Cp .X / onto compact spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 451457
Condensations of Cp .X / onto  -compact spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 458461
Metalindelfness of Cp .X / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 462463
Monotonically monolithic spaces and D-spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 464466
Monotone -monolithity vs monotone -stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 467
Monotone monolithity in Cp .X / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 468469
Monotonically -monolithic spaces and D-property . . . . . . . . . . Problems 470472

xii

Detailed Summary of Exercises

Corson compacta and monotone !-monolithity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 473474


Monotone !-monolithity and caliber !1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 475
Monotonically retractable/Sokolov spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 476487
Closure-preserving local bases in Cp .X / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 488
 -discrete networks in Cp .X / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems 489491
Hereditary Baire property of Cp .! / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 492
l-equivalence of ! and ! implies ! ' ! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 493
Countable compact spaces and l-equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 494
Linear surjections of Cp and zero-dimensionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 495
No continuous linear surjection of Cp .I/ onto Cp .I! / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 496
A characterization of l-equivalence to the Cantor set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 497
Kolomogorovs solution of Hilberts Problem 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 498
Linear surjections of Cp .I/ onto Cp .X / for compact X . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 499
Lindelf number is preserved by l-equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem 500

Introduction

The term Cp -theory was invented to abbreviate the phrase the theory of function
spaces endowed with the topology of pointwise convergence. The credit for the
creation of Cp -theory must undoubtedly be given to Alexander Vladimirovich
Arhangelskii. The author is proud to say that Arhangelskii also was the person
who taught him general topology and directed his PhD thesis. Arhangelskii was
the first to understand the need to unify and classify a bulk of heterogeneous results
from topological algebra, functional analysis and general topology. He was the first
to obtain crucial results that made this unification possible. He was also the first
to formulate a critical mass of open problems which showed this theorys huge
potential for development.
Later, many mathematicians worked hard to give Cp -theory the elegance and
beauty it boasts nowadays. The author hopes that the work he presents for the
readers judgement will help to attract more people to this area of mathematics.
The main text of this volume consists of 500 statements formulated as problems;
it constitutes Chapter 1. These statements provide a gradual development of many
popular topics of Cp -theory to bring the reader to the frontier of the present-day
knowledge. A complete solution is given to every problem of the main text.
The material of Chapter 1 is divided into five sections with 100 problems in each
one. The sections start with an introductory part where the definitions and concepts
to be used are given. The introductory part of any section never exceeds two pages
and covers everything that was not defined previously. Whenever possible, we try
to save the reader the effort of ploughing through various sections, chapters and
volumes, so we give the relevant definitions in the current section not caring much
about possible repetitions.
Chapter 1 ends with some bibliographical notes to give the most important
references related to its results. The selection of references is made according to
the authors preferences and by no means can be considered complete. However,
a complete list of contributors to the material of this book can be found in our
bibliography of 800 items. It is the authors pleasant duty to acknowledge that
he consulted the paper of Arhangelskii (1998a) to include quite a few of its 375
references in his bibliography.
xiii

xiv

Introduction

Sometimes, as we formulate a problem, we use without reference definitions and


constructions introduced in other problems. The general rule is to try to find the
relevant definition not more than ten problems before.
The complete solutions of all problems of Chapter 1 are given in Chapter 2.
Chapter 3 begins with a selection of 80 statements which were proved as auxiliary
facts in the solutions of the problems of the main text. This material is split into 7
sections to classify the respective results and make them easier to find. Chapter 4
consists of 100 open problems presented in 7 sections with the same idea: to classify
this bulk of problems and make the readers work easier.
Chapter 4 also witnesses an essential difference between the organization of our
text and the book by Arhangelskii and Ponomarev (1974): we never put unsolved
problems in the main text as is done in their book. All problems formulated in
Chapter 1 are given complete solutions in Chapter 2, and the unsolved ones are
presented in Chapter 4.
There is little to explain about how to use this book as a reference guide. In this
case the methodology is not that important, and the only thing the reader wants
is to find the results he (or she) needs as fast as possible. To help with this, the
titles of chapters and sections give the first approximation. To better see the material
of a chapter, one can consult the second part of the Contents section where a
detailed summary is given; it is supposed to cover all topics presented in each
section. Besides, the index can also be used to find necessary material.
To sum up the main text, the author believes that the coverage of Cp -theory
will be reasonably complete and many of the topics can be used by postgraduate
students who want to specialize in Cp -theory. Formally, this book can also be used
as an introduction to general topology. However, it would be a somewhat biased
introduction, because the emphasis is always given to Cp -spaces and the topics are
only developed when they have some applications in Cp -theory.
To conclude, let the author quote an old saying which states that the best way
for one to learn a theorem is to prove it oneself. This text provides a possibility
to do this. If the readers wish is to read the proofs, there they are concentrated
immediately after the main text.

Chapter 1

Properties Preserved by Homeomorphisms


of Function Spaces

The reader who has found his (or her) way through the first fifteen hundred problems
of this book is fully prepared to enjoy working professionally in Cp -theory. Such a
work implies choosing a topic, reading the papers with the most recent progress
thereon, and attacking the unsolved problems. Now the first two steps are possible
without doing heavy library work, because Chapter 1 provides information on
the latest advances in all areas of Cp -theory, where functional equivalencies are
concerned. Here, many ideas, results, and constructions came from functional
analysis and the theory of uniform spaces giving a special flavor to this part of
Cp -theory, but at the same time making it more difficult to master. I must warn the
reader that most topics, outlined in the forthcoming bulk of 500 problems, constitute
the material of important research papersin many cases very difficult ones. The
proofs and solutions, given in Chapter 2, are complete, but sometimes they require a
very high level of understanding of the matter. The reader should not be discouraged
if some proofs seem to be unfathomable. We still introduce new themes in general
topology and formulate, after a due preparation, some nontrivial results which might
be later used in Cp -theory.
This volume presents a very popular line of research in Cp -theory. The objective
here is to find common features of the spaces X and Y knowing that Cp .X / and
Cp .Y / are similar in some way. Theorem of Nagata (Problem TFS-200) gives
a complete solution if the rings Cp .X / and Cp .Y / are topologically isomorphic
because in this case the spaces X and Y must be homeomorphic. It turns out that the
existence of a linear homeomorphism between Cp .X / and Cp .Y / need not imply
that the spaces X and Y are homeomorphic. Nevertheless, X and Y have to share
quite a few important properties even if there exists a nonlinear homeomorphism
between Cp .X / and Cp .Y /.
This volume requires a much broader vision of general topology than the
previous ones because the general scheme of research here is to take some property
(which might come from any area of general topology or even from outside) and
check whether it is shared by the spaces X and Y in case Cp .X / is (linearly or
Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016
V.V. Tkachuk, A Cp-Theory Problem Book, Problem Books in Mathematics,
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-24385-6_1

1 Properties Preserved by Homeomorphisms of Function Spaces

uniformly) homeomorphic to Cp .Y /. As a consequence, we had to introduce some


theories which could be the subject of a separate book. In particular, we had to
develop the basic techniques of dealing with uniformities, linear topological spaces,
dimension theory, and topological games. Once accomplished, this made it possible
to present in a self-contained way almost all important results in the area.
If nothing is said about the separation axioms of a space X then X is assumed
to be Tychonoff. Section 1.1 deals with pairs of spaces X; Y for which Cp .X / is
homeomorphic to Cp .Y / (such spaces are called t -equivalent). One of the outstanding results presented here is Gulko and Khmylevas theorem on non-preservation
of compactness by t -equivalence (Problem 027). The theorems on invariance
of spread, hereditary density, hereditary Lindelf number, and  -compactness
(Problems 043, 068070) constitute a breakthrough due to Okunev. Another gem
of this collection is a result of W. Marciszewski which states that I and I! are not
t -equivalent (Problem 099).
Section 1.2 is devoted to the study of pairs of spaces X; Y for which Cp .X /
is uniformly homeomorphic to Cp .Y / (such spaces are called u-equivalent). We
give the reader a glimpse of the theory of uniform spaces. Inverse systems and
dimension theory are also developed to some extent to make it possible to present a
famous result of S. Gulko on invariance of the dimension dim under u-equivalence
(Problem 180). Another important result is a theorem of W. Marciszewski on
preservation of absolute Borel classes by u-equivalence (Problems 197198). We
conclude this section with another beautiful result of S. Gulko: if X and Y are
infinite countable compact spaces then they are u-equivalent (Problem 200).
Section 1.3 starts with a short introduction to linear topological spaces. The
results that follow are intended to give information on pairs of spaces X; Y for which
Cp .X / is linearly homeomorphic to Cp .Y / (such spaces are called l-equivalent). We
present a general method of Okunev for constructing pairs of l-equivalent spaces
(Problem 257) and a classification of spaces l-equivalent to some standard ones
(Problems 293, 295, 297300).
Section 1.4 presents another portion of deep results on l-equivalence. A fact
which could not be omitted here is a theorem of Baars, de Groot, and Pelant

on preservation of Cech-completeness
by l-equivalence in metrizable spaces
(Problem 366). It is a nontrivial theorem of Dranishnikov that any nonempty
open subspace of Rn is l-equivalent to Rn (Problem 394); this Section concludes
with a very difficult example of Marciszewski of an infinite compact space K
for which there exists no continuous linear surjection of Cp .K/ onto Cp .K/  R
(Problem 400).
This book was in preparation for almost ten years and six years passed in the
process of publishing the first three volumes; so quite a few new results in Cp -theory
emerged during this period. The author included them in the book where it was
possible to avoid violation of the existing classification scheme. However, at the
moment of writing Section 1.5 (which was originally planned to cover what was
left from the theory of l-equivalent spaces) many new fundamental results appeared
and they did not fit into any classification at all. That is why Section 1.5 stands
completely apart: it contains the most recent results which could not be left out and
continues the study of functional equivalences.

1 Properties Preserved by Homeomorphisms of Function Spaces

One of the main results here is Bouziads theorem on preservation of the


Lindelf number by l-equivalence (Problem 500). Another one is a theorem of
Leiderman, Levin, and Pestov stating that Cp .I/ can be linearly and continuously mapped onto Cp .X / for any finite-dimensional metrizable compact space
X (Problem 499). Problem 494 gives a complete classification (due to Gulko
and Oskin) of l-equivalent countable compact spaces. A fundamental result of
Marciszewski and Pol states that if X is a linearly orderable separable compact
space or a separable dyadic compact space, then Cp .X / has a  -discrete network
(Problems 484 and 485).

1 Properties Preserved by Homeomorphisms of Function Spaces

1.1 Equivalences that arise from homeomorphisms


of Cp .X/
All spaces are assumed to be Tychonoff. Given a space X , the family .X / is its
topology,  .X / D .X /nf;g and .x; X / D fU 2 .X / W x 2 U g for any x 2 X .
The expression X ! Y says that the space X can be embedded in the space Y .
If we write X ' Y , this means that X is homeomorphic to Y . The spaces X
t
and Y are called t -equivalent (which is denoted by X  Y ), if Cp .X / ' Cp .Y /.
A topological property P (a cardinal invariant ') is called t -invariant if it is
t
preserved by t -equivalence, i.e., if X ` P (or '.X /  ) and X  Y imply
Y ` P (or '.Y /   respectively). A subspace Y of a space X is t -embedded
(l-embedded) in X , if there is a (linear) continuous map ' W Cp .Y / ! Cp .X /
such that '.f /jY D f for any f 2 Cp .Y /. If X is a space, then 0X 2 Cp .X / is
the function equal to zero at all points of X . The space I is the set 1; 1
with the
topology inherited from R. A set F  Cp .X; I/ is called D-separating, if 0X 2 F
and, given " > 0, a finite A  X and a closed P  X nA, there is f 2 F such
that f .A/  ."; "/ and f .P /  34 ; 1
. Now, if F  Cp .X; I/ is any set which
contains 0X , let ZF .X / D f' W F ! I W '.0X / D 0 and '.V /   12 ; 12
for some
V 2 .0X ; F /g.
Given a cardinal invariant ', we define '  .X / D supf'.X n / W n 2 Ng. Call a
class of spaces C complete if C is invariant under finite products, countable unions,
closed subspaces, and continuous images. Only in this Section, we denote by K.X /
the smallest complete class which contains the space X and all compact spaces.
Any homeomorphism f W X ! X is called autohomeomorphism. A trivial
example of an autohomeomorphism is the map idX W X ! X defined by
idX .x/ D x for any x 2 X . Given maps f; g 2 C.X; Y /, we say that f and g
are homotopic if there exists a continuous map F W X  0; 1
! Y such that
F .x; 0/ D f .x/ and F .x; 1/ D g.x/ for any x 2 X . The map F is called
the homotopy which connects the mappings f and g. If F W X  0; 1
! Y
is a homotopy, it generates the family fFt W t 2 0; 1
g of functions defined by
Ft .x/ D F .x; t / for any x 2 X and t 2 0; 1
. By exp.X / we denote the family of
all subsets of a set X . If  is a cardinal which can be finite, we will need the families
X
 D fA  X W jAj D g and X
 D fA  X W jAj  g together with
X
< D fA  X W jAj < g. In particular, X
<! is the family of all finite subsets
of X .
If X is a space denote by F.X / the family of all closed subsets of X . For every
open subset U of the space X consider the families S
P .U / D fF 2 F.X / W F  U g
and Q.U / D fF 2 F.X / W F \ U ;g; let S D fP .U / [ Q.U / W U 2 .X /g.
The topology V .X / generated by S as a subbase is called the Vietoris topology on
the family of all closed subset of X . Let CL.X / D .F.X /; V .X //; if G  F.X /,
by the Vietoris topology on G we mean the topology on G inherited from CL.X /.
Given sets X and Y , we say that p is a multi-valued map from X to Y if p W
X ! exp.Y /. The map p is called finite-valued if p.X /  Y
<! and singlevalued if jp.x/j D 1 for any x 2 X . Any single-valued map p W X ! exp.Y / is
identified with the map p 0 W X ! Y such that p.x/ D fp 0 .x/g for any x 2 X . Now,

1.1 Equivalences that arise from homeomorphisms of Cp .X/

if X and Y are spaces, a map p W X ! exp.Y / is called lower semicontinuous


if pl1 .U / D fx 2 X W p.x/ \ U ;g is open in X for any open U  Y .
The map p is called upper semicontinuous if pu1 .U / D fx 2 X W p.x/  U g
is open in X for any open U  Y . Given two maps p; q W X ! exp.Y /, we
say that q is lower semicontinuous with respect to p if, for any x 2 X , we have
p.x/  q.x/ and ql1 .U / is a neighborhood of pl1 .U / for any open U  Y .
A finite-valued map p W X ! exp.Y / is called almost lower semicontinuous if there
exists a space Z  Y and a finite-valued map q W X ! exp.Z/ such that q is lower
semicontinuous with respect to p. We say that a single-valued map p W X ! Y has
defect  n if there exists a space Z  Y and a map q W X ! Z
nC1 which is
lower semicontinuous with respect to p. The map p has finite defect if it has defect
 n for some n 2 !.
Given a natural
number n and set-valued maps pi W Xi ! exp.Yi / for every
Q
i < n let . i<nQ
pi /.x0 ; : : : ; xn1
.xn1 / for any point
Q/ D p0 .x
Q0 /  : : :  pn1Q
.x0 ; : : : ; xn1 / 2 i<n Xi . Thus, i<n pi W i<n Xi ! exp. i<n Yi /.
Let  .A/ D fx 2 RA W for any " > 0, the set fa 2 A W jx.a/j  "g is finiteg.
Given x 2  .A/, let jjxjj D supfjx.a/j W a 2 Ag. The space D is the two-point
set f0; 1g endowed with the discrete topology. The symbol P denotes the irrational
numbers with the usual topology. If X is a space and A; B  X are disjoint closed
subsets of X , we say that a (closed) set P  X is a partition between A and B if
there are open U; V  X such that A  U; B  V; U \V D ; and U [V D X nP .
For every n 2 !, the set S n D fx 2 RnC1 W .x.0//2 C: : :C.x.n//2 D 1g with the
topology induced from RnC1 is called the n-dimensional sphere. A set F  In is a
face of the cube In if F D fx 2 In W x.i / D 1g or F D fx 2 In W x.i / D 1g
for some i < n. A set fa0 ; : : : ; am g  Rn is called independent if, for any
0 ; : : : ; m 2 R such that 0 C : : : C m D 0 and 0 a0 C : : : C m am D 0 we have
i D 0 for all i  m; here 0 is the vector of Rn whose all coordinates are zeros. If
fa0 ; : : : ; am g  Rn is an independent set, let a0 ; : : : ; am
D f 0 a0 C: : :C m am W
i  0 for all i  m and 0 C : : : C m D 1g. The set a0 ; : : : ; am
is called an
m-dimensional simplex with the vertices a0 ; : : : ; am .
It is easy to see that if x 2 a0 ; : : : ; am
then there are unique 0 .x/; : : : ; m .x/
such that x D 0 .x/ a0 C : : : C m .x/ am , where i .x/  0 for all i  m
and 0 .x/ C : : : ; C m .x/ D 1. The numbers 0 .x/; : : : ; m .x/ are called the
barycentric coordinates of the point x. A face of the simplex a0 ; : : : ; am
is any
simplex ai0 ; : : : ; aik
for which aij ail if j l. The barycenter of a simplex
1
1
S D a0 ; : : : ; am
is the point b.S / D mC1
a0 C : : : C mC1
am . A simplicial
subdivision
of
a
simplex
S
is
a
finite
family
P
D
fS
W
0

i
<
kg of simplexes
i
S
such that P D S , for any i; j < k, all faces of Si belong to P and Si \Sj is either
empty or is a common face of the simplexes Si and Sj . The mesh of a simplicial
subdivision P of a simplex S is the number .P/ D maxfdiam.T / W T 2 Pg.
For any  2 !1 the class M (or A ) of absolute Borel sets of multiplicative
(additive) class  consists of metrizable spaces X such that for any embedding of X
into a metrizable space Y the set X belongs to 0 .Y / (or to 0 .Y / respectively).

1 Properties Preserved by Homeomorphisms of Function Spaces

001. Prove that cardinality, network weight, i -weight, as well as density are
t -invariant.
002. Prove that if Cp .Y /! Cp .X / then nw.Y /  nw.X /; d.Y /  d.X / and
jY j  jX j. Give an example showing that the inequality i w.Y /  i w.X / is
not necessarily true.
003. Prove that p.Y /  p.X / whenever Cp .Y /! Cp .X /. As a consequence,
point-finite cellularity is t -invariant.
004. Suppose that X and Y are t -equivalent Baire spaces. Prove that c.X / D c.Y /.
In particular, the Souslin numbers of t -equivalent pseudocompact spaces
coincide.
005. Let  be a caliber of X . Knowing that Cp .Y / embeds in Cp .X /, prove that 
is a caliber of Y . In particular, calibers are t -invariant.
006. Suppose that Cp .Y / embeds into Cp .X /. Prove that l  .Y /  l  .X /. As a
consequence, l  is t -invariant.
007. Suppose that Cp .Y / embeds into Cp .X /. Prove that '.Y /  '.X / for any
' 2 fhl  ; hd  ; s  g and hence ' is t -invariant.
t
008. Prove that, if X  Y then tm .X / D tm .Y /. Give an example of spaces X and
Y such that Cp .Y / embeds into Cp .X / and tm .Y / > tm .X /.
t
009. Prove that X  Y implies q.X / D q.Y /. In particular, realcompactness is
t -invariant.
010. Give an example of spaces X and Y such that Cp .Y / embeds into Cp .X /, the
space X is realcompact and Y is not realcompact.
t
011. Suppose that X is a P -space and X  Y . Prove that Y is also a P -space.
012. Prove that discreteness is t -invariant.
013. Suppose that X and Y are compact spaces such that Cp .Y /! Cp .X /. Prove
t
that Y is scattered whenever X is scattered. In particular, if X  Y then X is
scattered if and only if so is Y .
t
014. Suppose that X n is a Hurewicz space for each n 2 N and X  Y . Prove that
Y n is also a Hurewicz space for each n 2 N.
t
015. Suppose that X  Y and X is a  -compact space with a countable network.
Prove that Y is also  -compact. As a consequence, if X is a metrizable
t
compact space and X  Y then Y is  -compact.
016. Given an arbitrary number " > 0 prove that there exists a homeomorphism u W R   .!/ !  .!/ for which we have the inequality
j jju.r; x/jj  jjxjj j  " for any r 2 R and x 2  .!/.
017. Prove that  .!/ is homeomorphic to R!   .!/.
018. Suppose that X is a pseudocompact space. Given any function f 2 Cp .X /,
let jjf jj D supfjf .x/j W x 2 X g. Prove that C .X / ' C .X /  .Cp .X //! ,
where C .X / D f' 2 .Cp .X //! W jj'.n/jj ! 0g.
019. Let X be a pseudocompact space. As usual, for any f 2 Cp .X /, we
define jjf jj D supfjf .x/j W x 2 X g. Supposing that the space Cp .X / is
homeomorphic to C .X / D f' 2 .Cp .X //! W jj'.n/jj ! 0g, prove that
Cp .X / ' .Cp .X //! .

1.1 Equivalences that arise from homeomorphisms of Cp .X/

020. Prove that  .!/ is homeomorphic to . .!//! .


021. Prove that, for every infinite space X , the space R! embeds into Cp .X / as a
closed subspace.
022. Prove that a space X is not pseudocompact if and only if R! embeds in Cp .X /
as a linear subspace.
023. Prove that, if either X or Cp .X / is Lindelf, then R!1 does not embed into
Cp .X /.
024. Prove that there exists a space X such that c.X / D ! and R!1 embeds in
Cp .X / as a closed linear subspace.
025. Prove that if ! C 1! X then Cp .X / ' Cp .X /  R! . Deduce from this
fact that pseudocompactness, countable compactness, and compactness are not
t -invariant.
026. Prove that Cp .R/! ' Cp .R/ and Cp .I/! ' Cp .I/.
027. Prove that R is t -equivalent to 0; 1
.
t
t
028. Prove that X  Y whenever X  Y . Give an example which shows that
t
t
X  Y does not necessarily imply X  Y .
t
029. Give an example of spaces X and Y such that X ' Y (and hence X  Y )
while X is not t -equivalent to Y .
030. Prove that -monolithity and -stability are t -invariant for any infinite
cardinal .
t
031. Given spaces X and Y such that X  Y prove that X is functionally perfect if
and only if so is Y .
032. Give an example of spaces X and Y such that X is functionally perfect, Cp .Y /
embeds into Cp .X / while Y is not functionally perfect.
033. Suppose that compact spaces X and Y are t -equivalent. Prove that X is
Eberlein (Corson or Gulko) compact if and only if so is Y .
034. Suppose that F  Cp .X; I/ is a D-separating set (and hence 0X 2 F ). For
each x 2 X , let ex .f / D f .x/ for any f 2 F . Prove that XQ D fex W x 2 X g
is a closed subset of the space ZF .X / D f' W F ! I W '.0X / D 0
and '.V /   12 ; 12
for some V 2 .0X ; F /g, and the map x ! ex
Q In other words, X is canonically
is a homeomorphism between X and X.
homeomorphic to a closed subset of ZF .X /.
035. Knowing that 0X 2 F  Cp .X; I/ and 0Y 2 G  Cp .Y; I/, suppose that
there is an embedding i W G ! F with i.0Y / D 0X . Prove that ZF .X / maps
continuously onto ZG .Y /.
036. Given a space X prove that if 0X 2 F  Cp .X; I/ then ZF .X / belongs to
the class K.X /.
037. Let G be a D-separating subspace of Cp .Y /. Prove that, if G embeds into
Cp .X / then Y 2 K.X /.
038. Given spaces X; Y and a subspace Z  Y suppose that the space Cp .ZjY / D
ff 2 Cp .Z/ W f D gjZ for some g 2 Cp .Y /g embeds in Cp .X /. Prove that
Z 2 K.X /.
039. Let X be a  -compact space. Prove that any space Y 2 K.X / is also
 -compact.

1 Properties Preserved by Homeomorphisms of Function Spaces

040. Let X be a Lindelf -space. Prove that any Y 2 K.X / is also a Lindelf
-space.
041. Let X be a K-analytic space. Prove that any Y 2 K.X / is also a K-analytic
space.
042. Prove that ext  .Y /  ext  .X / for any Y 2 K.X /.
043. Suppose that Cp .Y / embeds into Cp .X /. Prove that
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

if X is  -compact then Y is  -compact.


if X is Lindelf -space then Y is Lindelf .
if X is K-analytic then Y is also K-analytic.
ext  .Y /  ext  .X /.
t

044.

045.
046.

047.
048.

049.
050.
051.
052.

053.
054.
055.

As a consequence, if X  Y then ext  .X / D ext  .Y / and, for any property


P 2 f -compactness, Lindelf -property, K-analyticityg, we have X ` P
if and only if Y ` P.
Suppose that X is an analytic space and Cp .Y / embeds into Cp .X /. Prove
t
that Y is also analytic. In particular, analyticity is t -invariant, i.e., if X  Y
then X is analytic if and only if so is Y .
t
Suppose that X  Y . Prove that X is  -bounded if and only if so is Y .
Given a zero-dimensional space Y , suppose that Cp .Y; D/ embeds in Cp .X /.
Prove that, for any property P 2 f -compactness, Lindelf -property,
analyticity, K-analyticityg, we have Y ` P whenever X ` P.
Let X be a zero-dimensional space. Prove that l  .X / D t .Cp .X; D//.
Let X and Y be zero-dimensional spaces with Cp .X; D/ ' Cp .Y; D/. Prove
that X is pseudocompact if and only if so is Y . Deduce from this fact that X
is compact if and only if so is Y .
Prove that there exist zero-dimensional spaces X and Y such that Cp .X / is
homeomorphic to Cp .Y / and Cp .X; D/ is not homeomorphic to Cp .Y; D/.
Prove that .Cp .X; D// D w.Cp .X; D// D jX j for any zero-dimensional
space X .
Prove that a zero-dimensional compact space X is scattered if and only if
Cp .X; D/ is FrchetUrysohn.
Suppose that X is not  -compact and w.X /  . Prove that there is a subspace
Z  Cp .X / such that jZj   and Z is not embeddable into Cp .Y / for any
 -compact Y . In particular, there is a countable subspace of Cp .P/ which
cannot be embedded into Cp .Y / for any  -compact Y .
Prove that, for any X , the space Cp .X / embeds in Cp .P/ if and only if Cp .X /
is homeomorphic to a linear subspace of Cp .P/.
Suppose that a space X is compact and there exists a homeomorphism ' W
RX ! RY such that '.Cp .X //  Cp .Y /. Prove that Y is compact.
Suppose that p; q W X ! exp.Y / are finite-valued mappings such that q
is lower semicontinuous with respectS
to p. Prove that, for any nonempty set
A  X , the map qjA W AS ! exp. q.A// is lower semicontinuous with
respect to pjA W A ! exp. q.A//.

1.1 Equivalences that arise from homeomorphisms of Cp .X/

056. Suppose that p W X ! exp.Y / and q W X ! exp.Y / are finite-valued


mappings such that q is lower semicontinuous with respect to p. Given an
open set U  Y , let pU .x/ D p.x/ \ U and qU .x/ D q.x/ \ U for every
x 2 X . Prove that the map qU W X ! exp.U / is lower semicontinuous with
respect to pU W X ! exp.U /.
057. Given a number n 2 N and spaces Xi ; Yi ; for every i < n suppose that pi ; qi W
Xi ! exp.Yi / are set-valued
Q maps such that qi is lower semicontinuous with
respect
to
p
.
Prove
that
i
i<n qi is lower semicontinuous with respect to
Q
p
.
As
a
consequence,
any
finite product of almost lower semicontinuous
i
i<n
maps is an almost lower semicontinuous map.
058. Suppose that, for finite-valued mappings p; r; q W X ! exp.Y /, we have
p.x/  r.x/  q.x/ for any x 2 X . Prove that, if q is lower semicontinuous
with respect to r then q is lower semicontinuous with respect to p.
059. Suppose that X is a nonempty space and
S p W X ! exp.Y / is an almost
lower semicontinuous map such that
p.X / D Y . Prove that Y is a
countable union of images of subspaces of X under single-valued almost lower
semicontinuous maps of finite defect.
060. Given nonempty spaces X; Z and k 2 N, suppose that we have maps
p W X ! Z and q W X ! exp.Z/ such that p.x/ 2 q.x/ and jq.x/j  k for
each x 2 X while q.x/ \ q.y/ D ; if x y and q is lowerS
semicontinuous
with respect to p. Prove that, if p.X / is discrete then X D j <k Dj where
every Dj  X is discrete and hence there exists a discrete subspace S  X
such that jS j D jX j.
061. Given nonempty spaces X; Z and k 2 N, suppose that we have maps
p W X ! Z and q W X ! exp.Z/ such that p.x/ 2 q.x/ and jq.x/j  k for
each x 2 X while q.x/ \ q.y/ D ; if x y and q is lower semicontinuous
S
with respect to p. Prove that, if p.X / is left-separated then X D j <k Dj
where every Dj  X is left-separated and hence there exists a left-separated
subspace S  X such that jS j D jX j.
062. Given nonempty spaces X; Z and k 2 N, suppose that we have maps
p W X ! Z and q W X ! exp.Z/ such that p.x/ 2 q.x/ and jq.x/j  k for
each x 2 X while q.x/ \ q.y/ D ; if x y and q is lower semicontinuous
S
with respect to p. Prove that, if p.X / is right-separated then X D j <k Dj
where every Dj  X is right-separated and hence there exists a rightseparated subspace S  X such that jS j D jX j.
063. Suppose that an infinite space Y is an image of a space X under a finitevalued almost lower semicontinuous map, i.e., there exists an
S almost lower
semicontinuous map p W X ! exp.Y / such that Y D
p.X /. Prove
that for each n 2 N, we have s.Y n /  s.X n /, hl.Y n /  hl.X n / and
hd.Y n /  hd.X n /.
064. Let h W Cp .Y / ! Cp .X / be an embedding such that h.0Y / D 0X . Given a
point x 2 X and " > 0, a point y 2 Y is called "-inessential for x if there is
U 2 .y; Y / such that jh.g/.x/j  " whenever g.Y nU /  f0g. The point y
is "-essential for x if it is not "-inessential for x. Denote by supp" .x/ the set
of all points which are "-essential for x. Prove that supp" .x/ is finite for any
x 2 X and " > 0.

10

1 Properties Preserved by Homeomorphisms of Function Spaces

065. Let h W Cp .Y / ! Cp .X / be an embedding such that h.0Y / D 0X . Denote


by supp
S " .x/ the set of all points which are "-essential for x. Prove that
Y D fsupp1=n .x/ W x 2 X; n 2 Ng.
066. Let h W Cp .Y / ! Cp .X / be an embedding such that h.0Y / D 0X . Denote
by supp" .x/ the set of all points which are "-essential for x. Prove that, for
any " > 0, the finite-valued map supp" W X ! exp.Y / is almost lower
semicontinuous.
067. Suppose that Cp .Y / embeds in Cp .X /. Prove that Y is a countable union of
images of X under finite-valued almost lower semicontinuous maps.
068. Suppose that Cp .Y / embeds in Cp .X /. Prove that, for any n 2 N, we have
s.Y n /  s.X n /. In particular, if X and Y are t -equivalent then s.Y n / D s.X n /
for any n 2 N.
069. Suppose that Cp .Y / embeds in Cp .X /. Prove that, for any n 2 N, we have
hd.Y n /  hd.X n /. In particular, if the spaces X and Y are t -equivalent then
hd.Y n / D hd.X n / for any n 2 N.
070. Suppose that Cp .Y / embeds in Cp .X /. Prove that, for any n 2 N, we have
hl.Y n /  hl.X n /. In particular, if the spaces X and Y are t -equivalent then
hl.Y n / D hl.X n / for any n 2 N.
071. Suppose that f W X ! Y is a closed continuous onto map such that t .Y /  
and t .f 1 .y//   for any y 2 Y . Prove that t .X /  . Deduce from this
fact that, for every infinite compact space X we have t .X n / D t .X / for any
n 2 N.
072. Given countably compact sequential spaces X1 ; : : : ; Xm prove that the space
X1  : : :  Xm is countably compact and sequential.
073. Assuming that a space X maps continuously onto a compact space K prove
that t .K/  l.X / t .X /.
S
074. Suppose that K is a compact space and K D n2! Kn where every Kn is
a sequential closed subspace of K. Prove that if either Martins Axiom or
Luzins Axiom (2!1 > 2! ) holds then the space K is sequential.
075. Suppose that we have a space X , a compact space K and a S
compact-valued
upper semicontinuous map p W X ! exp.K/ such that
p.X / D K.
Knowing that l.X / t .X /   and t .p.x//   for any x 2 X prove that
t .K/  .
076. Suppose that K is a compact sequential space and L is a compact space for
which there
S exists a finite-valued upper semicontinuous map p W K ! exp.L/
such that p.K/ D L. Prove that L is also sequential.
077. Suppose that there exists an open continuous map of a subspace of Cp .X / onto
Cp .Y /. Prove that, for any n 2 N there
S Sis a finite-valued upper semicontinuous
map 'n W X n ! exp.Y / such that f 'n .X n / W n 2 Ng D Y .
078. Suppose that there is an open continuous map of a subspace of Cp .X /
onto Cp .Y /. Prove that t .K/  t  .X / l  .X / for any compact K  Y .
Deduce from this fact that if K and L are t -equivalent compact spaces then
t .K/ D t .L/.

1.1 Equivalences that arise from homeomorphisms of Cp .X/

11

079. Suppose that X is a compact sequential space and Y is a compact space such
that there is an open continuous map of some subspace of Cp .X / onto Cp .Y /.
Prove that Y is a countable union of its compact sequential subspaces. As
a consequence, under Martins Axiom if K and L are compact t -equivalent
spaces and K is sequential then L is also sequential.
080. S
Let X and Y be metrizable t -equivalent spaces. Prove that we have Y D
fYn W n 2 !g, where each Yn is a G -subspace of Y , homeomorphic to some
G -subspace of X .
081. Let XSand Y be metrizable spaces such that Cp .X / ' Cp .Y /. Prove that
Y D fYn W n 2 !g, where each Yn is a G -subspace of Y , homeomorphic to
some G -subspace of X .
082. Let X and Y be metrizable t -equivalent spaces. Prove that X is a countable
union of zero-dimensional subspaces if and only if so is Y .
083. Let X and Y be metrizable t -equivalent spaces. Prove that X is a countable

union of its Cech-complete


subspaces if and only if so is Y .
084. Suppose that fa0 ; : : : ; am g  Rn is an independent set. Prove that
(i) the simplex S D a0 ; : : : ; am
is a compact subset of Rn ;
(ii) any two m-dimensional simplexes are homeomorphic;
(iii) the barycentric coordinates are continuous functions from S to 0; 1
.
085. Let S be a simplex in Rn and suppose that S0  S1  : : :  Sk are distinct
faces of S . Prove that the points fb.S0 /; : : : ; b.Sk /g are independent. Here
b.Si / is the barycenter of the simplex Si for all i  k.
086. For a simplex S D a0 ; ; : : : ; am
, consider the family B.S / of all simplexes
of the form b.S0 /; : : : ; b.Sk /
, where S0  S1  : : :  Sk are distinct faces
of S . Prove that P is a simplicial subdivision of S such that any .m  1/dimensional simplex T 2 B.S / is a face of one or two m-dimensional
members of B.S / depending on whether T is contained in an .m  1/dimensional face of S . The subdivision B.S / is called the barycentric
subdivision of the simplex S .
087. Given a simplex S , let B1 .S / be the barycentric subdivision B.S / of the
simplex S . IfSwe have a simplicial subdivision Bn .S / of the simplex S , let
BnC1 .S / D fB.T / W T 2 Bn .S /g. The family Bn .S / is called the n-th
barycentric subdivision of the simplex S . Prove that, for any simplex S and
any " > 0, there exists a natural number n such that the mesh of the n-th
barycentric subdivision of the simplex S is less than ".
088. (Sperners lemma). Given a number l 2 N and an m-dimensional simplex
a0 ; : : : ; am
let V be the set of all vertices of simplexes in Bl .a0 ; : : : ; am
/.
Suppose that, for a function h W V ! f0; 1; : : : ; mg, we have h.v/ 2
fi0 ; : : : ; ik g whenever v 2 ai0 ; : : : ; aik
. Prove that the family of simplexes
in Bl .a0 ; : : : ; am
/, on vertices of which h takes all values from 0 to m, has
an odd cardinality.
089. (Browers fixed-point theorem). Prove that, for any n 2 N, if S is an
n-dimensional simplex and f W S ! S is a continuous function then there
exists a point x 2 S such that f .x/ D x.

12

1 Properties Preserved by Homeomorphisms of Function Spaces

090. Prove that, for any n 2 N, there is no retraction of the cube In onto its boundary
@In D fx 2 In W jx.i /j D 1 for some i < ng.
091. Given spaces X and Y and functions f; g 2 C.X; Y /, let f  g denote the
fact that f and g are homotopic. Prove that  is an equivalence relation on
C.X; Y /.
092. Given a space X , let f; g W X ! @In be continuous maps such that the points
f .x/ and g.x/ belong to the same face of In for any x 2 X . Prove that f and
g are homotopic.
093. (Mushroom lemma). Let X be a normal countably paracompact space. Suppose that F  X is closed and we have continuous homotopic mappings f0 ; f1
of F to the n-dimensional sphere S n D fx 2 RnC1 W x.0/2 C: : :Cx.n/2 D 1g.
Prove that, if there exists a continuous map g0 W X ! S n with g0 jF D f0
then there is a continuous map g1 W X ! S n such that g1 jF D f1 and g1 is
homotopic to g0 .
094. For each i < n, consider the faces Fi D fx 2 In W x.i / D 1g and Gi D fx 2
In W x.i / D 1g of the n-dimensional
cube In . Prove that, if Ci is a partition
T
between Fi and Gi then fCi W i < ng ;.
095. For each i 2 !, consider the subsets Fi D fx 2 I! W x.i / D 1g and
Gi D fx 2 I! W x.i / DT1g of the cube I! . Prove that, if Ci is any partition
between Fi and Gi then fCi W i 2 !g ;.
096. Prove that, for any n 2 N, the space In is the finite union of its zerodimensional subspaces.
097. Prove that, for any n 2 N, the space In cannot be represented as the union of
 n-many of its zero-dimensional subspaces.
098. Prove that the cube I! cannot be represented as the countable union of its
zero-dimensional subspaces. Prove (inSZFC) that there exist zero-dimensional
spaces fX W < !1 g such that I! D fX W < !1 g.
099. Prove that, for any n 2 N, the spaces In and I! are not t -equivalent.
100. Suppose that X is one of the spaces !1 or !1 C 1. Prove that, for any distinct
m; n 2 N, the spaces .Cp .X //n and .Cp .X //m are not homeomorphic. In
particular, X is not t -equivalent to X X .

1.2 Uniformities, Dimension, and u-Equivalence

13

1.2 Uniformities, Dimension, and u-Equivalence


Given a set X and A  X 2 , let A1 D f.x; y/ 2 X  X W .y; x/ 2 Ag. The set
A is symmetric if A1 D A. If A; B  X  X , then A B D f.x; y/ 2 X 2 W
there exists a point z 2 X such that .x; z/ 2 B and .z; y/ 2 Ag. Here, as usual,
D X D f.x; x/ W x 2 X g. For any point x 2 X and U S
 X 2 let U.x/ D
2
fy 2 X W .x; y/ 2 U g; if A  X and U  X , then U.A/ D fU.x/ W x 2 Ag.
A nonempty family U  exp.X X / is a uniformity on a set X if it has the following
properties:
T
(U1)
U D , besides, if U; V 2 U then U 1 2 U and U \ V 2 U ;
(U2) if U 2 U then W 2 U whenever U  W ; besides, V V  U for
some V 2 U .
The pair .X; U / is called a uniform space. A family B  U is called a base of the
uniformity U if, for any U 2 U , there is V 2 B such that V  U . A family S  U
is called a subbase of the uniformity U if the family of all finite intersections of the
elements of S is a base for U . As usual, if f W X ! Y then f f W X X ! Y Y
is defined by .f  f /.x1 ; x2 / D .f .x1 /; f .x2 //.
If .X; U / is a uniform space, let U D f;g [ fO  X W for any x 2 O there
is U 2 U such that U.x/  Og. The family U is a topology; it is called the
topology generated by the uniformity U . If a topological notion (closure, interior,
base, continuity, etc.) is mentioned for a uniform space .X; U /, the topology in
question is always U . Given uniform spaces .X; U / and .Y; V/, a map f W X ! Y
is called uniformly continuous with respect to U and V if, for any V 2 V, we
have U D .f  f /1 .V / D f.x; y/ 2 X 2 W .f .x/; f .y// 2 V g 2 U . If the
uniformities U and V are clear, we will just say that f is uniformly continuous.
The mapping f is called a uniform isomorphism (or uniform homeomorphism) if it
is a bijection and both maps f and f 1 are uniformly continuous. If there exists
a uniform isomorphism f W X ! Y , the spaces .X; U / and .Y; V/ are called
uniformly isomorphic (or uniformly homeomorphic). It is impossible to distinguish
two uniformly isomorphic uniform spaces because their properties, which can be
expressed in terms of their uniformities, are identical.
An arbitrary function d W X  X ! R is called a pseudometric on the set X
if d.x; x/ D 0; d.x; y/  0 for any x; y 2 X and d.x; z/  d.x; y/ C d.y; z/
for any x; y; z 2 X . If .X; U / is a uniform space and Y  X , then the family
UYX D fU \ .Y  Y / W U 2 U g is a uniformity on Y ; the pair .Y; UYX / is called a
uniform subspace of the uniform space .X; U / and UYX is the uniformity induced
on Y from X . If X is a set, .Y; V/ is a uniform space and f W X ! Y then
f 1 .V/ D f.f  f /1S
.V / W V 2 Vg. If we have a family f.Xt ; Ut / W t 2 T g
of uniform spaces then fpt1
Q.Ut / W t 2 T g is a subbase of a (uniquely defined)
uniformity U on the set X D fXt W t 2 T g (check it, please). The uniform space
.X; U / is called the uniform product of the uniform spaces f.Xt ; Ut / W t 2 T g.
Given a uniform space .X; U /, a family F  exp.X / is Cauchy if, for any U 2 U ,
we have F  F  U for some F 2 F. The uniform space .X; U / is called complete

14

1 Properties Preserved by Homeomorphisms of Function Spaces

T
if, for any Cauchy filter F on X , we have fA W A 2 Fg ;. A uniform space
.X; U / is called totally bounded if, for any U 2 U , there is a finite P  X such that
U.P / D X .
Given a linear topological space L let G.U / D f.x; y/ 2 L  L W x  y 2 U g for
any U 2 .0; L/ where 0 is the zero vector of L. Then fG.U / W U 2 .0; L/g
is a base for the linear uniformity on the set L. From now on, if a uniformity
notion is used in a linear topological space L (in particular, when L D R or
L D Cp .X /), then the relevant uniformity is assumed to be linear. If X and Y
u
are Tychonoff spaces, they are called u-equivalent (which is denoted by X  Y ),
if Cp .X / is uniformly isomorphic to Cp .Y /. A set E  Cp .X / is a QS-algebra
for X if, given x 2 X and closed F  X with x F , there is f 2 E with
f .x/ D 1 and f .F /  f0g and, besides, for any f; g 2 E and q 2 Q, we have
f C g 2 E; f g 2 E and q f 2 E.
A set P  X is called functionally closed (open) if there exists f 2 C.X / and
a closed (open) Q  R such that P D f 1 .Q/. A family C of sets is called closed
(open, functionally open, functionally closed) if all elements of C are closed (open,
functionally open, functionally closed). If U  exp.X /, we say that the order of U
is  k (denoting it by ord.U /  k), if every x 2 X belongs to at most k elements
of U . If A D fAs W s 2 S g  exp.X /, a family fBs W s 2 S g  exp.X / is
called a swelling of A if As  Bs for each s 2 S and BS
s0 \ : : : Bsm D ; if
and only if As0 \ : : : Asm D ; for any s0 ; : : : sm 2 S . If A D X , a family
B DS
fBs W s 2 S g  exp.X / is called a shrinking of A if Bs  As for each s 2 S
and B D X . Given X 2 T3 1 , let dim X D 1 if and only if X D ;. If X ;,
2
we say that dim X  n 2 ! if any finite functionally open cover U of the space
X has a finite functionally open refinement V with ord.V/  n C 1. It is said that
dim X D n if dim X  n and dim X  n  1 does not hold. Finally, dim X D 1 if
dim X  n is false for all n 2 !.
A partial order  on a set T is called a direction on T if, for any s; t 2 T , there
is w 2 T such that s  w and t  w. A set with a direction is called a directed set.
A subset T 0 of a directed set T is cofinal in T if, for any t 2 T , there is t 0 2 T 0
such that t  t 0 . Suppose that, for every element t of a directed set T , we have a
topological space Xt and, for every pair t; s 2 T with s  t , there is a continuous
map st W Xt ! Xs . If, for all r; s; t 2 T with r  s  t , we have tt D idXt and
rs st D rt then the family S D fXt ; st W t; s 2 T g is called an inverse system and
the maps st are called projections. An inverse system Q
S D fXm ; nm W m; n 2 !g
is called an inverse sequence. An element x 2 X D fXt W t 2 T g is called a
thread of S if st .x.t // D x.s/ whenever t; s 2 T and s < t . The set lim S of all

threads of S (with the topology inherited from X ) is called the limit of the inverse
system S. The natural projection pt W X ! Xt , restricted to lim S, is called the limit


projection and is denoted by t . If we have inverse systems S D fXt ; st W t; s 2 T g


and T D fYt ; pst W t; s 2 T g with the same directed set T , a family fft W t 2 T g is a
topological isomorphism (embedding) between S and T (of S in T ), if ft W Xt ! Yt
is a homeomorphism (a topological embedding) such that pst ft D fs st for any
s; t 2 T with s  t .

1.2 Uniformities, Dimension, and u-Equivalence

15

101. Prove that a nonempty family B  exp.X  X / is a base for some uniformity
on X if and only if it has the following properties:
T
(1)
B D ;
(2) for any U 2 B, there is V 2 B such that V 1  U ;
(3) for any U 2 B, there is V 2 B such that V V  U ;
(4) if U; V 2 B then there is W 2 B such that W  U \ V .
102. Suppose that a nonempty family S  exp.X X / has the following properties:
T
(1)
S D ;
(2) for any U 2 S, there is V 2 S such that V 1  U ;
(3) for any U 2 S, there is V 2 S such that V V  U .
Prove that S is a subbase for some uniformity on X . As a consequence, the
union of any family of uniformities on X is a subbase of some uniformity
on X .
103. Let .X; U / be a uniform space. Prove that
(1) Int.A/ D fx W U.x/  A for some U 2 U g for any set A  X ; in
particular, x 2 Int.U.x// for any U 2 U ;
(2) if B is a base of the uniformity U then, for any x 2 X and O 2 .x; X /,
there is B 2 B such that B.x/  O. In particular, the family fInt.B.x// W
B 2 Bg is a local base of the space X at x.
(3) if S is a subbase of U then,
T for any x 2 X and O 2 .x; X /, there is a
finite S 0  S such that fS.x/ W S 2 S 0 g  O.
(4) for any U 2 U , the interior (in X  X ) of the set U also belongs to U . As
a consequence, the family of all open symmetric elements of U is a base
of U ;T
(5) A D TfU.A/ W U 2 U g for any A  X ;
(6) B D fU B U W U 2 U g for any B  X  X ;
(7) the family of all closed symmetric elements of U is a base of U .
104. Given uniform spaces .X; U / and .Y; V/, prove that every uniformly continuous map f W X ! Y is continuous. In particular, every uniform isomorphism
is a homeomorphism.
105. Suppose
Q that .Xt ; Ut / is a uniform space for every t 2 T and consider the set
X D t2T Xt . Let pt W X ! Xt be the natural projection for every t 2 T ;
prove that
S
(1) the family S D fpt1 .Ut / W t 2 T g is a subbase of a unique uniformity
on X , i.e., the uniform product .X; U / of the spaces f.Xt ; Ut / W t 2 T g is
well defined;
(2) every map pt W .X; U / ! .Xt ; Ut / is uniformlyQcontinuous;
(3) U coincides with the topology of the product f.Xt ; Ut / W t 2 T g.
106. Let .X; U / be the uniform product of the family f.Xt ; Ut / W t 2 T g. Given a
uniform space .Y; V/, prove that a map f W Y ! X is uniformly continuous
if and only if pt f W Y ! Xt is uniformly continuous for any t 2 T . Here,
as always, the map pt W X ! Xt is the natural projection.

16

1 Properties Preserved by Homeomorphisms of Function Spaces

107. Prove that, for any uniform space .X; U /, a pseudometric d W X  X ! R is


uniformly continuous with respect to the uniform square of .X; U / if and only
if the set Or D f.x; y/ 2 X  X W d.x; y/ < rg belongs to U for any r > 0.
Such pseudometrics will be called uniformly continuous on .X; U /.
108. Suppose that a sequence fUn W n 2 !g of subsets of X  X has the following
properties:
(1) U0 D X  X and  Un for any n 2 !;
(2) the set Un is symmetric and UnC1 UnC1 UnC1  Un for any n 2 !.

109.

110.
111.

112.
113.
114.

Prove that there exists a pseudometric d on the set X such that, for any n 2 N,
we have Un  f.x; y/ W d.x; y/  2n g  Un1 .
Given a uniform space .X; U / and U 2 U , prove that there is a uniformly
continuous pseudometric  on .X; U / such that f.x; y/ 2 X  X W .x; y/ <
1g  U .
Prove that a topological space X is Tychonoff if and only if there exists a
uniformity U on the set X such that .X / D U .
Given a metric  on a set X and a number r > 0, consider the set Ur D
f.x; y/ 2 X X W .x; y/ < rg. Prove that the family B D fUr W r > 0g forms
a base of some uniformity U on the set X . The uniformity U is called the
uniformity induced by the metric . A uniform space .X; U / is called uniformly
metrizable if U D U for some metric  on the set X .
Prove that a uniform space .X; U / is uniformly metrizable if and only if U has
a countable base.
Prove that every uniform space is uniformly isomorphic to a subspace of a
product of uniformly metrizable spaces.
Given a uniform space .X; U / prove that the following conditions are
equivalent:
(i) the space .X; U / is complete;
T
(ii) if C is a centered Cauchy family of closed subsets of X then T
C ;;
(iii) if C is a centered Cauchy family of subsets of X then
fC W
C 2 Cg ;;
T
(iv) if B is a Cauchy filter base on X then fB W B 2 Bg T;;
(v) if B is a Cauchy filter base of closed subsets of X then B ;;
(vi) any Cauchy filter F on X converges to a point x 2 X , i.e.,
.x; X /  F;
T
(vii) if E is a Cauchy ultrafilter on X then fE W E 2 Eg ;;
(viii) if E is a Cauchy ultrafilter on X then it converges to a point x 2 X .

115. Prove that any closed uniform subspace of a complete uniform space is
complete.
116. Let .X; U / be a uniform space such that some Y  X is complete considered
as a uniform subspace of .X; U /. Prove that Y is closed in X .
117. Prove that, for any family A D f.Xt ; Ut / W t 2 T g of complete uniform spaces,
the uniform product .X; U / of the family A is complete.

1.2 Uniformities, Dimension, and u-Equivalence

17

118. Let .X; U / be a uniform space such that the uniformity U is induced by a
metric . Prove that .X; U / is complete if and only if the metric space .X; /
is complete.
119. Let A be a dense subspace of a uniform space .X; U /. Suppose that
f W A ! Y is a uniformly continuous map of .A; UAX / to a complete uniform
space .Y; V/. Prove that there is a uniformly continuous map F W X ! Y
such that F jA D f .
120. Let .X; U / and .Y; V/ be complete uniform spaces. Suppose that A is a dense
subspace of X and B is a dense subspace of Y . Prove that every uniform
isomorphism between the uniform spaces .A; UAX / and .B; VBY / is extendable
to a uniform isomorphism between .X; U / and .Y; V/.
121. Prove that every uniform space .X; U / is uniformly isomorphic to a dense
subspace of a complete uniform space .X  ; U  /. The space .X  ; U  / is called
the completion of the space .X; U /. Prove that the completion of .X; U / is
unique in the sense that, if .Y; V/ is a complete uniform space such that .X; U /
is a dense uniform subspace of .Y; V/ then there is a uniform isomorphism
W X  ! Y such that .x/ D x for any x 2 X .
122. Let X be a paracompact Tychonoff space. Prove that the family of all neighborhoods of the diagonal of X is a uniformity on X which generates .X /.
123. Suppose that X is a Tychonoff space such that the family of all neighborhoods
of the diagonal of X is a uniformity on X which generates .X /. Prove that
X is collectionwise normal.
124. Give an example of a Tychonoff countably compact non-compact (and hence
non-paracompact) space X such that the family of all neighborhoods of the
diagonal of X is a uniformity on X which generates .X /.
125. Prove that, for any compact uniform space .X; U /, the uniformity U coincides
with the family of all neighborhoods of the diagonal of X .
126. Suppose that .X; U / a compact uniform space. Prove that, for any uniform
space .Y; V/, any continuous map f W X ! Y is uniformly continuous.
127. Let .X; U / be a uniform space such that the uniformity U is induced by a
metric . Prove that .X; U / is totally bounded if and only if the metric space
.X; / is totally bounded.
128. Prove that a uniform space .X; U / is totally bounded if and only if every
ultrafilter on X is a Cauchy family with respect to U .
129. Prove that any uniform product of totally bounded uniform spaces is totally
bounded.
130. Prove that a uniform space is compact if and only if it is complete and totally
bounded. Deduce from this fact that a uniform space is totally bounded if and
only if its completion is compact.
131. Prove that a Tychonoff space X is pseudocompact if and only if every
uniformity U on the set X with U D .X / is totally bounded.
132. For any Tychonoff space X let UX be
Sthe family of all uniformities on the set
X which generate .X /. Note that UX can be considered a subbase of a
uniformity NX (called the universal uniformity) on the set X . Prove that

18

1 Properties Preserved by Homeomorphisms of Function Spaces

(i) the topology generated by NX coincides with .X / and hence NX 2 UX ;


(ii) if Y is a Tychonoff space and f W X ! Y is a continuous map then the
map f W .X; NX / ! .Y; V/ is uniformly continuous for any uniformity
V 2 UY .
133. Let X be a Tychonoff space. Prove that the following are equivalent:
(i) there exists a complete uniformity U on the set X such that U D .X /;
(ii) the universal uniformity on the space X is complete;
(iii) the space X is Dieudonn complete.
134. For any linear topological space L denote by 0L its zero vector and let G.U / D
f.x; y/ 2 L  L W x  y 2 U g for any U 2 .0L ; L/. Prove that
(i) the family BL D fG.U / W U 2 .0L ; L/g forms a base for a uniformity
UL on the set L (called the linear uniformity on L).
(ii) If M is a linear subspace of L then the linear uniformity UM on the set
M coincides with the subspace uniformity induced on M from L.
(iii) If L0 is a linear topological space then a map f W L ! L0 is uniformly
continuous if and only if, for any U 0 2 .0L0 ; L0 / there exists U 2
.0L ; L/ such that f .x/  f .y/ 2 U 0 for any x; y 2 L with x  y 2 U .
(iv) If L0 is a linear topological space then any linear continuous map f W
L ! L0 is uniformly continuous if L and L0 are considered with their
linear uniformities. In particular, any linear isomorphism between L and
L0 is a uniform isomorphism.
135. Prove that the linear uniformity of RX coincides with the uniform product
of the respective family of real lines. Deduce from this fact that RX is the
completion of Cp .X / for any space X so Cp .X / is complete as a uniform
space if and only if X is discrete.
136. Prove that Cp .X / is  -totally bounded as a uniform space if and only if X is
pseudocompact. More formally, X is pseudocompact if and only
S if there exists
a family fCn W n 2 !g  exp.Cp .X // such that Cp .X / D fCn W n 2 !g
and each Cn is totally bounded considered as a uniform subspace of Cp .X /.
In particular, if Cp .X / is uniformly isomorphic to Cp .Y / then the space X is
pseudocompact if and only if so is Y .
u
t
137. Observe that X  Y implies X  Y . Given an example of t -equivalent spaces
X and Y which are not u-equivalent.
138. Suppose that Cp .X / is uniformly isomorphic to Cp .Y /. Prove that X is
compact if and only if so is Y .
139. Suppose that the spaces X and Y are u-equivalent. Prove that there exists a
homeomorphism ' W RX ! RY such that '.Cp .X // D Cp .Y /.
140. Let F D fF1 ; : : : ; Fk g be a family of functionally closed subsets of a
Tychonoff space X . Suppose that fU1 ; : : : ; Uk g is a family of functionally
open subsets of X such that Fi  Ui for each i . Prove that the family F has a
functionally open swelling fW1 ; : : : ; Wk g such that Fi  Wi  W i  Ui for
each i  k.

1.2 Uniformities, Dimension, and u-Equivalence

19

141. Let F D fF1 ; : : : ; Fk g be a family of closed subsets of a normal space X .


Suppose that fU1 ; : : : ; Uk g is a family of open subsets of X such that Fi  Ui
for each i  k. Prove that the family F has an open swelling fW1 ; : : : ; Wk g
such that Fi  Wi  W i  Ui for each i  k.
142. Let U D fU1 ; : : : ; Uk g be a functionally open cover of a Tychonoff
space X . Prove that U has shrinkings F D fF1 ; : : : ; Fk g and W D
fW1 ; : : : ; Wk g such that F is functionally closed, W is functionally open
and Fi  Wi  W i  Ui for every i  k.
143. Let U D fU1 ; : : : ; Uk g be an open cover of a normal space X . Prove that U has
shrinkings F D fF1 ; : : : ; Fk g and W D fW1 ; : : : ; Wk g such that F is closed,
W is open, and Fi  Wi  W i  Ui for every i  k.
144. Prove that, for any Tychonoff space X , the following conditions are
equivalent:
(i) dim X  n;
(ii) every finite functionally open cover of X has a finite functionally closed
refinement of order  n C 1;
(iii) every finite functionally open cover of X has a functionally closed
shrinking of order  n C 1;
(iv) every finite functionally open cover of X has a functionally open
shrinking of order  n C 1.
145. Prove that, for any normal X , the following conditions are equivalent:
(i) dim X  n;
(ii) every finite open cover of X has a finite open refinement of order  nC1;
(iii) every finite open cover of X has a finite closed refinement of order
 n C 1;
(iv) every finite open cover of X has a closed shrinking of order  n C 1;
(v) every finite open cover of X has an open shrinking of order  n C 1.
146. Suppose that X is a Tychonoff space and Y is a C  -embedded subset of X .
Prove that dim Y  dim X . In particular, if X is normal then dim F  dim X
for any closed F  X .
147. Prove that dim X D dim X for any Tychonoff space X . Deduce from this
fact that dim X D dim Y for any Y with X  Y  X .
148. Prove that a Tychonoff space X is strongly zero-dimensional if and only if X
is normal and dim X D 0. Give an example of a Tychonoff space X such that
dim X D 0 while X is not strongly zero-dimensional.
149. Prove that dim X D 0 implies that X is zero-dimensional. Give an example of
a zero-dimensional space Y such that dim Y > 0.
150. (The countable sum theorem for normal spaces). Given n 2 !, suppose that
a normal space X has a countable closed cover F such that dim F  n for
every F 2 F. Prove that dim X  n.
151. (General countable sum theorem). Given n 2 !, suppose that we have a closed
countable cover F of a Tychonoff space X such that

20

1 Properties Preserved by Homeomorphisms of Function Spaces

(i) every F 2 F is C  -embedded in X ;


(ii) dim F  n for each F 2 F.

152.
153.
154.

155.

156.

157.

158.

159.

160.
161.

162.

163.

Prove that dim X  n; give an example


of a Tychonoff non-normal space Y
S
such that dim Y > 0 and Y D fYi W i 2 !g, where Yi is closed in Y and
dim Yi D 0 for every i 2 !.
Give an example of a compact (and hence normal) space X such that
dim X D 0 while dim Y > 0 for some Y  X .
Give an example of a Tychonoff space X such that dim X D 0 and dim Y > 0
for some closed Y  X .
Let X be a normal space with dim X  n. Given a subspace Y  X , suppose
that, for every open U  Y , there exists an F -set P such that Y  P  U .
Prove that dim Y  n.
Prove that, for any perfectly normal space X , we have dim Y  dim X for
any Y  X . In particular, dim Y  dim X for any subspace Y of a metrizable
space X .
Given n 2 ! and a Tychonoff space X , prove that dim X  n if and only if,
for any family f.A0 ; B0 /; : : : ; .An ; Bn /g of n C 1 pairs of disjoint functionally
closed sets, it is possible to choose, for each i  n, a functionally closed
partition Ci between Ai and Bi in such a way that L0 \ : : : \ Ln D ;.
Given a natural n  0 and a normal space X , prove that dim X  n if and only
if, for any family f.A0 ; B0 /; : : : ; .An ; Bn /g of nC1 pairs of disjoint closed sets,
it is possible to choose, for each i  n, a partition Ci between Ai and Bi in
such a way that L0 \ : : : \ Ln D ;.
Let X be a normal space. Prove that dim X  n if and only if, for any closed
F  X and any continuous map f W F ! S n , there exists a continuous
map g W X ! S n such that gjF D f . Here S n D f.x0 ; : : : ; xn / 2 RnC1 W
x02 C : : : C xn2 D 1g is the n-dimensional sphere with the topology inherited
from RnC1 .
Prove that dim.In / D dim.Rn / D dim.S n / D n for any n 2 N. Here S n D
f.x0 ; : : : ; xn / 2 RnC1 W x02 C : : : C xn2 D 1g is the n-dimensional sphere with
the topology inherited from RnC1 .
Given n 2 N prove that, for any set X  Rn , we have dim X D n if and only
if the interior of X in Rn is nonempty.
Prove that, for any Tychonoff space X and n 2 !, we have dim X  n if and
only if, for any second countable space Y and any continuous f W X ! Y ,
there exists a second countable space M and continuous maps g W X ! M;
h W M ! Y such that dim M  n and f D h g.
Prove that, for any n 2 !, there exists a compact second countable space Un
such that dim Un  n and any second countable X with dim X  n can be
embedded in Un .
Suppose that X is a second countable space, Y  X and dim Y  n. Prove
that there exists a G -set Y 0 of the space X such that Y  Y 0 and dim Y 0  n.

1.2 Uniformities, Dimension, and u-Equivalence

21

164. Given n 2 ! and a second countable Tychonoff space X prove that dim X  n
if and only there exist X0 ; : : : ; Xn  X such that X D X0 [ : : : [ Xn and
dim Xi  0 for each i  n.
of Hausdorff topological
165. Let S D fXt ; st W t; s 2 T g be an inverse system
Q
spaces. Prove that the set lim S is closed in fXt W t 2 T g. Therefore the

limit of an inverse system of Hausdorff compact spaces is a Hausdorff compact
space.
166. Suppose that S D fXt ; st W t; s 2 T g is an inverse system in which Xt is a
nonempty compact Hausdorff space for each t . Prove that lim S ;.


167. Let S D fXt ; st W t; s 2 T g be an inverse system. Suppose that, for a space
Y , a continuous map ft W Y ! Xt is given for every t 2 T and, besides,
st ft D fs for any s; t 2 T with s  t . Prove that the diagonal product
f D t2T ft maps Y continuously into lim S.

168. Let X be a topological space. Suppose that, for a nonempty directed set T ,
a subspace Xt  X is given for each t 2 T in such a way that Xt  Xs
whenever s  t . Given s; t 2 T with s  t , let st .x/ D x for each x 2 Xt .
Prove that the inverse system STD fXt ; st W t; s 2 T g is well defined and the
limit of S is homeomorphic to fXt W t 2 T g.
169. Give an example of an inverse sequence S D fXn ; mn W n; m 2 !g such that
every Xn is a nonempty second countable Tychonoff space while lim S D ;.


170. Given an inverse system S D fXt ; st W t; s 2 T g of topological spaces, prove


that the family B D ft1 .U / W t 2 T; U 2 .Xt /g is a base of the space
L Dlim S. Here t W L ! Xt is the limit projection for every t 2 T .


171. Suppose that S D fXt ; st W t; s 2 T g is an inverse system of topological


spaces. Prove that, for any closed set F  lim S, the subspace F is the limit of


the inverse system SF D ft .F /; st jt .F / W t; s 2 T g. Here t W lim S ! Xt



is the limit projection for every t 2 T .
172. Given an inverse system S D fXt ; st W t; s 2 T g and a cofinal set T 0  T ,
prove that the limit of the inverse system S 0 D fXt ; st W t; s 2 T 0 g is
homeomorphic to lim S.


173. Suppose that an inverse system S D fXt ; st W t; s 2 T g consists of compact


Hausdorff spaces Xt and all projections st are onto. Prove that all limit
projections t are also surjective maps.
174. Suppose that n 2 ! and S D fXt ; st W t; s 2 T g is an inverse system in
which all spaces Xt are compact and Hausdorff. Knowing additionally that
dim Xt  n for each t 2 T prove that dim.lim S/  n.


175. Suppose that n 2 ! and S D fXl ; ml W l; m 2 !g is an inverse sequence in


which every Xl is a Lindelf -space. Knowing additionally that dim Xl  n
for every l 2 ! prove that dim.lim S/  n.


176. Prove that if X is second countable and A  Cp .X / is countable then there


exists a countable QS-algebra E  Cp .X / such that A  E.

22

1 Properties Preserved by Homeomorphisms of Function Spaces

177. Let K D fx0 ; : : : ; xn g  X be a finite subset of a space X . Suppose


additionally that U 2 .K; X / and q0 ; : : : ; qn 2 Q. Prove that, for any
QS-algebra E on a space X , there is f 2 E such that f .X nU /  f0g and
f .xi / D qi for each i  n.
178. Given second countable Tychonoff spaces X and Y , suppose that some
QS-algebras E.X / and E.Y / are chosen in Cp .X / and Cp .Y / respectively.
Prove that, if E.X / is uniformly homeomorphic to E.Y / then X is representable as a countable union of closed subspaces each one of which embeds
in Y .
179. Given second countable Tychonoff spaces X and Y , suppose that some
QS-algebras E.X / and E.Y / are chosen in Cp .X / and Cp .Y / respectively.
Prove that, if E.X / is uniformly homeomorphic to E.Y / then dim X D
dim Y .
180. Suppose that X and Y are Tychonoff spaces such that Cp .X / is uniformly
homeomorphic to Cp .Y /. Prove that dim X D dim Y .
181. Let X be a zero-dimensional compact space. Prove that Y is also a zerou
dimensional compact space whenever Y  X .
u
182. Suppose that X is a zero-dimensional Lindelf space and Y  X . Prove that
Y is also zero-dimensional.
183. Given a countable ordinal   1, prove that a metrizable space X is an
absolute Borel set of multiplicative class  (i.e., X 2 M ) if and only if there
exists a completely metrizable space Z such that X is homeomorphic to some
Y 2 0 .Z/.
184. Given a countable ordinal   2, prove that a metrizable space X is an
absolute Borel set of additive class  (i.e., X 2 A ) if and only if there
exists a completely metrizable space Z such that X is homeomorphic to some
Y 2 0 .Z/.
185. Suppose that n 2 N and a space Xi is metrizable for every i  n. Prove that,
for any countable ordinal   2,
(i) if Xi 2 A for all i  n then X1  : : :  Xn 2 A ;
(ii) if Xi 2 M for all i  n then X1  : : :  Xn 2 M .
186. Given ordinals ; 2 !1 such
S that  2 and < suppose that X is a
metrizable space and X D fXn W n 2 !g where Xn 2 0 .X / \ M for
every n 2 !. Prove that X 2 M .
187. Prove that a metrizable space X is a Borel set of absolute additive class   2
(i.e., X 2S
A ) if and only if there exists a sequence fn W n 2 !g   such
that X D fXn W n 2 !g and Xn 2 Mn for every n 2 !.
188. Given a countable ordinal   2, let M be the class of absolute Borel sets of
multiplicative class . Prove that the following conditions are equivalent for
any metrizable X :
(i) the space X belongs to M ;
(ii) there is a complete sequence fUn W n 2 !g of  -discrete covers of X
such that, for any n 2 !, there is n <  with Un  0n .X /;

1.2 Uniformities, Dimension, and u-Equivalence

23

(iii) there is a complete sequence fVn W n 2 !g of  -discrete


covers of X such
S
that, for any n 2 !, there is n <  with Vn  f0 .X / W < n g.
189. Given a countable ordinal   2 prove that the following conditions are
equivalent for any second countable X :
(i) the space X belongs to M ;
(ii) there is a complete sequence fUn W n 2 !g of countable covers of X such
that, for any n 2 !, there is n <  with Un  0n .X /;
(iii) there is a complete sequence fVn W n 2 !g of countable
covers of X such
S
that, for any n 2 !, there is n <  with Vn  f0 .X / W < n g.
190. Prove that any analytic space has a complete sequence of countable covers.
Show that in metrizable spaces the converse is also true, i.e., a metrizable
space X is analytic if and only if there exists a complete sequence of countable
covers of X .
191. For any metrizable space X and n 2 N define a map e W X n ! X
n by
e..x1 ; : : : ; xn // D fx1 ; : : : ; xn g for every .x1 ; : : : ; xn / 2 X n . Prove that there
exists an F -set G in the space X n such that e.G/ D X
n and the map ejG W
G ! X
n is a bijection.
192. Given a metrizable space X and n 2 N consider the set X
n together with
its Vietoris topology. Prove that there exists
S a family fYm W m 2 !g of
closed subsets of X
n such that X
n D fYm W m 2 !g and every Ym is
homeomorphic to some closed subspace of X n .
193. Suppose that there exists a uniformly continuous surjection of Cp .X / onto
Cp .Y /. Prove that if X is pseudocompact then Y is also pseudocompact.
Deduce from this fact that if X is a metrizable compact space and there exists a
uniformly continuous surjection of Cp .X / onto Cp .Y / then Y is also compact.
Give an example of a (non-metrizable!) compact space X such that there is a
non-compact space Y and a uniformly continuous surjection of Cp .X / onto
Cp .Y /.
194. Assume that X and Y are metrizable spaces and there exists either a uniformly
continuous surjection of Cp .X / onto Cp .Y / or a uniformly continuous
surjection of Cp .X / onto Cp .Y /. Prove S
that there exists a family fYn W n 2 !g
of closed subspaces of Y such that Y D n2! Yn and each Yn can be perfectly
mapped onto a closed subspace of X
kn (with the Vietoris topology) for some
kn 2 N.
195. Let P be a class of metrizable spaces with the following properties:
(1) P contains all complete metrizable spaces;
(2) P is invariant under finite products and closed
S subspaces;
(3) if M is a metrizable space with M D fMn W n 2 !g, where Mn is
closed in M and Mn 2 P for each n 2 !, then M 2 P.
Suppose that X 2 P and Y is a metrizable space. Prove that, if there exists
a uniformly continuous surjection of Cp .X / onto Cp .Y / (or Cp .X / onto
Cp .Y /), then Y 2 P.

24

1 Properties Preserved by Homeomorphisms of Function Spaces

196. Let P be a class of second countable spaces such that


(1) every compact metrizable space belongs to P;
(2) P is invariant under finite products and closedSsubspaces;
(3) if M is a second countable space with M D fMn W n 2 !g, where Mn
is closed in M and Mn 2 P for each n 2 !, then M 2 P.
Suppose that X 2 P and Y is a metrizable space. Prove that, if there exists
a uniformly continuous surjection of Cp .X / onto Cp .Y / (or Cp .X / onto
Cp .Y /), then Y 2 P.
197. Given a countable ordinal , let M be the class of absolute Borel sets of
multiplicative class . Suppose that X is a metrizable space such that X 2 M
for some  2. Let Y be a metrizable space such that Cp .Y / (or Cp .Y /) is
a uniformly continuous image of Cp .X / (or Cp .X / respectively). Prove that
u

Y 2 M . In particular, if X  Y then X belongs to M if and only if so


does Y .
198. Given a countable ordinal , let A be the class of absolute Borel sets of
additive class . Suppose that X is a metrizable space such that X 2 A
for some  2. Let Y be a metrizable space such that Cp .Y / (or Cp .Y /) is
a uniformly continuous image of Cp .X / (or Cp .X / respectively). Prove that
u

Y 2 A . In particular, if X  Y then X belongs to A if and only if so does Y .


199. Prove that every nonempty countable compact space X is homeomorphic to
the space C 1 D f W  g for some countable ordinal . Here, as usual,
the set C 1 is considered with the topology generated by the well ordering
on C 1.
u
200. Let X and Y be infinite countable compact spaces. Prove that X  Y , i.e., the
spaces Cp .X / and Cp .Y / are uniformly homeomorphic.

1.3 Linear Topological Spaces and l-Equivalence

25

1.3 Linear Topological Spaces and l-Equivalence


Given a space X , consider the family L of all continuous maps of X into locally
convex linear topological spaces of cardinality not exceeding jX j 2! . If ' 2 L, we
denote by L' the relevant linear Q
topological space. The map i D f' W ' 2 Lg
is an embedding of X into L D fLf W f 2 Lg. The linear span L.X / of i.X /
in L is called the free locally convex space of the space X . We will identify X and
L
i.X /. A space X is said to be L-equivalent to a space Y (or X  Y ), if L.X / is
l

linearly homeomorphic to L.Y /. The spaces X and Y are l-equivalent (or X  Y )


if Cp .X / is linearly homeomorphic to Cp .Y /. A topological property P (a cardinal
invariant ') is called l-invariant if it is preserved by l-equivalence, i.e., if X ` P
l

(or '.X /  ) and X  Y imply Y ` P (or '.Y /   respectively).


The space Lp .X / is theQlinear span of X in Cp .Cp .X //. If Lt is a linear space
for all t 2 T , the set L D fLt W t 2 T g carries a natural structure of linear space:
let .x C y/.t / D x.t / C y.t / and .x/.t / D x.t / for any t 2 T; x; y 2 L and
2 R. The set L with the operations defined above is called the product of linear
spaces fLt W t 2 T g. If each Lt is a linear topological space, the linear space L is
always considered with the respective product topology.
If f W X ! Y is a map of a space XSonto a set Y , consider the families  D
fU  Y W f 1 .U / 2 .X /g and  D ffg 1 .U / W U 2 .R/g W g 2 RY and
g f 2 C.X /g. The family  is called the quotient topology induced by f . The
map f W X ! .Y; / is quotient and the space .Y; / may fail to be a Tychonoff
space. The topology  0 generated by  as a subbase is called the R-quotient topology
induced by the map f . The map f W X ! .Y;  0 / is R-quotient and .Y;  0 / is a
completely regular (but, maybe, not Tychonoff) space. If X is a space and F is a
nonempty closed subset of X , let XF D .X nF / [ fF g. For any y 2 X nF , let
pF .y/ D y and pF .x/ D F for any x 2 F . The set XF with the R-quotient
topology induced by the contraction map pF W X ! XF is called the R-quotient
space XF . Given two retractions r; s W X ! X in a space X , we say that r is
parallel to s if r s D r and s r D s. Two retracts of a space X are called parallel
if they are images of X under parallel retractions. If  exp.X / and Y  X then
jY D fU \ Y W U 2 g.
A subset B of a linear space L is balanced if tB D ftx W x 2 Bg  B for any
t 2 I. The set B is absorbing if, for any x 2 L, there exists > 0 such that tx 2 B
for all t 2 .; /. Recall that 0L denotes the zero vector of L. If L is clear, we write
0 instead of 0L . The set B is linearly bounded or l-bounded if, for any U 2 .0; L/,
there exists s > 0 such that B  t U for all t  s. A subset A of a space X is called
bounded if f .A/ is bounded in R for any f 2 C.X /. If L and M are linear spaces, a
map f W L ! M is called linear if f .x C y/ D f .x/ C f .y/ for all x; y 2 L
and ; 2 R. The linear topological spaces M and L are linearly homeomorphic if
there exists a linear map f W L ! M which is a homeomorphism. Given a linear
space L, a function p W L ! R is a seminorm on L, if p.x Cy/  p.x/Cp.y/ and
p.x/ D jjp.x/ for all x; y 2 L and 2 R. If, additionally, p.x/ 0 for any

26

1 Properties Preserved by Homeomorphisms of Function Spaces

x 0, then p is called a norm; in this case we write jjxjj instead of p.x/. A family
P of seminorms on a linear space L is called separating if, for any x 0, there
is p 2 P such that p.x/ 0. Given an absorbing set A in a linear space L, the
Minkowski functional A is defined on L as follows: A .x/ D infft > 0 W xt 2 Ag
for any x 2 L.
If L is a linear topological space then H  L is a Hamel basis of L if H is
linearly independent (i.e., for any distinct x1 ; : : : ; xn 2 H and 1 ; : : : ; n 2 R, the
equality 1 x1 C : : : C n xn D 0 implies i D 0 for all i  n) and the linear
span of H is equal to L. Now, L D ff 2 C.L/ W f is a linear functionalg and
L0 D ff 2 RL W f is a linear functionalg; the space L is called the dual of L. The
topology on L with the subbase f' 1 .U / W U 2 .R/; ' 2 L g is called the weak
topology of L. The set L with the topology inherited from Cp .L/ is the weak dual
of L. Given a closed linear subspace N  L, let .x/ D x C N for any x 2 L.
Denote the set f.x/ W x 2 Lg by L=N . For any x; y 2 L let .x/ C .y/ D
.x C y/ and .x/ D .x/. Then .x/ D .x 0 / and .y/ D .y 0 / imply
.x/ C .y/ D .x 0 / C .y 0 / and .x/ D .x 0 /; thus L=N , with the zero
element N D .0/, is a linear space called the quotient space of L over N . If L=N
is dealt with as a topological space, it is assumed to carry the quotient topology
 D fU  L=N W  1 .U / 2 .L/g, induced by .
A linear topological space L is (completely) normable if there exists a norm jj jj
on L such that the metric d.x; y/ D jjx  yjj (is complete and) generates .L/.
The space L is barreled if any convex closed balanced and absorbing subset of L
is a neighborhood of 0 in L. Suppose that X is a topological space and .Y; U / is a
uniform space. A family F  C.X; Y / is called equicontinuous at a point x 2 X if,
for any U 2 U , there exists an open V  X such that x 2 V and .f .x/; f .y// 2 U
for any y 2 V and f 2 F. If the family F is equicontinuous at every x 2 X , it
is called equicontinuous. Note that a set F  C.X / is equicontinuous at x 2 X if
and only if, for any " > 0, there is U 2 .x; X / such that jf .y/  f .x/j < " for
any y 2 U and f 2 F. If L and M are linear topological spaces and F is a set of
linear continuous maps from L to M , then F is equicontinuous if and only if, for
any U 2 .0M ; M /, there exists V 2 .0L ; L/ such that f .V /  U for any f 2 F.
Suppose that X is a space and C is a cover of X . If " > 0 and P1 ; : : : ; Pn 2
C then P1 ; : : : ; Pn ; "
D ff 2 C.X / W f .Pi /  ."; "/ for all i  ng. The
family C D f;g [ fU  C.X / W for any f 2 U , there are n 2 N; " > 0 and
P1 ; : : : ; Pn 2 C such that f C P1 ; : : : ; Pn ; "
 U g is a topology on C.X / and, if
every P 2 C is bounded in X , then .C.X /; C / is a linear topological space. The
topology C is called the topology of uniform convergence on the elements of C. If
C D fK  X W K is compactg then .C.X /; C / is denoted by Ck .X / and C is called
the compact-open topology. Denote by BDX the family of all bounded subsets of X .
The set C.X / with the topology of uniform convergence on the elements of BDX
is denoted by Cb .X /. A function f W X ! R is called b-continuous if, for any
B 2 BDX , there is g 2 C.X / with gjB D f . The space X is called a bf -space
if every b-continuous function on X is continuous. A set P  C.X / is pointwise
bounded if the set ff .x/ W f 2 P g is bounded in R for every x 2 X .

1.3 Linear Topological Spaces and l-Equivalence

27

201. Prove that the topology of any linear topological T0 -space is Tychonoff.
202. Let L be a linear topological Tychonoff space. Prove that, for any local base
B of the space L at 0, the following properties hold:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

for any U; V 2 B, there is W 2 B such


T that W  U \ V ;
every B 2 B is an absorbing set and B D f0g;
for any U 2 B, there exists V 2 B such that V C V  U ;
for any U 2 B and x 2 U , there exists V 2 B such that x C V  U ;
for any U 2 B and " > 0 there is V 2 B such that V  U for any
2 ."; "/.

Prove that, if L is a linear space without topology and B is a family of subsets


of L which has the properties (1)(5) then there exists a unique Tychonoff
topology on L such that .L; / is a linear topological space and B is a local
base of at 0.
203. Let L be a linear topological space. Prove that
T
(1) for any local base B of L at 0 and any A  L, we have A D fA C V W
V 2 Bg;
(2) for any A; B  L, we have A C B  A C B;
(3) if M is a linear subspace of L then M is also a linear subspace of L;
(4) if C is a convex subset of L then the sets C and Int.C / are also convex;
(5) if B is a balanced subset of L then B is also balanced; if, additionally, we
have 0 2 Int.B/ then Int.B/ is also balanced;
(6) if E is an l-bounded subset of L then E is also l-bounded.
204. Let L be a linear topological space. Prove that
(1) every neighborhood of 0 contains an open balanced neighborhood of 0;
(2) every convex neighborhood of 0 contains an open convex balanced
neighborhood of 0.
Deduce from (2) that any locally convex linear topological space has a local
base B at 0 such that each U 2 B is convex and balanced.
205. Let L be a linear topological space. Given a nontrivial linear functional
f W L ! R, prove that the following properties are equivalent:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

f is continuous;
f 1 .0/ is closed in L;
f 1 .0/ is not dense in L;
there exists U 2 .0; L/ such that f .U / is a bounded subset of R.

206. Suppose that L is a locally convex linear topological space which has a
countable local base at 0. Prove that there exists a metric d on the set L with
the following properties:
(i) d generates the topology of L;
(ii) all d -open balls are convex and all balls with the center at 0 are balanced;
(iii) the metric d is invariant, i.e., d.xCz; yCz/ D d.x; y/ for all x; y; z 2 L.
As a consequence, a locally convex space is metrizable if and only if it has
countable character.

28

1 Properties Preserved by Homeomorphisms of Function Spaces

207. Let p be a seminorm on a linear space L. Prove that


(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

p.0/ D 0 and p.x/  0 for any x 2 L;


jp.x/  p.y/j  p.x  y/ for any x; y 2 L;
fx 2 L W p.x/ D 0g is a linear subspace of L;
the set B D fx W p.x/ < 1g is convex, balanced, absorbing, and p D B .

208. Let A be a convex absorbing set in a linear space L. Prove that


(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

A .x C y/  A .x/ C A .y/ for any x; y 2 L;


A .tx/ D tA .x/ for any x 2 L and t  0;
if A is balanced then A is a seminorm;
if B D fx 2 L W A .x/ < 1g and C D fx 2 L W A .x/  1g then
B  A  C and A D B D C .

209. Given a locally convex linear topological space L, take any local base B at 0
such that all elements of B are convex and balanced. Prove that fV W V 2 Bg
is a separating family of continuous seminorms on L.
210. Let P be a separating family of seminorms on a linear space L. Given p 2 P
and n 2 N, let O.p; n/ D fx 2 L W p.x/ < n1 g. Prove that the family
B D fO.p1 ; n/ \ : : : \ O.pn ; n/ W n 2 N; p1 ; : : : ; pn 2 Pg is a convex
balanced local base at 0 for some topology on L such that .L; / is a locally
convex space in which all elements of P are continuous and any E  L is
l-bounded if and only if p.E/ is bounded for any p 2 P.
211. Prove that a linear topological space is normable if and only if it has a convex
l-bounded neighborhood of zero.
212. Let N be a closed subspace of a linear topological space L. Prove that
(1) the quotient topology of L=N makes L=N a linear topological space;
(2) the quotient map  W L ! L=N is linear, open, and continuous;
(3) If P 2 fmetrizability, local convexity, normability, complete normabilityg
and L has P then L=N also has P.
213. Prove that any product of locally convex spaces is a locally convex space.
214. Suppose that L and M are linear topological spaces and is an equicontinuous family of linear maps from L to M . Prove that, for any l-bounded set
A  L there is an l-bounded set B  M such that f .A/  B for all f 2 .
215. Suppose that L and M are linear topological spaces and is a family of linear
continuous maps from L to M . Let .x/ D ff .x/ W f 2 g for every x 2 L
and assume that the set B D fx 2 L W .x/ is l-bounded in M g is of second
category in L. Prove that B D L and the family is equicontinuous.
216. (HahnBanach theorem) Let L be a linear space (without topology). Suppose
that we are given a map p W L ! R such that p.x C y/  p.x/ C p.y/ and
p.tx/ D tp.x/ for all x; y 2 L and t  0. Prove that, for any linear subspace
M of the linear space L and any linear functional f W M ! R such that
f .x/  p.x/ for any x 2 M , there exists a linear functional F W L ! R such
that F jM D f and p.x/  F .x/  p.x/ for any x 2 L.

1.3 Linear Topological Spaces and l-Equivalence

29

217. Let L be a linear space (without topology). Suppose that we are given a
seminorm p W L ! R, a linear subspace M  L and a linear functional
f W M ! R such that jf .x/j  p.x/ for any x 2 M . Prove that there exists
a linear functional F W L ! R such that F jM D f and jF .x/j  p.x/ for
any x 2 L.
218. Given a linear topological space L prove that any nontrivial continuous linear
functional f W L ! R is an open map.
219. Let L be a linear topological space and suppose that A and B are nonempty
disjoint convex subsets of L and A is open. Prove that there exists a continuous
linear functional f W L ! R such that, for some r 2 R, we have
f .x/ < r  f .y/ for any x 2 A and y 2 B.
220. Let L be a locally convex linear topological space. Suppose that A and B are
disjoint convex subsets of L such that A is compact and B is closed. Prove
that there exists a continuous linear functional f W L ! R such that, for some
r; s 2 R, we have f .x/ < r < s < f .y/ for any x 2 A and y 2 B.
221. Let L be a locally convex linear topological space. Prove that L separates the
points of L.
222. Let M be a linear subspace of a locally convex linear topological space L and
x0 M . Prove that there exists f 2 L such that f .x0 / D 1 and f(M)={0}.
223. Let B be a closed convex balanced subset of a locally convex space L. Prove
that, for any x 2 LnB, there exists a continuous linear functional f W L ! R
such that f .B/  1; 1
and f .x/ > 1.
224. Let L be a locally convex linear topological space. Given a linear subspace M
of the linear space L and a continuous linear functional f W M ! R, prove
that there exists a functional g 2 L such that gjM D f .
225. Given a linear space L (without topology) denote by L0 the family of all linear
functionals on L. Suppose that M  L0 is a linear subspace of L0 (i.e., f C
g 2 M whenever f; g 2 M and ; 2 R) and M separates the points of L;
let  be the topology generated by the set M . Then LM D .L; / is a locally
convex space and .LM / D M . Deduce from this fact that if L is a locally
convex space and Lw is the set L with the weak topology of the space L then
Lw is a locally convex space such that .Lw / D L .
226. Let E be a convex subset of a locally convex space L. Prove that the closure
of E in L coincides with the closure of E in the weak topology of L.
227. Let V be a neighborhood of 0 in a locally convex space L. Prove that the set
P .V / D ff 2 L W f .V /  1; 1
g is compact if considered with the
topology induced from Cp .L/.
228. Given n 2 N suppose that L is a linear topological space and M is a linear
subspace of L of linear dimension n. Prove that M is closed in L and every
linear isomorphism ' W Rn ! M is a homeomorphism.
229. Given a linear topological space L prove that the following conditions are
equivalent:
(i) L has a finite Hamel basis, i.e., the linear dimension of L is finite;
(ii) dim L  n for some n 2 N;
(iii) L is locally compact.

30

1 Properties Preserved by Homeomorphisms of Function Spaces

230. Suppose that L is a finite-dimensional linear topological space. Prove that


any linear functional f W L ! R is continuous on L, i.e., L0 D L .
Give an example of an infinite-dimensional locally convex space M such that
M 0 D M .
231. Let L be a locally convex space. Denote by L0  RL the set of all (not
necessarily continuous) linear functionals on L with the topology induced
from RL . Prove that L is dense in L0 .
232. Given a linear space L let L0  RL be the set of all linear functionals on L
with the topology induced from RL . Prove that L0 is linearly homeomorphic
to RB for some B.
233. For any linear topological space L denote by w .L/ the weak topology of the
space L. Prove that
(1) if w .L/ D .L/ and M is a linear subspace of L then w .M / D .M /;
(2) for any space X , the topology of Cp .X / coincides with its weak topology;
(3) for any space X , the topology of Lp .X / coincides with its weak topology.
234. Suppose that L is a locally convex space with its weak topology and X  L
is a Hamel basis in L. Prove that the following conditions are equivalent:
(i) there exists a linear homeomorphism h W L ! Lp .X / such that
h.x/ D x for all x 2 X ;
(ii) for every f 2 C.X / there exists a continuous linear functional
' W L ! R such that 'jX D f ;
(iii) for every continuous map f W X ! M from X to a locally convex
space M with its weak topology, there exists a continuous linear map
W L ! M such that jX D f .
235. Given a space X let .Lp .X // D f' 2 Cp .Lp .X // W ' is a linear functional
on Lp .X /g and consider the restriction map  W .Lp .X // ! Cp .X /.
Prove that .Lp .X // is a closed linear subspace of Cp .Lp .X // and  is a
linear homeomorphism. Deduce from this fact that the operation of extending
continuous real-valued functions on X to continuous linear functionals on
Lp .X / is also a linear homeomorphism between Cp .X / and .Lp .X // .
236. Prove that any Lp .X / is homeomorphic to a dense subspace of RA for some A.
Deduce from this fact that every uncountable regular cardinal is a precaliber
of Lp .X /. In particular, c.Lp .X // D ! for any space X .
237. Given spaces X and Y prove that
(i) there exists a linear continuous map of Cp .X / onto Cp .Y / if and only if
Lp .Y / is linearly homeomorphic to a linear subspace of Lp .X /;
(ii) there exists a linear continuous open map of Cp .X / onto Cp .Y / if and
only if Lp .Y / is linearly homeomorphic to a closed linear subspace of
Lp .X /;
(iii) the space Cp .X / linearly condenses onto Cp .Y / if and only if Lp .Y / is
linearly homeomorphic to a dense linear subspace of Lp .X /;
(iv) Cp .X / is linearly homeomorphic to Cp .Y / if and only if Lp .Y / is
linearly homeomorphic to Lp .X /.

1.3 Linear Topological Spaces and l-Equivalence

31

238. Given spaces X and Y prove that


(i) there is a linear continuous map of Cp .X / onto Cp .Y / if and only if Y
is homeomorphic to a subspace Y 0  Lp .X / such that every f 2 C.Y 0 /
extends to a continuous linear functional on Lp .X /;
(ii) the space Cp .X / linearly condenses onto Cp .Y / if and only if Y is
homeomorphic to a subspace Y 0  Lp .X / such that every f 2 C.Y 0 /
extends to a uniquely determined continuous linear functional on Lp .X /;
(iii) Cp .X / is linearly homeomorphic to Cp .Y / if and only if Y is homeomorphic to some Y 0  Lp .X / whose linear hull coincides with Lp .X /
and every f 2 C.Y 0 / extends to a continuous linear functional on
Lp .X /.
239. Let P be a class of spaces which have the following properties:
(1) if Y 2 PSand Z is a continuous image of Y then Z 2 P;
(2) if Y D fYi W i 2 !g; Yi  YiC1 ; Yi 2 P and Yi closed in Y for every
i 2 !, then Y 2 P;
(3) if Y 2 P and n 2 N then Y n  Rn 2 P;
Prove that if a space X belongs to P then Lp .X / 2 P.
240. Prove that i w.Lp .X // D .Lp .X // D .Lp .X // D i w.X / for any space
X ; show that we also have nw.X / D nw.Lp .X // and d.X / D d.Lp .X //.
241. Prove that, for any space X , we have the following equalities.
(i) s  .X / D s.Lp .X // D s  .Lp .X //;
(ii) hl  .X / D hl.Lp .X // D hl  .Lp .X //;
(iii) hd  .X / D hd.Lp .X // D hd  .Lp .X //.
242. Given a space X prove that l  .X / D l.Lp .X // D l  .Lp .X // and
ext  .X / D ext .Lp .X // D ext  .Lp .X //.
243. Prove that an uncountable regular cardinal  is a caliber of X if and only if 
is a caliber of Lp .X /.
244. Denote by L the following collection of classes of Tychonoff spaces: fanalytic
spaces, K-analytic spaces,  -compact spaces, Lindelf -spaces, realcompact spacesg. Prove that, for any class P from the list L, a space X belongs to
P if and only if Lp .X / belongs to P.
245. Given w D 1 x1 C : : : C n xn 2 Lp .X /, where x1 ; : : : ; xn 2 X and
1 ; : : : ; n 2 Rnf0g, let supp.w/ D fx1 ; : : : ; xn g. If w D 0, then supp.w/ D ;.
Say that a set B  Lp .X / is weakly bounded if .B/ is a bounded subset of
R for any continuous linear functional  W Lp .X / ! R. Observe that any
bounded subset of Lp .X / is weaklySbounded and prove that, for any weakly
bounded set B  Lp .X /, the set fsupp.w/ W w 2 Bg is bounded in the
space X .
246. Prove that, for any Dieudonn complete space X , if A is a bounded subset of
Lp .X / then A is compact.
247. Suppose that a space X has a weaker metrizable topology and A is a bounded
subset of Lp .X /. Prove that A is compact and metrizable.

32

1 Properties Preserved by Homeomorphisms of Function Spaces

248. Prove that, for any infinite pseudocompact space X , there exists an infinite
closed discrete set D in the space Lp .X / which is weakly bounded in Lp .X /.
Therefore, even for a metrizable compact space X , the closure of a weakly
bounded subset of Lp .X / can fail to be compact.
249. Give an example of a space X in which all compact subspaces are metrizable
while there are non-metrizable compact subspaces in Lp .X /.
250. Given spaces X and Y and a continuous map ' W X ! Y observe that
there exists a unique continuous linear map u' W Lp .X / ! Lp .Y / such
that u' jX D '. Prove that the following conditions are equivalent for any
continuous onto map ' W X ! Y .
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

The map ' is R-quotient.


The map u' is R-quotient.
The map u' is quotient.
The map u' is open.

251. Let f W X ! Y be an R-quotient map. Prove that, for any open U  Y , the
map f j.f 1 .U // W f 1 .U / ! U is also R-quotient.
252. Let X be a Tychonoff space. Prove that, for any nonempty closed set F  X,
the R-quotient space XF is also Tychonoff and if pF W X ! XF is the
contraction map then pF j.X nF / W X nF ! XF nfF g is a homeomorphism.
253. Suppose that X is a space and F is a nonempty closed subspace of X ; in the
R-quotient space XF denote by aF the point represented by the set F . Say that
F is deeply inside a set U 2 .X / if there exists a zero-set G in the space X
such that F  G  U . For the family U D fU W U is a cozero subset of X
and F is deeply inside the set U g prove that V D ffaF g [ .U nF / W U 2 U g is
a local base of the space XF at the point aF .
254. Suppose that X is a normal space and F is a nonempty closed subspace of
X ; in the R-quotient space XF denote by aF the point represented by the
set F . Prove that U 2 .aF ; XF / if and only if .U nfaF g/ [ F is an open
neighborhood of F in the space X .
255. Suppose that X is a space and K is a nonempty compact subspace of X ; in the
R-quotient space XK denote by aK the point represented by the set K. Prove
that U 2 .aK ; XK / if and only if .U nfaK g/ [ K is an open neighborhood of
K in the space X .
256. Given a nonempty space X prove that closed sets P; Q  X are parallel
retracts of X if and only if there exists a retraction r W X ! P such that
rjQ W Q ! P is a homeomorphism.
257. (Okunevs method of constructing l-equivalent spaces). Suppose that P and Q
are parallel retracts of a nonempty space X . Prove that the completely regular
quotient spaces XP and XQ are l-equivalent.
258. Suppose that K is a nonempty l-embedded subspace of a space X and fix a
point a X . Prove that the spaces X fag and XK K are l-equivalent.
l

Deduce from this fact that if K is a retract of the space X then X fag  XK
K. Here XK is the R-quotient space obtained by contracting K to a point.

1.3 Linear Topological Spaces and l-Equivalence

33

259. Given a space Xi and a point xi 2 Xi for any i D 1; : : : ; n consider the space
X D X1 : : : Xn and the set F D fx1 ; : : : ; xn g  X . The R-quotient
space XF is denoted by .X1 ; x1 / _ : : : _ .Xn ; xn / and called a bunch of spaces
X1 ; : : : ; Xn with respect to the points x1 ; : : : ; xn . Prove that if we choose any
point yi 2 Xi for every i D 1; : : : ; n then the spaces .X1 ; x1 / _ : : : _ .Xn ; xn /
and .X1 ; y1 / _ : : : _ .Xn ; yn / are l-equivalent.
260. Let K be a retract of a nonempty space X and fix any point z 2 K. Denote by
aK the point of the space XK represented by the set K. Prove that the space X
is l-equivalent to the bunch .XK ; aK / _ .K; z/ of the spaces XK and K with
respect to the points aK and z.
261. Assume that K and L are retracts of a nonempty space X and there exists
a retraction r W X ! L such that r.K/ D K \ L D fag for some point
a 2 L; let M D K [ L. Prove that the space X is l-equivalent to the bunch
.XM ; c0 / _ .K; c1 / _ .L; c2 / where the points c0 2 XM ; c1 2 K and c2 2 L
are chosen arbitrarily.
262. Given spaces Y and Z consider the space X D Y  Z; choose arbitrary points
y0 2 Y; z0 2 Z and let M D .Y  fz0 g/ [ .fy0 g  Z/. Prove that, for any
x0 2 XM , the space X is l-equivalent to the bunch .XM ; x0 /_.Y; y0 /_.Z; z0 /.
1
263. Let a D 0 and an D nC1
for all n 2 !; then S D fan W n 2 !g [ fag is a
faithfully indexed convergent sequence with limit a. Given an infinite cardinal
 consider the discrete space D./ of cardinality  and let E D D./  S .
Observe that F D D./  fag is a retract of E; as usual let EF be the
R-quotient space obtained by contracting F to a point. The space EF will
be denoted by V ./; it is often called the FrchetUrysohn -fan. The space
V .!/ is called the FrchetUrysohn fan. Prove that V ./ is l-equivalent to
D./  S for any infinite cardinal . Deduce from this fact that
(i) there exist l-equivalent spaces X and Y with w.X / w.Y / and
.X / .Y /;
(ii) metrizability is not preserved by l-equivalence;

(iii) a space l-equivalent to a locally compact space need not be Cechcomplete.


264. Given infinite cardinals 1 ; : : : ; n prove that A.1 / : : : A.n / is
l-equivalent to the space A./ where  D maxf1 ; : :L
: ; n g.
265. Given a family of spaces fXt W t 2QT g let X D
t2T Xt and prove that
Cp .X / is linearly homeomorphic to t2T Cp .Xt /. Deduce from this fact that
L
l
l
if Xt  Yt for any t 2 T then X  Y D t2T Yt .
266. Suppose
L that a space Ji is homeomorphic to I for any i D 1; : : : ; n and let
J D fJi W 1  i  ng. Prove that the space J D is l-equivalent to I for
any finite space D. Deduce from this fact that
(i) connectedness is not preserved by l-equivalence;
(ii) for any cardinal  there exist l-equivalent spaces X and Y such that X
has no isolated points and Y has -many isolated points.

34

1 Properties Preserved by Homeomorphisms of Function Spaces

267. Let X be a compact space with jX j D   !. Prove that AD.X / is


l-equivalent to X A./. Here AD.X / is the Alexandroff double of the
space X and A./ is the one-point compactification of a discrete space of
cardinality .
268. Let X be a compact space such that jX j D   !. Prove that AD.X / is
l-equivalent to AD.X / A./. Here AD.X / is the Alexandroff double of the
space X .
269. Prove that there exist l-equivalent compact spaces X and Y such that
.X / .Y /. As a consequence, pseudocharacter is not l-invariant.
270. Prove that there exist l-equivalent compact spaces X and Y such that X has
nontrivial convergent sequences and Y does not have any.
271. Prove that for any uncountable regular cardinal  with its usual order topology
l

we have the equivalencies   A./ and .C1/ .C1/A./. Therefore


there exist l-equivalent spaces X and Y such that all compact subspaces of X
are metrizable while Y has non-metrizable compact subspaces.
272. Suppose that compact spaces X and Y are l-equivalent. Prove that X  Z is
l-equivalent to Y  Z for any space Z.
l

273. Given a family fX1 ; : : : ; Xn g of compact spaces assume that Xi  Yi for all
i 2 f1; : : : ; ng. Prove that the spaces X D X1 : : :Xn and Y D Y1 : : :Yn
are l-equivalent.
274. Give an example of l-equivalent spaces X and Y such that X  Z is not
t -equivalent to Y  Z for some space Z.
275. Give an example of l-equivalent spaces X and Y such that X  X is not
t -equivalent to Y  Y .
276. Given infinite cardinals 1 ; : : : ; n prove that A.1 /: : :A.n / is l-equivalent
to the space A./ where  D maxf1 ; : : : ; n g.
277. Prove that there exist l-equivalent spaces X and Y such that X is hereditarily
paracompact while Y is not hereditarily normal.
278. Prove that Lp .D/ is l-equivalent to Lp .D/ D for any infinite discrete space
D. Deduce from this fact that the Souslin property is not l-invariant.
279. Given spaces X and Y suppose that ' W Cp .X / ! Cp .Y / is a continuous
linear surjection. Prove that,
(i) for any point y 2 Y , there exist uniquely determined n D n.y/ 2 N,
distinct points x1 .y/; : : : ; xn .y/ 2 X and numbers 1 .y/; : : : ; n .y/ 2
Pn.y/
Rnf0g such that '.f /.y/ D iD1 i .y/f .xi .y// for any f 2 Cp .X /;
for further reference denote the set fx1 .y/; : : : ; xn .y/g by supp.'; y/.
(ii) if '  W Cp .Cp .Y // ! Cp .Cp .X // is the dual map of ' then '  embeds
Lp .Y / in Lp .X / and '  .y/ D 1 .y/x1 .y/ C : : : C n.y/ .y/xn.y/ .y/ for
any y 2 Y .
280. Suppose that ' W Cp .X / ! Cp .Y / is a continuous linear surjection and let
.y/ D supp.'; y/ for any y 2 Y . Prove that the map  W Y ! exp.X / is
lower semicontinuous.

1.3 Linear Topological Spaces and l-Equivalence

35

281. Given a continuous linear surjection ' W Cp .X / ! CpS


.Y / prove that, for any
bounded subset A of the space Y , the set supp.A/ D fsupp.'; y/ W y 2 Ag
is bounded in X .
282. Suppose that ' W Cp .X / ! Cp .Y / is a continuous linear surjection. Prove
that, for any bounded subset B  X , the set C D fy 2 Y W supp.'; y/  Bg
is bounded in Y .
283. Say that X is a -space if A is compact for any bounded set A  X . Prove
that X is a -space if and only if Lp .X / is a -space. As a consequence,
-property is preserved by l-equivalence.
284. Given spaces X and Y assume that X is a -space and there exists a linear
surjection ' W Cp .X / ! Cp .Y / which is an R-quotient map. Prove that
Y is also a -space. Give an example of a compact space X (which is,
automatically, a -space) such that there exists a continuous linear surjection
of Cp .X / onto Cp .Y / for some Y which is not a -space.
285. Given -spaces X and Y , let ' W Cp .X / ! Cp .Y / be a continuous linear
surjection. Prove that, if X is compact then Y is also compact. Observe that
the same conclusion about Y may be false if Y is not a -space.
286. Given -spaces X and Y , let ' W Cp .X / ! Cp .Y / be a continuous linear
surjection. Prove that, if X is  -compact then Y is also  -compact. Observe
that the same conclusion about Y may be false if Y is not a -space.
287. For any space X let K.X / be the family of all compact subspaces of X .

Prove that a second countable space X is Cech-complete


if and only if there
exists a Polish space M and a map ' W K.M / ! K.X / such that, for any
F; G 2 K.M / the inclusion F  G implies '.F /  '.G/ and, for any
P 2 K.X /, there exists F 2 K.M / such that '.F /  P .
288. Let X and Y be second countable spaces for which there is a continuous linear

surjection of Cp .X / onto Cp .Y /. Prove that, if X is Cech-complete


then Y is

also Cech-complete. In particular, if two second countable spaces X and Y are

l-equivalent then X is Cech-complete


if and only if so is Y .
289. Give an example of second countable l-equivalent spaces X and Y such that
X is pseudocomplete and Y is not Baire. As a consequence, having a dense

Cech-complete
subspace is not an l-invariant property in the class of second
countable spaces.
290. Prove that there exist l-equivalent  -compact second countable spaces X and
Y such that X can be condensed onto a compact space and Y doesnt have
such a condensation.
291. Prove that a countable second countable space is scattered if and only if it is

Cech-complete.
Deduce from this fact that if X and Y are countable second
countable l-equivalent spaces then X is scattered if and only if Y is scattered.
292. Let X and Y be metrizable spaces such that Cp .X / is linearly homeomorphic
to Cp .X /  Cp .X / and Cp .Y / is linearly homeomorphic to Cp .Y /  Cp .Y /.
Prove that if X embeds in Y as a closed subspace and Y embeds in X as a
closed subspace then X and Y are l-equivalent.

36

1 Properties Preserved by Homeomorphisms of Function Spaces

293. Let X be a countable second countable space. Prove that the following
properties are equivalent:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

X
X
X
X

is l-equivalent to Q;
is not scattered;
has a subspace homeomorphic to Q;
has a closed subspace homeomorphic to Q.

294. Prove that, for any infinite cardinal  there exist l-equivalent spaces X and Y
such that X is dense-in-itself and Y has a dense set of -many isolated points.

295. Suppose that a second countable space X is Cech-complete


and has a closed
!
subspace homeomorphic to R . Prove that X is l-equivalent to R! .
296. Let K be an uncountable metrizable compact space. Prove that K is
l-equivalent to K E for any metrizable zero-dimensional compact space E.
297. Prove that a compact space X is l-equivalent to the Cantor set K if and
only if X is metrizable, zero-dimensional, and uncountable. As a consequence, any two zero-dimensional metrizable uncountable compact spaces are
l-equivalent.
298. Prove that a second countable space X is l-equivalent to space P of the
irrational numbers if and only if X is non- -compact, zero-dimensional, and

Cech-complete.
299. Given any n 2 N prove that a compact set K  Rn is l-equivalent to In if
l

and only if In embeds in K. Deduce from this fact that K  In if and only if
dim K D n.
300. Prove that a space X is l-equivalent to I! if and only if X is compact,
metrizable and I! embeds in X .

1.4 Metrizable Spaces and l-Equivalence

37

1.4 Metrizable Spaces and l-Equivalence


All topological spaces are assumed to be Tychonoff. Given a space X , let  .X / D
.X /nf;g and X C D X f0g; by K.X / we denote the family of all compact subsets
of X . If L and M are linear topological spaces, the expression L
M says that L
is linearly homeomorphic to M ; the space M is a linear topological factor of L if
there exists a linear topological space N such that L
M  N . If, for a compact
X , we treat C.X / as a Banach space, then the respective norm is defined by jjf jj D
supff .x/ W x 2 X g for any f 2 C.X /. A sequence fxn g  L is called linearly
Cauchy if, for any U 2 .0; L/, there is m 2 ! such that xn  xk 2 U for any
n; k  m. Given spaces X and Y , a map f W X ! Y is called compact-covering if,
for any compact K  Y , there is a compact K 0  X such that f .K 0 / D K.
A space X is called hemicompact if there exists a sequence fKn W n 2 !g of
compact subsets of X such that, for any compact K  X , we have K  Kn for some
n 2 !. The space X is an @0 -space if there exists a countable family N  exp.X /
which is a network for K.X /, i.e., for any compact K  X and any open U  K,
we have K  P  U for some P 2 N . The space X is a q-space if, for any x 2 X ,
there is a sequence fUn W n 2 !g  .x; X / such that the sequence fxn W n 2 !g
has an accumulation point whenever xn 2 Un for each n 2 !. A space X is called a
-space if A is compact for any bounded A  X . A space X is  -metacompact if
any open cover of X has a  -point-finite open refinement, i.e., a refinement which
is a countable union of point-finite families.
A family K of subsets of a space X has a discrete open expansion if there is a
discrete family fUK W K 2 Kg  .X / such that K  UK for any K 2 K. A family
K of nonempty compact subsets of X is called a moving off collection if, for any
compact L  X , there is K 2 K such that K \ L D ;. A space X has the moving
off property if every moving off collection contains an infinite subcollection which
has a discrete open expansion. For a locally compact non-compact X , let .X /
be its one-point compactification. A family A of subsets of X is T1 -separating if,
for any distinct x; y 2 X , there are A; B 2 A such that A \ fx; yg D fxg and
B \ fx; yg D fyg.
The GruenhageMa game is played on a space X by players I and II . For
every n 2 N the n-th move of player I is to choose a set Kn 2 K.X / while the
player II responds with a set Ln 2 K.X nKn /. The player I wins if S
the collection
fLn W n 2 Ng chosen by II has a discrete open expansion. Let G D f.K.X //n W
n 2 Ng; a strategy of player II in GruenhageMa game on a space X is a map
s W G ! K.X /, such that s.K1 ; : : : ; Kn / 2 K.X nKn / for every .K1 ; : : : ; Kn / 2 G.
A play fKi ; Li W i 2 Ng of a GruenhageMa game is said to have been played by II
applying a strategy s if Ln D s.K1 ; : : : ; Kn / for all n 2 N. A strategy s of player
II in GruenhageMa game is called winning on a space X if II wins in every play
on X , in which he (or she!) applies the strategy s.
A BanachMazur game on a space X is a two-person game in which players E
(for empty) and NE (for nonempty) take turns picking a nonempty open subset of X
contained in the opponents previous move (if any). Thus, if U1 2  .X / is the first

38

1 Properties Preserved by Homeomorphisms of Function Spaces

move of E, player NE has to respond with a set V1 2  .U1 /. The second move of
E has to be some U2 2  .V1 /. Then NE has to choose V2 2  .U2 / and so on. The
BanachMazur game as described above, where E makes the first move, is called
an E-game. Now, if V1 2  .X / is the first move of NE, player E has to respond
with a set U1 2  .V1 /. The second move of NE has to be some V2 2  .U1 /. Then
E has to choose U2 2  .V2 / and so on. The BanachMazur game, where player
NE makes the first move, is called an NE-game. In both games player E wins after
! moves if the intersection of the moves is empty. Otherwise the winner is NE. The
sequence of moves is called a play of the relevant game.
A strategy of player E in E-game on a space X is a map s defined inductively as
follows. First we have to choose a set U1 D s.;/ 2  .X /. If the strategy s is defined
for first n moves then an n-tuple .V1 ; : : : ; Vn / 2 .  .X //n is called admissible if
V1  U1 and Vi  Ui D s.V1 ; : : : ; Vi1 / for any i 2 f2; : : : ; ng. For any admissible
n-tuple .V1 ; : : : ; Vn / we have to choose a set UnC1 D s.V1 ; : : : ; Vn / 2  .Vn /.
We say that E applies the strategy s in a play fUi ; Vi W i 2 Ng of an E-game if
U1 D s.;/ and UkC1 D s.V1 ; : : : ; Vk / for all k 2 N. A strategy s of player E in
E-game is winning on a space X if E wins in every play on X , in which he (or
she!) applies s.
To define inductively a strategy s of player E in NE-game on a space X we
have to choose a set s.V1 / 2  .V1 / for any V1 2  .X /. If the strategy s is defined
for the first n moves then say that an .n C 1/-tuple .V1 ; : : : ; VnC1 / 2 .  .X //nC1
is admissible if ViC1  s.V1 ; : : : ; Vi / for all i D 1; : : : ; n. If .V1 ; : : : ; VnC1 / 2
.  .X //nC1 is admissible then we have to choose s.V1 ; : : : ; VnC1 / 2  .VnC1 /. We
say that E applies the strategy s in a play fVi ; Ui W i 2 Ng of an NE-game if
Un D s.V1 ; : : : ; Vn / for all n 2 N. A strategy s of player E in NE-game is winning
on X if E wins in every play on X , in which he (or she!) applies s.
Given a linear space L and a norm jj jj on L let d.x; y/ D jjx  yjj for any
x; y 2 L. It is easy to see that d is a metric on L; if is the topology generated
by the metric d then is called the topology generated by the norm jj jj. A linear
topological space is normable if its topology is generated by a norm.

1.4 Metrizable Spaces and l-Equivalence

39

301. Prove that there exist l-equivalent spaces X and Y such that X is hereditarily
paracompact while Y is not collectionwise normal.
302. Prove that there exist l-equivalent spaces X and Y such that X is collectionwise normal while Y is not normal.
303. Prove that there exist l-equivalent spaces X and Y such that X is hereditarily
normal while Y is not normal.
304. Prove that -weight is not preserved by l-equivalence neither in the class of
compact spaces nor in the class of countable spaces.
305. Give an example of l-equivalent spaces X and Y with ext .X / ext .Y /.
306. Prove that there exist l-equivalent spaces X and Y such that X is Frchet
Urysohn while t .Y / > ! and there is a non-closed set A  Y such that B \ A
is finite whenever B is a bounded subset of Y . As a consequence, Frchet
Urysohn property, k-property, sequentiality, and countable tightness are not
l-invariant.
307. Show that FrchetUrysohn property is not preserved by l-equivalence in the
class of compact spaces.
308. Let Y be a space in which every closed subspace has the Baire property.
Suppose that Y is l-equivalent to a space X and a nonempty set Z  X
also has the Baire property. Prove that there is a nonempty W  Z which is
open in Z and homeomorphic to a subspace of Y .

309. Let X and Y be Cech-complete


l-equivalent spaces. Prove that every
nonempty subspace of X has a -base whose elements are embeddable in

Y . Deduce from this fact that if X and Y are nonempty Cech-complete


l-equivalent spaces and X is scattered then Y is also scattered.

310. Let X and Y be Cech-complete


l-equivalent spaces such that .X /  . Prove
that Y has a dense open subspace D such that .x; Y /   for each x 2 D.
In particular, .D/  .
311. Prove that X is a closed Hamel basis of L.X / for any space X .
312. Prove that, for any space X and any continuous map f W X ! L of X to
a locally convex space L, there exists a unique continuous linear map f W
L.X / ! L such that f jX D f . Observe that this makes it possible to
consider that L.X /, as a linear space, coincides with Lp .X /  C.Cp .X //
while the topology of L.X / is stronger than .Lp .X //. In all problems that
follow we use this observation identifying the underlying set of L.X / with
Lp .X /.
313. Suppose that L is a locally convex space such that X is embedded as a Hamel
basis in L. Prove that the following conditions are equivalent:
(i) there exists a linear homeomorphism i W L ! L.X / such that i.x/ D x
for all x 2 X ;
(ii) every continuous function f W X ! M of the space X to a locally
convex space M can be extended to a continuous linear functional f W
L ! M.

40

1 Properties Preserved by Homeomorphisms of Function Spaces

314. Prove that, for any space X , the set .L.X // coincides with the set .Lp .X // .
Deduce from this fact that the weak topology of the space L.X / coincides
with the topology of Lp .X /.
315. Given a space X let E be the weak dual of L.X /, i.e., E D .L.X // and
the topology of E is induced from Cp .L.X //. For every f 2 E let .f / D
f jX , i.e.,  W E ! Cp .X / is a restriction map. Prove that  is a linear
homeomorphism and hence E is linearly homeomorphic to Cp .X /.
316. Observe that l-equivalence implies u-equivalence, i.e., for any spaces X and
l

317.
318.

319.

320.

321.

322.

323.

324.
325.

Y , if X  Y then X  Y . Prove that L-equivalence implies l-equivalence.


Prove that Cb .X / is complete (as a uniform space with its linear uniformity)
if and only if X is a bf -space.
Given a space X call a set P  C.X / equicontinuous at a point x 2 X if, for
any " > 0 there exists U 2 .x; X / such that f .U /  .f .x/"; f .x/C"/ for
any f 2 P . The family P is called equicontinuous if it is equicontinuous at
every point x 2 X . Say that P is pointwise bounded if the set ff .x/ W f 2 P g
is bounded in R for any x 2 X . Prove that, for any equicontinuous pointwise
bounded set P  C.X /, the closure of P in the space Cb .X / is compact.
In particular, if X is pseudocompact and P  C.X / is equicontinuous and
pointwise bounded then the closure of P in Cu .X / is compact.
Prove that, for any bf -space X , a set P  C.X / is equicontinuous and
pointwise bounded if and only if the closure of P in the space Cb .X / is
compact.
Given a space X , let P; "
D f' 2 L.X / W '.P /  ."; C"/g for every
P  C.X / and " > 0. Prove that a set U  L.X / is open in L.X / if and
only if, for any  2 U there exists an equicontinuous pointwise bounded set
P  C.X / and " > 0 such that CP; "
 U . In other words, the topology of
L.X / coincides with the topology of uniform convergence on equicontinuous
pointwise bounded subsets of C.X /.
Given a space X and P  X let IP D ff 2 C.X / W f .P /  f0gg. Prove that
for any linear continuous functional ' W Ck .X / ! R which is not identically
zero on Ck .X /, there exists a compact subspace K  X (called the support of
' and denoted by supp.'/) such that '.IK / D f0g and '.IK 0 / f0g whenever
K 0 is a proper compact subset of K.
Recall that a set B is a barrel in a locally convex space L if B is closed,
convex, balanced, and absorbing in L. The space L is barreled if any barrel
in L is a neighborhood of 0. Prove that a locally convex space L is barreled
whenever it has the Baire property.
Prove that Ck .X / is a barreled space if and only if X is a -space, i.e., the
closure of any bounded subspace of X is compact. Deduce from this fact that
Ck .X / is barreled for any realcompact space X .
Prove that Cp .X / is barreled if and only if all bounded subspaces of X are
finite.
Give an example of a space X such that Cp .X / barreled but does have the
Baire property.

1.4 Metrizable Spaces and l-Equivalence

41

326. Given a point z in a space Z, say that a family B of subsets of Z is a local


base of neighborhoods of Z at the point z, if z 2 Int.U / for any U 2 B, and
z 2 V 2 .Z/ implies U  V for some U 2 B. Prove that the family of
all barrels in Ck .X / constitutes a local base of neighborhoods of 0 in Cb .X /.
Deduce from this fact that the family of all barrels in Cp .X / is also a local
base of neighborhoods of 0 in Cb .X /.
327. Let ' W Ck .X / ! Cp .Y / be a linear continuous map. Prove that ' is
continuous considered as a map from Cb .X / to Cb .Y /.
328. Assuming that a space Y is l-equivalent to a bf -space X prove that Y is also
a bf -space. In other words, bf -property is l-invariant.
329. Let ' W Lp .X / ! Lp .Y / be a linear homeomorphism. Prove that, if X is a
bf -space then ' is a linear homeomorphism of L.X / onto L.Y /.
330. Let X and Y be spaces one of which is a bf -space. Prove that X is
L-equivalent to Y if and only if X and Y are l-equivalent.
331. Prove that there exist l-equivalent spaces which are not L-equivalent.
332. Prove that a space X has a weaker metrizable topology if and only if L.X / has
a weaker metrizable topology. In particular, if X and Y are L-equivalent and
X can be condensed onto a metrizable space then Y can also be condensed
onto a metrizable space.
333. Suppose that X and Y are l-equivalent spaces. Prove that, if X is metrizable,
then Y can be condensed onto a metrizable space.
334. Say that a space X is  -metrizable if X is the countable union of its closed
metrizable subspaces. Prove that a space X is  -metrizable and paracompact
if and only if L.X / is  -metrizable and paracompact.
335. Suppose that a space X is l-equivalent to a metrizable space. Prove that X is
 -metrizable and paracompact.
336. For an arbitrary space X , prove that X is hemicompact if and only if Ck .X /
is first countable.
337. Prove that hemicompactness is preserved by l-equivalence.
338. Given a space X prove that
(i) if X is a k-space then a sequence ffn W n 2 !g  Ck .X / is convergent
whenever it is linearly Cauchy;
(ii) for a hemicompact space X the converse is true, i.e., if any linearly
Cauchy sequence in Ck .X / is convergent then X is a k-space.
339. Let X be an arbitrary space. Prove that X is a hemicompact space with
k-property if and only if Ck .X / is metrizable by a complete metric.
340. Let X and Y be l-equivalent spaces. Prove that X is a hemicompact k-space
if and only if Y is a hemicompact k-space.
341. Prove that any subspace of an @0 -space is an @0 -space and any countable
product of @0 -spaces is an @0 -space.
342. Observe that a compact-covering continuous image of an @0 -space is an
@0 -space. Prove that a space X is an @0 -space if and only if X is a compactcovering continuous image of a second countable space.

42

1 Properties Preserved by Homeomorphisms of Function Spaces

343. Prove that a space X is an @0 -space with the k-property if and only if it is a
quotient image of a second countable space.
344. Prove that any @0 -space of countable character is second countable.
345. Let ' W X ! Y be a continuous map. Recall that the dual map '  W Ck .Y / !
Ck .X / is defined by the formula '  .f / D f ' for every f 2 Ck .Y /.
Assuming that ' is compact-covering, prove that '  is an embedding.
346. Given a compact subspace K of a space X let v.f; x/ D f .x/ for every
f 2 Ck .X / and x 2 K. Prove that the map v W Ck .X /K ! R is continuous.
347. Prove that the following properties are equivalent for any space X :
(i) X is an @0 -space;
(ii) Ck .X / is an @0 -space.
(iii) Ck .X / has a countable network.
348. Let X and Y be l-equivalent spaces. Prove that X is an @0 -space if and only
if so is Y . In particular, if some space Z is l-equivalent to a second countable
space then Z is an @0 -space. Deduce from this fact that any first countable
space l-equivalent to a second countable space must be second countable.
349. Suppose that a space X has a countable network and Y is an @0 -space. Prove
that Cp .X; Y / has a countable network.
350. Given spaces X; Y and a function u W X  Y ! R let ux .y/ D u.x; y/ for
all y 2 Y ; then ux W Y ! R for every x 2 X . Analogously, let uy .x/ D
u.x; y/ for all x 2 X ; then uy W X ! R for every y 2 Y . Say that the
function u is separately continuous if the functions ux and uy are continuous
(on Y and X respectively) for all x 2 X and y 2 Y . Let Cps .X  Y / be
the set of all separately continuous functions on X  Y with the topology
induced from RXY . Observe that Cps .X  Y / is a locally convex space and
let .'/.x; y/ D '.x/.y/ for any continuous function ' W X ! Cp .Y /. Prove
that .'/ 2 Cps .X Y / for every ' 2 Cp .X; Cp .Y // and  W Cp .X; Cp .Y // !
Cps .X  Y / is a linear homeomorphism.
351. Prove that the space Cp .X; Cp .X // has a countable network if and only if X
is countable. Deduce from this fact that Cp .X / is an @0 -space if and only if X
is countable.
352. Prove that a space X is of second category in itself if and only if the player E
has no winning strategy in the BanachMazur NE-game on X .
353. Prove that a space X has the Baire property if and only if the player E has no
winning strategy in the BanachMazur E-game on X .
354. Prove that
(i) any pseudocompact space with the moving off property is compact.
(ii) any paracompact locally compact space has the moving off property.
355. Let X be a q-space. Prove that, if X has the moving off property then it is
locally compact.

1.4 Metrizable Spaces and l-Equivalence

43

356. Prove that the following conditions are equivalent for any space X ;:
(i) X has the moving off property;
(ii) given a sequence fKi W i 2 !g of moving off collections in X , we can
choose Ki 2 Ki for each i 2 !, such that the family fKi W i 2 !g has a
discrete open expansion;
(iii) the player II has no winning strategy in the GruenhageMa game on X .
357. Prove that, if Ck .X / has the Baire property then the space X has the moving
off property.
358. Prove that, for any q-space X , the following conditions are equivalent:
(i) Ck .X / has the Baire property;
(ii) X has the moving off property;
(iii) the player II has no winning strategy in GruenhageMa game on the
space X .
359. Let X be a paracompact q-space. Prove that Ck .X / has the Baire property if
and only if X is locally compact.
360. Let X be a paracompact q-space. Prove that, if X is l-equivalent to a locally
compact paracompact space then X is also locally compact. In particular,
any first countable paracompact space l-equivalent to a locally compact
paracompact space is locally compact. Deduce from this fact that
(i) if X and Y are metrizable l-equivalent spaces then X is locally compact
if and only if Y is locally compact;
(ii) if a first countable space X is l-equivalent to a second countable locally
compact space then X is also locally compact and second countable.
361. Suppose that a q-space X is l-equivalent to a locally compact metrizable
space. Prove that X is metrizable and locally compact.

362. Suppose that X is l-equivalent to a metrizable space, Y  X and Y is Cech


complete. Prove that Y is metrizable. In particular, if a Cech-complete space
X is l-equivalent to a metrizable space then X is metrizable.
363. Suppose that X is l-equivalent to a metrizable space. Prove that A is an
@0 -space for any countable set A  X .
364. For any space X let dc.X / D supfjU j W U   .X / and U is a discrete
familyg. Prove that if X is l-equivalent to a metrizable space then nw.X / D
dc.X /. In particular, if X is l-equivalent to a metrizable space then both the
Souslin property of X and ext .X /  ! imply that X has a countable network.
365. Given a space X and a first countable space Y assume that there exists a
continuous linear surjection ' W Cp .X / ! Cp .Y /. For any y 2PY there exist
x1 ; : : : ; xn 2 X and 1 ; : : : ; n 2 Rnf0g such that '.f /.y/ D niD1 i f .xi /
for any f 2 Cp .X /; denote the set fx1 ; : : : ; xn g by supp.y/. Suppose that U is
a locally finite open cover of X and let T .U / D fy 2 Y W supp.y/ \ U ;g
for every U 2 U . Prove that the family fT .U / W U 2 U g is a locally finite
open cover of Y .

44

1 Properties Preserved by Homeomorphisms of Function Spaces

366. Let X and Y be metrizable spaces for which there exists a continuous linear

surjection of Cp .X / onto Cp .Y /. Prove that, if X is Cech-complete


then Y is

also Cech-complete.

367. Prove that if a metrizable space X is l-equivalent to a Cech-complete


space

then X is also Cech-complete. As a consequence, if X and Y are l-equivalent


metrizable spaces then X is metrizable by a complete metric if and only if so
is Y .
368. Show that there exist first countable l-equivalent spaces X and Y such that X
is locally compact and Y is not locally compact.
369. Given a space Z let Z 0 be the set of non-isolated points of Z. Suppose
that X and Y are normal first countable l-equivalent spaces. Prove that if
X 0 is countably compact then Y 0 is also countably compact. Show that this
statement can be false if we omit first countability of X and Y .
370. Given a nonempty closed subspace F of a normal space X suppose that F is
a retract of some neighborhood of F . Prove that F is l-embedded in X and
hence Cp .X /
Cp .F /  I , where I D ff 2 Cp .X / W f .F / D f0gg.
371. Given a space X assume that X0 and X1 are closed subspaces of X such
that X D X0 [ X1 and the set F D X0 \ X1 is l-embedded in X ;
suppose additionally that Cp .F /
Cp .F /  Cp .F /. Prove that Cp .X /

Cp .X0 /  Cp .X1 /.
372. Suppose that a space X has a nontrivial convergent sequence. Prove that X is
l

l-equivalent to X .! C 1/ and X C  X . Deduce from this fact that X C is


l-equivalent to X for every infinite metrizable space X .
373. Suppose that a space X has a nontrivial convergent sequence and Y is
l-embedded in X . Prove that X is l-equivalent to XY Y . Consequently,
l

for any infinite metrizable space X , if Y is closed in X then X  XY Y .


Here XY is the R-quotient space obtained from X by contracting Y to a point.
374. Suppose that X is a compact space and F is l-embedded in X . Prove that X C
is l-equivalent to F .X nF /. In particular, if X is an infinite metrizable
l

compact space then X  F .X nF / for any closed F  X .


375. Let X and Y be metrizable compact spaces. Suppose that F and G are
l

closed subspaces of X and Y respectively such that F  G and X nF is


homeomorphic to Y nG. Prove that X is l-equivalent to Y .
376. Let X and Y be nonempty compact metrizable spaces such that either Y 
.! C 1/ or .Y  !/ embeds in X . Prove that Cp .X /
Cp .X /  .Cp .Y //n
for every n 2 N.
377. Say that a metrizable compact space K is universal in the dimension n 2 ! if
dim K D n and any metrizable compact space of dimension at most n embeds
in K. Prove that if X and Y are metrizable compact spaces universal in the
l

dimension n, then X  Y .
378. Suppose that a space X is l-equivalent to Y and Y is a metrizable compact
space universal in the dimension n. Prove that X is also a metrizable compact
space universal in the dimension n.

1.4 Metrizable Spaces and l-Equivalence

45

379. Prove that, for any n1 ; : : : ; nk 2 N, the space Cp .In1 /: : :Cp .Ink / is linearly
homeomorphic to Cp .In / where n D maxfn1 ; : : : ; nk g.
380. Given n 2 N and a closed subset F of the space In such that ; F In
prove that .In /F is l-equivalent to In . Here .In /F is the R-quotient image of In
obtained by contracting F to a point.
381. Prove that, for any n 2 N, if U is a nonempty open subset of the space Rn ,
then the space .U / is l-equivalent to In .
382. Given a space X with dim X D n 2 N assume that X is homeomorphic to a
finite union
S of Euclidean cubes, i.e., there is a finite family F of subsets of X
such that F D X and every F 2 F is homeomorphic to Ik for some k 2 N.
Prove that X is l-equivalent to In .
383. For any n 2 N prove that both spaces In .!C1/ and .In !/ are l-equivalent
to In .
384. Prove that In  D! is not l-equivalent to In for any n 2 N.
385. Suppose that K is a compact space and there exists a continuous bijective map
of 0; C1/ onto K. Prove that K is l-equivalent to I. Deduce from this fact
that if there is a continuous bijection of R onto a compact space L then L is
also l-equivalent to I.
386. Assume that X is a second countable S
space and dim X D n 2 !. Let O D
fU 2 .X / W dim U < ng and O D O. The set K.X / D X nO is called
the dimensional kernel of X . Prove that dim O < n and dim W D n for any
nonempty open subset W of the space K.X /.
387. Prove that if n 2 N and a space X is l-equivalent to In then the dimensional
kernel K.X / of the space X is also l-equivalent to In .
388. Call a second countable space Y weakly n-Euclidean if dim Y D n and
every n-dimensional subspace of Y has nonempty interior and contains a
homeomorphic copy of In . Prove that a compact space X is l-equivalent to
In if and only if its dimensional kernel K.X / has a nonempty open weakly
n-Euclidean subspace and every U 2  .K.X // contains a subset which is
l-equivalent to X .
389. Given (linear) topological spaces X and Y the expression X  Y says that
they are (linearly) homeomorphic. Suppose that X !  X and there exist
(linear) topological spaces E and F such that X  Y  F and Y  X  E.
Prove that X  Y .
390. Suppose that L is a linear topological space, M is a linear subspace of L and
there exists a linear retraction r W L ! M . Prove that L
M  r 1 .0/.
Deduce from this fact that for any linear topological spaces L and E there
exists a linear topological space N such that L
E  N (i.e., E is a linear
topological factor of L) if and only if there exists a linear retract E 0 of the
space L such that E 0
E.
391. Given linear topological spaces L; M , and N prove that L
M  N if
and only if there exist linear subspaces M 0 and N 0 of the space L for which
M 0
M; N 0
N and there exist linear retractions r W L ! M 0 and
s W L ! N 0 such that r.x/ C s.x/ D x for any x 2 L.

46

1 Properties Preserved by Homeomorphisms of Function Spaces

392. For any linear topological space L denote by L the set of all continuous
linear functionals on L with the topology inherited from Cp .L/. Prove that,
for any locally convex spaces M and N , we have .M  N /
M   N  . In
particular, Cp .Y / is a linear topological factor of Cp .X / if and only if Lp .Y /
is a linear topological factor of Lp .X /.
393. Suppose that X is a second countable non-compact S
space, n 2 N and there
exists a locally finite cover I of the space X such that fInt.I / W I 2 Ig D X
and every I 2 I is homeomorphic to In . Prove that X is l-equivalent to In !.
394. Prove that, for any n 2 N, every nonempty open subspace of Rn is l-equivalent
l

395.
396.
397.

398.

399.
400.

to In  !. In particular, if U 2  .Rn / then U  Rn .


Given spaces X and Y assume that nw.X / D ! and Cp .Y / is a linear
topological factor of Cp .X /. Prove that dim Y  dim X .
Assuming that X is a compact space and Cp .Y / is a linear topological factor
of Cp .X / prove that dim Y  dim X .
(Open Mapping Theorem) Suppose that L is a Banach space, M is a linear
topological space which is of second category in itself, and f W L ! M is
a surjective continuous linear map. Prove that f is open. In particular, any
continuous linear onto map between two Banach spaces is open.
(Closed Graph Theorem) Suppose that L and M are Banach spaces and f W
L ! M is a linear map such that its graph G D f.x; f .x// W x 2 Lg is closed
in L  M . Prove that the map f is continuous.
Prove that, for any nonempty space X , there exists a continuous surjection of
the space Cp .X / onto Cp .X /  R.
Prove that there exists an infinite compact space K for which there is no linear
continuous surjection of Cp .K/ onto Cp .K/  R. In particular, K C is not
l-equivalent to the space K.

1.5 The Last-Minute Updates. Yet More on l-Equivalence

47

1.5 The Last-Minute Updates. Yet More on l-Equivalence


All spaces are assumed to be Tychonoff; the space D is the doubleton f0; 1g with the
discrete topology. Given an infinite cardinal , say that a set P  X is an F -subset
of X if P is a union of   closed subsets of X ; if Q is the intersection of at most
-many open subsets of X then Q is called a G -subset of X . For any space X let
C
.X / D minf W there is no continuous surjective map of X onto I g. The cardinal
.X / is called the dyadicity index of the space X . Let  .X / D minf  ! W every
closed subset of X is a G -set in X g. If X is a space then x 2 X is called a P -point
in X if x 2 Int.F / for any G -subset F of the space X such that x 2 F .
Given a point  2 !n! let U D fU \ ! W U 2 .; !/g; it is an easy exercise
to see that U is an ultrafilter on !. We will follow the usual practice to identify
 with U for any  2 !n!. In particular, the elements of !n! will be called
ultrafilters on !. Observe that, for each ultrafilter  2 !n! and any set A  ! we
have  2 A if and only if A 2 ; let ! be the set ! [ fg endowed with the topology
inherited from !. Recall that  .RA / D fx 2 RA W jfa 2 A W x.a/ 0gj < !g for
any set A.
Given an infinite cardinal , a space X is called -cosmic if nw.X /  ; the
space X is stronglyS
-cosmic if there exists a family fX W < g of subspaces of
X such that X D fX W < g and nw.X / <  for any < . If P  X
then a set A  X is said to be concentrated around P if AnU is countable for
any U 2 .P; X /. If X is a space and n > 1 is a natural number then the set
n .X / D fx 2 X n W x.i / D x.j / for some distinct i; j < ng is called the
n-diagonal of X . For technical reasons it is convenient to define the 1-diagonal
1 .X / to be the empty
Tfor any space X . If A D fAn W n 2 !g is a sequence of
S set
sets then lim A D n2! in Ai .
A game of two players E and NE on a nonempty space X is called a Choquet
game if at the n-th move E chooses an open set Un and a point xn 2 Un . The
player NE responds by choosing an open set Vn 3 xn with Vn  Un . At the move
.n C 1/ the player E takes a point xnC1 2 Vn and an open set UnC1 such that
xnC1 2 UnC1  Vn . The player NE has to respond with a set VnC1 2 .X / such that
xnC1 2 VnC1  UnC1 . The gameT
ends after the moves .xn ; Un /; Vn are made for all
n 2 ! and the player E wins if fUn W n 2 !g D ;; otherwise, player NE is the
winner. In the point-open game PO on a nonempty space X at the n-th move the
player P chooses a point xn and the player O takes an open set Un which contains
xn . TheS
game ends after the moves xn ; Un are made for all n 2 ! and the player P
wins if n2! Un D X ; otherwise O is the winner.
A neighborhood assignment on a space X is any function
S N W X ! .X / such
that x 2 N.x/ for every x 2 X ; if A  X then N.A/ D fN.x/ W x 2 Ag. Say that
X is a D-space if for any neighborhood assignment N on X there exists a closed
discrete set D  X such that N.D/ D X .

48

1 Properties Preserved by Homeomorphisms of Function Spaces

If is an ordinal then a family fA W < g of subsets of a space X is called


increasing if <  < implies A  A . If X is a space and P  X say that a
family N  exp.X / is an external network (base) of P in X if (N  .X / and)
for any x 2 P and U 2 .x; X / there exists N 2 N such that x 2 N  U .
Given sets X and Y and an infinite cardinal  suppose that we have families
A  exp.X /, B  exp.Y / and a map ' W A ! B. Say that ' is -monotone if
(1) j'.A/j  maxfjAj; !g whenever A 2 A and jAj  ;
(2) if A  B and A; B 2 A, then '.A/  '.B/;
0
0
(3) if   is an infinite cardinal,
SfA W < g
S A and < implies A  A
then we have the equality '. < A / D < '.A /.
Given an infinite cardinal , say that a space X is (strongly) monotonically
-monolithic if, for any A  X with jAj  , there exists an external network
(base) O.A/ of the set A in X such that the assignment A ! O.A/ is -monotone.
If X is a space and f W X ! Y is a continuous map, then a family N  exp.X /
is a network for f if for any x 2 X and U 2 .f .x/; Y / there exists N 2 N
such that x 2 N and f .N /  U . Say that a space X is monotonically -stable
if to any set B  Cp .X / with jBj   we can assign a network N .B/ for the
map eB W X ! Cp .B/ in such a way that the correspondence B ! N .B/ is
-monotone. Recall that eB .x/.f / D f .x/ for any f 2 B.
A space X is (strongly) monotonically monolithic if, for any A  X , there exists
an external network (base) O.A/ of the set ASin X such that jO.A/j
S  maxfjAj; !g
while A  B implies O.A/  O.B/ and O. fA W < g/D fO.A / W < g
whenever is an ordinal and fA W < g is an increasing family of subsets of X .
Say that a space X is monotonically retractable if we can assign to any countable
A  X a retraction rA W X ! X and a countable network N .A/ for the map rA
such that A  rA .X / and the assignment N is !-monotone. Say that a space X is
monotonically Sokolov if we can assign to any countable family F of closed subsets
of X a continuous retraction rF W X ! X and a countable external network N .F/
for rF .X / in X such that rF .F /  F for each F 2 F and the assignment N is
!-monotone.
Say that X is a  -space if the space X has a  -discrete network. A spaceS
X is a
strong -space if there exists a family C of compact subsets of X such that C D
X and there exists a  -discrete family N  exp.X / which is a network modulo C,
i.e., for any C 2 C and U 2 .C; X / there exists N 2 N with C  N  U . Call
a space Z hereditarily Baire if every closed subspace of Z has the Baire property.
A space X is called d -separable if it has a dense  -discrete subspace.
Given any ordinal let C 0 D ; if is an ordinal and we defined C then
C . C 1/ D . C / C 1. If is a limit ordinal and we defined C  for any
 < then C D supf C  W  < g. This defines an ordinal C for any
ordinals and . If is an ordinal then let 0 D 0. If is an ordinal and we have
defined then . C 1/ D C . If is a limit ordinal and we defined 
for every  < then D supf  W  < g. This defines an ordinal for

1.5 The Last-Minute Updates. Yet More on l-Equivalence

49

any ordinals and . For each ordinal let 0 D 1. If is an ordinal and we have
defined then C1 D . / . If is a limit ordinal and we defined  for every
 < then D supf  W  < g. This defines an ordinal for any ordinals
and .
Say that a space X is finite-dimensional
if dim X  n for some n 2 !. The space
S
X is  -zero-dimensional if X D i2! Xi and every Xi is zero-dimensional.

50

1 Properties Preserved by Homeomorphisms of Function Spaces

401. Suppose that  is an infinite cardinal and X is a Lindelf -space such that
t .X /   and  .X /  . Prove that X has a -base of order  . In
particular, if X is a Lindelf -space with t .X / D  .X / D ! then X has
a point-countable -base. Deduce from this fact that any Lindelf -space X
with .X /   has a -base of order  . In particular, any first countable
Lindelf -space has a point-countable -base.
402. Given a space X and an infinite cardinal  suppose that  .X /   and
d.X /   C . Prove that X has a -base of order  . In particular, if
 .X /  ! and d.X /  !1 then X has a point-countable -base.
403. Assuming CH prove that
(i) any Lindelf first countable space has a point-countable -base;
(ii) any space X with .X / D c.X / D ! has a point-countable -base;
(iii) if !1 is a caliber of X and .X /  ! then X is separable.
404. Give an example of a first countable space which has no point-countable
-base.
405. Let X be a space for which we can find a family of sets fAm W m 2 !g and a
sequence fkm W m 2 !g  Nnf1g such that supfjAm j W m 2 !g D jX j while
Am  X km n km .X / and Am is concentrated around km .X / for every m 2 !.
Prove that the space Cp .X / has a point-countable -base. In particular, the
space Cp .X / has a point-countable -base if there is a set A with jAj D jX j
such that either A  X n n n .X / and A is concentrated around n .X / or
A  X and A is concentrated around some point of X .
406. Prove that
(a) Cp ./ has a point-countable -base whenever is an ordinal with its
order topology;
(b) Cp .AD.X // has a point-countable -base for any countably compact
space X . Here AD.X / is the Alexandroff double of X .
407. Prove that the following conditions are equivalent for any infinite space X
with l  .X /  !:
(i) Cp .X / has a point-countable -base;
(ii) there is a family of sets fAm W m 2 !g and a sequence fkm W m 2 !g 
Nnf1g such that supfjAm j W m 2 !g D jX j while Am  X km n km .X /
and Am is concentrated around km .X / for every m 2 !.
408. Given a space X suppose that the cardinality of X is regular and uncountable
while l  .X / D !, i.e., all finite powers of X are Lindelf. Prove that the
space Cp .X / has a point-countable -base if and only if there exists a natural
number n > 1 such that some set A  X n n n .X / is concentrated around
n .X / and jAj D jX j.
409. Given a metrizable space X prove that Cp .X / has a point-countable -base if
and only if X is countable.

1.5 The Last-Minute Updates. Yet More on l-Equivalence

51

410. Suppose that X is an infinite space with l  .X / D !. Prove that if Cp .X / has


a point-countable -base then jX j D .X /. Here .X / D minf W 2 .X / is
a G -subset of X  X g is the diagonal number of the space X . Deduce from
this fact that if X is compact and Cp .X / has a point-countable -base then
w.X / D jX j.
411. Prove that if K is a scattered Corson compact space then Cp .K/ has a pointcountable -base.
412. Prove that if Cp .X / embeds in a -product of first countable spaces then it
has a point-countable -base.
413. Say that a space X is P -favorable (for the point-open game) if the player P
has a winning strategy in the point-open game on X . Prove that
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)

any countable space is P -favorable;


a continuous image of a P -favorable space is P -favorable;
the countable union of P -favorable space is P -favorable;
any nonempty closed subspace of a P -favorable space is P -favorable;
any nonempty Lindelf scattered space is P -favorable.

414. Prove that


(a) if X is P -favorable for the point-open game and .X /  ! then X is
countable;
(b) a compact space X is P -favorable for the point-open game if and only if
X is scattered.
415. Given a nonempty space X define a game PO0 on the space X as follows: at
the n-th move the player P chooses a finite set Fn  X and the player O takes
a set Un 2 .X / such that Fn  Un . The gameSends after the moves Fn ; Un
are made for all n 2 !. The player P wins if n2! Un D X ; otherwise the
victory is assigned to O. Prove that the player P has a winning strategy in the
game PO0 on a space X if and only if X is P -favorable for the point-open
game.
416. Given a nonempty space X define a game PO00 on the space X as follows: at
the n-th move the player P chooses a finite set Fn  X and the player O takes
a set Un 2 .X / such that Fn  Un . After all moves fFn ; Un W n 2 !g are
made let U D fUn W n 2 !g. The player P wins if lim U D X ; otherwise the
victory is assigned to O. Prove that the player P has a winning strategy in the
game PO00 on a space X if and only if X is P -favorable for the point-open
game.
417. Prove that a space X is P -favorable for the point-open game if and only if
Cp .X / is a W -space.
418. Assuming that 2! D !1 and 2!1 D !2 prove that there exists a scattered
Lindelf P -space X such that hd  .X / D !1 and jX j D !2 . Show that Cp .X /
is a W -space with no point-countable -base. In particular, Cp .X / is a W space which cannot be embedded into a -product of first countable spaces.

52

1 Properties Preserved by Homeomorphisms of Function Spaces

419. Prove
that if Xt is a d -separable space for each t 2 T then the product space
Q
X
t is d -separable. In other words, any product of d -separable spaces
t2T
must be d -separable.
420. Given an infinite cardinal  and a space X prove that X  is d -separable if
and only if there exists a family D D fDn W n 2 !g of discrete subspaces of
X  such that supfjDn j W n 2 !g  d.X /. In particular, if X  has a discrete
subspace of cardinality d.X / then X  is d -separable. Deduce from this fact
that X d.X/ is d -separable for any space X .
421. Prove that
(a) if K is a compact space then K ! is d -separable;
(b) there exists a compact space K such that K n is not d -separable for any
n 2 N. Thus K ! is d -separable but no finite power of K is d -separable.
422. Prove that if Cp .X / is d -separable then there is a discrete subspace D 
Cp .X / such that jDj D d.Cp .X //.
423. Given a space X and n 2 N say that a discrete subspace D  X n is essential if
D \ n .X / D ; and jDj D i w.X /. Prove that if, for some n 2 N, there exists
an essential discrete set D  X n then Cp .X / is d -separable. In particular,
if there exists a discrete subspace of X of cardinality i w.X / then Cp .X / is
d -separable.
424. Assume that X is a space for which there exists a discrete subspace D 
X  X such that jDj D i w.X /. Prove that Cp .X / is d -separable.
425. Let X be a space such that the cardinal  D i w.X / has uncountable cofinality.
Prove that the following conditions are equivalent:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

.Cp .X //n is d -separable for all n  2;


.Cp .X //n is d -separable for some n  2;
Cp .X /  Cp .X / is d -separable;
for some m 2 N there is a discrete set D  X m with jDj D .

426. Prove that


(a) if supfs.X n / W n 2 Ng > i w.X / then Cp .X / is d -separable;
(b) if K is a Corson compact space then Cp .K/ is d -separable;
(c) if X is a metrizable space then Cp .X / is d -separable.
427. Prove that if Cp .X / is a Lindelf -space then it is d -separable.
428. Prove that if Cp .X / is a Lindelf -space then the space X must be
hereditarily d -separable.
429. Prove that under CH,
(a) there exists a compact space K such that Cp .K/ is not d -separable;
(b) there exists a space X such that X  X is d -separable while X is not
d -separable.
430. Suppose that  is an infinite cardinal, T ; is a set, and Nt is a space such
that nw.Nt /   for all t 2 T . Assume that D is a dense subspace of N D
Q
t2T Nt and f W D ! K is a continuous map of D onto a compact space K.

1.5 The Last-Minute Updates. Yet More on l-Equivalence

431.

432.

433.

434.

435.

436.

437.

438.

439.

53

Prove that if .K/   then w.K/  . Deduce from this fact that if a compact
space K is a continuous image of a dense subspace of a product of cosmic
spaces then w.K/ D t .K/ D .K/.
Suppose that  is a cardinal of uncountable cofinality, T ; is a set, and Nt
is a space such that
Q nw.Nt /  ! for all t 2 T . Assume that D is a dense
subspace of N D t2T Nt and f W D ! K is a continuous map of D onto a
compact space K with w.K/ D . Prove that K maps continuously onto I .
Given an infinite
cardinal  suppose that nw.Nt /   for any t 2 T and
Q
C  N D t2T Nt is a dense subspace of N . Assume additionally that we
have a continuous (not necessarily surjective) map ' W C ! L of C into a
compact space L. Prove that if y 2 C 0 D '.C / and h .y; L/   then
.y; C 0 /  . Here the cardinal h .y; L/ is the hereditary -character of
the space L at the point y, i.e., h .y; L/ D supf .y; Z/QW y 2 Z  Lg.
Suppose that C is a dense subspace of a product N D t2T Nt such that
nw.Nt /   for each t 2 T . Assume that K is a compact space with
t .K/   and ' W C ! K is a continuous (not necessarily surjective) map; let
C 0 D '.C /. Prove that every closed subspace of C 0 is a G -set; in particular,
.C 0 /  .
Q
Suppose that C is a dense subspace of a product N D t2T Nt such that
nw.Nt /   for each t 2 T . Assume additionally that l.C /   and K
is a compact space with t .K/   such that there exists a continuous (not
necessarily surjective) map ' W C ! K. Prove that if C 0 D '.C / then
hl.C 0 /  .
Prove that if C is a dense subspace of a product of cosmic spaces and K
is a compact space then, for any continuous map ' W C ! K, we have
 .'.C //  t .K/.
Suppose that C is a dense subspace of a product of cosmic spaces and ' W
C ! K is a continuous (not necessarily surjective) map into a compact space
K of countable tightness; let Y D '.C /. Prove that Y is a perfect space and
w.Y /  !. In particular, if ' W Cp .X / ! K is a continuous map of Cp .X /
into a compact space K with t .K/  ! then '.Cp .X // is a perfect space of
countable -weight.
Suppose that C is a dense Lindelf -subspace of a product of cosmic
spaces and ' W C ! K is a continuous (not necessarily surjective) map
into a compact space K of countable tightness. Prove that nw.'.C //  !.
In particular, if Cp .X / is a Lindelf -space and ' W Cp .X / ! K is a
continuous map of Cp .X / into a compact space K of countable tightness then
'.Cp .X // is cosmic.
Given an infinite cardinal  observe that the property P of being strongly
-cosmic is stronger than being -cosmic. Besides, P is preserved by
subspaces and continuous images. Prove
Q that if  < cf./ and X is strongly
-cosmic for any <  then X D < X is also strongly -cosmic.
Given an infinite cardinal  prove that D is not strongly -cosmic and hence
no strongly -cosmic space can be continuously mapped onto I .

54

1 Properties Preserved by Homeomorphisms of Function Spaces

440. Assume that  is an infinite cardinal and K is a strongly -cosmic compact


space. Prove that there exists x 2 K such that .x; K/ < .
441. Suppose that  is an uncountable cardinal and X is a space such that w.X /  
and l.X / < cf./. Prove that Cp .X / is strongly -cosmic. In particular, if
cf./ > ! and X is a Lindelf space with w.X / D  then Cp .X / is strongly
-cosmic.
442. Let  be a cardinal of uncountable cofinality. Prove that if X is a Lindelf
-space with nw.X /   then Cp .X / is strongly -cosmic.
443. Given an uncountable cardinal  suppose that a space X is strongly
-monolithic, i.e., w.A/   for every A  X with jAj   and, additionally,
l.X / < cf./. Prove that w.K/ <  for any compact continuous image K
of the space Cp .X /. Deduce from this fact that if X is a Lindelf strongly
!1 -monolithic space (in particular, if l.X / D ! and w.X /  !1 ) then every
compact continuous image of Cp .X / is metrizable.
444. Given a cardinal  with cf./ > ! assume that X is a -monolithic Lindelf
-space. Prove that if K is a compact continuous image of Cp .X / then
w.K/ < . In particular, if X is an !1 -monolithic Lindelf -space then
every compact continuous image of Cp .X / is metrizable.
445. Let  be a cardinal and denote by D a discrete space of cardinality . For the
compact space K D D prove that Cp .K/ maps continuously onto I .
446. Prove that every one of the following statements is equivalent to Luzins axiom
(2!1 > c/:
(i) for every separable compact space K any compact continuous image of
Cp .K/ is metrizable;
(ii) any compact continuous image of Cp .!/ is metrizable;
(iii) any compact continuous image of Cp .Ic / is metrizable;
(iv) for every compact space K with w.K/  c, any compact continuous
image of Cp .K/ is metrizable.
447. Under Luzins Axiom prove that
(a) if X is Lindelf and w.X /  c then every compact continuous image of
Cp .X / is metrizable.
(b) if X is Lindelf and first countable then every compact continuous image
of Cp .X / is metrizable.
448. Prove that, for every hereditarily Lindelf first countable space X , any
compact continuous image of Cp .X / is metrizable. In particular, for each
perfectly normal compact space X , any compact continuous image of Cp .X /
is metrizable.
449. Suppose that X is a space such that l.Cp .X // D t .Cp .X // D !. Prove that
every compact continuous image of Cp .X / is metrizable.
450. Prove that if X is a space such that Cp .X / is a Lindelf -space then every
compact continuous image of Cp .X / is metrizable.
451. For the double arrow space K prove that the space Cp .K/ can be condensed
onto I! .

1.5 The Last-Minute Updates. Yet More on l-Equivalence

55

452. Prove that Cp .Dc / condenses onto I! .


453. Suppose that X is a nonempty  -compact second countable space. Prove that
Cp .X / condenses onto a compact space.
454. Prove that there exists a set X  R such that Cp .X / does not condense onto
an analytic space.
455. Given a nonempty space X such that jCp .X /j < 2d.X/ prove that Cp .X /
cannot be condensed onto a compact space. Deduce from this fact that neither
one of the spaces Cp .!n!/ and Cp ..Dc // condenses onto a compact space.
Here .Dc / D fx 2 Dc W jx 1 .1/j  !g is the -product of Dc .
456. Prove that if 2! D !1 and 2!1 > !2 then Cp .D!2 / does not condense onto a
compact space.
457. Suppose that 2! < 2!1 and Cp .X / condenses onto a compact space. Prove
that X is separable if and only if jCp .X /j  c.
458. Suppose that l.X n / D ! for all n 2 N and Cp .X / is Lindelf. Observe that
if Cp .X / condenses onto a compact space K then K is metrizable and X is
separable. Prove that if Cp .X / condenses onto a  -compact space Y then X is
separable and .Y / D !. Deduce from this fact that if X is a non-metrizable
Corson compact space then Cp .X / does not condense onto a  -compact space.
459. Given a space X prove that the space Cp .X / condenses onto a space
embeddable in a compact space of countable tightness if and only if Cp .X /
condenses onto a second countable space.
460. Assuming MAC:CH prove that if K is a compact space such that Cp .K/ is
Lindelf and condensable onto a  -compact space then K is metrizable.
461. Assume that Cp .X / is a Lindelf -space and there exists a condensation of
Cp .X / onto a  -compact space Y . Prove that nw.X /  ! and nw.Y /  !.
462. Prove that, for any compact space X such that w.X /  !1 , the space Cp .X /
is hereditarily metalindelf.
463. Given an uncountable discrete space X prove that the space Cp .X; D/ is not
metalindelf; therefore Cp .X / is not metalindelf either.
464. Prove that
(i) every strong -space is a D-space. In particular, any Lindelf -space
is a D-space;
(ii) every space with a point-countable base is a D-space.
465. Prove that,
(i) for any infinite cardinal , if a space is monotonically -monolithic then
it is -monolithic;
(ii) for any infinite cardinal , if X is a monotonically -monolithic space
and Y  X then Y is also monotonically -monolithic;
(iii) if  is an infinite cardinal, then any countable product of monotonically
-monolithic spaces is monotonically -monolithic;
(iv) for any infinite cardinal , every closed continuous image of a monotonically -monolithic space is monotonically -monolithic;

56

1 Properties Preserved by Homeomorphisms of Function Spaces

(v) a space X is monotonically monolithic if and only if X is monotonically


-monolithic for any infinite cardinal ;
(vi) for any infinite cardinal , a space X is monotonically -monolithic if
and only if to any finite set F  X we can assign a countable family
O.F / 
Sexp.X / in such a way that for any set A  X with jAj  , the
family fO.F / W F 2 A
<! g is an external network at all points of A;
(vii) a space X is monotonically monolithic if and only if to any finite set
F  X we can assign a countable family
S O.F /  exp.X / in such
a way that for any A  X , the family fO.F / W F 2 A
<! g is an
external network at all points of A;
(viii) if X is a space and the set X 0 of non-isolated points of X has a countable
network then X is monotonically monolithic. In particular, if a space X
is cosmic or has a unique non-isolated point then X is monotonically
monolithic;
(ix) given an infinite cardinal , if a space X is monotonically -monolithic
and t .X /  , then X is monotonically monolithic;
(x) for any infinite cardinal , every  -product of monotonically monolithic spaces is monotonically -monolithic. In particular, any
 -product of monotonically monolithic spaces is monotonically
monolithic.
466. Prove that,
(i) a space X is strongly monotonically monolithic if and only if X is
strongly monotonically !-monolithic;
(ii) every space with a point-countable base must be strongly monotonically
monolithic;
(iii) if a space X is strongly monotonically monolithic, then it must be
strongly monolithic and monotonically monolithic;
(iv) every subspace of a strongly monotonically monolithic space is strongly
monotonically monolithic;
(v) any countable product of strongly monotonically monolithic spaces must
be strongly monotonically monolithic;
(vi) if X is strongly monotonically monolithic and f W X ! Y is an open
map such that d.f 1 .y//  ! for any y 2 Y then Y is strongly
monotonically monolithic;
(vii) every countably compact strongly monotonically monolithic space is
compact and metrizable.
467. For any infinite cardinal  prove that
(a) a space X is monotonically -stable if and only if Cp .X / is monotonically
-monolithic.
(b) a space X is monotonically -monolithic if and only if Cp .X / is
monotonically -stable.

1.5 The Last-Minute Updates. Yet More on l-Equivalence

57

468. Prove that if X is a Lindelf -space then Cp .X / is monotonically monolithic. In particular, if Cp .Y / is a Lindelf -space then Y is monotonically
monolithic.
469. Prove that if X is a Lindelf -space then Cp .X / is monotonically !monolithic. In particular, if .Cp .X // is a Lindelf -space then Cp .X / is
monotonically !-monolithic. Deduce from these facts that if X is pseudocompact then Cp .X / is monotonically !-monolithic.
470. Let X be a monotonically -monolithic space with ext .X / D  . Prove
that
(i) if <  then l.X /  ;
(ii) if D  and t .X /   then l.X /  .
471. Prove that every subspace of a monotonically monolithic space is a D-space.
As a consequence,
(i) if X is a Lindelf -space then every subspace of Cp .X / is a D-space.
(ii) Observe that ext .Y / D l.Y / for any D-space Y . Therefore (i) generalizes Baturovs theorem (SFFS-269).
472. Given an infinite cardinal , suppose that a space X is monotonically monolithic and nw.X /   C . Prove that every subspace of X is a D-space.
Deduce from this fact that for any pseudocompact space Z with nw.Z/  !1 ,
every subspace of the space Cp .Z/ is a D-space.
473. Prove that any countably compact monotonically !-monolithic space is
Corson compact.
474. Give an example of a Corson compact space that is not monotonically !monolithic.
475. Observe that if X is a monotonically !-monolithic compact space and !1
is a caliber of X , then the space X is metrizable. Prove that there exists a
monotonically !1 -monolithic (and hence monotonically !-monolithic) noncompact pseudocompact space X such that !1 is a caliber of X .
476. Suppose that X is a monotonically Sokolov space. Prove that
(a) X is monotonically !-monolithic;
(b) any F -subset of X is monotonically Sokolov.
477. Suppose that a space X is monotonically retractable and fix, for any countable
set A  X , a retraction rA W X ! X and a network N .A/ for the map rA that
witness monotone retractability of X . Prove that, for any countable family
G of closed subsets of X we can find a countable set P .G/  X such that
rP .G/ .G/  G for any G 2 G and the assignment G ! P .G/ is !-monotone.
478. Given a space
SY denote by CL.Y / the family of all closed subsets of Y and let
CL .Y / D fCL.Y n / W n 2 Ng. Prove that, for any space X , the following
conditions are equivalent:
(a) X is monotonically retractable:
(b) for any countable family G of closed subsets of X , there exists a retraction
sG W X ! X and a countable network O.G/ for the map sG such that
s.G/  G for any G 2 G and the assignment O is !-monotone;

58

1 Properties Preserved by Homeomorphisms of Function Spaces

(c) for any countable family G  CL .X / there exists a retraction tG W X !


X and a countable network P.G/ for the map tG such that, for any n 2 N,
we have the inclusion tGn .G/  G for any G 2 G \ CL.X n / and the
assignment P is !-monotone.
479. Given a monotonically retractable space X , prove that
(a) every F -subset of X is monotonically retractable;
(b) the space X is Sokolov; in particular, X is !-stable, collectionwise
normal, and ext .X /  !;
(c) Cp .X / is a Lindelf D-space.
480. Prove that
(a) any  -product of monotonically retractable spaces is
retractable;
(b) any -product of monotonically retractable spaces is
retractable and hence every countable product of
retractable spaces is monotonically retractable;
(c) any closed subspace of a -product of cosmic spaces is
retractable.

monotonically
monotonically
monotonically
monotonically

481. For any space X prove that


(a) X is monotonically retractable if and only if Cp .X / is monotonically
Sokolov.
(b) X is monotonically Sokolov if and only if Cp .X / is monotonically
retractable.
482. Prove that
(a) any monotonically Sokolov space is Lindelf and Sokolov;
(b) any countable product of monotonically Sokolov spaces is monotonically
Sokolov;
(c) every R-quotient image of a monotonically Sokolov space is monotonically Sokolov;
(d) every R-quotient image of a monotonically retractable space X must be
monotonically retractable;
(e) a monotonically retractable space must be !-monolithic but it can fail to
be monotonically !-monolithic.
483. Prove that a compact space X is monotonically retractable if and only if X is
Corson compact.
484. Prove that a monotonically retractable space X is monotonically Sokolov if
and only if X is monotonically !-monolithic. In particular, a compact space
is monotonically Sokolov if and only if it is monotonically !-monolithic.
485. Suppose that X is a first countable countably compact subspace of an ordinal
with its order topology. Prove that X is monotonically retractable and hence
Cp .X / is a Lindelf D-space.

1.5 The Last-Minute Updates. Yet More on l-Equivalence

59

486. Prove that


(a) the set E of all ordinals < !2 of uncountable cofinality is monotonically
!-monolithic but is neither a D-space nor monotonically !1 -monolithic;
(b) for set Y of all ordinals < !2 of countable cofinality, the space X D Y [
f!2 g is countably compact and ext .Cp .X // D ! while l.Cp .X // D !2 .
In particular, X is a countably compact space such that Cp .X / is not a
D-space.
487. Suppose that X and Cp .X / are Lindelf -spaces. Prove that both X and
Cp .X / must be monotonically retractable and monotonically Sokolov. In
particular, X and Cp .X / have the Sokolov property.
488. Prove that
(a) any Eberlein compact space X has a  -closure-preserving local base at
every point, i.e.,S
for any x 2 X there exists a local base Bx at the point x
such that Bx D n2! Bxn and every Bxn is closure-preserving;
(b) there exists an Eberlein compact space K that does not have a closurepreserving local base at some point;
(c) there exists a non-metrizable compact space Y such that Cp .Y / has a
closure-preserving local base at every point.
489. Given a compact space K let jjf jj D supfjf .x/j W x 2 Kg for any f 2 C.K/;
if f; g 2 C.K/ then K .f; g/ D jjf  gjj. As usual, Cu .K/ is the set C.K/
with the topology generated by the metric K . If A  Cp .K/ and A ;
then diam.A/ D supfjjf  gjj W f; g 2 Ag. For each " > 0 say that a family
A of subsets of C.K/ is "-small if diam.A/ < " for any A 2 A. The space
Cp .K/ is said to have the property JNR if for every " > 0 we can findSa family
fMn W n 2 !g of closed subsets of Cp .K/ such that Cp .K/ D n2! Mn
and,
S for every n 2 ! there exists an "-small family Un  .Mn / such that
Un D Mn . Prove that the following conditions are equivalent:
(i) the space Cp .K/ has the property JNR;
(ii) there exists a  -discrete family N in the space Cp .K/ such that N is a
network in both spaces Cp .K/ and Cu .K/.
In particular, if Cp .K/ has the property JNR then it has a  -discrete network.
490. Prove that
(a) if L is a linearly ordered separable compact space then Cp .L/ is a  space, i.e., it has a  -discrete network;
(b) for any separable dyadic compact space K, the space Cp .K/ has a  discrete network.
491. Prove that there exists a scattered compact space K with a countable dense set
of isolated points such that Cp .K; D/ is not perfect. Deduce from this fact that
Cp .!; D/ is not perfect and, in particular, the space Cp .!/ does not have a
 -discrete network.

60

1 Properties Preserved by Homeomorphisms of Function Spaces

492. Prove that, for any ultrafilter  2 !n!, the following conditions are
equivalent:
(i)  is not a P -point in !n!;
(ii)  .R! / is homeomorphic to a closed subspace of Cp .! /;
(iii) Cp .! / is not hereditarily Baire.
493. Let ;  2 !n!. Prove that the spaces ! and ! are l-equivalent if and only
if there exists a bijection b W ! ! ! such that b./ D fb.U / W U 2 g D .
In particular, ! and ! are l-equivalent if and only if they are homeomorphic.
494. Suppose that and are ordinals such that !   < !1 . Prove that
. C 1/ is l-equivalent to . C 1/ if and only if < ! . Deduce from
this fact that there exist countable compact u-equivalent spaces which are not
l-equivalent.
495. Suppose that X is a metrizable zero-dimensional compact space and there
exists a continuous linear surjection of Cp .X / onto Cp .Y /. Prove that Y is
a metrizable compact zero-dimensional space. In particular, there exists no
continuous linear surjection of Cp .K/ onto Cp .I/. Here, as usual, K is the
Cantor set and I D 1; 1
 R.
496. Suppose that a space X is metrizable, compact, and  -zero-dimensional. Prove
that if there exists a continuous linear surjection of Cp .X / onto Cp .Y / then Y
is also a compact metrizable  -zero-dimensional space. In particular, if X is
compact, metrizable, and finite-dimensional then there is no continuous linear
surjection of Cp .X / onto Cp .I! /.
497. Prove that a space K is l-equivalent to the Cantor set K if and only if
there exists a continuous linear surjection of Cp .K/ onto Cp .K/ as well as
a continuous linear surjection of Cp .K/ onto Cp .K/.
498. Let I be the closed interval 0; 1
 R. Given any n 2 ! suppose that K is a
metrizable compact space and dim K  n. Prove that there exists a compact
subspace K 0  I 2nC1 with the following properties:
(i) K 0 is homeomorphic to K;
(ii) for any function ' 2 C.K 0 /, we can choose ' 1 ; : : : ; ' 2nC1 2
C.I / such that '.y/ D ' 1 .y1 / C : : : C ' 2nC1 .y2nC1 / for any
y D .y1 : : : ; y2nC1 / 2 K 0 .
Deduce from this fact that if X is a second countable space and dim X  n
then X embeds in I2nC1 .
499. Prove that, for any finite-dimensional metrizable compact space K, there exists
a surjective continuous linear mapping of Cp .I/ onto Cp .K/.
500. Prove that l.X / D l.Y / for any l-equivalent spaces X and Y . In particular, if
l

X  Y then X is Lindelf if and only if so is Y .

1.6 Bibliographic notes to Chapter 1

61

1.6 Bibliographic notes to Chapter 1


The material of Chapter 1 consists of problems of the following types:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

textbook statements which give a gradual development of some topic;


folkloric statements that might not be published but are known by specialists;
famous theorems cited in textbooks and well-known surveys;
comparatively recent results which have practically no presence in textbooks.

We will almost never cite the original papers for statements of the first three
types. We are going to cite them for a very small sample of results of the fourth
type. The selection of theorems to cite is made according to the preferences of the
author and does not mean that all statements of the fourth type are mentioned. I
bring my apologies to readers who might think that I did not cite something more
important than what is cited. The point is that a selection like that has to be biased
because it is impossible to mention all contributors. As a consequence, there are
quite a few statements of the main text, published as results in papers, which are
never mentioned in our bibliographic notes. A number of problems of the main
text cite published or unpublished results of the author. However, those are treated
exactly like the results of others: some are mentioned and some arent. On the other
hand, the Bibliography contains (to the best knowledge of the author) the papers and
books of all contributors to the material of this book.
Chapter 1 seems to be the first complete and systematic presentation of the material on functional equivalences. Section 1.1 contains many results on t -invariance
which are simple consequences of previously proved results on duality. Gulko and
Khmyleva were the first ones to prove in (1986) that compactness is not t -invariant
(Problems 016027). Okunev proved in (1990) that  -compactness and similar
properties are preserved by t -equivalence (Problems 034045). The t -invariance
of spread, hereditary density, and hereditary Lindelf number (Problems 055070)
was proved in Okunevs paper (1997a). Dobrowolski et al. established in (1990) that
all metrizable countable non-discrete spaces are t -equivalent. Since they applied
very deep results and methods of infinite-dimensional topology, it was impossible
to present their theorem in this book. Another fundamental result of Section 1.1
is Marciszewskis theorem (2000) which states that I is not t -equivalent to I!
(Problem 099).
Section 1.2 gives a brief introduction to the theory of uniform spaces. This material is best covered in Engelkings book (1977). Some knowledge of uniformities
is necessary to tackle Gulkos theorem (1993) on u-invariance of the dimension
dim (Problems 176180). There are also some deep results on the behavior of the
dimension dim, which are used in Gulkos proof. This made it necessary to develop
some methods used in dimension theory and the theory of inverse systems. The
reader can find an exhaustive information on the mentioned topics in Engelkings
books (1977) and (1978). The u-invariance of absolute Borel sets (Problems 197
and 198) was proved by Marciszewski and Pelant in (1997). The last group of
problems of Section 1.2 presents another theorem of Gulko (1988) which states
that all infinite countable compact spaces are u-equivalent (Problem 200).

62

1 Properties Preserved by Homeomorphisms of Function Spaces

Section 1.3 develops the most important tools to deal with linear topological
spaces. A good reference is W. Rudins book (1973). Okunevs method of constructing pairs of l-equivalent spaces (Problems 257263) was published in (1986)
in a stronger form.
Section 1.4 presents quite a few nontrivial results on l-equivalence. Uspenskijs
theorem on spaces which are l-equivalent to metrizable ones (Problems 329
335) was proved in (1983a). The theorem of Baars, de Groot, and Pelant on

l-invariance of Cech-completeness
in metrizable spaces was established in (1993)
(Problems 365367). A very difficult example of an infinite compact space which
is not l-equivalent to itself with an added isolated point was constructed by
Marciszewski in (1997a) (Problem 400).
Section 1.5 contains some more material on l-equivalence and the latest results
in Cp -theory which did not appear in previous parts of the book. Marciszewski and
Pol constructed in (2009) examples of non-cosmic spaces X such that the space
Cp .X / has a  -discrete network (Problems 489490). Gruenhage proved in (2012)
that there exists a Corson compact space which is not monotonically !-monolithic
(Problem 474). The exhaustive classification of countable compact l-equivalent
spaces (Problem 494) was obtained in a paper of Gulko and Oskin (1975). The first
readable text of the solution of Hilberts Problem 13 (Problem 498) was published
in Kolmogorov (1957). Leiderman et al. (1997) used this result to prove that Cp .I/
can be linearly and continuously mapped onto Cp .X / for any finite-dimensional
metrizable compact X (Problem 499). Velichko proved l-invariance of the Lindelf
property in (1998a). Later Bouziad established in (2001) that Lindelf number is
l-invariant (Problem 500).

Chapter 2

Solutions of problems 001500

It took the author six long years to come to finally start writing this last portion of
his work. In this period he had a sabbatical stay, celebrated the arrival of the new
century and the new millennium, changed his citizenship, became a grandfather, and
published about thirty papers. Also, he understood much better the material of this
book.
Since it could take just as much (or even more) time to read this book and/or to
solve its problems, it is now almost impossible for the author to write the standard
phrase: the reader who mastered the previous material is now able to : : :. How
many readers will repeat this accomplishment? Well, at the present moment there is
at least one (who, evidently, coincides with the author), so, formally, the previous
three volumes show that it is possible to solve the problems of this book at least,
when one already knows the solutions.
So, left behind are 1500 solutions and about 700 statements proved as auxiliary
facts; some of these facts are quite famous and highly nontrivial theorems. As in the
previous volume, the treatment of topology and Cp -theory is professional. When
you read a solution of a problem of the main text, it has more or less the same level
of exposition as a published paper on a similar topic.
The author hopes, however, that reading our solutions is more helpful than
ploughing through the proofs in published papers; the reason is that we are not
so constrained by the amount of the available space as a journal contributor, so we
take much more care about all details of the proof. It is also easier to work with the
references in our solutions than with those in research papers because in a paper
the author does not need to bother about whether the reference is accessible for the
reader whereas we only refer to what we have proved in this book apart from some
very simple facts of calculus and set theory.
This volume has the same policy about the references as the third one; we use
the textbook facts from general topology without giving a reference to them. This
book is self-contained, so all necessary results are proved in the previous volumes
but the references to standard things have to stop sometime. This makes it difficult
Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016
V.V. Tkachuk, A Cp-Theory Problem Book, Problem Books in Mathematics,
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-24385-6_2

63

64

2 Solutions of problems 001500

for a beginner to read this volumes results without some knowledge of the previous
material. However, a reader who mastered the first four chapters of R. Engelkings
book (1977) will have no problem with this.
We also omit references to some standard facts of Cp -theory. The reader can
easily find the respective proofs using the index. Our reference omission rule can
be expressed as follows: we omit references to textbook results from topology and
Cp -theory proved in the previous volumes. There are quite a few phrases like it is
easy to see or it is an easy exercise; the reader should trust the authors word and
experience that the statements like that are really easy to prove as soon as one has the
necessary background. On the other hand, the highest percentage of errors comes
exactly from omissions of all kinds, so my recommendation is that, even though you
should trust the authors claim that the statement is easy to prove or disprove, you
shouldnt take just his word for the truthfulness of any statement. Verify it yourself
and if you find any errors communicate them to me to correct the respective parts.
V.001. Prove that cardinality, network weight, i -weight, as well as density are
t -invariant.
Solution. Suppose that X is a space and Cp .X / is homeomorphic to Cp .Y /. Then
jX j D w.Cp .X // D w.Cp .Y // D jY j (see TFS-169); this proves that cardinality
is t -invariant. Furthermore, nw.X / D nw.Cp .X // D nw.Cp .Y // D nw.Y /
(see TFS-172) and hence network weight is also t -invariant. Applying TFS-174
we conclude that the equalities i w.X / D d.Cp .X // D d.Cp .Y // D i w.Y / show
that i -weight is t -invariant as well. Finally observe that d.X / D i w.Cp .X // D
i w.Cp .Y // D d.Y / (see TFS-173), so density is t -invariant too.
V.002. Prove that if Cp .Y /! Cp .X / then nw.Y /  nw.X /; d.Y /  d.X / and
jY j  jX j. Give an example showing that the inequality i w.Y /  i w.X / is not
necessarily true.
Solution. We have nw.Y / D nw.Cp .Y //  nw.Cp .X // D nw.X / (see TFS159 and TFS-172) which settles the first inequality. It follows from TFS-159 and
TFS-173 that we have d.Y / D i w.Cp .Y //  i w.Cp .X // D d.X /. Now, TFS-159
together with TFS-169 imply that jY j D w.Cp .Y //  w.Cp .X // D jX j.
Finally, consider the spaces X D D.c/ and Y D A.c/; the space X is discrete
and jX j D jY j, so X maps continuously onto Y and hence Cp .Y /! Cp .X / by
TFS-163. Since jIj D c, any bijection between X and I is a condensation of X
onto I, so i w.X / D !. The space Y being compact we have i w.Y / D w.Y / D
c > ! D i w.X /, so X and Y is a pair of spaces such that Cp .Y /! Cp .X / while
i w.Y / > i w.X /.
V.003. Prove that p.Y /  p.X / whenever Cp .Y /! Cp .X /. As a consequence,
point-finite cellularity is t -invariant.
Solution. We have p.Y / D a.Cp .Y //  a.Cp .X // D p.X / by Problem
TFS-178; as a consequence, p.Y /  p.X /. If X is t -equivalent to Y then
Cp .X /! Cp .Y / and Cp .Y /! Cp .X / so p.X / D p.Y / and hence point-finite
cellularity is t -invariant.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

65

V.004. Suppose that X and Y are t -equivalent Baire spaces. Prove that
c.X / D c.Y /. In particular, the Souslin numbers of t -equivalent pseudocompact
spaces coincide.
Solution. The spaces X and Y being Baire we can apply TFS-282 to see that
we have p.X / D c.X / and p.Y / D c.Y /. It follows from TFS-178 and our
observation that c.X / D p.X / D a.Cp .X // D a.Cp .Y // D p.Y / D a.Y /
and hence c.X / D c.Y /. Any pseudocompact space is Baire (see TFS-274), so the
Souslin numbers of t -equivalent pseudocompact spaces coincide.
V.005. Let  be a caliber of X . Knowing that Cp .Y / embeds in Cp .X /, prove that
 is a caliber of Y . In particular, calibers are t -invariant.
Solution. Apply SFFS-290 to see that the diagonal of Cp .X / is -small; it follows
from Cp .Y /! Cp .X / that the diagonal of Cp .Y / is -small as well (it is an easy
exercise to prove that having a -small diagonal is a hereditary property). Applying
SFFS-290 again we conclude that  is a caliber of Y . If Cp .X / ' Cp .Y / then
Cp .X /! Cp .Y / and Cp .Y /! Cp .X / which shows that  is a caliber of X if
and only if it is a caliber of Y ; therefore calibers are t -invariant.
V.006. Suppose that Cp .Y / embeds into Cp .X /. Prove that l  .Y /  l  .X /. As a
consequence, l  is t -invariant.
Solution. We have l  .Y / D t .Cp .Y //  t .Cp .X // D l  .X / (see TFS-149 and
t
TFS-159). If X  Y then Cp .Y /! Cp .X / and Cp .X /! Cp .Y / so l  .X / D

l .Y / and hence l  is t -invariant.
V.007. Suppose that Cp .Y / embeds into Cp .X /. Prove that '.Y /  '.X / for any
' 2 fhl  ; hd  ; s  g and hence ' is t -invariant.
Solution. We have hl  .Y / D hd  .Cp .Y //  hd  .Cp .X // D hl  .X / (see SFFS026), so the promised inequality is true for ' D hl  . Apply SFFS-027 to convince
ourselves that hd  .Y / D hl  .Cp .Y //  hl  .Cp .X // D hd  .X / which shows
that '.Y /  '.X / also in case when ' D hd  . Besides, s  .Y / D s  .Cp .Y // 
s  .Cp .X // D s  .X / by SFFS-025 and hence the inequality '.Y /  '.X / is true
for ' D s  as well. An immediate consequence is that any ' 2 fhd  ; hl  ; s  g is
t -invariant.
t

V.008. Prove that, if X  Y then tm .X / D tm .Y /. Give an example of spaces X


and Y such that Cp .Y / embeds into Cp .X / and tm .Y / > tm .X /.
Solution. The spaces Cp .X / and Cp .Y / being homeomorphic we can apply TFS429 to conclude that tm .X / D q.Cp .X // D q.Cp .Y // D tm .Y /. Now if X is a
discrete space of cardinality !1 and Y D L.!1 / is the one-point lindelfication of
X then any bijection between X and Y maps X continuously onto Y , so Cp .Y /
embeds in Cp .X / by TFS-163. Observe that tm .X /  t .X / D ! (see TFS-419)
and let a 2 Y be the unique non-isolated point of Y . It is easy to see that a 2 Y nfag
and a B for any countable B  Y nfag. This, together with Fact 1 of S.419 shows
that tm .Y / > !. Therefore Cp .Y /! Cp .X / and tm .Y / > tm .X /.

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2 Solutions of problems 001500


t

V.009. Prove that X  Y implies q.X / D q.Y /. In particular, realcompactness is


t -invariant.
Solution. The spaces Cp .X / and Cp .Y / being homeomorphic we can apply
TFS-434 to conclude that q.X / D tm .Cp .X // D tm .Cp .Y // D q.Y /. Since a
space X is realcompact if and only if q.X / D ! (see TFS-401), realcompactness is
a t -invariant property.
V.010. Give an example of spaces X and Y such that Cp .Y / embeds into Cp .X /,
the space X is realcompact and Y is not realcompact.
Solution. Let X be a discrete space of cardinality c; if Y is a Mrowka space (see
TFS-142) then Y is pseudocompact and non-compact which implies that Y is not
realcompact (see TFS-407). Any bijection between X and I is a condensation of
X onto a second countable space, so i w.X /  c and hence X is realcompact by
TFS-446. Furthermore, it follows from jY j  c that X maps continuously onto Y
and hence Cp .Y / embeds in Cp .X / by TFS-163.
t

V.011. Suppose that X is a P -space and X  Y . Prove that Y is also a P -space.


Solution. Every countable subset of X is closed and C -embedded in X by Fact 1 of
S.479, so Cp .X / is pseudocomplete by TFS-485. Since Cp .Y / ' Cp .X /, the space
Cp .Y / is also pseudocomplete and hence Cp .Y; I/ is pseudocompact by TFS-476.
Fact 1. If Z is a P -space then A  Cp .Z/ for any countable A  Cp .Z/ (the bar
denotes the closure in RZ ).
Proof. Take a countable A  Cp .Z/ and f 2 A. Given any z 2 Z, we will prove
that f is continuous at the point
T z. Note that the set fh.z/g is a G -set in the space
I for any h 2 A, so W D fh1 .h.z// W h 2 Ag is a G -set in Z. Since Z is a
P -space, the set W is an open neighborhood of z; we claim that f .W / D ff .z/g.
To see this, suppose that w 2 W and jf .w/  f .z/j > " for some " > 0. Since
f 2 A, there is h 2 A such that jh.z/  f .z/j < 2" and jh.w/  f .w/j < 2" .
However, h.w/ D h.z/ and hence
jf .w/  f .z/j  jf .w/  h.w/j C jh.z/  f .z/j <

"
"
C D"
2
2

which is a contradiction. Therefore, f .W / D ff .z/g  .f .z/  "; f .z/ C "/, for


any " > 0, i.e., f is continuous at z. Therefore f 2 Cp .Z/ and Fact 1 is proved.
Returning to our solution fix a homeomorphism ' W Cp .Y / ! Cp .X / and
assume that K D Cp .Y; I/ is not countably compact. Then there is a countably
infinite closed discrete set B  K; it is evident that B is also closed in Cp .Y /, so
A D '.B/ is closed and discrete in Cp .X /. The set F D '.K/ is pseudocompact,
so L D F is also pseudocompact by Fact 18 of S.351 (the bar denotes the closure
in RX ). However, every closed pseudocompact subspace of RX is compact (see
TFS-401 and TFS-415), so L is compact. Since A  L, the set A has to be compact;

2 Solutions of problems 001500

67

however, A  Cp .X / by Fact 1, so A is an infinite closed discrete subspace of a


compact space A. This contradiction shows that Cp .Y; I/ is countably compact and
hence Y is a P -space by TFS-397.
V.012. Prove that discreteness is t -invariant.
t

Solution. Suppose that X is a discrete space and Y  X . Then Cp .X / D RX is


pseudocomplete (see TFS-470 and TFS-467), so Cp .Y / is pseudocomplete as well.
Besides, Cp .X / is realcompact by TFS-401, so the space Cp .Y / is also realcompact
and hence tm .Y / D q.Cp .Y // D ! (see TFS-429). If some point y 2 Y is not
isolated in Y then we can apply Fact 1 of S.419 to see that there is a countable
set A  Y nfyg such that y 2 A and hence y 2 AnA. However, every countable
subset of Y is closed in Y by TFS-485; this contradiction shows that all points of Y
are isolated, i.e., Y is discrete.
V.013. Suppose that X and Y are compact spaces such that Cp .Y /! Cp .X /.
t
Prove that Y is scattered whenever X is scattered. In particular, if X  Y then X is
scattered if and only if so is Y .
Solution. If X is scattered then Cp .X / is a FrchetUrysohn space by SFFS-134.
Therefore the space Cp .Y /! Cp .X / also has the FrchetUrysohn property;
t
applying SFFS-134 once more we conclude that Y is scattered. If X  Y then
Cp .X /! Cp .Y / and Cp .Y /! Cp .X / so X is scattered if and only if so is Y .
t

V.014. Suppose that X n is a Hurewicz space for each n 2 N and X  Y . Prove


that Y n is also a Hurewicz space for each n 2 N.
Solution. Apply CFS-057 to see that vet .Cp .X // D !; since Cp .Y / ' Cp .X /,
we also have vet .Cp .Y // D !, so we can apply CFS-057 once more to conclude
that Y n is a Hurewicz space for any n 2 N.
t

V.015. Suppose that X  Y and X is a  -compact space with a countable network.


Prove that Y is also  -compact. As a consequence, if X is a metrizable compact
t
space and X  Y then Y is  -compact.
S
Solution. We have X D
n2! Kn where every set Kn is compact; since also
nw.Kn / D !, the space Kn is metrizable (see Fact 4 of S.307) and hence analytic
for any n 2 !. It follows from SFFS-337 that X is analytic; since Cp .Y / ' Cp .X /,
we can apply Fact 12 of T.250 to see that the space Y is K-analytic. Furthermore,
nw.Y / D nw.Cp .Y // D nw.Cp .X // D nw.X /  !, so the space Y is analytic by
SFFS-346.
It is an easy exercise that every  -compact space is Hurewicz; since every finite
power of X is  -compact, the space X n is Hurewicz for any n 2 N and therefore
vet .Cp .X // D ! (see CFS-057). As a consequence, vet .Cp .Y // D ! and hence Y
is Hurewicz as well. Thus Y is analytic and Hurewicz, so we can apply CFS-053 to
conclude that Y is  -compact.

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

V.016. Given an arbitrary number " > 0 prove that there exists a homeomorphism
u W R   .!/ !  .!/ such that j jju.r; x/jj  jjxjj j  " for any r 2 R and
x 2  .!/.
Solution. Denote by I the subspace 0; 1
of the real line R. Given a space X , the
function idX W X ! X is the identity on X , i.e., idX .x/ D x for any x 2 X .
A family fft W t 2 I g is called an autoisotopy of X if, for any t 2 I , the map
ft W X ! X is a homeomorphism and both maps fC ; f W I  X ! X defined by
fC .t; x/ D ft .x/ and f .t; x/ D ft 1 .x/ respectively for any t 2 I and x 2 X are
continuous.
Fact 1. Fix a number a > 0 and let an D .1  2n /a for any n 2 N. Given a point
z D .z0 ; z1 / 2 R2 let jjzjj D maxfjz0 j; jz1 jg. Then, for any n 2 N, there exists an
autoisotopy fft n W t 2 I g of the plane R2 with the following properties:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

f0n .z/ D z for any z 2 R2 ;


ft n .z/ D z for any z 2 an ; an
 R and t 2 I ;
f1n ..am ; am /  R/ D R  .1; 12 am / for any m > n;
jjft n .z/jj D jjzjj for any z 2 R2 and t 2 I .

Proof. To obtain the property (1) we have to define f0n to be the identity on R2 , so
let f0n .z/ D z for any z 2 R2 . To define the homeomorphism f1n W R2 ! R2 we
will need the set Am D 0; am /  R for all m 2 N. To satisfy (2) let f1n .z/ D z for
any z 2 An ; we will next define f1n on the set an ; C1/  R meaning to extend it
symmetrically over the whole plane. First, let f1n .z/ D z for every z D .z0 ; z1 / 2
an ; C1/R such that z0 < z1 . Thus we defined f1n on the set B D An [f.z0 ; z1 / 2
R2 W an  z0 < z1 g. To complete our construction of f1n on the half-plane P0 D
0; C1/  R, we must define
S it on the set Q D f.z0 ; z1 / W an  z0 and z1  z0 g.
Observe first that Q D fQb W b 2 .1; an
g where this union is disjoint and
Qb D .an ; b
 fbg/ [ .fbg  b; b
/ for any b  an . In other words, every
set Qb is the union of two line segments: the horizontal segment an ; b
 fbg and
the vertical one fbg  b; b
. Observe that jjzjj D jbj for any z 2 Qb , so, to
satisfy the condition (4), it suffices to assure that f1n .Qb /  Qb for every b  an .
Another requirement we must meet is not to move the endpoints of the set Qb ,
i.e., f1n ..an ; b// D .an ; b/ and f1n ..b; b// D .b; b/.
Fix any number b  an ; to define the function f1n jQb we will consider
an auxiliary interval Jb D an ; 3b
 R which, intuitively, is obtained by
straightening up the vertical part of Qb . We will construct a piecewise linear
increasing function hb W Jb ! Jb which gives f1n jQb if we identify Qb and Jb .
If we construct the function f1n according to the above plan then, to meet the
condition (3), it suffices to guarantee that f1n ..am ; b// D .b; 12 am / whenever
an < am  b. If b is sufficiently large then a 2 .an ; b
; in this case we
will also require that f1n ..a; b// D .b; 12 a/. In the terms of the function hb this is
equivalent to saying that hb .an / D an , hb .3b/ D 3b while hb .am / D 2bC 12 am
for any m with an < am  b. Besides, hb .a/ D 2b C 12 a whenever a  b.
It is easy to see that these conditions uniquely determine every function hb for all
b  anC1 . To visualize it better, take in consideration the key points in the square

2 Solutions of problems 001500

69

Jb  Jb which belong to its graph b . It is obligatory for the points Cn D .an ; an /


and Db D .3b; 3b/ to belong to b . If Cmb D .am ; 2b C 12 am / for every m > n
then Cmb 2 b whenever am  b. Finally, the point C b D .a; 2b C 12 a/ also
belongs to b if a  b.
If anC2 < b  anC1 then the set b consists of two line segments: the
b
one which connects the points Cn and CnC1
and the second one which connects
b
the points CnC1
and Db . In the case when b  anC2 , the set b is the union of
three line segments because the set fC b g [ fCmb W m > ng is contained in the straight
b
b
line determined by the points CnC1
and CnC2
.
To construct hb for anC1 < b  an observe that the function han has to
be an identity on the interval an ; 3an
and hence hanC1 has to be continuously
transformed into identity as b runs from anC1 to an . To do this consider the
function .x/ D hanC1 .x/  x on the set an ; 3anC1
. Then hanC1 .x/ D x C .x/
and .an / D .3anC1 / D 0.
Given b 2 anC1 ; an
let .b; x/ be the unique linear function such that
n
.b; an / D an and .b; 3b/ D 3anC1 . If .b; x/ D x C anbCa
. .b; x//
anC1
then .anC1 ; x/ D x C .x/ D hanC1 .x/ for any x 2 an ; 3anC1
. It is also
easy to see that .an ; x/ D x for any x 2 an ; 3an
. The only problem with the
function .b; x/ could be its range, so let hb .x/ D nnfmaxf.b; x/; an g; 3bg.
Then the function hb maps the interval an ; 3b
onto itself while hb .an / D an and
hb .3b/ D 3b.
Consider the set E D f.b; x/ W b  an and an  x  3bg  R2 ; it follows
from our construction of the family fhb W b  an g that the function H W E ! E
defined by H..b; x// D .b; hb .x// is continuous. Given b  an define f1n jQb by
applying hb on fbg  Jb and bending back the interval fbg  Jb . More formally,
for any point z D .b; x/ 2 E let '.z/ D z if x  b and '.z/ D .b; x C 2b/
otherwise. Then ' W E ! Q is a homeomorphism, so the map ' H ' 1 W Q ! Q
is continuous; let f1n jQ D 'H ' 1 . This consistently defines the function f1n jP0 .
The sets F D .0; an
 R/ [ f.x0 ; x1 / W an  x0  x1 g and Q are closed in P0 and
P0 D F [ Q. The function f1n jF is continuous being an identity on F ; we already
saw that f1n jQ is also continuous, so f1n jP0 is also continuous by Fact 2 of T.354.
Since f1n jP0 is an identity on the y-axis, its symmetric extension over the whole
plane gives us a continuous map f1n W R2 ! R2 (to see this apply again Fact 2 of
T.354) for which the conditions (1)(4) are satisfied.
Let Kn DSfx 2 R2 W jjxjj  ng for any n 2 N. It is evident that every Kn is
compact and fInt.Kn / W n 2 Ng D R2 . Since f1n .Kn / D Kn and f1n is a bijection,
the map .f1n /1 jKn W Kn ! Kn is continuous. Next apply Fact 1 of S.472 to see
that .f1n /1 is continuous and hence the map f1n is a homeomorphism.
Fix t 2 I ; as before, we will first construct the map ft n on the half-plane P0 .
First of all declare ft n to be an identity on the set B. To define ft n jQ we will again
guarantee that ft n .Qb / D Qb for any b  an .
To this end consider, for any b  an , the function htb .x/ D x C t .hb .x/ 
x/ which maps the interval Jb into itself. Since hb is an increasing function, the
function htb is increasing as well.

70

2 Solutions of problems 001500

It easily follows from our definition of the family fhtb W b  an ; t 2 I g that
the function G W I  E ! E defined by G.t; .b; x// D .b; htb .x// is continuous.
Define a map Gt W E ! E by Gt ..b; x// D G.t; .b; x// D .b; htb .x// for any t 2 I
and .b; x/ 2 E. Then the mapping ft n jQ D ' Gt ' 1 W Q ! Q is continuous.
This gives us a function ft n jP0 . As before, P0 D F [ Q and the function ft n jF is
continuous being an identity; the function ft n jQ is continuous by our construction,
so ft n jP0 is continuous.
Since every ft n j.f0g  R/ is an identity, we can symmetrically extend it over the
whole plane obtaining a continuous map ft n W R2 ! R2 for which the condition
(4) is satisfied.
To show that every ft n is a homeomorphism replace f1n by ft n in the proof for
t D 1. Now that we have the family fft n W t 2 I g of autohomeomorphisms of R2
let fCn .t; x/ D ft n .x/ and fn .t; x/ D .ft n /1 .x/ for any t 2 I and x 2 R2 . To see
that the map fCn W I  R2 ! R2 is continuous observe that the symmetry of our
situation and Fact 2 of T.354 show that it suffices to prove that fCn j.I  P0 / ! P0
is continuous. The fact that fCn j.I  F / is an identity which does not depend on the
first coordinate shows that it suffices to prove that fCn j.I  Q/ W I  Q ! Q is
continuous. To do this note that fCn .t; z/ D ft n .z/ D '.G.t; ' 1 .z/// for any t 2 I
and z 2 Q which, together with continuity of G and ', implies that fCn j.I  Q/ is
continuous and hence the function fCn is, indeed, continuous.
The proof that the function fn is continuous is analogous if we consider the
map G W I  E ! E defined by G .t; .b; x// D .b; .htb /1 .x// for any
t 2 I and .b; x/ 2 E. Once we observe that G is continuous and fn .t; x/ D
'.G .t; ' 1 .z/// for any t 2 I and z 2 Q, we can make the necessary changes in
the proof of continuity of fCn to convince ourselves that fn is continuous and hence
the family fft n W t 2 I g is an autoisotopy on R2 with the properties (1)(4). Fact 1
is proved.
Fact 2. Given spaces X and Y suppose that f't W t 2 I g is an autoisotopy on
X and s W Y ! I is a continuous function. If u.x; y/ D .'s.y/ .x/; y/ for any
.x; y/ 2 X  Y then the map u W X  Y ! X  Y is an autohomeomorphism of
1
the space X  Y and u1 .x; y/ D .'s.y/
.x/; y/ for all x 2 X and y 2 Y .
Proof. It is straightforward from the definition that both maps uu1 and u1 u are
identities on X  Y , so u is a bijection and u1 is its inverse. Let C W I  X ! X
and  W I  X ! X be defined by C .t; x/ D 't .x/ and  .t; x/ D .'t /1 .x/
respectively for any t 2 I and x 2 X . Both maps C and  are continuous
because f't W t 2 I g is an isotopy on X . The map  D s  idX W Y  X ! I  X is
continuous and hence so is the map C . Since u is the diagonal product of C 
and idY , it has to be continuous. Analogously, the map u1 is continuous being the
diagonal product of   and idY . This shows that u is a homeomorphism, so
Fact 2 is proved.
Fact 3. Given " > 0 suppose that fGn W n 2 !g is an increasing sequence of open
subsets of  .!/ and fvn W n 2 !g is a set of autohomeomorphisms of  .!/ with
the following properties:

2 Solutions of problems 001500

71

(1) v0 jG0 D idG0Sand vnC1 jGnC1 D vn jGnC1 for any n 2 !;


(2) vn .GnC1 /  1knC1 fx 2  .!/ W jx.k/j < "g for all n 2 !;
(3) jjvn .x/jj D jjxjj for all x 2  .!/ and n 2 !.
S
Then, for every x 2 G D n2! Gn the sequence fvn .x/ W n 2 !g converges to a
point v.x/ 2  .!/ and the respective map v W G !  .!/ is a homeomorphism
between G and  .!/ such that jjv.x/jj D jjxjj for any x 2 G.
Proof. Using the property (1) it is easy to prove by induction that
. / for any m 2 !, if n  m then vn jGm D vm jGm .
If x 2 G then there is m 2 ! such that x 2 Gm . It follows from . / that vn .x/ D
vm .x/ for any n  m and hence the sequence fvn .x/ W n 2 !g is convergent because
it is eventually constant. Thus the element v.x/ D limn!1 vn .x/ is well defined for
any x 2 G and
. / vjGm D vm jGm for any m 2 !.
Given distinct points x; y 2 G there is m 2 ! with x; y 2 Gm which shows that
v.x/ D vm .x/ and v.y/ D vm .y/. The map vm being a homeomorphism, we have
v.x/ D vm .x/ vm .y/ D v.y/, i.e., v is injective. If y 2  .!/ then there is k 2
N such that jy.k/j < "; the property (2) shows that y 2 vk .GkC1 /. Take x 2 GkC1
such that vk .x/ D y; by (1) and . /, we have v.x/ D vkC1 .x/ D vk .x/ D y and
hence the map v is a bijection between G and  .!/.
Fact 1 of S.472 and the property . / easily imply that v is a continuous map.
To prove that v 1 is also continuous fix a point y 2  .!/ and x 2 G with
v.x/ D y. There is m 2 ! such that x 2 Gm and therefore v.x/ D vm .x/. The
map vm being a homeomorphism, the set vm .Gm / is open in  .!/ and it follows
1
from . / that v 1 jvm .Gm / D vm
jvm .Gm /. Thus fvn .Gn / W n 2 !g is an open
cover of the space  .!/ such that v 1 jvn .Gn / is continuous for any n 2 !; this
makes it possible to apply Fact 1 of S.472 again to conclude that v 1 is continuous
and hence v W G !  .!/ is a homeomorphism.
Finally, take any x 2 G; there is m 2 ! with x 2 Gm , so we can apply . / once
more to convince ourselves that v.x/ D vm .x/ and hence jjv.x/jj D jjvm .x/jj D
jjxjj by (3). This proves that jjv.x/jj D jjxjj for any x 2 G, so Fact 3 is proved.
Fact 4. Suppose that a > 0 and let G D fx 2  .!/ W jx.0/j < ag. Then there
exists a homeomorphism ' W G !  .!/ such that jj'.x/jj D jjxjj for any x 2 G.
Proof. Let an D .1  2n1 /a and Gn D fx 2  .!/ W jx.0/j < an g for
every n 2 !;
S then fGn W n 2 !g is an increasing sequence of open subsets of
 .!/ and n2! Gn D G. We are going to construct a sequence fvn W n 2 !g of
autohomeomorphisms of  .!/ which satisfy the premises of Fact 3.
To that end we will produce a sequence fun W n 2 !g of autohomeomorphisms
of  .!/ such that vn D un : : : u0 for any n 2 !. Besides, every map un will be
two-dimensional, i.e., it will change at most two coordinates of any point of  .!/.
Let s0 .x/ D 1 for all x 2  .!/; to construct the functions sn for n > 0 we
will need the function zn defined by zn .x/ D nnfx.1/; : : : ; x.n/g for any n 2 N and

72

2 Solutions of problems 001500

x 2  .!/. It is clear that zn W  .!/ ! R is a continuous function, so the sets


Zn0 D fx 2  .!/ W zn .x/  12 an g and Zn1 D fx 2  .!/ W zn .x/  12 anC1 g
are closed and disjoint in  .!/. Take a continuous function sn0 W R ! I such
that sn0 ..1; 12 an
/ D f0g and sn0 . 12 anC1 ; C1// D f1g and let sn D sn0 zn . Then
sn .Zn0 / D f0g and sn .Zn1 / D f1g.
For any n 2 ! and x 2  .!/ let un .x/.i / D x.i / for all i 2 !nf0; n C 1g;
this guarantees that the map un can only change the coordinates 0 and n C 1.
Fact 1 provides an autoisotopy fft nC1 W t 2 I g of the plane R2 ; observe that
every map ft nC1 W R2 ! R2 has its two components, i.e., ft nC1 ..a; b// D
nC1
nC1
.ft;0
.a; b/; ft;1
.a; b// for any .a; b/ 2 R2 . To finish our definition of the
mapping un let
.x.0/; x.n C 1// and un .x/.n C 1/ D fsnC1
.x.0/; x.n C 1//:
un .x/.0/ D fsnC1
n .x/;0
n .x/;1
To see that every un is an autohomeomorphism of  .!/ observe that we can
consider that  .!/ D X  Y where X is the plane determined by the coordinates
0 and n C 1 and Y D  .!nf0; n C 1g/. The function sn .x/ is formally defined on
the whole space  .!/ but it does not depend on the coordinates 0 and n C 1, so
we can consider that it is defined on Y . Thus we can apply Fact 2 to conclude that
un is an autohomeomorphism for any n 2 !.
An immediate consequence of Fact 1 is that jjun .x/jj D jjxjj for any x 2  .!/
and n 2 !. Let vn D un : : : u0 for any n 2 !. We will prove by induction that
SnC1
(i) vn .Gm / D Gm [ . kD1
fx 2  .!/ W x.k/ < 12 am g/ for any n 2 ! and m > n.
If n D 0 then v0 D u0 and the property (i) is an immediate consequence of
Fact 1. Assume that (i) is proved for n D l and consider the set vlC1 .GmS
/ for some
nC1
m > l C 1. Observe that vlC1 .Gm / D ulC1 .vl .Gm // and let L D kD1
fx 2
1
 .!/ W x.k/ < 2 am g. The map ulC1 only changes coordinates 0 and l C 2 while
L is determined by the coordinates from 1 to l C 1; this implies ulC1 .L/ D L.
Now, if x 2 Gm nL then zlC1 .x/  12 am  12 alC2 and therefore slC1 .x/ D 1. Thus
lC2
slC1 .x/ D 1 for any point x 2 Gm nL, so ulC1 .x/.n C 1/ D f1;1
.x.0/; x.l C 2//.
lC2
(see Fact 1), it is easy to see that
Recalling the properties of the function f1
ulC1 .Gm nL/ D .Gm [ fx 2  .!/ W xlC2 < 12 am g/nL. This shows that the
formula (i) is true if we substitute l by l C 1, so (i) is proved.
An immediate consequence of (i) is that our autohomeomorphisms vn have the
property (2) of Fact 3 for " D 14 a because 12 am  12 a0 D 14 a for all m 2 !. It is
evident that we also have the property (3) of Fact 3, so the last thing we must check
is the property (1). The property (2) of Fact 1 shows that we have the equalities
v0 jG0 D u0 jG0 D idG0 . Now, take n 2 !; we must show that vnC1 jGnC1 D
vn jGnC1 , so fix any point x 2 GnC1 . If y D vn .x/ 2 GnC1 then jx.0/j < anC1 , so
unC1 .y/ D y, i.e., vnC1 .x/ D unC1 .y/ D y D vn .x/ by the property (2) of Fact 1.
If y GnC1 then we can apply (i) for m D n C 1 to conclude that y.k/ < 12 am
for some number k 2 f1; : : : ; n C 1g and hence znC1 .y/  12 anC1 which implies
snC1 .y/ D 0. Recalling the definition of unC1 and the condition (1) of Fact 1, we
conclude that again unC1 .y/ D y and hence vnC1 .x/ D vn .x/.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

73

Thus all premises of Fact 3 are satisfied for our sequences fGn W n 2 !g and
fvn W n 2 !g, so Fact 3 is applicable to see that there is a homeomorphism ' W G !
 .!/ such that jj'.x/jj D jjxjj for any x 2 G. Fact 4 is proved.
Returning to our solution, fix a homeomorphism h W R ! ."; "/. Given a point
.t; x/ 2 R   .!/ let .t; x/.0/ D h.t / and .t; x/.n/ D x.n  1/ for any n 2 N.
It is straightforward that, for the set G D fx 2  .!/ W jx.0/j < "g, the map
 W R   .!/ ! G is a homeomorphism such that j jj.t; x/jj  jjxjj j  " for
any t 2 R and x 2  .!/. By Fact 4 there is a homeomorphism ' W G !  .!/
such that jj'.x/jj D jjxjj for any x 2 G. Therefore the map u D '  is a
homeomorphism between R   .!/ and  .!/ such that j jju.t; x/jj  jjxjj j  ",
so our solution is complete.
V.017. Prove that  .!/ is homeomorphic to R!   .!/.
Solution. Fix
n W n 2 !g of infinite subsets of ! such
S a disjoint family !A D fA
that ! D
A and let n W R ! RAn be the natural projection of R! onto is
face RAn for any n 2 !. We will need the space En D  .An / for any n 2 !; let
jjxjjn D supfjx.k/j W k 2 An g for each x 2 En . It is easy to see that there is a
homeomorphism hn W En !  .!/ such that jjh.x/jj D jjxjjn for any x 2 En .
ConsiderQthe set E D fx 2 R! W n .x/ 2 En for any n 2 !g. It is straightforward
that E ' n2! En and  .!/ D fx 2 E W the sequence fjjn .x/jjn W n 2 !g
converges to zerog. Apply Problem 016 to find a homeomorphism 'n W REn ! En
such that
(1) j jj'n .s; y/jjn  jjyjjn j  2n for any s 2 R; y 2 En and n 2 !.
Given t 2 R! and x 2 E let '.t; x/ be the unique point of E such that
n .'.t; x// D 'n .t .n/;Qn .x// forQevery n 2 !. It follows
from Fact 1 of S.271 that
Q
the product map ' 0 D n2! 'n W n2! .R  En / ! n2! En is aQhomeomorphism.
It is Q
easy to see that there exist homeomorphisms W R!  E ! n2! .R  En / and
 W n2! En ! E such that ' D  ' 0 . Therefore the map ' W R!  E ! E
is a homeomorphism.
If t 2 R! and x 2 E then n .x/ 2 En for any n 2 !; it follows from (1) that
the sequence fjjn .x/jjn W n 2 !g converges to zero if and only if the sequence
fjj'n .t .n/; n .x//jjn W n 2 !g converges to zero. An immediate consequence is that
'.R!   .!// D  .!/ and therefore 'j.R!   .!// is a homeomorphism
between R!   .!/ and  .!/.
V.018. Suppose that X is a pseudocompact space. Given any function f 2 Cp .X /,
let jjf jj D supfjf .x/j W x 2 X g. Prove that C .X / ' C .X /  .Cp .X //! , where
C .X / D f' 2 .Cp .X //! W jj'.n/jj ! 0g.
Solution. Fix
n W n 2 !g of infinite subsets of ! such
S a disjoint family !A D fA
that ! D
A and let n W R ! RAn be the natural projection of R! onto is
face RAn for any n 2 !. We will need the space En D  .An / for any n 2 !;
let jjxjjn D supfjx.k/j W k 2 An g for each x 2 En . It is easy to see that there is
a homeomorphism hn W En !  .!/ such that jjh.x/jj D jjxjjn for any x 2 En .

74

2 Solutions of problems 001500

From now on the norm symbol jj jj is applied only to the functions on X with the
meaning defined in the formulation of this problem.
ConsiderQthe set E D fx 2 R! W n .x/ 2 En for any n 2 !g. It is straightforward
that E ' n2! En and  .!/ D fx 2 E W the sequence fjjn .x/jjn W n 2 !g
converges to zerog. Apply Problem 016 to find a homeomorphism un W REn ! En
such that
(1) j jjun .s; y/jjn  jjyjjn j  2n for any s 2 R; y 2 En and n 2 !.
Given t 2 R! and x 2 E let u.t; x/ be the unique point of E such that
n .u.t; x// D un .t .n/;Qn .x// forQevery n 2 !. It follows
from Fact 1 of S.271 that
Q
the product map u0 D n2! un W n2! .R  En / ! n2! En is aQhomeomorphism.
It isQ
easy to see that there exist homeomorphisms W R!  E ! n2! .R  En / and
 W n2! En ! E such that u D  u0 . Therefore the map u W R!  E ! E is
a homeomorphism.
For any n 2 ! let pn W R! ! R be the natural projection of R! onto the
n-th factor of R! ; recall that pn .x/ D x.n/ for any x 2 R! and n 2 !. Let
q0 W R!  E ! R! and q1 W R!  E ! E be the natural projections. Consider the
sets H D ff 2 Cp .X; R!  E/ W jjpn .q1 f /jj ! 0g and G D ff 2 Cp .X; E/ W
jjpn f jj ! 0g and define a map ' W Cp .X; R! E/ ! Cp .X; E/ by '.f / D uf
for any f 2 Cp .X; R!  E/. Since u is a homeomorphism, it follows easily from
TFS-091 that the map ' is also a homeomorphism. Our next step is to establish that
(2) '.H / D G and hence the spaces H and G are homeomorphic.
To prove (2) take any f 2 H ; since the sequence fjjpk .q1 f /jj W k 2 !g
converges to zero, there exists a 2  .!/ such that jq1 .f .x//.k/j  ja.k/j for any
x 2 X and k 2 !. If rn D supfja.k/j W k 2 An g then the sequence frn W n 2 !g
converges to zero and jjn .q1 .f .x///jjn  rn for every n 2 !.
The property (1) and the equality n .u.f .x/// D un .q0 .f .x//.n/; n .q1 .f .x////
imply that j jjn .q1 .f .x///jjn  jjn .u.f .x///jjn j  2n and hence we have the
inequality jjn .u.f .x///jjn  rn C2n for any point x 2 X and n 2 !. Given k 2 !
let sk D rn C 2n if n 2 ! is the unique number with k 2 An . It is straightforward
that the sequence fsk W k 2 !g converges to zero and ju.f .x//.k/j  sk for any
x 2 X and k 2 !. Therefore jjpk .'.f //jj ! 0 which shows that '.f / 2 G. This
proves that '.H /  G.
Now assume that g D '.f / D u f 2 G; by the definition of G we can choose
an element a 2  .!/ such that ju.f .x//.k/j  ja.k/j for any x 2 X and k 2 !.
If sn D supfja.k/j W k 2 An g then the sequence fsn W n 2 !g converges to zero and
jjn .u.f .x///jjn  sn for every n 2 !.
The property (1) and the equality n .u.f .x/// D un .q0 .f .x//.n/; n .q1 .f .x////
imply j jjn .q1 .f .x///jjn  jjn .u.f .x///jjn j  2n , so jjn .q1 .f .x///jjn 
sn C 2n for any point x 2 X and n 2 !. Given k 2 ! let rk D sn C 2n if n 2 ! is
the unique number with k 2 An . It is straightforward that the sequence frk W k 2 !g
converges to zero and jq1 ..f .x//.k/j  rk for any x 2 X and k 2 !. Therefore
jjpk q1 f jj ! 0 which shows that f 2 H . This proves that '.H /  G and
hence '.H / D G, i.e., (2) is proved.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

75

Consider the map 0 W Cp .X; R!  E/ ! Cp .X; R! / defined by the formula


0 .f / D q0 f for any f 2 Cp .X; R!  E/. If we let 1 .f / D q1 f for each
f 2 Cp .X; R!  E/ then we obtain a map 1 W Cp .X; R!  E/ ! Cp .X; E/.
It follows from TFS-091 that 0 and 1 are continuous and it is left to the reader
as an exercise (consisting in the extraction of the relevant part of the proof of TFS112) that the map  D 0 1 W Cp .X; R!  E/ ! Cp .X; R! /  Cp .X; E/ is a
homeomorphism.
It is straightforward that .H / D Cp .X; R! /G, so we can apply (2) to see that
Cp .X; R! /  G ' G. Observe that E  R! , so G  Cp .X; R! /. For any n 2 !
let n .f / D pn f for any f 2 Cp .X; R! /; then n W Cp .X; R! / ! Cp .X / is a
continuous map. It is an easy exercise (being again an extraction the relevant part of
the proof of TFS-112) to show that the map D n2! n W Cp .X; R! / ! .Cp .X //!
is a homeomorphism. We also omit a simple checking that .G/ D C .X / and
hence G ' C .X /. We already saw that Cp .X; R! / ' .Cp .X //! (another way to
see it is to apply TFS-112 directly), so .Cp .X //!  G ' .Cp .X //!  C .X / '
C .X / which shows that our solution is complete.
V.019. Let X be a pseudocompact space. As usual, for any f 2 Cp .X /, we define
jjf jj D supfjf .x/j W x 2 X g. Supposing that the space Cp .X / is homeomorphic to
C .X / D f' 2 .Cp .X //! W jj'.n/jj ! 0g, prove that Cp .X / ' .Cp .X //! .
Solution. It follows from Problem 018 that C .X / ' C .X /  .Cp .X //! . Since
we also have Cp .X / ' C .X /, we conclude that Cp .X / ' Cp .X /  .Cp .X //! '
.Cp .X //! .
V.020. Prove that  .!/ is homeomorphic to . .!//! .
Solution. Given any function f 2 Cp .!C1/ let jjf jj D supfjf .x/j W x 2 .!C1/g.
TakeS
a disjoint family A D fAn W n 2 !g of countably infinite subsets of ! such
that A D ! and fix a bijection n W .! C 1/ ! An for every n 2 !. For any
x 2  .An / let jjxjjn D supfjx.k/j W k 2 An g.
For each f 2 Cp .! C 1/ let 'n .f /.n .m// D f .m/  f .!/ for any m 2 ! and
'n .f /.n .!// D f .!/. It is easy to see that 'n .f / 2  .An / for all f 2 Cp .!C1/
and 'n W Cp .! C 1/ !  .An / is a homeomorphism. Besides,
jj  jj'n .f /jjn  2jjf jj for any f 2 Cp .! C 1/ and n 2 !.
Q
Q
The map ' D n2! 'n W .Cp .! C 1//! ! n2!  .An / is a homeomorphism.
If f 2 .Cp .! C 1//! then it follows from (1) that the sequence fjjf .n/jj W n 2 !g
converges to zero if and only if the sequence fjj'n .f .n//jjn W n 2 !g converges to
zero.
Q
For any x 2 P D n2!  .An / let .x/.k/ D x.n/.k/ where n 2 ! is
the unique number for which k 2 An . Again, it is straightforward that  W P !
.P /  R! is a homeomorphism and .x/ 2  .!/ if and only if jjx.n/jjn ! 0.
This shows that, for any f 2 .Cp .! C 1//! , the sequence fjjf .n/jj W n 2 !g
converges to zero if and only if the sequence f.'.f //.n/ W n 2 !g converges
to zero. In other words, .'.C .! C 1/// D  .!/ and therefore C .! C 1/ '
 .!/. Since .! C 1/ ' A.!/, we can apply CFS-105 to convince ourselves that
(1)

1
jjf
2

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

C .! C 1/ '  .!/ ' Cp .! C 1/. This makes it possible to apply Problem 019 to
conclude that Cp .! C 1/ ' .Cp .! C 1//! and hence . .!//! ' .Cp .! C 1//! '
Cp .! C 1/ '  .!/.
V.021. Prove that, for every infinite space X , the space R! embeds into Cp .X / as
a closed subspace.
Solution. If X is not pseudocompact then R! embeds in Cp .X / as a closed
subspace by Fact 6 of T.132. If X is pseudocompact apply Fact 7 of T.132 to find
a function ' 2 C.X / such that '.X /  R is infinite; let K D '.X /. The function
' W X ! K is R-quotient (see Fact 3 of 6.154), so the space Cp .K/ embeds in
Cp .X / as a closed subspace.
The space K is infinite, compact, and metrizable, so there exists a subspace S 
K with S ' .! C 1/. Now apply Fact 2 of U.216 to see that Cp .! C 1/ embeds
in Cp .K/ as a closed subspace. Furthermore, Cp .! C 1/ '  .!/ '  .!/ 
R! (see CFS-105 and Problem 017) which shows that R! embeds in Cp .! C 1/
as a closed subspace. Therefore R! embeds in Cp .K/ as a closed subspace; an
immediate consequence is that R! also embeds in Cp .X / as a closed subspace.
V.022. Prove that a space X is not pseudocompact if and only if R! embeds in
Cp .X / as a linear subspace.
Solution. We will need some notions of the theory of linear topological spaces. If L
is a linear space and A; B  L then A C B D fx C y W x 2 A; y 2 Bg; if A D fxg
then we write x C B instead of fxg C B. If L is a linear topological space and 0 2 L
is its zero vector, a set K  L is called totally bounded if for any U 2 .0; L/
there is
Sa finite A  L such that K  A C U ; a set P  L is  -totally bounded if
P D n2! Kn where Kn is totally bounded for any n 2 !. A set P  L is called
symmetric if P D P D fx W x 2 P g.
Fact 1. Suppose that L is a linear topological space and M  L is a linear subspace
of L. If a set K  L is totally bounded in L then K 0 D K \ M is totally bounded
in M .
Proof. Let U 0 2 .0; M / and take a set U 2 .L/ such that U \ M D U 0 . Using
continuity of the addition operation in the space L it is easy to find a symmetric set
V 2 .0; L/ such that V C V  U ; let V 0 D V \ M . The set K being totally
bounded in L there is a finite set A  L such that K  A C V . For any a 2 A
choose a point .a/ 2 .a C V / \ M if .a C V / \ M ;. If .a C V / \ M D ;
then let .a/ D 0. It is evident that A0 D f.a/ W a 2 Ag is a finite subset of M .
Fix a point x 2 K 0 ; there is a 2 A such that x 2 .a C V / and, in particular,
.a C V / \ M ;. Therefore b D .a/ 2 A0 , so there is v0 2 V with b D a C v0 .
Besides, there is v1 2 V such that x D a C v1 ; an immediate consequence is that
x D b  v0 C v1 . Observe that w D v0 C v1 2 V C V  U and, since also
w D x  b, the point w belongs to M because M is a linear subspace of L. Thus
w 2 U \ M D U 0 and we proved that x D b C w 2 b C U 0  A0 C U 0 . The
point x 2 K 0 was chosen arbitrarily, so we established that K 0  A0 C U 0 , i.e., K 0
is totally bounded in M . Fact 1 is proved.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

77

Fact 2. Suppose that L and L0 are linear topological spaces and f W L ! L0 is a


continuous linear map. If a set K  L is totally bounded in L then K 0 D f .K/ is
totally bounded in L0 .
Proof. If U 0 is an open neighborhood of zero in L0 then U D f 1 .U 0 / is an open
neighborhood of zero in L, so there exists a finite A  L with K  A C U . It is
straightforward that A0 D f .A/  L0 is a finite set such that K 0  A0 C U 0 , so K 0
is totally bounded in L0 and hence Fact 2 is proved.
Fact 3. Suppose that L is a linear topological space and K  L is totally bounded
in L. Then
(i) any K 0  K is totally bounded;
(ii) the set K is totally bounded;
(iii) the set z C K is totally bounded for any z 2 L.
Proof. Since (i) is evident, let us prove (ii). Fix a set U 2 .0; L/; using continuity
of the addition operation in L it is easy to find a symmetric set V 2 .0; L/ such
that V C V  U . Since K is totally bounded, we can find a finite set A  L with
K  A C V . If x 2 K then W D x C V 2 .x; L/, so there is y 2 W \ K; this
means that there is v0 2 V such that y D x C v0 . Since y 2 A C V , there are a 2 A
and v1 2 V for which y D a C v1 .
Thus x D a C v1  v0 2 .a C V C V /  a C U  A C U . Since the point
x 2 K was chosen arbitrarily, we proved that K  A C U and hence K is totally
bounded. This settles (ii).
To prove (iii) take a set U 2 .0; L/; since K is totally bounded, there is a finite
set A0  L such that K  A0 C U . The set A D z C A0 is finite and it is easy to
see that .z C K/  A C U , so z C K is totally bounded; this shows that (iii) is also
true, so Fact 3 is proved.
Fact 4. The space R! is not  -totally bounded (as a linear topological space).
S
Proof. Suppose that R! D n2! Kn and every Kn is totally bounded. Fact 3 shows
that every Fn D K n is totally bounded as well; the space R! has the Baire property,
so there is n 2 ! for which the interior V of the set K n is nonempty. Apply again
Fact 3 to see that V is totally bounded.
!
Any nonempty open subset of R! contains a standard open
Q subset of R!nn, so we

can fix n 2 ! and Wi 2 .R/ for any i < n such that W D . i<n Wi /R
V.
Let  W R! ! R be the projection of R! onto its n-th factor. Then  is a continuous
linear map; since W is totally bounded (here we used Fact 3 once more), we can
apply Fact 2 to see that the set .W / D R is totally bounded in R.
However, R is not totally bounded in itself because, for the open neighborhood
H D .1; 1/ of zero in R there is no finite A  R with A C H D R (this is an
easy exercise which can be left to the reader). This contradiction shows that R! is
not  -totally bounded and hence Fact 4 is proved.
Fact 5. A space Z is pseudocompact if and only if the space Cp .Z/ (considered as
a linear topological space) is  -totally bounded.

78

2 Solutions of problems 001500

Proof. If Z is not pseudocompact then there exists a countably infinite discrete


family of nonempty open subsets of Z; an easy consequence of Fact 1 of T.217 is
that R! is linearly homeomorphic to a closed linear subspace of Cp .Z/. If Cp .Z/ is
 -totally bounded then it follows from Fact 1 that R! is also  -totally bounded
which, together with Fact 4, gives a contradiction. This shows that if Cp .Z/ is
 -totally bounded then the space Z is pseudocompact,
S i.e., we proved sufficiency.
Now, if Z is pseudocompact then Cp .Z/ D
n2! Cp .Z; n; n
/. For any
n 2 ! the set n; n
Z is compact and hence totally bounded in RZ . The space
Cp .Z/ is a linear subspace of RZ , so we can apply Fact 2 to convince ourselves that
Cp .Z; n; n
/ D n; n
Z \ Cp .Z/ is totally bounded in Cp .Z/ for any n 2 !.
Thus Cp .Z/ is  -totally bounded and hence we established necessity. Fact 5 is
proved.
Returning to our solution observe that if the space X is not pseudocompact then
there exists a countably infinite discrete family of nonempty open subsets of X ; an
easy consequence of Fact 1 of T.217 is that R! is linearly homeomorphic to a closed
linear subspace of Cp .X /. This proves necessity.
Now, assume that X is pseudocompact and hence Cp .X / is  -totally bounded
by Fact 5. If R! embeds in Cp .X / as a linear subspace then it follows from Fact 1
that R! is also  -totally bounded which contradicts Fact 4. Thus R! does not
embed in Cp .X / as a linear subspace; this proves sufficiency and makes our solution
complete.
V.023. Prove that, if either X or Cp .X / is Lindelf, then R!1 does not embed
into Cp .X /.
Solution. If Z is a space and Y  Z then e.Y; Z/ (called the relative extent of
Y in Z) is the supremum of cardinalities of discrete subspaces of Y which are
closed in Z (and hence in Y ). In the same spirit, l.Y; Z/ (called the relative Lindelf
number of Y in Z) is the minimal cardinal number  such that every open cover of
Z contains a subfamily of cardinality at most  which covers Y .
Fact 1. Given an infinite cardinal , if hd.Y /   and w.Z/   then
hd.Y  Z/  . In particular, the product of a second countable space and a
hereditarily separable space is hereditarily separable.
Proof. Fix a base B in the space Z such that jBj   and assume, toward a
contradiction, that some P D fp W <  C g  Y  Z is left-separated, i.e.,
every set P D fp W < g is closed in P . For any <  C there are q 2 Y
and r 2 Z such that p D .q ; r /; choose B 2 B and U 2 .Z/ such that
q 2 U ; r 2 B and .U  B / \ P D ;. There exist L   C and B 2 B such
that jLj D  C and B D B for all 2 L.
Suppose that ; 2 L and < . If q 2 U then the point p D .q ; r /
belongs to the set U  B D U  B D U  B which is a contradiction with the
choice of the sets B and U . Consequently, q U whenever < and therefore
fq W 2 Lg is a left-separated subspace of Y of cardinality  C ; this contradiction

2 Solutions of problems 001500

79

with hd.Y /   (see SFFS-004) shows that there are no left-separated subspaces
of Y  Z of cardinality  C , so hd.Y  Z/  , i.e., Fact 1 is proved.
Fact 2. Suppose that X is a space with l  .X /  !. If X can be perfectly mapped
onto a space M with hd  .M /  ! then l.Y; Z/ D ext .Y; Z/ for any Y  Z 
Cp .X /.
Proof. Suppose that we have spaces Z; T and a map u W Z ! T . Given any n 2 N
let un .z1 ; : : : ; zn / D .u.z1 /; : : : ; u.zn // for any z D .z1 ; : : : ; zn / 2 Z n . Thus un W
Z n ! T n . If P is a set then Fin.P / is the family of all nonempty finite subsets
of P . For the family O D f.a; b/ W a < b; a; b 2 Qg and every n 2 N let
On D fO1  : : :  On W Oi S
2 O for any i D 1; : : : ; ng. Choose some enumeration
fOk W k 2 !g of the family fOn W n 2 Ng. Thus, for each k 2 ! there is mk 2 N
and O1k ; : : : ; Omk k 2 O such that Ok D O1k : : :Omk k . For any x D .x1 ; : : : ; xmk / 2
mk
k
mk
X mk let x;
SOk
D ff 2 Cp .X / W f .x/ 2 O g. If Bk D fx; Ok
W x 2 X g
then B D fBk W k 2 !g is a base of the space Cp .X /.
Fix a perfect map p W X ! M ; then pk D p mk maps X mk perfectly onto the
space M mk for every k 2 ! (see Fact 4 of S.271).
To prove that ext .Y; Z/ D l.Y; Z/ is suffices to show that l.Y; Z/  ext .Y; Z/,
so assume the contrary; then there
S is an infinite cardinal   ext .Y; Z/ and a family
U  .Cp .X // such that Z  U and no subfamily of U of cardinality   covers
Y . It is easy to see that, without loss of generality, we can assume that U  B. We
will need the set Ak D fx 2 X mk W x; Ok
2 U g for any k 2 !; observe that the
fact that U covers Z implies that
(1) for any f 2 Z there is k 2 ! and x 2 Ak such that f mk .x/ 2 Ok .
On the other hand, no subfamily of U of cardinality   covers Y , so we have
(2) if Bk  Ak and jBk j   for any k 2 ! then there is f 2 Y such that
f mk .Bk / \ Ok D ; for every k 2 !.
Choose a function f0 2 Y arbitrarily and let B.k; 0/ D ; for all k 2 !. Assume
that 0 < <  C and we have chosen a set ff W < g  Y and a family
fB.k; / W < ; k 2 !g with the following properties:
(3) B.k; /  Ak and jB.k; /j   for all k 2 ! and < ;
(4) if  < < then B.k;  /  B.k; / for every k 2 !;
(5) for any < ; k 2 ! and any H 2 Fin.ff W  < g/ the set uH .B.k; // is
dense in uH .Ak / where uH D pk . ff mk W f 2 H g/ W X ! M mk  Rmk jH j ;
(6) fmk .B.k; // \ Ok D ; for all < and k 2 !.
To get f , let F D ff W < g and fix any k 2 !; for every H 2 Fin.F /
let uH D pk . ff mk W f 2 H g/ W X ! M mk  Rmk jH j . The space uH .Ak /
being hereditarily separable by Fact 1, there is a countable B.H; k/  Ak such that
uH .B.H; k// is dense in uH .Ak /. The set
[
[
fB.k; / W < g/ [ . fB.H; k/ W H 2 Fin.F /g/

B.k; / D .

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

has cardinality  . Once we have a set B.k; / for every k 2 ! apply (2) to find a
function f 2 Y such that fmk .B.k; //\Ok D ; for all k 2 !. It is immediate that
the properties (3)(6) still hold for the set ff W  g and the family fB.k; / W
 ; k 2 !g and therefore our inductive construction can be continued to give us
a set D D ff W <  C g and a family fB.k; / W <  C ; k 2 !g such that the
properties (3)(6) hold for all <  C .
Assume that < <  C ; it follows from (5) that .pk fmk /.B.k; // is dense
in .pk fmk /.Ak / and hence fmk .B.k; // is dense in fmk .Ak / for all k 2 !. The
property (1) shows that fmk .Ak / \ Ok ; and therefore fmk .B.k; // \ Ok ;
for some k 2 !. On the other hand, fmk .B.k; // \ Ok D ; for all k 2 ! by the
property (6). Consequently, f f and therefore jDj D  C .
Our purpose is to prove that D is closed and discrete in Z, so assume, toward
a contradiction, that g is an accumulation point in Z for the set D. Recall that
t .Cp .X // D ! by TFS-149; so g is also an accumulation point for some countable
subset of D and hence the ordinal D nnf <  C W g is an accumulation point for
F g is well defined. It is evident that is a limit ordinal. There is k 2 ! and y 2 Ak
such that g 2 y; Ok
; it is evident that
T g is also an accumulation point for the set
G D F \ y; Ok
. The set K D f.f mk /1 .f mk .y// W f 2 Gg is nonempty
because y 2 K.
Let W D .g mk /1 .Ok / and assume that KnW ;. Take any x 2 KnW and
observe that g mk .x/ Ok while g mk .y/ 2 Ok and therefore g mk .x/ g mk .y/.
On the other hand, f mk .x/ D f mk .y/ for all f 2 G which contradicts g 2 G. We
proved that the case KnW ; is impossible, i.e., K  W .
Let Kf D .f mk /1 .f mk .y// for all f 2 G; the set N D pk1 .pk .y// is compact
because the map pk T
is perfect. Therefore N \ Kf is a nonempty compact set for
all f 2 G and y 2 fN \ Kf W f 2 Gg  K  W . Now we canTapply Fact 1
of S.326 to conclude that there is a finite H  G such that Q D fN \ Kf W
f 2 H g  W . Observe that, for the map uH D pk . ff mk W f 2 H g/ we
have Q D u1
H .uH .y//. Now, if Y D uH .X / then the map uH W X ! Y is perfect
because pk is perfect (see Fact 1 of T.266).
Therefore Fact 1 of S.226 is applicable to conclude that there is U 2 .Y / such
that uH .y/ 2 U and u1
H .U /  W . Let  D maxf W f 2 H g. Then  <  D
 C 1 < because is a limit ordinal. We have H 2 Fin.F / and therefore
uH .B.k; // is dense uH .Ak / by (5). Furthermore, uH .y/ 2 U \ uH .Ak / which
shows that U \ uH .Ak / is a nonempty open subset of uH .Ak /. The set uH .B.k; //
being dense in uH .Ak / by (5), we have uH .B.k; // \ U ; and therefore there
is z 2 B.k; / for which u1
H .uH .z//  W and, in particular, z 2 W . This implies
that g mk .z/ 2 Ok .
On the other hand, the condition (6) implies that fmk .B.k; // \ Ok D ;; the
conditions (4) and (6) show that, for any ordinal with  < < we have
fmk .B.k; // \ Ok  fmk .B.k; // \ Ok D ;. Consequently, fmk .z/ Ok
whenever   < which shows that g GnF and hence g is an accumulation
point for the set F which is a contradiction with  < and the choice of .

2 Solutions of problems 001500

81

This contradiction proves that D is a closed discrete subspace of Z. We already


saw that jDj D  C > ext .Y; Z/; this final contradiction shows that l.Y; Z/ 
ext .Y; Z/ and hence Fact 2 is proved.
Fact 3. Suppose that X is a space such that Cp .X / is Lindelf. Given a set
A  X assume that every countable subset of A is C -embedded in X . Then A
is C -embedded in X .
Proof. Fix a continuous function ' W A ! R; for any countable B  A the set
FB D ff 2 Cp .X / W f jB D 'g is nonempty and closed in Cp .X /. It is easy to
see that the family F D fFB W B is a countableT
subset of Ag is countably centered,
T
so the Lindelf property of Cp .X / implies that F ;. Any element of F is a
continuous extension of ' over the whole space X , so A is C -embedded in X and
hence Fact 3 is proved.
Fact 4. Given spaces X; Y and a map ' W X ! Y suppose that D  X is
discrete, 'jD is injective and D 0 D '.D/ is a discrete subspace of Y . If D 0
is C -embedded (or C  -embedded) in Y then the set D is C -embedded (or C  embedded respectively) in the space X .
Proof. Suppose that f W D ! R is a (bounded) function (observe that f is
automatically continuous because D is discrete). Then g D f .'jD/1 W D 0 ! R
is a continuous (bounded) function because D 0 is also discrete. The set D 0 being
C -embedded (C  -embedded) in Y , there is a continuous (bounded) function h W
Y ! R such that hjD 0 D g. It is straightforward that f1 D h ' W X ! R is a
continuous (bounded) function such that f1 jD D f , so Fact 4 is proved.
Fact 5. If D  Cp .!1 C 1/ is closed, discrete, and jDj  ! then D is C -embedded
in Cp .!1 C 1/.
Proof. Let  W Cp .!1 C 1/ ! Cp .!1 / be the restriction map. Since !1 is countably
compact and !1 C 1 D !1 (see TFS-314), the space !1 C 1 is the Hewitt
extension of !1 (see TFS-417 and Fact 3 of S.309). Therefore jA W A ! .A/
is a homeomorphism for any countable A  Cp .!1 C 1/ (see TFS-437). As a
consequence, the set D 0 D .D/ is closed and discrete in Cp .!1 /. The space
Cp .!1 / being Lindelf (see TFS-316), the set D 0 is C -embedded in Cp .!1 /, so
we can apply Fact 4 to see that D is also C -embedded in Cp .!1 C 1/. Fact 5 is
proved.
Fact 6. Given an infinite cardinal  if a set Z  Cp . C C 1/ separates the points
of  C C 1 then there is a discrete subspace D  Z which is closed in Cp . C C 1/
and jDj D  C .
Proof. For each <  C fix rational numbers s ; t and a function f 2 Z such
that f ./ < s < t < f . C / or f ./ > s > t > f . C /. Since each f
is continuous, there exists < such that f . / < s or f . / > s for every
 2 . ;
.
The map r W  C !  C defined by r./ D for all <  C satisfies the
hypothesis of Fact 3 of U.074, so there is <  C and a stationary set R   C such

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

that D for all 2 R. There is a set R0  R with jR0 j D  C for which there
are s; t 2 Q such that s D s and t D t for all 2 R0 ; let E D ff W 2 R0 g.
Passing, if necessary, to a subset of E of cardinality  C , we can assume that either
f ./ < s < t < f . C / or f ./ > s > t > f . C / for all 2 R0 . Since these
two cases are analogous, we will only consider the first one.
For every function f 2 Cp . C C 1/ let Of D Cp . C C 1/nE if f E. Then
Of is an open neighborhood of f in Cp . C C 1/ such that Of \ E D ; and hence
Bf D f 2 R0 W f 2 Of g D ;. If f 2 E then f . C /  t because g. C / > t for
all g 2 E. Choose any s 0 2 .s; t / and observe that, by continuity of f , there is  >
such that f . / > s 0 > s. The set Of D fg 2 Cp . C C 1/ W g. / > s 0 g is an open
neighborhood of f in Cp . C C 1/. If >  and 2 R0 then  2 .;
D . ;

which implies, by the choice of , that f . / < s < s 0 whence f Of . Thus


Of \ E  ff W   g and therefore, for the set Bf D f 2 R0 W f 2 Of g, we
have jBf j  j j  .
The family U D fOf W f 2 Zg is an open cover of the spaceSCp . C C 1/ such
that jU S
\ Ej   for any U 2 U . If U 0  U and jU 0 j   then j. U 0 / \ Ej S
, so
the set U 0 does not cover the set E  Z and hence Z is not contained in U 0 .
This shows that l.Z; Cp . C C 1//   C , so we have e.Z; Cp . C C 1//   C (see
Fact 2) and hence there exists a discrete D  Z which is closed in Cp . C C 1/ and
jDj D  C . Fact 6 is proved.
Fact 7. If X is a space and !1 C 1 embeds in Cp .X / then there is a closed discrete
uncountable D  X such that every countable A  D is C -embedded in X .
Proof. Let  Cp .X / be a subspace homeomorphic to !1 C 1. For any x 2 X and
f 2 let '.x/.f / D f .x/. Then ' W X ! Cp ./ is a continuous map such that
Y D '.X / separates the points of . By Fact 6, there is an uncountable discrete
D 0  Y which is closed in Cp ./. For any y 2 D 0 choose a point a.y/ 2 ' 1 .y/;
then the set D D fa.y/ W y 2 D 0 g  X is uncountable, discrete, and closed in X .
Since the map 'jD is an injection, we can apply Fact 4 and Fact 5 to conclude that
every countable A  D is C -embedded in X , so Fact 7 is proved.
Fact 8. If Cp .X / is Lindelf then !1 does not embed in Cp .X /.
Proof. Assume that there is a subspace Z  Cp .X / which is homeomorphic to !1 .
Since Z is pseudocompact and Lindelf, it has to be compact, so K D Z is a
compact extension of Z. Observe that Z is not closed in Cp .X / because !1 is not
Lindelf. Since !1 C 1 is canonically homeomorphic to !1 (see TFS-314), there
is a continuous onto map ' W .!1 C 1/ ! Z such that 'j!1 W !1 ! Z is a
homeomorphism.
Apply Fact 3 of S.261 to see that '..!1 C 1/n!1 / D ZnZ and hence ZnZ
is a singleton. An immediate consequence is that ' is a bijection and hence
homeomorphism. Thus K is a subspace of Cp .X / homeomorphic to !1 C 1. By
Fact 7, there is a closed discrete uncountable D  X such that every countable
A  D is C -embedded in X . Apply Fact 3 to conclude that D is C -embedded in X .
If  W Cp .X / ! Cp .D/ is the restriction map then .Cp .X // D Cp .D/ D RD .

2 Solutions of problems 001500

83

This, together with the Lindelf property of Cp .X /, implies that RD is Lindelf


which is a contradiction (see e.g., Fact 2 of S.215). Thus !1 cannot be embedded in
Cp .X /, so Fact 8 is proved.
Returning to our solution observe that if X is Lindelf then !1 C1 does not embed
in Cp .X / by Fact 1 of U.089. Since !1 C 1 embeds in R!1 , the space R!1 cannot be
embedded in Cp .X / either. Now, if Cp .X / is Lindelf then even the space !1 is not
embeddable in Cp .X / by Fact 8; as before, this implies that R!1 is not embeddable
in Cp .X / as well.
V.024. Prove that there exists a space X such that c.X / D ! and R!1 embeds in
Cp .X / as a closed linear subspace.
Solution. All spaces in this solution are considered to be nonempty. We will often
use without explicit reference the fact that any linear space has a Hamel basis (see
Fact 1 of S.489).
Fact 1. Suppose that Z is a space and H is a Hamel basis in Cp .Z/. If A  H is
a finite nonempty set then, for any u 2 RA , there is a continuous linear functional
' W Cp .Z/ ! R such that 'jA D u.
Proof. For any x 2 Z let ex .f / D f .x/ for any f 2 Cp .Z/; then ex is a
continuous linear functional on Cp .Z/ (see TFS-196).
We will show first by induction on n 2 N that
(1) for any f1 ; : : : ; fn 2 H there is a set fx1 ; : : : ; xn g  Z such that the family
f.fi .x1 /; : : : ; fi .xn // W i D 1; : : : ; ng of vectors of Rn is linearly independent.
If n D 1 then it follows from f1 2 H that f1 is not identically zero, so there
is x1 2 Z such that f1 .x1 / 0. It is clear that the vector .f1 .x1 // forms an
independent family in R, so (1) is proved for n D 1.
Assume that the property (1) is proved for all n  m and fix any functions
f1 ; : : : ; fmC1 2 H . By the induction hypothesis there is a set fx1 ; : : : ; xm g  Z
such that the family f.fi .x1 /; : : : ; fi .xm // W i D 1; : : : ; mg of vectors of Rm
is linearly independent; let ai D .fi .x1 /; : : : ; fi .xm // for all i  m C 1. It is
clear that the family fai W i  m C 1g cannot be linearly independent in
Rm , so we can find 1 ; : : : ; m 2 R such that amC1 D 1 a1 C : : : C m am .
However, the functions f1 ; : : : ; fmC1 are linearly independent, so fmC1 1 f1 C
: : : C m fm ; therefore there is a point xmC1 2 Z such that fmC1 .xmC1 /
1 f1 .xmC1 / C : : : C m fm .xmC1 /. We leave it to the reader to verify that the family
f.fi .x1 /; : : : ; fi .xmC1 // W i  m C 1g of vectors of RmC1 is linearly independent,
so (1) is proved.
Now choose a faithful enumeration ff1 ; : : : ; fn g of the set A and let bi D u.fi /
for any i D 1; : : : ; n. Apply the property (1) to find a set fx1 ; : : : ; xn g  Z such
that the family f.fi .x1 /; : : : ; fi .xn // W i  ng of vectors of the space Rn is linearly
independent. A well-known theorem of algebra shows that there exist 1 ; : : : ; n 2
R such that 1 fi .x1 / C : : : C n fi .xn / D bi for each i D 1; : : : ; n. It is evident that
' D 1 ex1 C : : : C n exn is a continuous linear functional on Cp .Z/ and '.fi / D bi
for every i  n, i.e., 'jA D u, so Fact 1 is proved.

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

Fact 2. Suppose that Z is a space and H  Cp .Z/ is a Hamel basis in Cp .Z/.


Let J D f.a; b/ W a; b 2 Q and a < bg. Given functions f1 ; : : : ; fn 2 Cp .Z/ and
O1 ; : : : ; On 2 J let f1 ; : : : ; fn I O1 ; : : : ; On
D f' 2 Lp .Z/ W '.fi / 2 Oi for all
i  ng. Then the family O D ff1 ; : : : ; fn I O1 ; : : : ; On
W n 2 N; f1 ; : : : ; fn 2 H
and O1 ; : : : ; On 2 J g is a base in the space Lp .Z/.
Proof. It is clear that all elements of O are open in Lp .Z/. To prove that O is
a base in Lp .Z/ take a point ' 2 Lp .Z/ and a set W 2 .'; Lp .Z//. There are
g1 ; : : : ; gk 2 Cp .Z/ and " > 0 such that ' 2 V D fu 2 Lp .Z/ W ju.gi /'.gi /j < "
for each i  kg  W .
The set H being a Hamel basis in the space Cp .Z/ there are f1 ; : : : ; fn 2 H
such that every function gi is a linear combination of f1 ; : : : ; fn . Thus for any i 2
f1; : : : ; kg there are i1 ; : : : ; in 2 R such that gi D i1 f1 C : : : C in fn . For the
number D maxfj ij j W i  k; j  ngC1 choose > 0 such that n < " and take
a set Oi D .a; b/ 2 J such that '.fi / 2 Oi  .'.fi /; '.fi /C/ for every i  n.
The set U D f1 ; : : : ; fn I O1 ; : :P
: ; On
belongs to O and ' 2 U . Given any u 2 U
observe that ju.gi /'.gi /j D j nj D1 ij .u.fj /'.fj //j  n < " for any i  k
and therefore u 2 V . This proves that U  V and hence ' 2 U  V  W . Thus
O is a base in Lp .Z/ and Fact 2 is proved.
Fact 3. The space Lp .Z/ has the Souslin property for any space Z.
Proof. If c.Lp .Z// > ! then there exists a disjoint family U   .Lp .Z// with
jU j D !1 . Since the family O from Fact 2 is a base in Lp .Z/, we can assume,
without loss of generality, that U  O. For any U D f1 ; : : : ; fn I O1 ; : : : ; On
2 U
let kU D n, supp.U / D ff1 ; : : : ; fn g and O.U / D .O1 ; : : : ; On / 2 J n . The
family J being countable we can consider, without loss of generality (passing
to an appropriate uncountable family of U if necessary), that there are n 2 N
and O1 ; : : : ; On 2 J such that, for any U 2 U , we have kU D n and U D
f1U ; : : : ; fnU I O1 ; : : : ; On
for some f1U ; : : : ; fnU 2 H .
Apply the Delta-lemma (SFFS-038) to see that there exists an uncountable
U 0  U and a finite set D  H such that supp.U / \ supp.V / D D for
any distinct U; V 2 U 0 . If ff1 ; : : : ; fm g is a faithful enumeration of D then
changing the respective order in the sets ff1U ; : : : ; fnU g and fO1 ; : : : ; On g if
necessary, we can assume, without loss of generality, that for any U 2 U 0 we have
U
V
; : : : ; fnU I O1 ; : : : ; On
while the sets ffmC1
; : : : ; fnV g and
U D f1 ; : : : ; fm ; fmC1
U
U
0
ffmC1 ; : : : ; fn g are disjoint whenever U; V 2 U and U V .
Take distinct U; V 2 U 0 and apply Fact 1 to find a linear continuous functional
' W Cp .Z/ ! R such that '.fi / 2 Oi for all i  m (observe that the set D
can be empty; in this case m D 0) while '.fiU / 2 Oi and '.fiV / 2 Oi for all
i 2 fm C 1; : : : ; ng. It is immediate that ' 2 U \ V ; this contradiction shows that
c.Lp .Z// D ! and hence Fact 3 is proved.
Returning to our solution let D be a discrete space with jDj D !1 and let X D
Lp .D/. There exists an l-embedding of D in X by CFS-466, so Cp .D/ D RD '
R!1 embeds in Cp .X / as a closed linear subspace by CFS-448. Finally, apply Fact 3
to see that c.X / D ! and hence our solution is complete.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

85

V.025. Prove that if ! C 1! X then Cp .X / ' Cp .X /  R! . Deduce from


this fact that pseudocompactness, countable compactness, and compactness are not
t -invariant.
Solution. Let K  X be a subspace homeomorphic to ! C1 and consider the space
I D ff 2 Cp .X / W f .K/ D f0gg. The set K is l-embedded in X (see CFS-482)
and hence Cp .X / ' I  Cp .K/ by CFS-448. Furthermore, Cp .K/ '  .!/ (see
CFS-105), so we can apply Problem 017 to conclude that Cp .X / ' I   .!/ '
I   .!/  R! ' Cp .X /  R! .
We proved, in particular, that Cp .! C 1/ ' Cp .! C 1/  R! ' Cp ..! C
t
1/ !/ and therefore .! C 1/ .! C 1/ !. The space ! C 1 is compact while
.! C 1/ ! is not even pseudocompact. This shows that pseudocompactness,
countable compactness, and compactness are not t -invariant.
V.026. Prove that Cp .R/! ' Cp .R/ and Cp .I/! ' Cp .I/.
Solution. It follows from TFS-177 that Cp .R/ ' .Cp .R//! . To prove that the
space .Cp .I//! is homeomorphic to Cp .I/ it suffices to establish the same for the
space I D 0; 1
because I ' I.
The space K D f0g [ f2n W n 2 !g  I is homeomorphic to ! C 1; since it
is l-embedded in I (see CFS-482), for the set M D ff 2 Cp .I / W f .K/ D f0gg,
we have Cp .I / ' M  Cp .K/. Recalling that Cp .K/ '  .!/ (see CFS-105) we
conclude that Cp .I / ' M   .!/. Let an D 2n1 ; bn D 2n and In D an ; bn
;
given a function f 2 Cp .In / let jjf jjn D fsup jf .x/j W x 2 In g be its usual norm
in the space Cp .In / for any n 2 !.
We will also need the space Mn D ff 2 Cp .In / W f .an / D f .bn / D 0g; let
n W Cp .I / ! Cp .In / be the restriction map and observe that n .M / D Mn for
each n 2 !. We claim that
Q
(1) the map  D n2! n W M ! M 0 D .M /  n2! Mn is a homeomorphism.
Q
Let pn W n2! Mn ! Mn be the projection for every n 2 !. It is an easy exercise
that  is a continuous bijection; to see that the map  1 W M 0 ! M is continuous,
let qx .f / D f .x/ for any x 2 I and f 2 M . We also need an analogous map in
every space Cp .In /: let qxn .f / D f .x/ for any x 2 In and f 2 Cp .In /. If x 2 K
then .qx  1 /.g/ D 0 for any g 2 M 0 , so the map qx  1 is continuous. If
x 2 I nK then fix the unique n 2 ! with x 2 In . Given a function g 2 M 0 observe
that qx . 1 .g// D g.n/.x/; this shows that qx  1 D qxn pn is continuous
being the composition of two continuous maps. Therefore we can apply TFS-102 to
see that  1 is continuous and hence
Q  is, indeed, a homeomorphism.
Next observe that M 0 D ff 2 n2! Mn W jjf .n/jjn ! 0g. If 'n W In ! I is a
homeomorphism then the dual map 'n W Cp .I / ! Cp .In / is a homeomorphism

which preserves the norm, i.e., jj'
any Q
f 2 Cp .I /. As
Qn .f /jjn D jjf jj for
!
a consequence, the map ' D
'
W
.C
.I
//
!
pQ
n2! n
n2! Cp .In / is a
homeomorphism such that E D '.C .I // D ff 2 n2! Cp .In / W jjf .n/jjn ! 0g
(see Problem 018 for the definition of C .X / for any space X ).

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

For any n 2 ! we will need an extender en from the doubleton Sn D fan ; bn g


.an /
to In . Define en by letting en .f /.t / D f .bbnn/f
.t an /Cf .an / for any f 2 RSn
an
and t 2 In . In other words, e.f / is the linear function whose graph is obtained
connecting the points .an ; f .an // and .bn ; f .bn // by a line segment. It is easy to
check that the map e W RSn ! Cp .In / is a linear continuous extender such that
jje.f /jj D maxfjf .an /j:jf .bn /jg for any f 2 RSn .
Let rn0 W RSn  Mn ! RSn and rn1 W RSn  Mn ! Mn be the natural projections
for each n 2 !. It follows from CFS-448 that every map un W RSn  Mn ! Cp .In /
defined by un .f; g/ D e.f / C g for any .f; g/ 2 RSn  Mn , is a homeomorphism;
denote by vn its inverse. By the choice of our extender e we can see that
(2) jjun .f; g/jjn  maxfjf .an /j; jf .bn /jg C jjgjjn for any .f; g/ 2 RSn  Mn .
Besides, for any h 2 Cp .In / we have
(3) jjrn1 .vn .h//jjn  2jjhjjn and maxfjrn0 .vn .h//.an /j; jrn0 .vn .h//.bn /jg  jjhjjn .
Q
Q
Q
Sn
The product map v D n2! vn W n2! Cp .In / ! Q
P D n2! .RQ
 Mn /
Sn
is, evidently, a homeomorphism. Let w W P ! R D . n2! R /  . n2! Mn /
be the homeomorphism obtained by an evident coordinate
Q permutation. It follows
from the properties (2) and (3) that QD w v W
n2! Cp .In / ! R is a
homeomorphism such that, for any f 2 n2! Cp .In /, if .f / D .g; h/ 2 R then
the sequence fjjf .n/jjn W n 2 !g converges to zero if and only if both sequences
S g
D fmaxfjg.n/.an /j; jg.n/.bn /jg W n 2 !g and fjjh.n/jjn W n 2 !g converge
to zero.
Q
In other words, .E/ D A  M 0 where A D fg 2 n2! RSn W S g
! 0g
and hence E ' A  M 0 . It is evident that A '  .!/, so E ' M 0   .!/. We
already saw that E ' C .I / and M ' M 0 , so C .I / ' M 0   .!/ ' Cp .I /.
This makes it possible to apply Problem 019 to conclude that Cp .I / ' .Cp .I //!
and hence our solution is complete.
V.027. Prove that R is t -equivalent to 0; 1
.
Solution. For any n 2 Z let In D n; n C 1
 R and Sn D fn; n C 1g; we will
also need the set M D ff 2 Cp .R/ W f .Z/ D f0gg. It is easy to see that the
family f.n  13 ; n C 13 / W n 2 Zg   .R/ is discrete so Cp .R/ is homeomorphic
to the space RZ  M ' R!  M (see Fact 1 of T.217). Every restriction map
n W Cp .R/ ! Cp .In / is continuous; let Mn D ff 2 Cp .In / W f .Sn / D f0gg for
each n 2 Z.
Q
The diagonal product map  D fn W n 2 Zg W Cp .R/ !
Q fCp .In / W n 2 Zg
is continuous; it is straightforward
to check that .M / D fMn W n 2 Zg and
Q
the map jM W M ! fMn W n 2 Zg is a homeomorphism. Q
As a consequence,
!
 fMn W n 2 Zg;
the space Cp .R/ is homeomorphic to the space H D RQ
an evident permutation of coordinates shows that H ' fR2  Mn W n 2 Zg.
Furthermore, R2  Mn ' CpQ
.In / (see Fact 1 of S.409) for any n 2 Z, so the space
Cp .R/ is homeomorphic to fCp .In / W n 2 Zg; recalling that every Cp .In / is
homeomorphic to Cp .I/ and Z is countable, we can see that Cp .R/ ' .Cp .I//! .
Finally, observe that .Cp .I//! ' Cp .I/ by Problem 026 and I ' 0; 1
, so Cp .R/ '
Cp .I/ ' Cp .0; 1
/ which shows that R is t -equivalent to 0; 1
.

2 Solutions of problems 001500


t

87
t

V.028. Prove that X  Y whenever X  Y . Give an example which shows that


t
t
X  Y does not necessarily imply X  Y .
Solution. If Z is a space and   exp.Z/ then jA D fM \ A W M 2 g for
any A  Z; let M D f W is a Tychonoff topology on Z and jA D .Z/jA for
any countable
S A  Zg. The family M is nonempty because .Z/ 2 M. Therefore
the family M can be considered a subbase for a topology Z on the set Z. It is
easy to see that Z 2 M and, if Z ' Y then the spaces .Z; Z / and .Y; Y / are
homeomorphic.
t
Suppose that X  Y and hence Cp .X / ' Cp .Y /; since the restriction map
 W Cp .X / ! Cp .X / is a condensation, we can identify the sets C.X / and
C.X / and consider that the topology of Cp .X / is given on the set C.X /.
Reformulating TFS-437 we can see that the topology of Cp .X / on C.X / coincides
with Cp .X/ . Analogously, the topology of Cp .Y / on C.Y / coincides with Cp .Y / .
As a consequence, Cp .X / ' .C.X /; Cp .X/ / ' .C.Y /; Cp .Y // / ' Cp .Y /
which shows that the spaces X and Y are t -equivalent.
Next observe that the spaces X D A.!/ and Y D A.!/ ! are t -equivalent
by Problem 017 and CFS-105. We claim that the spaces X D X and Y are
not t -equivalent. Indeed, it easily follows from Fact 2 of S.451 that the space Y
contains the space ! and therefore nw.Y /  nw.!/ D w.!/ > ! (see TFS368). However, nw.X / D nw.A.!// D !, so nw.X / nw.Y / and hence the
spaces X and Y cannot be t -equivalent by Problem 001.
V.029. Give an example of spaces X and Y such that X ' Y (and hence
t
X  Y ) while X is not t -equivalent to Y .
Solution. Let X D !1 and Y D !1 C 1; then Y D Y ' X (see TFS-314,
Fact 3 of S.309 and TFS-417). However, X is not t -equivalent to Y because Cp .X /
is Lindelf and Cp .Y / is not (see TFS-316 and TFS-320).
V.030. Prove that -monolithity and -stability are t -invariant for any infinite
cardinal .
t

Solution. If X  Y and X is -monolithic then Cp .X / is -stable (see SFFS152) and hence so is Cp .Y /. Applying SFFS-152 again we conclude that Y is
-monolithic. This proves that -monolithity is t -invariant.
t
Now, if X  Y and X is -stable then Cp .X / is -monolithic (see SFFS-154)
and hence Cp .Y / is -monolithic. Applying SFFS-154 again we conclude that Y is
-stable. This proves that -stability is also t -invariant.
t

V.031. Suppose that X  Y . Prove that X is functionally perfect if and only if so


is Y .
Solution. If X is functionally perfect, then Cp .X / has a dense  -compact subspace
(see CFS-301); therefore Cp .Y / also has a dense  -compact subspace, so we can
apply CFS-301 once more to conclude that Y is functionally perfect. Analogously, if
Y is functionally perfect then so is X and hence the space X is functionally perfect
if and only if Y is functionally perfect.

88

2 Solutions of problems 001500

V.032. Give an example of spaces X and Y such that X is functionally perfect,


Cp .Y / embeds into Cp .X / while Y is not functionally perfect.
Solution. Let X be a discrete space of cardinality !1 and Y D !1 C 1. Then Y is
not an Eberlein compact because t .Y / > !. Therefore Y is not functionally perfect.
However, X is functionally perfect (see CFS-316) and X maps continuously onto
Y ; this implies that Cp .Y / embeds in Cp .X / (see TFS-163).
V.033. Suppose that compact spaces X and Y are t -equivalent. Prove that X is
Eberlein (Corson or Gulko) compact if and only if so is Y .
Solution. If X is Eberlein compact then X is functionally perfect, so Y is also
functionally perfect by Problem 031 and hence Y is Eberlein compact. Analogously,
if Y is Eberlein compact then so is X .
Now, if X is Corson compact then Cp .X / is primarily Lindelf (see CFS-150),
so Cp .Y / is also primarily Lindelf and hence Y is Corson compact. Analogously,
if Y is Corson compact then so is X .
Finally, if X is Gulko compact then Cp .X / is a Lindelf -space so Cp .Y /
is also a Lindelf -space and hence Y is Gulko compact. Analogously, if Y is
Gulko compact then so is X .
V.034. Suppose that F  Cp .X; I/ is a D-separating set (and hence 0X 2 F ). For
e D fex W x 2 X g is a
each x 2 X , let ex .f / D f .x/ for any f 2 F . Prove that X
closed subset of the space ZF .X / D f' W F ! I W '.0X / D 0 and '.V /   12 ; 12

for some V 2 .0X ; F /g, and the map x ! ex is a homeomorphism between


e In other words, X is canonically homeomorphic to a closed subset of
X and X.
ZF .X /.
Solution. For an arbitrary space Z and p 2 Z let D.Z; p/ D ff 2 IZ W f .p/ D 0
and there is U 2 .p; Z/ such that f .U /   12 ; 12
g. We consider that D.Z; p/ is
a space with the topology induced from IZ .
Given any point x 2 X let e.x/ D ex ; then e.x/ 2 Cp .F; I/ and the map
e W X ! Cp .F; I/ is continuous (see TFS-166). Since e.x/.0X / D 0X .x/ D 0
for any x 2 X and e.x/ is continuous at 0X , we have e.x/ 2 D.F; 0X / for any
x 2 X , i.e., e.X /  D.F; 0X /. It is an evident consequence of the fact that F is
D-separating that F separates the points and closed sets, i.e., for any x 2 X and
any closed P  X with x P , there is f 2 F such that f .x/ f .P /. Therefore
e D e.X / is closed in
e is an embedding by TFS-166 and we only must prove that X
ZF .X / D D.F; 0X /.
Take any element ' 2 D.F; 0X /ne.X /. There exists O 2 .0X ; F / such that
'.O/   12 ; 12
. By definition of the pointwise convergence topology there is a
finite K  X and " > 0 such that 0X 2 W D ff 2 F W f .K/  ."; "/g  O and
hence '.W /   12 ; 12
. Since ' e.K/, there is U 2 .K; X / such that ' e.U /.
The family F being D-separating, there is g 2 F such that g.K/  ."; "/ and
g.X nU /  34 ; 1
and, in particular, g 2 W . This implies e.x/.g/ D g.x/ 2 34 ; 1

for every point x 2 X nU while we have '.g/ 2 '.W /   12 ; 12


. Consequently,
the set G D f 2 D.F; 0X / W .g/ < 34 g is an open neighborhood of ' in D.F; 0X /

2 Solutions of problems 001500

89

such that G \ e.X nU / D ; and therefore ' e.X nU /. It is easy to see that this
implies ' e.U / [ e.X nU / D e.X /. The function ' 2 D.F; 0X /ne.X / was
e D e.X / is closed in the space D.F; 0X / D ZF .X /.
chosen arbitrarily, so X
V.035. Knowing that 0X 2 F  Cp .X; I/ and 0Y 2 G  Cp .Y; I/, suppose that
there is an embedding i W G ! F with i.0Y / D 0X . Prove that ZF .X / maps
continuously onto ZG .Y /.
Solution. For an arbitrary space Z and p 2 Z let D.Z; p/ D ff 2 IZ W f .p/ D 0
and there is U 2 .p; Z/ such that f .U /   12 ; 12
g. We consider that D.Z; p/ is
a space with the topology induced from IZ .
Let H D i.G/; for any f 2 IH the function i  .f / D f i belongs to IG and
it is easy to see, using TFS-163, that the map i  W IH ! IG is a homeomorphism.
Besides, it follows from i.0Y / D 0X that i  .D.H; 0X // D D.G; 0Y /. Since 0X 2
H  F , the restriction map  W IF ! IH maps D.F; 0X / onto D.H; 0X / by
Fact 8 of T.250. Therefore i   maps ZF .X / D D.F; 0X / continuously onto
ZG .Y / D D.G; 0Y /.
V.036. Given a space X prove that if 0X 2 F  Cp .X; I/ then ZF .X / belongs to
the class K.X /.
Solution. This was proved in Fact 10 of T.250.
V.037. Let G be a D-separating subspace of Cp .Y /. Prove that, if G embeds into
Cp .X / then Y 2 K.X /.
Solution. It is easy to see that there exists an embedding e W Cp .X / ! Cp .X; I/
such that e.0X / D 0X . The space Cp .X / being homogeneous (i.e., for any functions
f; g 2 Cp .X / there is a homeomorphism ' W Cp .X / ! Cp .X / such that '.f / D g
(see TFS-079)), there is an embedding w W G ! Cp .X / such that w.0Y / D 0X .
Therefore i D e w embeds G in Cp .X; I/ in such a way that i.0Y / D 0X .
This shows that, for the set F D Cp .X; I/, the space ZG .Y / is a continuous
image of ZF .X / by Problem 035. The space ZF .X / belongs to the class K.X /
by Problem 036 and hence ZG .Y / also belongs to K.X /. The space Y embeds in
ZG .Y / as a closed subspace (see Problem 034), so Y 2 K.X /.
V.038. Given arbitrary spaces X; Y and a subspace Z  Y suppose that the space
Cp .ZjY / D ff 2 Cp .Z/ W f D gjZ for some g 2 Cp .Y /g embeds in Cp .X /.
Prove that Z 2 K.X /.
Solution. Suppose that A  Z is finite, F  Z is closed in Z and A \ F D ;.
Then G D clY .F / is closed in Y and A \ G D ;. By the Tychonoff property of
Y , for any a 2 A, there is a function
Q fa 2 C.Y; 0; 1
/ such that fa .a/ D 1 and
fa .G/  f0g. The function g D a2A .1  fa / 2 C.Y; 0; 1
/ is equal to zero on
A and g.G/  f1g. Consequently, h D gjZ 2 Cp .ZjY / while h.F /  f1g and
h.A/  f0g. This proves that the set E D ff jZ W f 2 Cp .Y; I/g is D-separating.
Since Cp .ZjY / embeds in Cp .X /, the space E  Cp .ZjY / also embeds in Cp .X /,
so we can apply Problem 037 to conclude that Z belongs to the class K.X /.

90

2 Solutions of problems 001500

V.039. Let X be a  -compact space. Prove that any space Y 2 K.X / is also
 -compact.
Solution. It is easy to see that the class SK of  -compact spaces is complete and
contains all compact spaces. Therefore X 2 SK implies K.X /  SK because
K.X / is the minimal complete class which contains X and all compact spaces.
Thus every Y 2 K.X / belongs to SK, i.e., Y is  -compact.
V.040. Let X be a Lindelf -space. Prove that any Y 2 K.X / is also a Lindelf
-space.
Solution. It is easy to see that the class LS of Lindelf -spaces is complete and
contains all compact spaces. Therefore X 2 LS implies K.X /  LS because K.X /
is the minimal complete class which contains X and all compact spaces. Thus every
Y 2 K.X / belongs to LS, i.e., Y is a Lindelf -space.
V.041. Let X be a K-analytic space. Prove that any space Y 2 K.X / is also
K-analytic.
Solution. It is easy to see that the class KA of K-analytic spaces is complete and
contains all compact spaces. Therefore X 2 KA implies K.X /  KA because
K.X / is the minimal complete class which contains X and all compact spaces.
Thus every Y 2 K.X / belongs to KA, i.e., Y is a K-analytic space.
V.042. Prove that ext  .Y /  ext  .X / for any Y 2 K.X /.
Solution. Assume that ext  .X / D  and consider the class E of spaces Z such
that ext  .Z/  . We leave to the reader a simple verification of the fact that E is a
complete class and all compact spaces are in E. Therefore K.X /  E by minimality
of the class K.X /, so any Y 2 K.X / belongs to E, i.e., ext  .Y /   D ext  .X /.
V.043. Suppose that Cp .Y / embeds into Cp .X /. Prove that
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

if X is  -compact then Y is  -compact;


if X is Lindelf -space then Y is Lindelf .
if X is K-analytic then Y is also K-analytic.
ext  .Y /  ext  .X /.
t

As a consequence, if X  Y then ext  .X / D ext  .Y / and, for any property


P 2 f -compactness, Lindelf -property, K-analyticityg, we have X ` P if and
only if Y ` P.
Solution. It follows from Cp .Y /! Cp .X / that Cp .Y; I/! Cp .X /; since
Cp .Y; I/ is a D-separating subset of Cp .Y /, we can apply Problem 037 to see
that Y 2 K.X /.
Now, the statement (1) follows from Problem 039, the property (2) is an
immediate consequence of Problem 040, the property (3) is implied by Problem 041
and (4) can be deduced from Problem 042.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

91

V.044. Suppose that X is an analytic space and Cp .Y / embeds into Cp .X /. Prove


t
that Y is also analytic. In particular, analyticity is t -invariant, i.e., if X  Y then X
is analytic if and only if so is Y .
Solution. The space X being K-analytic (see SFFS-346), it follows from Problem 043 that Y is also K-analytic. Besides, nw.X /  ! because X is analytic and
network weight is not increased by continuous images. Therefore
nw.Y / D nw.Cp .Y //  nw.Cp .X // D nw.X /  !
and hence we can apply SFFS-346 again to conclude that Y is also analytic.
t

V.045. Suppose that X  Y . Prove that X is  -bounded if and only if so is Y .


Solution. The space X is  -bounded if and only if X is  -compact (see TFS-416);
t
since also X  Y (see Problem 028), the space Y is  -compact if and only if
the space X is  -compact (see Problem 043). Finally, Y is  -compact if and only
if Y is  -bounded (here we used TFS-416 again). This shows that X is  -bounded
if and only if so is Y .
V.046. Given a zero-dimensional space Y , suppose that Cp .Y; D/ embeds in
Cp .X /. Prove that, for any property P 2 f -compactness, Lindelf -property,
analyticity, K-analyticityg, we have Y ` P whenever X ` P.
Solution. We leave it to the reader to verify that the set Cp .Z; D/ is D-separating in
Cp .Z/ for any zero-dimensional space Z. Thus it follows from Cp .Y; D/! Cp .X /
that Y 2 K.X / (see Problem 037). Now, if X is  -compact then so is Y by
Problem 039. If X is Lindelf then Y is Lindelf by Problem 040. If X is
K-analytic then Y is also K-analytic by Problem 041.
If the space X is analytic then Y is K-analytic by our above observations and
nw.Cp .Y; D//  nw.Cp .X // D !. Since Cp .Y; D/ is D-separating, it separates the
points from closed sets in Y , so Y embeds in Cp .Cp .Y; D// by TFS-166. Therefore
nw.Y /  nw.Cp .Cp .Y; D/// D nw.Cp .Y; D//  ! which shows that we can apply
SFFS-346 to conclude that Y is analytic.
V.047. Let X be a zero-dimensional space. Prove that l  .X / D t .Cp .X; D//.
Solution. Denote by Fin(X) the family of all finite subsets of the space X and
observe that t .Cp .X; D//  t .Cp .X // D l  .X / (see TFS-149), so we only have
to prove that l  .X /   D t .Cp .X; D//. To do so fix an open !-cover U of the
space X . For any finite F  X choose a set UF 2 U with F  UF ; since X is
zero-dimensional, we can find a clopen set OF such that F  OF  UF . Let hF
be the characteristic function of the set OF , i.e., hF .x/ D 1 for all x 2 OF and
hF .x/ D 0 if x 2 X nOF .
The function u 2 Cp .X; D/ with u.x/ D 1 for all x 2 X belongs to the closure of
the set fhF W F 2 Fin.X /g  Cp .X; D/, so there is a family F  Fin.X / such that
jFj   and u 2 fhF W f 2 Fg; let U 0 D fUF W F 2 Fg. Given a finite K  X the

92

2 Solutions of problems 001500

set G D ff 2 Cp .X; D/ W f .K/  f1gg is an open neighborhood of u in Cp .X; D/,


so there is F 2 F with hF 2 G; this, evidently, implies K  OF  UF 2 U 0 , so
we proved that U 0 is an !-cover of X of cardinality  . Thus every !-cover of X
has an !-subcover of cardinality at most , so we can apply TFS-148 to conclude
that l  .X /   and hence l  .X / D t .Cp .X; D//.
V.048. Let X and Y be zero-dimensional spaces with Cp .X; D/ ' Cp .Y; D/. Prove
that X is pseudocompact if and only if so is Y . Deduce from this fact that X is
compact if and only if so is Y .
Solution. As usual, given a space Z and A  Z, the characteristic function A of
the set A is defined by A .x/ D 1 for all x 2 A and A .x/ D 0 for all x 2 ZnA.
Suppose that X is pseudocompact and take a countable set A  Cp .X; D/. Since
the space Cp .X / is !-monolithic (see Fact 9 of S.351), we have nw.A/  !. For
any x 2 X let '.x/.f / D f .x/ for any f 2 B D A. Then ' W X ! Cp .B; D/ is a
continuous map (see TFS-166); let X 0 D '.X /. We have
nw.X 0 /  nw.Cp .B; D//  nw.Cp .B// D nw.B/ D !I
this, together with pseudocompactness of X 0 , shows that the space X 0 is compact
and metrizable.
For any u 2 B let .u/.f / D f .u/ for any f 2 X 0 ; since X 0 generates the
topology of B (see TFS-166), the map  embeds B in Cp .X 0 ; D/. Apply Fact 1
of U.077 to conclude that jBj  jCp .X 0 ; D/j D ! and therefore the closure of
every countable subset of Cp .X; D/ is countable. Since Cp .Y; D/ ' Cp .X; D/, we
conclude that
(1) the closure of every countable subset of Cp .Y; D/ is countable.
Assume toward a contradiction that Y is not pseudocompact and fix a discrete
family fUn W n 2 !g   .Y /; pick a point xn 2 Un , a clopen set On such that xn 2
On  Un and let fn be the characteristic function ofP
On for any n 2 !. Let D D
fxn W n 2 !g; if g 2 DD then the function e.g/ D ffn W n 2 g 1 .1/g belongs
to Cp .Y; D/. Apply Fact 5 of T.132 to see that the map e W DD ! Cp .Y; D/ is
continuous; it is straightforward that e is injective, so K D e.DD / is homeomorphic
to DD ' D! .
The space K being second countable, we can choose a countable dense A  K.
Since the set K D A is uncountable, we obtain a contradiction with (1) which
shows that Y has to be pseudocompact. This shows that pseudocompactness of X
implies pseudocompactness of Y ; changing the roles of X and Y in the above proof
we can derive pseudocompactness of X from pseudocompactness of Y . Thus X is
pseudocompact if and only if so is Y .
Finally, assume that the space X is compact; then Y is pseudocompact by the
above result. Furthermore, t .Cp .X; D// D l  .X / D ! (see Problem 047) and hence
l  .Y / D t .Cp .Y; D// D !. This shows that Y is compact being pseudocompact
and Lindelf. Therefore compactness of X implies compactness of Y . Analogously,
compactness of Y implies compactness of X , so X is compact if and only if so is Y .

2 Solutions of problems 001500

93

V.049. Prove that there exist zero-dimensional spaces X and Y such that Cp .X / is
homeomorphic to Cp .Y / and Cp .X; D/ is not homeomorphic to Cp .Y; D/.
Solution. Let X D ! C 1 and Y D .! C 1/ !. It is trivial that X and Y
are zero-dimensional; it follows from CFS-105 and Problem 017 that Cp .X / is
homeomorphic to Cp .Y /. However, Cp .X; D/ is not homeomorphic to Cp .Y; D/
because X is compact and Y is not even pseudocompact (see Problem 048).
V.050. Prove that .Cp .X; D// D w.Cp .X; D// D jX j for any zero-dimensional
space X .
Solution. We have .Cp .X; D//  w.Cp .X; D//  w.Cp .X // D jX j (see
TFS-169), so it suffices to show that jX j   D .Cp .X; D//. To do this let
u 2 Cp .X; D/ be the function which is identically zero on X and fix a local base B at
the point u in the space Cp .X; D/ such that jBj  . Taking smaller neighborhoods
of u if necessary we can assume that all elements of B belong to the standard base
of the space Cp .X; D/, i.e., for any B 2 B there is a finite set KB  X such that
B D ff 2 Cp .X;SD/ W f .KB /  f0gg.
The set Y D fKB W B 2 Bg has cardinality at most ; if Y X then pick a
point x 2 X nY . The set U D ff 2 Cp .X; D/ W f .x/ D 0g is an open neighborhood
of u in Cp .X; D/. Therefore there is B 2 B with B  U ; however, x KB ,
so zero-dimensionality of X shows that there is a clopen set G  X such that
x 2 G  X nKB . Let f .y/ D 1 for all y 2 G and f .y/ D 0 whenever y 2 X nG.
It is straightforward that f 2 BnU ; this contradiction shows that Y D X and hence
jX j  . We already saw that this implies .Cp .X; D// D w.Cp .X; D// D jX j.
V.051. Prove that a zero-dimensional compact space X is scattered if and only if
Cp .X; D/ is FrchetUrysohn.
Solution. Recall that an !-cover of a space Z is a family U  exp.Z/ such that,
for any finite A  Z, there is U 2 U with A  U . If Bn 2 exp.Z/ for each n 2 !
then Bn ! Z says that, for any z 2 Z, there is m 2 ! such that z 2 Bn for all
n  m.
If the space X is scattered then Cp .X / is FrchetUrysohn (see SFFS-134) and
hence Cp .X; D/  Cp .X / is also FrchetUrysohn; this proves necessity.
To prove sufficiency denote by Fin.X / the family of all finite subsets of X and
assume that Cp .X; D/ is a FrchetUrysohn space; take an open !-cover U of the
space X . For any finite K  X fix a set UK 2 U with K  UK and choose, using
zero-dimensionality of X , a clopen set OK such that K  OK  UK ; let hK .x/ D 1
for all x 2 OK and hK .x/ D 0 if x 2 X nOK . We will also need the function
u W X ! R such that u.x/ D 1 for all x 2 X ; it is straightforward that u 2 Cp .X; D/
belongs to the closure of the set P D fhK W K 2 Fin.X /g  Cp .X; D/. The space
Cp .X; D/ being FrchetUrysohn, we can choose a sequence fKn W n 2 !g such
that the sequence fhKn W n 2 !g converges to u; let Un D UKn for each n 2 !.
Given a point x 2 X the set G D ff 2 Cp .X; D/ W f .x/ D 1g is an open
neighborhood of u in Cp .X; D/, so there is m 2 ! such that hKn 2 G for all n  m.
This implies x 2 OKn  Un for all n  m and hence Un ! X . It turns out that

94

2 Solutions of problems 001500

any open !-cover U of X has a subfamily fUn W n 2 !g  U with Un ! X . This


implies that Cp .X / is a FrchetUrysohn space (see TFS-144), so we can apply
SFFS-134 once more to conclude that X is scattered and complete our solution.
V.052. Suppose that X is not  -compact and w.X /  . Prove that there is a
subspace Z  Cp .X / such that jZj   and Z is not embeddable into Cp .Y /
for any  -compact Y . In particular, there is a countable subspace of Cp .P/ which
cannot be embedded into Cp .Y / for any  -compact Y .
Solution. Choose a base B of the space X such that jBj   and call a pair p D
.U; V / 2 B  B adequate if U  V and there is a function fp 2 C.X; 0; 1
/ for
which fp .U /  f0g and fp .X nV /  f1g; let Wp D V and denote by P the set of
all adequate pairs of elements of B.
It is evident that the family P D fQ W Q  P is finiteQand the collection
fWq W q 2 Qg is disjointg has cardinality at most ; let hQ D ffq W q 2 Qg for
any Q 2 P. The set Z D fhQ W Q 2 Pg [ f0X g also has cardinality  ; we claim
that Z is D-separating in Cp .X /.
To prove this take a finite K  X and a closed set F  X nK. It is easy to find
a finite disjoint family B 0 D fBx W x 2 Kg  B such that x 2 Bx  X nF for
every x 2 K. Using the Tychonoff property of X choose, for any x 2 K, a function
gx 2 C.X; 0; 1
/ for which gx .x/ D 0 and gx .X nBx /  f1g; pick a set Cx 2 B
such that x 2 Cx  gx1 .0; 12 //. There exists a continuous function ' W 0; 1
!
0; 1
such that '.0; 12
/ D f0g and '.1/ D 1. Consequently, .' gx /.Cx /  f0g
and .' gx /.X nBx /  f1g which shows that every px D .Cx ; Bx / is an adequate
pair and hence the set Q D fpx W x 2 Kg belongs to P.
Since fpx .X nBx /  f1g and F  X nBx , we have fpx .F /  f1g for any x 2 K;
as a consequence, hQ .F /  f1g. Furthermore, fpx .x/ D 0 for any x 2 K, so
hQ .K/  f0g; recalling that hQ 2 Z we convince ourselves that Z is indeed, a
D-separating family. If Z embeds in the space Cp .Y / for some  -compact Y then
X 2 K.Y / (see Problem 037) and hence X is  -compact by Problem 039 which is
a contradiction. Thus Z  Cp .X / is a set of cardinality at most  which cannot be
embedded in Cp .Y / for any  -compact space Y .
V.053. Prove that, for any X , the space Cp .X / embeds in Cp .P/ if and only if
Cp .X / is homeomorphic to a linear subspace of Cp .P/.
Solution. Since sufficiency is evident, assume that Cp .X /! Cp .P/. Then X is
analytic by Problem 044, so let ' W P ! X be a continuous onto map. The dual
map '  W Cp .X / ! Cp .P/ is an embedding (see TFS-163) and it is straightforward
that '  .Cp .X // is a linear subspace of Cp .P/.
V.054. Suppose that a space X is compact and there exists a homeomorphism ' W
RX ! RY such that '.Cp .X //  Cp .Y /. Prove that Y is compact.
Solution. It follows from '.Cp .X //  Cp .Y / that Cp .Y / is embeddable in the
space Cp .X /, so Y is  -compact by Problem 043. The space X being compact,
there exists a  -compact P  RX such that Cp .X /  P (see CFS-204); then
P 0 D '.P /  RY is a  -compact space such that Cp .Y /  P 0 . Apply CFS-204
again to conclude that Y is pseudocompact and hence compact.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

95

V.055. Suppose that p; q W X ! exp.Y / are finite-valued mappings such that q is


lower semicontinuous withSrespect to p. Prove that, for any nonempty set A  X ,
the map qjA
S W A ! exp. q.A// is lower semicontinuous with respect to pjA W
A ! exp. q.A//.
S
Solution. Let Z D
q.A/ and denote the mappings pjA W A ! exp.Z/ and
qjA W A ! exp.Z/ by pA and qA respectively. Given a set U 2 .Z/ there is
U 0 2 .Y / such that U D U 0 \ Z; observe that, for any a 2 A, we have q.a/  Z,
so q.a/ \ U 0 ; implies q.a/ \ U ;. The set ql1 .U 0 / being a neighborhood
of the set pl1 .U 0 / in X , for any a 2 A with p.a/ \ U 0 ;, there is Ua 2 .a; X /
such that q.x/ \ U 0 ; for any x 2 Ua .
Now, if we are given a point a 2 .pA /1
l .U / then pA .a/ \ U D p.a/ \ U ;
and hence p.a/ \ U 0 ;. The set Va D Ua \ A is an open neighborhood of a in A;
for any point x 2 Va we have q.x/\U 0 ; and hence qA .x/\U D q.x/\U ;
1
by the above observation.
This shows that Va  .qA /1
l .U / for any a 2 .pA /l .U /
S
1
and hence the set fVa W a 2 .pA /l .U /g is an open neighborhood (in A) of
1
.pA /1
l .U / contained in .qA /l .U /, i.e., qA is lower semicontinuous with respect
to pA .
V.056. Suppose that p W X ! exp.Y / and q W X ! exp.Y / are finite-valued
mappings such that q is lower semicontinuous with respect to p. Given an open
set U  Y , let pU .x/ D p.x/ \ U and qU .x/ D q.x/ \ U for every x 2 X .
Prove that the map qU W X ! exp.U / is lower semicontinuous with respect to
pU W X ! exp.U /.
Solution. Take a set V 2 .U /; then V is open in Y , so the set ql1 .V / is
a neighborhood of the set pl1 .V /. This shows that, for any x 2 X such that
Ox .
p.x/ \ V ;, there
S is Ox 2 .x; X / such that q.y/ \ V ; for each y 2 1
The set O D fOx W x 2 .pU /1
.V
/g
is
an
open
neighborhood
of
.p
/
U l .V /.
l
If y 2 O then y 2 Ox for some x 2 .pU /1
.V
/;
we
have
p.y/
\
V
D
pU .y/ \
l
V ;, so q.y/ \ V ; and hence qU .y/ \ V ; because V  U . Thus
1
1
O  .qU /1
l .V /, i.e., .qU /l .V / is a neighborhood of .pU /l .V / which shows
that qU is lower semicontinuous with respect to pU .
V.057. Given a number n 2 N and spaces Xi ; Yi ; for every i < n suppose that
pi ; qi W Xi ! exp.Yi / are set-valued
maps such that qi is lower semicontinuous
Q
with
respect
to
p
.
Prove
that
q
i
i<n i is lower semicontinuous with respect to
Q
p
.
As
a
consequence,
any
finite
product of almost lower semicontinuous maps
i
i<n
is an almost lower semicontinuous map.
Q
Q
Q
Solution. Let p D i<n pi and q D i<n qi ; fix an open set U  i<n Yi and a
point a D .a0 ; : : : ; an1 / 2 pl1 .U /. Since p.a/ \ U ;, we can find Ui 2 .Yi /
for any i < n such that U 0 D U0 : : : Un1  U and p.a/\U 0 ;. This implies
that, for every i < n, we have p.ai /\Ui ; and hence there exists Wi 2 .ai ; Xi /
such that qi .y/ \ Ui ; for any y 2 Wi .
Now, if W .a/ D W0  : : :  Wn1 then, for any b D .b0 ; : : : ; bn1 / 2 W .a/,
the set q.b/ meets U 0  U and hence q.b/ \ U ; which shows that W .a/ 

96

2 Solutions of problems 001500

S
ql1 .U /. Thus the set W D fW .a/ W a 2 pl1 .U /g is an open Q
neighborhood of
pl1 .U /; since also W  ql1 .U /, we
proved
that
the
map
q
D
i<n qi is lower
Q
semicontinuous with respect to p D i<n pi .
V.058. Suppose that, for finite-valued mappings p; r; q W X ! exp.Y /, we have
p.x/  r.x/  q.x/ for any x 2 X . Prove that, if q is lower semicontinuous with
respect to r then q is lower semicontinuous with respect to p.
Solution. If U 2 .Y / then ql1 .U / is a neighborhood of the set rl1 .U /; since
also pl1 .U /  rl1 .U /, the set ql1 .U / is a neighborhood of pl1 .U /, so q is lower
semicontinuous with respect to p.
V.059. Suppose that X is a nonempty spaceS and p W X ! exp.Y / is an
almost lower semicontinuous map such that
p.X / D Y . Prove that Y is a
countable union of images of subspaces of X under single-valued almost lower
semicontinuous maps of finite defect.
Solution. Fix a space Z  Y and a finite-valued map q W X ! exp.Z/ such
that q is lower semicontinuous with respect to p. For any m; n 2 S
N consider the
set Xmn S
D fx 2 X W jp.x/jSD m and jq.x/j D ng; if Ymn D
p.Xmn / and
Zmn D q.Xmn / then Y D fYmn W m; n 2 Ng. Apply Problem 055 to see that,
for any m; n 2 N, the map qjXmn W Xmn ! exp.Zmn / is lower semicontinuous with
respect to pjXmn W Xmn ! exp.Ymn /, so it suffices to prove our statement for every
pjXmn . Thus we can assume, without loss of generality, that there exist m; n 2 N
such that jp.x/j D m and jq.x/j D n for each x 2 X .
Fix a faithful enumeration fp 1 .x/; : : : ; p m .x/g of every set p.x/; this gives a
single-valued map p i W X ! Y ; let Yi D p i .X / for any i 2 f1; : : : ; mg.
By Problem 058, the map q is lower semicontinuous with respect to every p i W
X ! Yi ; since jq.x/j D n for any point xS
2 X , the defect of the map p i does not
exceed n  1. Finally, it follows from Y D fYi W i 2 f1; : : : ; mgg that we obtained
the promised representation of the space Y .
V.060. Given nonempty spaces X; Z and k 2 N, suppose that we have maps p W
X ! Z and q W X ! exp.Z/ such that p.x/ 2 q.x/ and jq.x/j  k for each
x 2 X while q.x/ \ q.y/ D ; if x y and q is S
lower semicontinuous with respect
to p. Prove that, if p.X / is discrete then X D j <k Dj where every Dj  X is
discrete and hence there exists a discrete subspace S  X such that jS j D jX j.
Solution. If Z is a space then let Z .0/ D Z and I0 .Z/ D ;. If n 2 ! and we have
a set Z .n/  Z, let InC1 .Z/ be the set of all isolated points of the space Z .n/ and
Z .nC1/ D Z .n/ nInC1 .Z/. If Z .n/ D ; for some n 2 ! then we say that dispersion
index of Z does not exceed n. If the dispersion index of the space Z does not exceed
n then, evidently, Z can be represented as the union of at most n discrete subspaces.
If X is finite then it is discrete and hence the sets D0 D : : : D Dk1 D S D X
do the job; this shows that we can assume, without loss of generality, that X is
infinite. Given an open set U  X , a point x 2 U is isolated in U if and only it is
isolated in X . Using this fact it is easy to prove by induction that U .n/ D X .n/ \ U
for any n 2 !. This implies that

2 Solutions of problems 001500

97

(1) if U \ X .nC1/ ; for some n 2 ! then the set U \ X .n/ is infinite.


For any x 2 X fix a set Ox 2 .p.x/; Z/ such that O x \ p.X / D fp.x/g.
It suffices to show that X .k/ D ;, so assume toward a contradiction, that there is a
point x0 2 X .k/ . Let V0 D Ox0 ; since q is lower semicontinuous with respect to p,
there is a set U0 2 .x0 ; X / such that q.y/ \ V0 ; for any y 2 U0 . Proceeding
by induction suppose that m < k and we have points x0 ; : : : ; xm 2 X and sets
U0 ; V0 ; : : : ; Um ; Vm with the following properties:
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)

xi 2 X .ki/ nfx0 ; : : : ; xi1 g for any i  m;


Vi 2 .p.xi /; Z/ and V i \ p.X / D fp.xi /g for any i  m;
the family fV 0 ; : : : ; V m g is disjoint;
if i  m then Ui 2 .xi ; X / and q.y/ \ Vi ; for any y 2 Ui ;
U0  : : :  Um .

It follows from the properties (1) and (2) that the set Um \ X .km1/ is infinite,
so we can choose a point xmC1 2 X .km1/ nfx0 ; : : : ; xm g. The map p is easily
seen to be injective, so it follows from (3) that p.xmC1 / G D V 0 [ : : : [ V m .
Choose a set VmC1 2 .p.xmC1 /; Z/ such that VmC1  OxmC1 and V mC1 \ G D ;.
The map q being lower semicontinuous with respect to p, we can choose a set
UmC1 2 .xmC1 ; X / such that UmC1  Um and q.y/\VmC1 ; for any y 2 UmC1 .
It is straightforward that the conditions (2)(6) are still satisfied if we substitute m
by mC1, so our inductive procedure can be continued to construct points x0 ; : : : ; xk
and sets U0 ; V0 ; : : : ; Uk ; Vk for which the properties (2)(6) hold for any i  k.
It follows from (5) and (6) that q.xk / \ Vi ; for any i D 0; : : : ; k; an
immediate consequence of (4) is that jq.xk /j  k C 1; this contradiction shows
that X .k/ D ;, so we can let Dj D Ij .X / for any j < k. Since X is infinite, some
Dj has the same cardinality as X ; letting S D Dj we obtain a discrete subspace
S  X such that jS j D jX j.
V.061. Given nonempty spaces X; Z and k 2 N, suppose that we have maps p W
X ! Z and q W X ! exp.Z/ such that p.x/ 2 q.x/ and jq.x/j  k for each
x 2 X while q.x/ \ q.y/ D ; if x y and q is lower
S semicontinuous with respect
to p. Prove that, if p.X / is left-separated then X D j <k Dj where every Dj  X
is left-separated and hence there exists a left-separated subspace S  X such that
jS j D jX j.
Solution. If Z is a space and < is a well-order on Z say that a point z 2 Z is
left-separated in Z if there exists U 2 .z; Z/ such that z is the minimal point
of U , i.e., x  y for any y 2 U . Let Z .0/ D Z and L0 .Z/ D ;. If n 2 !
and we have a set Z .n/  Z, let LnC1 .Z/ D fz 2 Z .n/ W z is left-separated in
Z .n/ g and Z .nC1/ D Z .n/ nLnC1 .Z/. If Z .n/ D ; for some n 2 ! then we say
that left-separation index of Z does not exceed n. It is clear that every Li .Z/ is a
left-separated space with respect to the order inherited from Z; this shows that if the
left-separation index of the space Z does not exceed n then Z can be represented as
the union of at most n left-separated subspaces.

98

2 Solutions of problems 001500

If the space X is finite then it is discrete and hence left-separated, so the sets
D0 D : : : D Dk1 D S D X do the job; this shows that we can assume,
without loss of generality, that X is infinite. Let < be a well-order on p.X / which
witnesses that p.X / is left-separated. It is straightforward that p W X ! p.X / is a
bijection, so we obtain a well-order on X if we declare that x y if and only if
p.x/ < p.y/.
Given an open set U  X , a point x 2 U is left-separated in U if and only it
is left-separated in X . Using this fact it is easy to prove by induction that U .n/ D
X .n/ \ U for any n 2 !. This implies that
(1) if n 2 ! and x 2 U \ X .nC1/ then the set fy 2 U \ X .n/ W y xg is infinite.
For any x 2 X fix a set Ox 2 .p.x/; Z/ such that O x \ p.X / does not meet the
set fy 2 p.X / W y < p.x/g and hence p.x/ is the minimal element of O x \ p.X /.
It suffices to show that X .k/ D ;, so assume toward a contradiction, that there is a
point x0 2 X .k/ . Let V0 D Ox0 ; since q is lower semicontinuous with respect to p,
there is a set U0 2 .x0 ; X / such that q.y/ \ V0 ; for any y 2 U0 . Proceeding
by induction suppose that m < k and we have points x0 ; : : : ; xm 2 X and sets
U0 ; V0 ; : : : ; Um ; Vm with the following properties:
(2) x0 : : : xm and xi 2 X .ki/ for any i  m;
(3) Vi 2 .p.xi /; Z/ and p.xi / is the minimal element of V i \ p.X / for any
i  m;
(4) the family fV 0 ; : : : ; V m g is disjoint;
(5) if i  m then Ui 2 .xi ; X / and q.y/ \ Vi ; for any y 2 Ui ;
(6) U0  : : :  Um .
It follows from (1) and (2) that the set fy 2 Um \ X .km1/ W y xm g is infinite,
so we can choose a point xmC1 2 X .km1/ \ Um such that xmC1 xm . Since p
is injective, it follows from the property (3) that p.xmC1 / G D V 0 [ : : : [ V m .
Choose a set VmC1 2 .p.xmC1 /; Z/ such that VmC1  OxmC1 and V mC1 \ G D
;. Since q is lower semicontinuous with respect to p, we can find a set UmC1 2
.xmC1 ; X / such that UmC1  Um and q.y/ \ VmC1 ; for any y 2 UmC1 . It is
straightforward that the conditions (2)(6) are still satisfied if we substitute m by
m C 1, so our inductive procedure can be continued to construct points x0 ; : : : ; xk
and sets U0 ; V0 ; : : : ; Uk ; Vk for which the properties (2)(6) hold for any i  k.
It follows from (5) and (6) that q.xk / \ Vi ; for any i D 0; : : : ; k; an
immediate consequence of (4) is that jq.xk /j  k C 1; this contradiction shows
that X .k/ D ;, so we can let Dj D Lj .X / for any j < k. Since X is infinite,
some Dj has the same cardinality as X ; letting S D Dj we obtain a left-separated
subspace S  X such that jS j D jX j.
V.062. Given nonempty spaces X; Z and k 2 N, suppose that we have maps p W
X ! Z and q W X ! exp.Z/ such that p.x/ 2 q.x/ and jq.x/j  k for each
x 2 X while q.x/ \ q.y/ D ; if x y and q is lower semicontinuous
with
S
respect to p. Prove that, if p.X / is right-separated then X D j <k Dj where
every Dj  X is right-separated and hence there exists a right-separated subspace
S  X such that jS j D jX j.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

99

Solution. If Z is a space and < is a well-order on Z say that a point z 2 Z is


right-separated in Z if there exists U 2 .z; Z/ such that z is the maximal point
of U , i.e., y  x for any y 2 U . Let Z .0/ D Z and M0 .Z/ D ;. If n 2 !
and we have a set Z .n/  Z, let MnC1 .Z/ D fz 2 Z .n/ W z is right-separated in
Z .n/ g and Z .nC1/ D Z .n/ nMnC1 .Z/. If Z .n/ D ; for some n 2 ! then we say
that right-separation index of Z does not exceed n. It is clear that every Mi .Z/
is a right-separated space with respect to the order inherited from Z; this shows
that if the right-separation index of the space Z does not exceed n then Z can be
represented as the union of at most n right-separated subspaces.
If the space X is finite then it is discrete and hence right-separated, so the sets
D0 D : : : D Dk1 D S D X do the job; this shows that we can assume, without
loss of generality, that X is infinite. Let < be a well-order on p.X / which witnesses
that p.X / is right-separated. It is straightforward that p W X ! p.X / is a bijection,
so we obtain a well-order on X if we declare that x y if and only if p.x/ <
p.y/.
Given an open set U  X , a point x 2 U is right-separated in U if and only it
is right-separated in X . Using this fact it is easy to prove by induction that U .n/ D
X .n/ \ U for any n 2 !. This implies that
(1) if n 2 ! and x 2 U \ X .nC1/ then the set fy 2 U \ X .n/ W x yg is infinite.
For any x 2 X fix a set Ox 2 .p.x/; Z/ such that O x \ p.X / does not meet the
set fy 2 p.X / W p.x/ < yg and hence p.x/ is the maximal element of O x \ p.X /.
It suffices to show that X .k/ D ;, so assume toward a contradiction that there is a
point x0 2 X .k/ . Let V0 D Ox0 ; since q is lower semicontinuous with respect to p,
there is a set U0 2 .x0 ; X / such that q.y/ \ V0 ; for any y 2 U0 . Proceeding
by induction suppose that m < k and we have points x0 ; : : : ; xm 2 X and sets
U0 ; V0 ; : : : ; Um ; Vm with the following properties:
(2) x0 : : : xm and xi 2 X .ki/ for any i  m;
(3) Vi 2 .p.xi /; Z/ and p.xi / is the maximal element of V i \ p.X / for any
i  m;
(4) the family fV 0 ; : : : ; V m g is disjoint;
(5) if i  m then Ui 2 .xi ; X / and q.y/ \ Vi ; for any y 2 Ui ;
(6) U0  : : :  Um .
It follows from (1) and (2) that the set fy 2 Um \ X .km1/ W xm yg is
infinite, so we can choose a point xmC1 2 X .km1/ \ Um such that xm xmC1 .
Since p is injective, it follows from the property (3) that p.xmC1 / G D V 0 [
: : : [ V m . Choose a set VmC1 2 .p.xmC1 /; Z/ such that VmC1  OxmC1 and
V mC1 \ G D ;. Since q is lower semicontinuous with respect to p, we can find
a set UmC1 2 .xmC1 ; X / such that UmC1  Um and q.y/ \ VmC1 ; for any
y 2 UmC1 . It is straightforward that the conditions (2)(6) are still satisfied if we
substitute m by m C 1, so our inductive procedure can be continued to construct
points x0 ; : : : ; xk and sets U0 ; V0 ; : : : ; Uk ; Vk for which the properties (2)(6) hold
for any i  k.

100

2 Solutions of problems 001500

It follows from (5) and (6) that q.xk / \ Vi ; for any i D 0; : : : ; k; an


immediate consequence of (4) is that jq.xk /j  k C 1; this contradiction shows
that X .k/ D ;, so we can let Dj D Mj .X / for any j < k. Since X is infinite,
some Dj has the same cardinality as X ; letting S D Dj we obtain a right-separated
subspace S  X such that jS j D jX j.
V.063. Suppose that an infinite space Y is an image of a space X under a
finite-valued almost lower semicontinuous map, i.e., there
S exists an almost lower
semicontinuous map p W X ! exp.Y / such that Y D p.X /. Prove that for each
n 2 N, we have s.Y n /  s.X n /, hl.Y n /  hl.X n / and hd.Y n /  hd.X n /.
Solution. Assume for a moment that
. / for any infinite spaces Z and T , ifS
there exists an almost lower semicontinuous
map ' W Z ! exp.T / such that '.Z/ D T then s.T /  s.Z/, hd.T / 
hd.Z/ and hl.T /  hl.Z/.
Q
For any n 2 N and x D .x0 ; : : : ; xn1 / 2 X n let p n .x/ D i<n p.xi /. Then
pn W X n S
! exp.Y n / is an almost lower semicontinuous map (see Problem 057)
such that p n .X n / D Y n . This shows that, letting Z D X n ; T D Y n ; ' D p n
and applying . /, we obtain the promised inequalities for every n 2 N. Therefore it
suffices to establish . /.
Since spread, hereditary density, and hereditary Lindelf number are hereditary
and countably additive, we can apply Problem 059 to see that we can assume,
without loss of generality, that ' is a single-valued almost lower semicontinuous
map of finite defect. Thus there exists a space H  T , a number n 2 N and a finitevalued map q W Z ! exp.H / such that jq.z/j  n for any z 2 Z and q is lower
semicontinuous with respect to '.
To deal with spread assume that s.Z/ D  and s.T / > ; therefore we can find
a discrete subspace D  T such that jDj D  C . It is easy to find a set E  Z
such that 'jE W E ! D is a bijection. Apply the Delta-lemma (SFFS-038) to
see that there exists a set E 0  E and a set K  Z such that jE 0 j D  C and
q.x/ \ q.y/ D K for any distinct x; y 2 E 0 .
Throwing away a finite subset of E 0 if necessary, we can assume, without loss
of generality, that '.E 0 / \ K D ;. Let r.x/ D q.x/nK for any x 2 E 0 ; it follows
from Problems 055 and 056 that r W E 0 ! Z is still lower semicontinuous with
respect to 'jE 0 . Since we also have r.x/ \ r.y/ D ; for distinct x; y 2 E 0 , we can
apply Problem 060 to conclude that there is a discrete subspace A  E 0 such that
jAj D jE 0 j D  C . This contradiction with s.Z/   shows that s.T /   D s.Z/.
To prove our inequality for hereditary density, assume that hd.Z/ D  and
hd.T / > ; then there exists a left-separated subspace D  T such that jDj D  C
(see SFFS-004). It is easy to find a set E  Z such that 'jE W E ! D is a bijection.
Apply the Delta-lemma to see that there exists a set E 0  E and a set K  Z such
that jE 0 j D  C and q.x/ \ q.y/ D K for any distinct x; y 2 E 0 .
As in the previous case, we can assume that '.E 0 /\K D ;. Let r.x/ D q.x/nK
for any x 2 E 0 ; it follows from Problems 055 and 056 that r W E 0 ! Z is still
lower semicontinuous with respect to 'jE 0 . Since we also have r.x/ \ r.y/ D ;

2 Solutions of problems 001500

101

for distinct x; y 2 E 0 , we can apply Problem 061 to conclude that there is a leftseparated subspace A  E 0 such that jAj D jE 0 j D  C . The obtained contradiction
with hd.Z/   shows that hd.T /   D hd.Z/.
To prove our inequality for hereditary Lindelf number assume that hl.Z/ D 
and hl.T / > ; therefore we can find a right-separated subspace D  T such that
jDj D  C (see SFFS-005). It is easy to find a set E  Z such that 'jE W E ! D
is a bijection. Apply the Delta-lemma to see that there exists a set E 0  E and a set
K  Z such that jE 0 j D  C and q.x/ \ q.y/ D K for any distinct x; y 2 E 0 .
As before, we can assume, without loss of generality, that '.E 0 / \ K D ;. Let
r.x/ D q.x/nK for any x 2 E 0 ; then r W E 0 ! Z is still lower semicontinuous
with respect to 'jE 0 . Since we also have r.x/ \ r.y/ D ; for distinct x; y 2 E 0 , we
can apply Problem 062 to conclude that there is a right-separated subspace A  E 0
such that jAj D jE 0 j D  C which is a contradiction with hl.Z/  . This shows
that hl.T /   D hl.Z/ finishing the proof of . / and completing our solution.
V.064. Let h W Cp .Y / ! Cp .X / be an embedding such that h.0Y / D 0X . Given
x 2 X and " > 0, a point y 2 Y is called "-inessential for x if there is U 2 .y; Y /
such that jh.g/.x/j  " whenever g.Y nU /  f0g. The point y is "-essential for
x if it is not "-inessential for x. Denote by supp" .x/ the set of all points which are
"-essential for x. Prove that supp" .x/ is finite for any x 2 X and " > 0.
Solution. Given a set T let Fin.T / be the family of all finite subsets of T . If Z
is a space and A  Z then OZ .A; "/ D ff 2 Cp .Z/ W jf .z/j < " for any
z 2 Ag. It is evident that family fOZ .A; "/ W A 2 Fin.Z/; " > 0g is a local base
of Cp .Z/ at 0Z . If A D fx1 ; : : : ; xn g then we write OZ .x1 ; : : : ; xn ; "/ instead of
OZ .fx1 ; : : : ; xn g; "/.
Fact 1. Given spaces Z and T suppose that ' W Cp .T / ! Cp .Z/ is an embedding
such that '.0T / D 0Z . Assume also that z 2 Z; " > 0; K 2 Fin.T / and
'.OT .K; //  OZ .z; "/ for some > 0. Then supp" .z/  K and hence the set
supp" .z/ is finite.
Proof. If t 2 T nK then U D T nK is an open neighborhood of the point z; assume
that f .T nU / D f .K/  f0g for some f 2 Cp .T /. Then f 2 OT .K; / and hence
'.f / 2 OZ .z; "/, i.e., j'.f /.z/j < ". Thus the set U witnesses that t is "-inessential
for z. Since t 2 T nK was chosen arbitrarily, we established that no point of T nK
can be "-essential for z, so supp" .z/  T and Fact 1 is proved.
Returning to our solution, fix a point x 2 X and " > 0. Since OX .x; "/ is an open
neighborhood of 0X in Cp .X /, by continuity of h, there is a finite K  Y and > 0
such that h.OY .K; //  OX .z; "/. Now apply Fact 1 to see that supp" .x/  K and
hence supp" .x/ is finite.
V.065. Let h W Cp .Y / ! Cp .X / be an embedding such that h.0Y / D 0X .
Denote
S by supp" .x/ the set of all points which are "-essential for x. Prove that
Y D fsupp1=n .x/ W x 2 X; n 2 Ng.

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

Solution. Given a set T let Fin.T / be the family of all finite subsets of T . If Z
is a space and A  Z then OZ .A; "/ D ff 2 Cp .Z/ W jf .z/j < " for any z 2
Ag. It is evident that family fOZ .A; "/ W A 2 Fin.Z/; " > 0g is a local base
of Cp .Z/ at 0Z . If A D fx1 ; : : : ; xn g then we write OZ .x1 ; : : : ; xn ; "/ instead of
OZ .fx1 ; : : : ; xn g; "/.
Fix y 2 Y ; since h.OY .y; 1// is an open neighborhood of 0X in h.Cp .Y //, there
is K 2 Fin.X / and " > 0 such that OX .K; "/ \ h.Cp .Y //  h.OY .y; 1//. Choose
n 2 N such that n1 < "; we claim that y 2 supp1=n .x/ for some x 2 K.
Indeed, if this is not so then, for any x 2 K,
T there is Ux 2 .y; Y / which
witnesses that y is n1 -inessential for x; let U D fUx W x 2 Kg. Take a function
f 2 Cp .Y / such that f .y/ D 1 and f .Y nU /  f0g. Then f .Y nUx /  f0g and
hence jh.f /.x/j  n1 < " for any x 2 K. This shows that h.f / 2 OX .K; "/ \
h.Cp .Y // and hence h.f / 2 h.OY .y; 1//. The map h being injective we have
f 2 OY .y; 1/, i.e., jf .y/j < 1 which is a contradiction. Thus y is n1 -essential
for
S some x 2 K; since the point y 2 Y was chosen arbitrarily, we proved that
fsupp1=n .x/ W x 2 X g D Y .
V.066. Let h W Cp .Y / ! Cp .X / be an embedding such that h.0Y / D 0X . Denote
by supp" .x/ the set of all points which are "-essential for x. Prove that, for any
" > 0, the finite-valued map supp" W X ! exp.Y / is almost lower semicontinuous.
Solution. Given a set T let Fin.T / be the family of all finite subsets of T . If Z
is a space and A  Z then OZ .A; "/ D ff 2 Cp .Z/ W jf .z/j < " for any z 2
Ag. It is evident that family fOZ .A; "/ W A 2 Fin.Z/; " > 0g is a local base
of Cp .Z/ at 0Z . If A D fx1 ; : : : ; xn g then we write OZ .x1 ; : : : ; xn ; "/ instead of
OZ .fx1 ; : : : ; xn g; "/.
Fix " > 0; for any x 2 X there is a finite set Kx  Y and x > 0 such that
h.OY .Kx ; x //  OX .x; "/. Let q.x/ D Kx for any x 2 X ; then q W X ! exp.Y /
is a finite-valued map. By Fact 1 of V.064, we have supp" .x/  Kx D q.x/ for
any x 2 X , so we only need to prove that q is lower semicontinuous with respect to
supp" .
To do so take an arbitrary set U 2 .Y / and consider a point x 2 X such that
supp" .x/ \ U ;. Pick a point y 2 supp" .x/ \ U ; since y is "-essential for x,
there is a function f 2 Cp .Y / such that f .Y nU /  f0g and jh.f /.x/j > ". The
set Wx D fz 2 X W jh.f /.z/j > "g is an open neighborhood of x in X . If z 2 Wx
and q.z/ \ U D ; then f .q.z//  f0g; recalling that q.z/ D Kz we conclude
that f 2 OY .Kz ; z / and therefore h.f / 2 OX .z; "/, i.e., jh.f /.z/j < " which
contradicts z 2 Wx . Thus q.z/ \ U ; and hence z 2 ql1 .U / for any z 2 Wx
which shows that Wx  ql1 .U /. An immediate consequence is that
.supp" /1
l .U / 

[
1
fWx W x 2 .supp" /1
l .U /g  ql .U /I

this proves that ql1 .U / is a neighborhood of .supp" /1


l .U /, i.e., q is lower semicontinuous with respect to supp" and therefore supp" is almost lower semicontinuous.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

103

V.067. Suppose that Cp .Y / embeds in Cp .X /. Prove that Y is a countable union


of images of X under finite-valued almost lower semicontinuous maps.
Solution. Using homogeneity of the space Cp .X / it is easy to find an embedding
h W Cp .Y / ! Cp .X / such that h.0Y / D 0X . For any " > 0 and x 2 X let supp" .x/
be the set of points of the space Y which are "-essential for x. Given n 2 N let
pn .x/ D supp1=n .x/ for any x 2 X . Then every pn W X ! exp.Y / is an almost
lower semicontinuous
finite-valued map (see Problems 064 and S
066) and the space
S
Yn D pn .X /  Y is the image of X under pn . Since Y D fYn W n 2 Ng by
Problem 065, the space Y is a countable union of images of X under finite-valued
almost lower semicontinuous maps.
V.068. Suppose that Cp .Y / embeds in Cp .X /. Prove that, for any n 2 N, we have
s.Y n /  s.X n /. In particular, if X and Y are t -equivalent then s.Y n / D s.X n / for
any n 2 N.
Solution. Fix n 2 N and let s.X n / D ; there is a sequence fpm W m 2 !g
such that S
every
S pm W X ! exp.Y / is a finite-valued almost lower semicontinuous
S
map and f pm .X / W m 2 !g D Y (see Problem 067). Let Ym D
pm .X /
for each m 2 !; for any n-tuple  D .m0 ; : : : ; mn1 / 2 ! n consider the space
Y D Ym0 Q: : :  Ymn1 and a finite-valued map q W X n ! exp.Y / defined
by q .x/ D i<n pmi .xi / for any x D .x0 ; : : : ; xn1 / 2SX n . Every q is almost
lower semicontinuous by Problem 057; since also Y D
q .X n /, we can apply
n
Problem 063 to see that s.Y /   for any  2 ! . Finally observe that Y n D
S
fY W  2 ! n g; the spread being countably additive, we conclude that s.Y n / 
 D s.X n /.
V.069. Suppose that Cp .Y / embeds in Cp .X /. Prove that, for any n 2 N, we have
hd.Y n /  hd.X n /. In particular, if the spaces X and Y are t -equivalent then
hd.Y n / D hd.X n / for any n 2 N.
Solution. Fix n 2 N and let hd.X n / D ; there is a sequence fpm W m 2 !g
such that S
every
S pm W X ! exp.Y / is a finite-valued almost lower semicontinuous
S
map and f pm .X / W m 2 !g D Y (see Problem 067). Let Ym D
pm .X /
for each m 2 !; for any n-tuple  D .m0 ; : : : ; mn1 / 2 ! n consider the space
Y D Ym0 Q: : :  Ymn1 and a finite-valued map q W X n ! exp.Y / defined
by q .x/ D i<n pmi .xi / for any x D .x0 ; : : : ; xn1 / 2SX n . Every q is almost
lower semicontinuous by Problem 057; since also Y D
q .X n /, we can apply
n
Problem 063 to see that hd.Y /   for any  2 ! . Finally observe that Y n D
S
fY W  2 ! n g; the hereditary density being countably additive, we conclude that
hd.Y n /   D hd.X n /.
V.070. Suppose that Cp .Y / embeds in Cp .X /. Prove that, for any n 2 N, we
have hl.Y n /  hl.X n /. In particular, if the spaces X and Y are t -equivalent then
hl.Y n / D hl.X n / for any n 2 N.
Solution. Fix n 2 N and let hl.X n / D ; there is a sequence fpm W m 2 !g
such that every pm W X ! exp.Y / is a finite-valued almost lower semicontinuous

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

S S
S
map and f pm .X / W m 2 !g D Y (see Problem 067). Let Ym D
pm .X /
for each m 2 !; for any n-tuple  D .m0 ; : : : ; mn1 / 2 ! n consider the space
Y D Ym0 Q: : :  Ymn1 and a finite-valued map q W X n ! exp.Y / defined
by q .x/ D i<n pmi .xi / for any x D .x0 ; : : : ; xn1 / 2SX n . Every q is almost
lower semicontinuous by Problem 057; since also Y D
q .X n /, we can apply
n
Problem 063 to see that hl.Y /   for any  2 ! . Finally observe that Y n D
S
fY W  2 ! n g; the hereditary Lindelf number being countably additive, we
conclude that hl.Y n /   D hl.X n /.
V.071. Suppose that f W X ! Y is a closed continuous onto map such that
t .Y /   and t .f 1 .y//   for any y 2 Y . Prove that t .X /  . Deduce from
this fact that, for every infinite compact space X , we have t .X n / D t .X / for any
n 2 N.
Solution. Given a space Z say that a set A  Z is -closed in Z if B  A for any
B  A with jBj  . It is straightforward that
(1) if A is -closed in Z then A \ F is -closed both in Z and in F for any closed
F  Z.
Now assume that A is a -closed subset of X . Let P D f .A/ and take any
Q  P such that jQj  . It is easy to find a set B  A for which jBj  
and f .B/ D Q. The map f being closed, we have Q D f .B/  f .A/ D P
and hence P is -closed in Y ; since t .Y /  , the set P is closed in Y , so we
proved that
(2) if A is -closed in X then f .A/ is closed in Y .
Suppose that a set A  X is -closed but not closed in X ; fix a point x 2 AnA
and let F D f 1 .f .x//. The set E D F \ A is -closed in F by (1); recalling
that t .F /  , we conclude that E is closed in F and hence in X . Choose a set
U 2 .x; X / such that U \ E D ;; then A0 D A \ U is -closed in X while
A0 \ F D ; and x 2 A0 . Finally observe that the set P D f .A0 / is closed in Y
by (2); since also x 2 A0 , we have f .x/ 2 P D P which is a contradiction with
A0 \ f 1 .f .x// D ;. This contradiction shows that every -closed subset of X is
closed in X , so t .X /   by Lemma from S.162.
Finally, assume that X is an infinite compact space and t .X /  . To prove by
induction that t .X n /  for any n 2 N suppose that k 2 N and we proved that
t .X k /  . Let  W X kC1 ! X be the projection onto the first factor of X kC1 . For
any x 2 X , the space  1 .x/ is homeomorphic to X k , so t . 1 .x//  by the
induction hypothesis; since the map  is closed, we can apply our above result to
see that t .X kC1 /  . Therefore t .X n /  t .X / for any n 2 N; since X embeds
in every X n , we also have the opposite inequality and hence t .X n / D t .X / for any
n 2 N.
V.072. Given countably compact sequential spaces X1 ; : : : ; Xm prove that the
space X1  : : :  Xm is countably compact and sequential.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

105

Solution. A space Z is called sequentially compact if every sequence in Z has a


convergent subsequence. Say that a set A  Z is sequentially closed in the space Z
if S  A for any convergent sequence S  A. It is straightforward that
(1) if A is sequentially closed in Z then A \ F is sequentially closed both in Z and
in F for any closed F  Z.
Fact 1. Any sequentially compact space is countably compact; if Z is countably
compact and sequential then Z is sequentially compact.
Proof. If a space Y is not countably compact then there is a countably infinite closed
discrete D  Y ; taking a faithful enumeration fdn W n 2 !g of the set D we obtain
a sequence in Y which has no convergent subsequence. This proves the first part of
our Fact.
To prove the second statement, suppose that Z is countably compact and
sequential and take a sequence S  Z; if the set S is finite then it is easy to extract a
constant (and hence convergent) subsequence from S . If S is infinite then, applying
Fact 4 of S.382 and passing, if necessary, to a subsequence of S we can assume,
without loss of generality, that S is an infinite discrete subspace of Z. Since Z is
countably compact, the set S cannot be closed; the space Z being sequential, there
is a sequence S 0  S which converges to a point x 2 ZnS . It is clear that S 0 is the
promised convergent subsequence of S , so Fact 1 is proved.
Fact 2. Any finite product of sequentially compact spaces is sequentially compact
and hence countably compact.
Proof. Suppose that the spaces Z1 ; : : : ; Zn are sequentially compact and take a
sequence S  Z D Z1  : : :  Zn . Denote by i W Z ! Zi the projection of
Z onto its i -th factor for every i  n. Use sequential compactness of the factors
to pass n times to a subsequence of S to finally obtain a sequence S 0  S such
that i .S 0 / converges to a point zi 2 Zi for any i 2 f1; : : : ; ng. It is easy to check
that the sequence S 0 converges to the point z D .z1 ; : : : ; zn /; this proves that Z is
sequentially compact and hence countably compact by Fact 1, so Fact 2 is proved.
Returning to our solution observe that an easy induction argument shows that
there is no loss of generality to assume that m D 2; thus it suffices to prove that
X D X1  X2 is countably compact and sequential. Let i W X ! Xi be the natural
projection of X onto Xi for every i 2 f1; 2g. Fact 1 and Fact 2 imply that the space
X is sequentially compact and hence countably compact.
Take a sequentially closed set A  X1  X2 ; if B D 1 .A/ is not sequentially
closed in X1 then fix a point t 2 X1 nB and a sequence T D ftn W n 2 !g 
B which converges to t . Choose a point sn 2 11 .tn / \ A for each n 2 !; by
sequential compactness of X some subsequence S 0 of the sequence S D fsn W n 2
!g converges to a point x 2 X . Then T 0 D 1 .S 0 / has to converge to 1 .x/; since
T 0 is a subsequence of T , it converges to t and therefore 1 .x/ D t . Consequently,
x A and hence S 0  A is a sequence which converges to a point outside of A.
This contradiction with the set A being sequentially closed proves that

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

(2) the set 1 .A/ is sequentially closed and hence closed in X1 for any sequentially
closed A  X .
Now assume that A  X is a sequentially closed non-closed set and fix a point
x 2 AnA. The subspace F D 11 .1 .x// is closed in X and sequential being
homeomorphic to X2 , so the set E D A \ F is sequentially closed in F by (1); an
immediate consequence is that E is closed in F and hence in X .
Therefore we can take U 2 .x; X / such that U \ E D ;. Apply (1) again to see
that the set A0 D A \ U is sequentially closed in X ; it is evident that A0 \ F D ;.
Furthermore, we have x 2 A0 and hence t D 1 .x/ 2 1 .A0 /. However, 1 .A0 / is
closed in X1 by (2) which shows that 1 .x/ 2 1 .A0 / and hence 11 .1 .x// \ A0
;. This contradiction shows that every sequentially closed subset of X is closed
and hence X is sequential; we already saw that X is countably compact, so our
solution is complete.
V.073. Assuming that a space X maps continuously onto a compact space K prove
that t .K/  l.X / t .X /.
Solution. Given a space Z and a cardinal  say that a set A  Z is -closed in Z
if B  A for any B  A with jBj  . For the cardinal  D t .X / l.X / we must
prove that t .K/  ; fix a continuous onto map f W X ! K.
Fact 1. Suppose that Z is a space and is a cardinal such that l.Z/  and A is
compact for any A  Z with jAj  . Then Z is compact.
Proof. To obtain a contradiction assume that U is an open cover of Z which has
no finite subcover. It follows from l.Z/  that we can assume, without
S loss of
generality, that jU j  . For any finite V  U pick a point z.V/ 2 Zn. V/; then
the set A D fz.V/ W V is a finite subfamily of U g has cardinality at most and hence
F D A is compact. The
Sfamily U being an open cover
S of F , there exists a finite
V  U such that F  V. However, z.V/ 2 F n. V/; this contradiction shows
that Z is compact so Fact 1 is proved.
Returning to our solution, assume toward a contradiction that t .K/ > ; then
there is a non-closed set A  K which is -closed in K (see Lemma from S.162) and
hence P D clA .P / is compact for any P  A with jP j  . It is straightforward
that B D f 1 .A/ is -closed in X ; since t .X /  , the set B is closed in X . An
immediate consequence is that l.B/  l.X /  ; the set A being a continuous
image of B, we have l.A/  . This makes it possible to apply Fact 1 to conclude
that A is compact and hence closed in K; this contradiction shows that t .K/   D
l.X / t .X /.
S
V.074. Suppose that K is a compact space and K D n2! Kn where every Kn is
a sequential closed subspace of K. Prove that if either Martins Axiom or Luzins
Axiom (2!1 > 2! ) holds then the space K is sequential.
Solution. Given a space Z and A  Z the set A is sequentially closed in Z if
S  A for any convergent sequence S  A. It is easy to see that Z is sequential if
and only if every sequentially closed subset of Z is closed in Z.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

107

Assume toward a contradiction that there exists a sequentially closed non-closed


set A  K; observe that every set AnSD A \ Kn is sequentially closed and hence
closed in Kn . Therefore the set A D n2! An is  -compact. We assumed that A is
not compact, so it cannot be countably compact; fix a countably infinite set D  A
which is closed and discrete in A. The set F D D is compact and G D F nD 
KnA.
Since F is separable, we can apply Fact 2 of S.368 to see that w.F /  c. If Fn D
F \ Kn then w.Fn /  w.F /  c, so we can take a set Hn  Fn such that jHn j  c
and Fn D H n for any n 2 !. The space Kn  Fn being sequential, we have
jFn j  c (see Fact 2 of T.041) for each n 2 !, so jF j  ! c D c.
Now assume that Luzins Axiom holds. If .x; G/  !1 for any point x 2 G then
we can apply TFS-330 to see that jGj  2!1 > c which is contradiction. Therefore,
there is a point x 2 G with .x; G/  !. Since G is a G -subset of F , the point
x is also a G -subset of F (see Fact 2 of S.358), so .x; F /  ! by TFS-327. An
immediate consequence is that there is a sequence S  D which converges to x;
since x A, we obtained a contradiction which proves that K is sequential.
Finally assume that Martins Axiom takes place; since Luzins Axiom is already
taken care of and CH implies Luzins Axiom, we can assume that MAC:CH holds.
If .x; G/  c for any point x 2 G then we can apply TFS-330 to see that jGj 
2c > c which is contradiction. Therefore, there is a point x 2 G with .x; G/ < c.
Since .G; F / D .G; F /  !, we can apply Fact 2 of S.358 again to conclude
that .x; F / D .x; F / < c. Consequently, .x; fxg [ D/ < c and hence there is
a sequence S  D which converges to x (see SFFS-054); since x A, we again
obtained a contradiction which shows that K is sequential.
V.075. Suppose that we have a space X , a compact space
S K, and a compact-valued
upper semicontinuous map p W X ! exp.K/ such that p.X / D K. Knowing that
l.X / t .X /   and t .p.x//   for any x 2 X prove that t .K/  .
Solution. For the space Y D X  K let X W Y ! X and
S K W Y ! K be the
natural projections. We will next prove that the set Z D ffxg  p.x/ W x 2 X g
is closed in Y . To do so take an arbitrary point u D .a; b/ Z; then b p.a/
and hence there exist disjoint sets U 2 .p.a/; K/ and V 2 .b; K/. By upper
semicontinuity of p, the set W D fx 2 X W p.x/  U g is an open neighborhood of
a in X and hence O D W  V 2 .u; Y /. If .x; y/ 2 O then p.x/  U and y 2 V
which shows that y p.x/ and hence .x; y/ Z. Thus O \ Z D ; and we proved
that every u 2 Y nZ has an open neighborhood O in Y with O \ Z D ;. Therefore
Z is closed in Y .
Let H D fx 2 X W p.x/ D ;g; by upper semicontinuity of p the set H is open
in X , so X0 D X nH is closed in X and hence l.X0 /  l.X /  . The projection
X is perfect by Fact 3 of S.288, so the map ' D X jZ W Z ! X0 is perfect as well.
We have ' 1 .x/ D fxg  p.x/ ' p.x/, so t .' 1 .x//   for any x 2 X0 . Besides,
t .X0 /  t .X /  , so we can apply Problem 071 to see that t .Z/  . We also
have l.Z/   by Fact 5 of S.271; since the map K jZ W Z ! K is continuous and
onto, we can apply Problem 073 to conclude that t .K/  .

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

V.076. Suppose that K is a compact sequential space and L is a compact space for
which
Sthere exists a finite-valued upper semicontinuous map p W K ! exp.L/ such
that p.K/ D L. Prove that L is also sequential.
Solution. Given a space Z say that A  Z is sequentially closed if S  A for any
convergent sequence S  A.
It turns out that the set F D f.a; b/ 2 K  L W b 2 p.a/g  K  L is closed
in K  L and hence compact. To see this take any point z D .a; b/ 2 .K  L/nF ;
then b p.a/ and hence there exist disjoint sets U 2 .b; L/ and V 2 .p.a/; L/.
By upper semicontinuity of p, the set W D fx 2 K W p.x/  V g is an open
neighborhood of a in K, so z 2 W  U 2 .z; K  L/. If t D .x; y/ 2 W  U then
y 2 U and p.x/  V which shows that y p.x/; this proves that .W V /\F D ;
and hence every point z 2 .K  L/nF has an open neighborhood disjoint from F .
This implies that the set .K  L/nF is open in K  L, so F is, indeed, closed in
K  L. Let K W K  L ! K and L W K  L ! L be the natural projections.
Our next step is to prove that
(1) for any sequentially closed set A  F the set K .A/ is sequentially closed and
hence closed in K.
Indeed, if the set B D K .A/ is not closed in K then there is a faithfully indexed
sequence S D fsn W n 2 !g  B which converges to a point x 2 KnB; let
S 0 D S [ fxg and choose a set On 2 .sn ; K/ such that On \ S D fsn g for
every n 2 !. Take a point tn 2 K1 .sn / \ A for every n 2 !. The sequence
T D ftn W n 2 !g is an infinite discrete subspace of F , so it cannot be closed
in F . Observe that Z D K1 .S 0 / \ F is a closed subset of F ; since K1 .s/ \ F
is finite for any s 2 S 0 , the set Z is countable. Being compact and countable, Z is
metrizable so there is a sequence T 0  T which converges to a point y 2 ZnT .
Since K1 .On / \ T D ftn g, the sequence T 0 cannot converge to a point of K1 .sn /
for any n 2 !. Thus K .y/ 2 SnS D fxg, i.e., K .y/ D x; as a consequence,
K .y/ K .A/ and therefore y 2 F nA. This gives a contradiction with the set A
being sequentially closed, so (1) is proved.
Now assume that A  F is sequentially closed and not closed in F ; fix a point
z 2 AnA. The set B D K .A/ is closed in K by (1). We have K .z/ 2 B D B, so
z 2 K1 .B/. Since z cannot be in the closure of the set E D K1 .K .z// \ A we
can find W 2 .z; K  L/ such that W \ E D ;. It is straightforward that the set
A0 D A\W is also sequentially closed; besides, z 2 A0 and hence K .z/ 2 K .A0 /.
However, K .A0 / is closed in K by (1); since K .z/ K .A0 /, it is impossible that
K .z/ 2 K .A0 /. This contradiction shows that every sequentially closed subset of
F is closed in F , i.e.,
S F is a sequential space.
It follows from p.K/ D L that L .F / D L, so L is a continuous (and hence
closed) image of the compact space K. Applying Fact 1 of S.224 we conclude that
L is also sequential, so our solution is complete.
V.077. Suppose that there exists an open continuous map of a subspace of Cp .X /
onto Cp .Y /. Prove that, for any n 2SNS
there is a finite-valued upper semicontinuous
map 'n W X n ! exp.Y / such that f 'n .X n / W n 2 Ng D Y .

2 Solutions of problems 001500

109

Solution. The following easy fact will be useful for this solution and future
references.
Fact 1. Given spaces Z; T and an open continuous onto map f W Z ! T , the map
fA D f jf 1 .A/ W f 1 .A/ ! A is open for any A  T .
Proof. It is clear that the map fA is continuous and onto. If U is an open subset of
f 1 .A/ then take U 0 2 .Z/ such that U 0 \ f 1 .A/ D U ; it is straightforward that
fA .U / D f .U / D f .U 0 / \ A, so fA .U / is open in A. Fact 1 is proved.
Returning to our solution observe that, by homogeneity of Cp .X / and Cp .Y /,
there exists a subspace C0  Cp .X / for which there is a continuous open onto map
0 W C0 ! Cp .Y / such that 0X 2 C0 and 0 .0X / D 0Y . Let C D 01 .Cp .Y; I//;
then the map  D 0 jC W C ! Cp .Y; I/ is open by Fact 1 and .0X / D 0Y . For any
function f 2 Cp .Y; I/ there is fQ 2 Cp .Y; I/ such that fQjY D f . Given points
x1 ; : : : ; xk 2 X and " > 0 let OX .x1 ; : : : ; xk ; "/ D ff 2 C W jf .xi /j < " for each
i  kg. It is clear that the family fOX .x1 ; : : : ; xk ; n1 / W k; n 2 N; x1 ; : : : ; xk 2 X g
is a local base at 0X in the space C .
Analogously, let OY .y1 ; : : : ; yk ; "/ D ff 2 Cp .Y; I/ W jfQ.yi /j < " for all i  kg
for any y1 ; : : : ; yk 2 Y and " > 0. A set OY .y1 ; : : : ; yk ; "/ is not necessarily open
in Cp .Y; I/; however, the family fOY .y1 ; : : : ; yk ; n1 / W k; n 2 N and y1 ; : : : ; yk 2 Y g
is a local base at 0Y in Cp .Y; I/. For any points y1 ; : : : ; yk 2 Y and " > 0 let
HY .y1 ; : : : ; yk ; "/ D ff 2 Cp .Y; I/ W jfQ.yi /j  " for all i  kg.
Consider, for every point x D .x1 ; : : : ; xn / 2 X n , the set
1
1
'n .x/ D fy 2 Y W .OX .x1 ; : : : ; xn ; //  HY .y; /g:
n
2
Our first observation is that
(1) the set 'n .x/ is finite and contained in Y for any x 2 X n .
To prove (1) recall that the map  is open, so there are y1 ; : : : ; ym 2 Y and " > 0
such that .OX .x1 ; : : : ; xn ; n1 //  OY .y1 ; : : : ; ym ; "/. If y 2 Y nfy1 ; : : : ; ym g then
there exists a function g 2 Cp .Y; I/ such that g.y/
Q
D 1 and g.yi / D 0 for each
i  m. Pick a function f 2 OX .x1 ; : : : ; xn ; n1 / with .f / D g. It follows from
g HY .y; 12 / that .OX .x1 ; : : : ; xn ; n1 // is not contained in HY .y; 12 / and hence
y 'n .x/. Thus 'n .x/  fy1 ; : : : ; ym g is a finite subset of Y , so (1) is proved.
To see that the map 'n W X n ! exp.Y / is upper semicontinuous fix a set U 2
.Y / and x D .x1 ; : : : ; xn / 2 X n with 'n .x/  U . Choose U 0 2 .Y / such
that U 0 \ Y D U . For any y 2 Y nU 0 we have y 'n .x/, so there is a function
fy 2 OX .x1 ; : : : ; xn ; n1 / such that j.fy /.y/j > 12 ; let gy D .fy / and Fy D
T
.gQ y /1 . 12 ; 12
/. Since y Fy for any y 2 Y nU 0 , the set fFy W y 2 Y nU 0 g
is contained in U 0 . By Fact 1 of S.326, there are y1 ; : : : ; yk 2 U nU 0 such that
Fy1 \ : : : \ Fyk  U 0 .
The set Wx D fz D .z1 ; : : : ; zn / 2 X n WSjfyi .zi /j < n1 for any i  kg is an open
neighborhood of x in X n ; we claim that f'n .z/ W z 2 Wx g  U . Indeed, take

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

any z D .z1 ; : : : ; zn / 2 Wx ; if y 2 Y nU 0 then there is i 2 f1; : : : ; kg such that


y Fyi and hence jgQ yi .y/j > 12 . An immediate consequence is that the function
gyi D .fyi / 2 .OX .z1 ; : : : ; zn ; n1 //nHY .y; 12 / witnesses that y 'n .z/ and hence
0
'n .z/  U 0 ; the property (1) shows that 'S
n .z/  Y , so 'n .z/  Y \ U D U . Thus
1
n
.'n /u .U / D fx 2 X W 'n .x/  U g D fWx W x 2 U g is an open set and hence
the map 'n is upper semicontinuous.
Finally, for any y 2 Y the set OY .y; 12 / is an open neighborhood of 0Y in
Cp .Y; I/; the map  is continuous and .0X / D 0Y , so there are z1 ; : : : ; zm 2 X
and " > 0 such that .OX .z1 ; : : : ; zm ; "//  OY .y; 12 /. Take n 2 N such that
m  n and n1 < ". If x D .x1 ; : : : ; xn / 2 X n and fx1 ; : : : ; xn g  fz1 ; : : : ; zm g
thenSOX .x1 ; : : : ; xn ; n1 /  OX .z1 ; : : : ; zm ; "/ and hence y 2 'n .x/. This proves that
S
f 'n .X n / W n 2 Ng D Y and shows that our solution is complete.
V.078. Suppose that there is an open continuous map of a subspace of Cp .X / onto
Cp .Y /. Prove that t .K/  t  .X / l  .X / for any compact K  Y . Deduce from
this fact that if K and L are t -equivalent compact spaces then t .K/ D t .L/.
Solution. Let  D t  .X / l  .X /; there exists a subspace C  Cp .X / and an open
continuous onto map ' W C ! Cp .Y /. Given a compact subspace K  Y let  W
Cp .Y / ! Cp .K/ be the restriction map; since  is open continuous and surjective,
the map  ' W Cp .X / ! Cp .K/ is also open continuous and onto. Apply
Problem 077 to see that we can choose for any n 2 S
N,S
an upper semicontinuous
finite-valued map pn W X n ! exp.K/ such that K D f pn .X /L
W n 2 Ng.
e D fX n W n 2 Ng.
Identify every X n with the respective clopen subspace of X
e then there is a unique n 2 N such that x 2 X n ; let p.x/ D pn .x/.
If x 2 X
e ! exp.K/ is a finite-valued map and it follows from the choice of the
Then p W X
S
e D K.
sequence fpn W n 2 Ng that p.X/
n
.p.x/; K/; by upper semicontinuity of pn
Fix a point x 2 X and a set U 2S
e
thereSis a set V S
2 .x; X n / such that pn .V /  U . The set V is also open in X
and p.V / D pn .V /  U . This, together with Fact 1 of T.346, shows that the
e l.X
e / D t  .X / l  .X / D , we can
map p is upper semicontinuous. Since t .X/
apply Problem 075 to conclude that t .K/  .
Finally, if K and L are compact t -equivalent spaces then Cp .L/ is homeomorphic to Cp .K/ and hence it is an open continuous image of the space Cp .K/,
so t .L/  t  .K/ l  .K/ D t  .K/ D t .K/ (see Problem 071). Analogously,
t .K/  t .L/, so t .K/ D t .L/.
V.079. Suppose that X is a compact sequential space and Y is a compact space
such that there is an open continuous map of some subspace of Cp .X / onto Cp .Y /.
Prove that Y is a countable union of its compact sequential subspaces. As a
consequence, under Martins Axiom if K and L are compact t -equivalent spaces
and K is sequential then L is also sequential.
Solution. Apply Problem 077 to fix, for any n 2 N,
San
Supper semicontinuous finitevalued map pn S
W X n ! exp.Y / such that Y D f pn .X / W n 2 Ng. Consider
the space Yn D pn .X /; it is easy to see that pn W X n ! exp.Yn / is also an upper

2 Solutions of problems 001500

111

semicontinuous map, so we can apply SFFS-241 to convince ourselves that Yn is


compact
S for any n 2 N. Apply Problem 076 to see that every Yn is sequential, so
Y D fYn W n 2 Ng is a countable union of compact sequential subspaces.
If K and L are compact t -equivalent spaces then Cp .L/ is homeomorphic to
Cp .K/ and hence it is an open continuous image of the space Cp .K/. The space
K being sequential, L is a countable union of compact sequential subspaces which,
together with Martins Axiom and Problem 074, implies that L is sequential.
V.080. Suppose
that X and Y are metrizable t -equivalent spaces. Prove that we
S
have Y D fYn W n 2 !g, where each Yn is a G -subspace of Y , homeomorphic to
some G -subspace of X .
Solution. For any set P denote by Fin.P / the family of all finite subsets of P ; if
n 2 N then P
n D fB  P W jBj D ng. Given a space Z the map idZ W Z ! Z
is the identity, i.e., idZ .z/ D z for any z 2 Z. If A is a finite subset of Z and n 2 N
then OZ .A; n/ D ff 2 Cp .Z/ W jf .x/j < n1 for any x 2 Ag. For all z 2 Z and
n 2 N let GZ .z; n/ D ff 2 Cp .Z/ W jf .z/j  n1 g.
Choose metrics X and Y which generate the topologies of the spaces X and
Y respectively; the spaces Cp .X / and Cp .Y / being homogeneous, it is easy to
convince ourselves that there exists a homeomorphism W Cp .X / ! Cp .Y / such
that .0X / D 0Y . Fix m; n 2 N and consider, for every point y 2 Y , the family
FY .y; m; n/ D fA 2 Fin.X / W .OX .A; m//  GY .y; n/g; if FY .y; m; n/ ;
then we can define am;n .y/ D nnfjAj W A 2 FY .y; m; n/g. Likewise, for all
x 2 X let FX .x; m; n/ D fB 2 Fin.Y / W 1 .OY .B; m//  GX .x; n/g; if
FX .x; m; n/ ; then let bm;n .x/ D nnfjBj W B 2 FX .x; m; n/g. In what
follows, when we deal with am;n .y/ and/or bm;n .x/ we assume, without mentioning
it explicitly, that the respective family FY .y; m; n/ and/or FX .x; m; n/ is nonempty.
Observe that OX .;; m/ D Cp .X / and hence .OX .;; m// D Cp .Y / 6 G.y; n/
for any y 2 Y ; this shows that if FY .y; m; n/ ; then all elements of the family
FY .y; m; n/ are nonempty and hence am;n .y/ 2 N for all m; n 2 N; let
EY .y; m; n/ D fA 2 FY .y; m; n/ W jAj D am;n .y/g:
The same reasoning demonstrates that if FX .x; m; n/ ; then all elements of
FX .x; m; n/ are nonempty; let EX .x; m; n/ D fB 2 FX .x; m; n/ W jBj D bm;n .x/g.
Fact 1. Suppose that M and L are metrizable spaces and we have A  M and
B  L which are G -sets in M and L respectively. Assume additionally that there
are continuous maps f W A ! L and g W B ! A such that f g D idB . Then the
map g W B ! g.B/ is a homeomorphism and g.B/ is a G -subset of M .
Proof. Since f jg.B/ is a continuous inverse of g, the map g W B ! g.B/ is a
homeomorphism. To see that g.B/ is a G -subset of X take complete metric spaces
f and e
f and L  e
M
L such that M  M
L. Apply Fact 2 of T.333 to see that there are
f and e
G -sets A0 and B 0 in M
L respectively such that g.B/  A0 ; B  B 0 and there
is a homeomorphism h W B 0 ! A0 with hjB D g; note that A \ A0 is a G -subset

112

2 Solutions of problems 001500

of M . Since h1 jg.B/ D f jg.B/, the set E D fx 2 A \ A0 W h1 .x/ D f .x/g


contains g.B/; it is straightforward that E is a G -subset of A \ A0 , so it is also a
G -subset of M . If E 0 D f .E/ then f0 D f jE W E ! E 0 is a homeomorphism;
since E 0  L, the subspace B  E 0 is a G -subset of E 0 , so g.B/ D f01 .B/ is a
G -subset in E and hence in M . Fact 1 is proved.
Fact 2. Suppose that M and L are metrizable spaces, n 2 N and p W M ! L
n is
a lower semicontinuous
map. Then there exists a family U D fUi W i 2 !g  .M /
S
such that U D M and, for any i 2 !, there are continuous maps f1i ; : : : ; fni such
that fji W Ui ! L for every j  n and p.x/ D ff1i .x/; : : : ; fni .x/g for any x 2 Ui .
Proof. Fix a point x 2 M and let fy1 ; : : : ; yn g be an enumeration of p.x/. Choose
disjoint sets W1 ; : : : ; Wn 2 .L/ such that yi 2 Wi for all i  n. By lower
semicontinuity of p, the set Ox D fz 2 M W p.z/ \ Wi ; for every i  ng
is an open neighborhood of x in M and p.z/ \ Wi is a singleton for any z 2 Ox
and i  n. For any z 2 Ox let hxi .z/ be the unique point of the set p.z/ \ Wi ; it is
an easy exercise that the map hxi W Ox ! Wi is continuous for any i  n. Besides,
p.z/ D fhx1 .z/; : : : ; hxn .z/g for any z 2 Ox .
The space M being metrizable, we can find a  -discrete refinement U of the
cover fOx W x 2 M
S g. Pick a sequence fUi W i 2 !g of discrete subfamilies of
U such that U D n2! Ui . Fix i 2 !; for every U 2 Ui there is x.U / 2 M
x.U /
such that U  Ox.U / . Let fji .z/ D hj .z/ for any z 2 U and j  n. This
S
defines a continuous map fji on the set Ui D Ui for any j  n. It is evident that
S
M D n2! Ui and the maps f1i ; : : : ; fni are as promised for any i 2 !, so Fact 2 is
proved.
Fact 3. Suppose that m; n; k 2 N and a sequence fyi W i 2 !g  Y converges to
a point y 2 Y . If Ai 2 FY .yi ; m; n/ and jAi j D k for any i 2 ! then there is
a subsequence fAij W j 2 !g of the sequence A D fAi W i 2 !g and a number
j
j
q  k for which we can choose a faithful enumeration fa1 ; : : : ; ak g of every set Aij
j
in such a way that the sequence fap W j 2 !g converges to a point xp 2 X for all
p  q and A D fx1 ; : : : ; xq g 2 FY .y; m; n/.
Proof. We will pass several times to a subsequence of the sequence A D fAi W
i 2 !g; since our aim is to find a certain subsequence of A, at each step we will
identify the obtained subsequence with A considering that all elements of A have
the property we have found in a subsequence.
The first step is to use Fact 2 of U.337 to choose a subsequence A0  A for
which there is a set D D fd1 ; : : : ; dr g  X such that A \ A0 D D for distinct
A; A0 2 A0 (observe that it is possible that r D 0 in which case D D ;). According
to the above-mentioned politics we can consider that, for any i 2 !, we have Ai D
i
fd1 ; : : : ; dr ; a1i ; : : : ; akr
g and the family fAi nD W i 2 !g is disjoint.
An evident property of metric spaces is that any sequence contains either a
convergent subsequence or an infinite closed discrete subspace. This makes it
possible to pass to a subsequence of A once more to guarantee that, for any

2 Solutions of problems 001500

113

j 2 f1; : : : ; k  rg, the sequence Sj D faji W i 2 !g is either convergent


or constitutes a closed discrete subspace of X . If Sj is convergent then denote
by xj its limit. Renumbering every Ai if necessary we can assume that Ai D
i
i
i
fd1 ; : : : ; dr ; a1i ; : : : ; ali ; alC1
; : : : ; akr
g while the set Q D falCj
W i 2 !; 1 
j  k  r  lg is closed and discrete in X and the sequence Sj converges to xj for
any j 2 f1; : : : ; lg.
It turns out that the set B D fd1 ; : : : ; dr ; x1 ; : : : ; xl g belongs to FY .y; m; n/.
To prove this assume toward a contradiction that there is a function f 2 Cp .X /
such that f .B/  . m1 ; m1 / and j.f /.y/j > n1 . By continuity of there is a finite
set E  B and > 0 such that,
(1) for any g 2 Cp .X /, if jg.x/  f .x/j < for all x 2 E then j.g/.y/j > n1 .
It is easy to find W 2 .B; X / such that W \ Q is finite and f .W /  . m1 ; m1 /.
Every sequence Sj is eventually in W , so there is p 2 N such that aji 2 W for
all j  l and i  p. Therefore we can pass to a subsequence of A once more to
assume, without loss of generality, that Sj  W for all j  l and .W [E/\Q D ;.
Now we can find a function g 2 Cp .X / such that gj.W [ E/ D f j.W [ E/ and
g.Q/  f0g. Then g.Ai /  . m1 ; m1 / and hence j.g/.yi /j  n1 for every i 2 !.
The sequence fyi W i 2 !g converges to y, so j.g/.y/j  n1 by continuity of .g/.
However gjE D f jE, so (1) implies that j.g/.y/j > n1 ; this contradiction shows
that B 2 FY .y; m; n/. Letting q D l C r and xlCi D di for all i 2 f1; : : : ; rg we
obtain the promised set A D fx1 ; : : : ; xq g 2 FY .y; m; n/; now it is evident how to
enumerate the sets Ai to obtain the convergence we need, so Fact 3 is proved.
Fact 4. For any k; m; n 2 N, the set CY .k; m; n/ D fy 2 Y W am;n .y/  kg is
closed in Y . Analogously, every set CX .k; m; n/ D fx 2 X W bm;n .x/  kg is
closed in X .
Proof. We have a symmetric situation with CX .k; m; n/ and CY .k; m; n/, so it
suffices to show that CY .k; m; n/ is closed in Y . To do so suppose that yi 2
CY .k; m; n/ for every i 2 ! and the sequence S D fyi W i 2 !g converges to
a point y 2 Y . Fix a set Ai 2 FY .yi ; m; n/ such that jAi j  k for each i 2 !.
Passing to a subsequence of S if necessary, we can assume that there is k0  k such
that jAi j D k0 for all i 2 !. It follows from Fact 3 that there is k1  k0 and a
set A 2 FY .y; m; n/ with jAj  k1 . Consequently, am;n .y/  k1  k and hence
y 2 CY .k; m; n/. This shows that CY .k; m; n/ is, indeed, closed in Y , so Fact 4 is
proved.
S
S
Fact 5. We have Y D k;m2N CY .k; m; n/ and X D k;m2N CX .k; m; n/ for any
n 2 N.
Proof. Fix any n 2 N; again, by the symmetry of the situation, it suffices to prove
the first equality. To do so, take any point y 2 Y . Since the set O D ff 2 Cp .Y / W
jf .y/j < n1 g  G.y; n/ is an open neighborhood of 0Y , there is a set A 2 Fin.X /
and m 2 N such that .OX .A; m//  O. We have A 2 FY .y; m; n/; if jAj D k
then am;n .y/  k which shows that y 2 CY .k; m; n/. Fact 5 is proved.

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

Fact 6. For any m; n 2 N and y 2 Y the family EY .y; m; n/ is finite. Analogously,


every family EX .x; m; n/ is finite.
Proof. Once more we have a symmetric situation, so it suffices to show that
the family EY .y; m; n/ is finite. Assume the contrary, let k D am;n .y/ and fix an
infinite family A  EY .y; m; n/. Apply Fact 2 of U.337 to find a set D  X and an
infinite subfamily A0  A such that A \ A0 D D for any distinct A; A0 2 A0 ; since
also jAj D jA0 j D k for any A; A0 2 A0 , we have AnD ; for all A 2 A0 and
hence jDj < k.
We claim that D 2 FY .y; m; n/; to prove it suppose that there is a function
f 2 OX .D; m/ such that j.f /.y/j > n1 . By continuity of , there is a finite set
E  D and > 0 such that
(2) if jg.x/  f .x/j < for all x 2 E then j.g/.y/j > n1 .
The family fAnD W A 2 A0 g being disjoint and infinite, there is A 2 A0 such that
.AnD/ \ E D ;. Pick h 2 Cp .X / such that h.AnD/ D f0g and hjE D f jE. Then
h 2 OX .A; m/; this, together with A 2 FY .y; m; n/ implies that j.h/.y/j  n1 .
On the other hand, it follows from f jE D hjE and (2) that j.h/.y/j > n1 which
is a contradiction. Therefore the family A is finite and hence Fact 6 is proved.
Fact 7. Fix m; n 2 N; we will need the set DY .1; m; n/ D CY .1; m; n/; if k > 1
then let DY .k; m; n/ D CY .k; m; n/nCY .k  1; m; n/. Now fix k 2SN and define
a map 'm;n W DY .k; m; n/ ! exp.X / by the equality 'm;n .y/ D
EY .y; m; n/
for all y 2 DY .k; m; n/. Next, for any p; q 2 N such that p  k consider the set
EY .k; m; n; p; q/ D fy 2 DY .k; m; n/ W j'm;n .y/j D p and X .x; x 0 /  q1 for
distinct x; x 0 2 'm;n .y/g. Then every EY .k; m; n; p; q/ is a G -subset of Y and the
map 'm;n jEY .k; m; n; p; q/ W EY .k; m; n; p; q/ ! X
p is lower semicontinuous.
Proof. The set DY .k; m; n/ is open in the closed set CY .k; m; n/; an immediate
consequence is that DY .k; m; n/ is a G -subset of Y . For fixed p  k and q 2 N
consider the set K.p; q/ D fy 2 DY .k; m; n/ W there exists a set A  'm;n .y/ such
that jAj D p and X .x; x 0 /  q1 for any distinct x; x 0 2 Ag.
To see that the set K.p; q/ is closed in DY .k; m; n/ suppose that a sequence
fyi W i 2 !g  K.p; q/ converges to a point y 2 DY .k; m; n/ and fix, for any
i 2 !, a set Ai  'm;n .yi / such that jAi j D p and X .x; x 0 /  q1 for any distinct
x; x 0 2 Ai .
S
Take an arbitrary point zi 2 Ai ; since Ai  EY .yi ; m; n/, we can pick a set
Bi 2 EY .yi ; m; n/ with zi 2 Bi for every i 2 !. Apply Fact 3 to find a subsequence
fBij W j 2 !g of the sequence fBi W i 2 !g for which we can choose an enumeration
j
j
fb1 ; : : : ; bk g of every Bij in such a way that there is k0  k for which every
j
sequence fbl W j 2 !g converges to a point bl and the set fb1 ; : : : ; bk0 g belongs
j
j
to FY .y; m; n/. However, am;n .y/ D k, so k0 D k and hence zij 2 fb1 ; : : : ; bk0 g
and therefore the sequence fzij W j 2 !g converges to a point of 'm;n .y/.
This shows that, passing several times to a subsequence of fAi W i 2 !g if
necessary, we can assume that there is an enumeration fa1i ; : : : ; api g of every Ai

2 Solutions of problems 001500

115

such that the sequence fali W i 2 !g converges to a point al 2 'm;n .y/ for any
l  p. Given distinct numbers l; l 0 2 f1; : : : ; pg we have X .ali ; ali 0 /  q1 for any
i 2 !; this, evidently, implies that X .al ; al 0 /  q1 and hence the set fa1 ; : : : ; ap g 
'm;n .y/ witnesses that the point y belongs to K.p; q/. This proves that every set
K.p; q/ is closed in a G -set DY .k; m; n/, so it is a G -set
S in Y as well. Now, it
follows from the equality EY .k; m; n; p; q/ D K.p; q/n. fK.p C 1; r/ W r 2 Ng/
that EY .k; m; n; p; q/ is a G -subset of Y .
To finally see that the map ' D 'm;n jEY .k; m; n; p; q/ is lower semicontinuous
let E D EY .k; m; n; p; q/ and fix a set U 2 .X / such that '.y/ \ U ; for some
y 2 E. It suffices to show that there is a set V 2 .y; E/ such that '.z/ \ U ;
for any z 2 V . If such a set V does not exist then it is easy to find a sequence
S D fyi W i 2 !g  E such that S ! y and '.yi /\U D ; for any i 2 !. Using the
observation in the third paragraph of this proof we can pass to a subsequence of S if
necessary to be able to assume, without loss of generality, that '.yi / D fzi1 ; : : : ; zip g
for every i 2 ! and the sequence fzil W i 2 !g is convergent to a point zl 2 '.y/nU
for any l  p. Given distinct numbers l; l 0 2 f1; : : : ; pg we have X .zil ; zil 0 /  q1
for any i 2 !; this, evidently, implies that X .zl ; zl 0 /  q1 and hence zl zl 0 .
Thus the set fz1 ; : : : ; zp g  '.y/nU has cardinality p; since also '.y/ \ U ;,
we conclude that j'.y/j  p C 1 which is a contradiction. Therefore the map ' is
lower semicontinuous and Fact 7 is proved.
Fact 8. Fix m; n 2 N; we will need the set DX .1; m; n/ D CX .1; m; n/; if k > 1
then let DX .k; m; n/ D CX .k; m; n/nCX .k  1; m; n/. Now fix k 2SN and define
a map m;n W DX .k; m; n/ ! exp.Y / by the equality m;n .x/ D
EX .x; m; n/
for all x 2 DX .k; m; n/. Next, for any p; q 2 N such that p  k consider the set
EX .k; m; n; p; q/ D fy 2 DX .k; m; n/ W jm;n .x/j D p and Y .y; y 0 /  q1 for
distinct y; y 0 2 m;n .x/g. Then every EX .k; m; n; p; q/ is a G -subset of X and the
map m;n jEX .k; m; n; p; q/ W EX .k; m; n; p; q/ ! Y
p is lower semicontinuous.
Proof. Left as an exercise to the reader; one only needs to substitute the notions we
used for Y by their analogues for X and vice versa.
Fact 9. If k; m 2 N and y 2 DY .k; m; 1/ then there are numbers l; s 2 N and a
point x 2 'm;1 .y/ \ DX .s; l; m C 1/ such that y 2 l;mC1 .x/.
Proof. Assume the contrary; by definition of
S'm;1 we can find a set A  'm;1 .y/
such that .OX .A; m//  GY .y; 1/. Since fCX .p; q; m C 1/ W p; q 2 Ng D X
by Fact 5, for each x 2 A there are p; qx 2 N with x 2 CX .p; qx ; m C 1/. If px D
nnfp 2 N W x 2 CX .p; qx ; m C 1/g S
then x 2 DX .px ; qx ; m C 1/.
By our assumption, y P D fqx ;mC1 .x/ W x 2 Ag, so we can take f 2
Cp .Y / such that f .y/ D 2 and f jP  0. Every qx ;mC1 .x/ contains a set Bx such
that 1 .OY .Bx ; qx //  GX .x; m C 1/. It is evident that f 2 OY .Bx ; qx / for any
1
x 2 A, so j 1 .f /.x/j  mC1
< m1 which shows that g D 1 .f / 2 OX .A; m/
and therefore f D .g/ 2 GY .y; 1/, i.e., jf .y/j  1 which is a contradiction. As
a consequence, y 2 qx ;mC1 .x/ for some x 2 'm;1 .y/ \ DX .px ; qx ; m C 1/, so the
numbers s D px and l D qx are as promised. Fact 9 is proved.

116

2 Solutions of problems 001500

S
Returning to our solution observe that Y D k;m2N CY .k;
Sm; 1/ by Fact 5; it
follows from the definition of the sets DY .k; m; S
1/ that Y D k;m2N DY .k; m; 1/.
Another easy observation is that DY .k; m; 1/ D fEY .k; m; 1; p; q/ W p  k; q 2
Ng which shows that Y is a countable union of its G -subspaces EY .k; m; 1; p; q/,
so it suffices to show that every set EY .k; m; 1; p; q/ is a countable union of
subspaces homeomorphic to their respective G -subspaces of X . To that end fix
k; m; p; q 2 N with k  p.
S
Apply Fact 7 and Fact 2 to see that EY .k; m; 1; p; q/ D r2N Gr where every Gr
is open in EY .k; m; 1; p; q/ (and hence is a G -subset of Y ) and there are continuous
functions f1 ; : : : ; fp W Gr ! X such that 'm;1 .y/ D ff1 .y/; : : : ; fp .y/g for any
point y 2 Gr . It suffices to show that every Gr is a countable union of its G -subsets
which are homeomorphic to their respective G -subspaces of X , so we fix r 2 N
and f1 ; : : : ; fp as above.
S
0
0
Analogously, X D fEX .k 0 ; m0 ; mC1; p 0 ; q 0 / W k 0 ; m0 ; p 0 ; q 0 2 N;
S p  k g, so
we can apply Fact 2 and Fact 7 again to convince ourselves that X D fHs W s 2 Ng
where every Hs is a G -subset of X , contained in some EX .k 0 ; m0 ; m C 1; p 0 ; q 0 /,
for which there exist continuous maps g1s ; : : : ; glss W Hs ! Y such that ls D p 0 and
m0 ;mC1 .x/ D fg1s .x/; : : : ; glss .x/g for any x 2 Hs .
Applying Fact 9 we conclude that
(3) for any y 2 Gr with fi .y/ 2 Hsi for all i  p there exist i  p and j  lsi
such that gjsi .fi .y// D y.
Given any  D .s1 ; : : : ; sp / 2 Np the set Gr 
D fy 2 GS
r W fi .y/ 2 Hsi for
each i  pg is a G -subspace of Y ; it is evident that Gr D fGr 
W  2 Np g
and hence again it suffices to show that every set Gr 
is the countable union of its
G -subsets which are homeomorphic to their respective G -subspaces of X , so we
fix an arbitrary  D .s1 ; : : : ; sp / 2 Np .
S
S
The property (3) implies that Gr 
D ip j ls fy 2 Gr 
W gjsi .fi .y// D
i
yg; every set Q.i; j / D fy 2 Gr 
W gjsi .fi .y// D yg is a G -subset of Y being
closed in Gr 
; therefore Q.i; j / is homeomorphic to a G -subspace of X by
Fact 1. This completes the desired representation of Y as the countable union of
its G -subspaces each one of which is homeomorphic to a G -subspace of X .
V.081.S Let X and Y be metrizable spaces such that Cp .X / ' Cp .Y /. Prove that
Y D fYn W n 2 !g, where each Yn is a G -subspace of Y , homeomorphic to some
G -subspace of X .
Solution. For any set P denote by Fin.P / the family of all finite subsets of P ; if
n 2 N then P
n D fB  P W jBj D ng. If A is a finite subset of Z and n 2 N then
OZ .A; n/ D ff 2 Cp .Z/ W jf .x/j < n1 for any x 2 Ag. For all z 2 Z and n 2 N
let GZ .z; n/ D ff 2 Cp .Z/ W jf .z/j  n1 g.
Choose metrics X and Y which generate the topologies of the spaces X and
Y respectively; the spaces Cp .X / and Cp .Y / being homogeneous, it is easy to
convince ourselves that there exists a homeomorphism W Cp .X / ! Cp .Y / such
that .0X / D 0Y . Fix m; n 2 N and consider, for every point y 2 Y , the family
FY .y; m; n/ D fA 2 Fin.X / W .OX .A; m//  GY .y; n/g; if FY .y; m; n/ ;

2 Solutions of problems 001500

117

then we can define am;n .y/ D nnfjAj W A 2 FY .y; m; n/g. Likewise, for all x 2 X
let FX .x; m; n/ D fB 2 Fin.Y / W 1 .OY .B; m//  GX .x; n/g; if FX .x; m; n/
; then let bm;n .x/ D nnfjBj W B 2 FX .x; m; n/g. In what follows, when we deal
with am;n .y/ and/or bm;n .x/ we assume, without mentioning it explicitly, that the
respective family FY .y; m; n/ and/or FX .x; m; n/ is nonempty.
Observe that OX .;; m/ D Cp .X / and hence .OX .;; m// D Cp .Y / 6 G.y; n/
for any y 2 Y ; this shows that if FY .y; m; n/ ; then all elements of the family
FY .y; m; n/ are nonempty and hence am;n .y/ 2 N for all m; n 2 N; let
EY .y; m; n/ D fA 2 FY .y; m; n/ W jAj D am;n .y/g:
The same reasoning demonstrates that if FX .x; m; n/ ; then all elements of
FX .x; m; n/ are nonempty; let EX .x; m; n/ D fB 2 FX .x; m; n/ W jBj D bm;n .x/g.
Fact 1. Suppose that m; n; k 2 N and a sequence fyi W i 2 !g  Y converges to
a point y 2 Y . If Ai 2 FY .yi ; m; n/ and jAi j D k for any i 2 ! then there is
a subsequence fAij W j 2 !g of the sequence A D fAi W i 2 !g and a number
j
j
q  k for which we can choose a faithful enumeration fa1 ; : : : ; ak g of every set Aij
j
in such a way that the sequence fap W j 2 !g converges to a point xp 2 X for all
p  q and A D fx1 ; : : : ; xq g 2 FY .y; m; n/.
Proof. We will pass several times to a subsequence of the sequence A D fAi W
i 2 !g; since our aim is to find a certain subsequence of A, at each step we will
identify the obtained subsequence with A considering that all elements of A have
the property we have found in a subsequence.
The first step is to use Fact 2 of U.337 to choose a subsequence A0  A for
which there is a set D D fd1 ; : : : ; dr g  X such that A \ A0 D D for distinct
A; A0 2 A0 (observe that it is possible that r D 0 in which case D D ;). According
to the above-mentioned politics we can consider that, for any i 2 !, we have Ai D
i
fd1 ; : : : ; dr ; a1i ; : : : ; akr
g and the family fAi nD W i 2 !g is disjoint.
An evident property of metric spaces is that any sequence contains either a
convergent subsequence or a closed discrete subspace. This makes it possible to
pass to a subsequence of A once more to guarantee that, for any j 2 f1; : : : ; k  rg,
the sequence Sj D faji W i 2 !g is either convergent or constitutes a closed discrete
subspace of X . If Sj is convergent then denote by xj its limit. Renumbering every
i
i
Ai if necessary we can assume that Ai D fd1 ; : : : ; dr ; a1i ; : : : ; ali ; alC1
; : : : ; akr
g
i
while the set Q D falCj W i 2 !; 1  j  k  r  lg is closed and discrete in X
and the sequence Sj converges to xj for any j 2 f1; : : : ; lg.
It turns out that the set B D fd1 ; : : : ; dr ; x1 ; : : : ; xl g belongs to FY .y; m; n/.
To prove this assume toward a contradiction that there is a function f 2 Cp .X /
such that f .B/  . m1 ; m1 / and j.f /.y/j > n1 . By continuity of there is a finite
set E  B and > 0 such that,
(1) for any g 2 Cp .X /, if jg.x/  f .x/j < for all x 2 E then j.g/.y/j > n1 .

118

2 Solutions of problems 001500

It is easy to find W 2 .B; X / such that W \ Q is finite and f .W /  . m1 ; m1 /.


Every sequence Sj is eventually in W , so there is p 2 N such that aji 2 W for
all j  l and i  p. Therefore we can pass to a subsequence of A once more to
assume, without loss of generality, that Sj  W for all j  l and .W [E/\Q D ;.
Now we can find a function g 2 Cp .X / such that gj.W [ E/ D f j.W [ E/ and
g.Q/  f0g. Then g.Ai /  . m1 ; m1 / and hence j.g/.yi /j  n1 for every i 2 !.
The sequence fyi W i 2 !g converges to y, so j.g/.y/j  n1 by continuity of .g/.
However gjE D f jE, so (1) implies that j.g/.y/j > n1 ; this contradiction shows
that B 2 FY .y; m; n/. Letting q D l C r and xlCi D di for all i 2 f1; : : : ; rg we
obtain the promised set A D fx1 ; : : : ; xq g 2 FY .y; m; n/; now it is evident how to
enumerate the sets Ai to obtain the convergence we need, so Fact 1 is proved.
Fact 2. For any k; m; n 2 N, the set CY .k; m; n/ D fy 2 Y W am;n .y/  kg
is closed in Y . Analogously, every set CX .k; m; n/ D fx 2 X W bm;n .x/  kg
is closed in X .
Proof. We have a symmetric situation with CX .k; m; n/ and CY .k; m; n/, so it
suffices to show that CY .k; m; n/ is closed in Y . To do so suppose that yi 2
CY .k; m; n/ for every i 2 ! and the sequence S D fyi W i 2 !g converges to
a point y 2 Y . Fix a set Ai 2 FY .yi ; m; n/ such that jAi j  k for each i 2 !.
Passing to a subsequence of S if necessary, we can assume that there is k0  k such
that jAi j D k0 for all i 2 !. It follows from Fact 1 that there is k1  k0 and a
set A 2 FY .y; m; n/ with jAj  k1 . Consequently, am;n .y/  k1  k and hence
y 2 CY .k; m; n/. This shows that CY .k; m; n/ is, indeed, closed in Y , so Fact 2 is
proved.
S
S
Fact 3. We have Y D k;m2N CY .k; m; n/ and X D k;m2N CX .k; m; n/ for any
n 2 N.
Proof. Fix any number n 2 N; again, by the symmetry of the situation, it suffices
to prove only the first equality. To do so, take any point y 2 Y . Since the set O D
ff 2 Cp .Y / W jf .y/j < n1 g  G.y; n/ is an open neighborhood of 0Y , there is a set
A 2 Fin.X / and m 2 N such that .OX .A; m//  O. We have A 2 FY .y; m; n/;
if jAj D k then am;n .y/  k which shows that y 2 CY .k; m; n/. Fact 3 is proved.
Fact 4. For any m; n 2 N and y 2 Y the family EY .y; m; n/ is finite. Analogously,
every family EX .x; m; n/ is finite.
Proof. Once more we have a symmetric situation, so it suffices to show that
the family EY .y; m; n/ is finite. Assume the contrary, let k D am;n .y/ and fix an
infinite family A  EY .y; m; n/. Apply Fact 2 of U.337 to find a set D  X and an
infinite subfamily A0  A such that A \ A0 D D for any distinct A; A0 2 A0 ; since
also jAj D jA0 j D k for any A; A0 2 A0 , we have AnD ; for all A 2 A0 and
hence jDj < k.
We claim that D 2 FY .y; m; n/; to prove it suppose that there is a function
f 2 OX .D; m/ such that j.f /.y/j > n1 . By continuity of , there is a finite set
E  D and > 0 such that
(2) if jg.x/  f .x/j < for all x 2 E then j.g/.y/j > n1 .

2 Solutions of problems 001500

119

The family fAnD W A 2 A0 g being disjoint and infinite, there is A 2 A0 such


that .AnD/ \ E D ;. Pick h 2 Cp .X / such that h.AnD/ D f0g and hjE D f jE.
Then h 2 OX .A; m/; this, together with A 2 FY .y; m; n/ implies j.h/.y/j  n1 .
On the other hand, it follows from f jE D hjE and (2) that j.h/.y/j > n1 which
is a contradiction. Therefore the family A is finite and hence Fact 4 is proved.
Fact 5. Fix m; n 2 N; we will need the set DY .1; m; n/ D CY .1; m; n/; if k > 1
then let DY .k; m; n/ D CY .k; m; n/nCY .k  1; m; n/. Now fix k 2SN and define
a map 'm;n W DY .k; m; n/ ! exp.X / by the equality 'm;n .y/ D
EY .y; m; n/
for all y 2 DY .k; m; n/. Next, for any p; q 2 N such that p  k consider the set
EY .k; m; n; p; q/ D fy 2 DY .k; m; n/ W j'm;n .y/j D p and X .x; x 0 /  q1 for
distinct x; x 0 2 'm;n .y/g. Then every EY .k; m; n; p; q/ is a G -subset of Y and the
map 'm;n jEY .k; m; n; p; q/ W EY .k; m; n; p; q/ ! X
p is lower semicontinuous.
Proof. The set DY .k; m; n/ is open in the closed set CY .k; m; n/; an immediate
consequence is that DY .k; m; n/ is a G -subset of Y . For fixed p  k and q 2 N
consider the set K.p; q/ D fy 2 DY .k; m; n/ W there exists a set A  'm;n .y/ such
that jAj D p and X .x; x 0 /  q1 for any distinct x; x 0 2 Ag.
To see that the set K.p; q/ is closed in DY .k; m; n/ suppose that a sequence
fyi W i 2 !g  K.p; q/ converges to a point y 2 DY .k; m; n/ and fix, for any
i 2 !, a set Ai  'm;n .yi / such that jAi j D p and X .x; x 0 /  q1 for any distinct
x; x 0 2 Ai .
S
Take an arbitrary point zi 2 Ai ; since Ai  EY .yi ; m; n/, we can pick a set
Bi 2 EY .yi ; m; n/ with zi 2 Bi for every i 2 !. Apply Fact 1 to find a subsequence
fBij W j 2 !g of the sequence fBi W i 2 !g for which we can choose an enumeration
j
j
fb1 ; : : : ; bk g of every Bij in such a way that there is k0  k for which every
j
sequence fbl W j 2 !g converges to a point bl and the set fb1 ; : : : ; bk0 g belongs
j
j
to FY .y; m; n/. However, am;n .y/ D k, so k0 D k and hence zij 2 fb1 ; : : : ; bk0 g
and therefore the sequence fzij W j 2 !g converges to a point of 'm;n .y/.
This shows that, passing several times to a subsequence of fAi W i 2 !g if
necessary, we can assume that there is an enumeration fa1i ; : : : ; api g of every Ai
such that the sequence fali W i 2 !g converges to a point al 2 'm;n .y/ for any
l  p. Given distinct numbers l; l 0 2 f1; : : : ; pg we have X .ali ; ali 0 /  q1 for any
i 2 !; this, evidently, implies that X .al ; al 0 /  q1 and hence the set fa1 ; : : : ; ap g 
'm;n .y/ witnesses that the point y belongs to K.p; q/. This proves that every set
K.p; q/ is closed in a G -set DY .k; m; n/, so it is a G -set
S in Y as well. Now, it
follows from the equality EY .k; m; n; p; q/ D K.p; q/n. fK.p C 1; r/ W r 2 Ng/
that EY .k; m; n; p; q/ is a G -subset of Y .
To finally see that the map ' D 'm;n jEY .k; m; n; p; q/ is lower semicontinuous
let E D EY .k; m; n; p; q/ and fix a set U 2 .X / such that '.y/ \ U ; for some
y 2 E. It suffices to show that there is a set V 2 .y; E/ such that '.z/ \ U ;
for any z 2 V . If such a set V does not exist then it is easy to find a sequence
S D fyi W i 2 !g  E such that S ! y and '.yi / \ U D ; for any i 2 !. Using
the observation in the third paragraph of this proof we can pass to a subsequence

120

2 Solutions of problems 001500

of S if necessary to be able to assume, without loss of generality, that '.yi / D


fzi1 ; : : : ; zip g for every i 2 ! and the sequence fzil W i 2 !g is convergent to a point
zl 2 '.y/nU for any l  p. Given distinct numbers l; l 0 2 f1; : : : ; pg we have
X .zil ; zil 0 /  q1 for any i 2 !; this, evidently, implies that X .zl ; zl 0 /  q1 and
hence zl zl 0 . Thus the set fz1 ; : : : ; zp g  '.y/nU has cardinality p; since also
'.y/ \ U ;, we conclude that j'.y/j  p C 1 which is a contradiction. Therefore
the map ' is lower semicontinuous and Fact 5 is proved.
Fact 6. Fix m; n 2 N; we will need the set DX .1; m; n/ D CX .1; m; n/; if k > 1
then let DX .k; m; n/ D CX .k; m; n/nCX .k  1; m; n/. Now fix k 2SN and define
a map m;n W DX .k; m; n/ ! exp.Y / by the equality m;n .x/ D
EX .x; m; n/
for all x 2 DX .k; m; n/. Next, for any p; q 2 N such that p  k consider the set
EX .k; m; n; p; q/ D fy 2 DX .k; m; n/ W jm;n .x/j D p and Y .y; y 0 /  q1 for
distinct y; y 0 2 m;n .x/g. Then every EX .k; m; n; p; q/ is a G -subset of X and the
map m;n jEX .k; m; n; p; q/ W EX .k; m; n; p; q/ ! Y
p is lower semicontinuous.
Proof. Left as an exercise to the reader; one only needs to substitute the notions we
used for Y by their analogues for X and vice versa.
Fact 7. If k; m 2 N and y 2 DY .k; m; 1/ then there are numbers l; s 2 N and a
point x 2 'm;1 .y/ \ DX .s; l; m C 1/ such that y 2 l;mC1 .x/.
Proof. Assume the contrary; by definition of
S'm;1 we can find a set A  'm;1 .y/
such that .OX .A; m//  GY .y; 1/. Since fCX .p; q; m C 1/ W p; q 2 Ng D X
by Fact 3, for each x 2 A there are p; qx 2 N with x 2 CX .p; qx ; m C 1/. If px D
nnfp 2 N W x 2 CX .p; qx ; m C 1/g S
then x 2 DX .px ; qx ; m C 1/.
By our assumption, y P D fqx ;mC1 .x/ W x 2 Ag, so we can take f 2
Cp .Y / such that f .y/ D 2 and f jP  0. Every qx ;mC1 .x/ contains a set Bx such
that 1 .OY .Bx ; qx //  GX .x; m C 1/. It is evident that f 2 OY .Bx ; qx / for any
1
x 2 A, so j 1 .f /.x/j  mC1
< m1 which shows that g D 1 .f / 2 OX .A; m/
and therefore f D .g/ 2 GY .y; 1/, i.e., jf .y/j  1 which is a contradiction. As
a consequence, y 2 qx ;mC1 .x/ for some x 2 'm;1 .y/ \ DX .px ; qx ; m C 1/, so the
numbers s D px and l D qx are as promised. Fact 7 is proved.
S
Returning to our solution observe that Y D k;m2N CY .k;
Sm; 1/ by Fact 3; it
follows from the definition of the sets DY .k; m; S
1/ that Y D k;m2N DY .k; m; 1/.
Another easy observation is that DY .k; m; 1/ D fEY .k; m; 1; p; q/ W p  k; q 2
Ng which shows that Y is a countable union of its G -subspaces EY .k; m; 1; p; q/,
so it suffices to show that every set EY .k; m; 1; p; q/ is a countable union of
subspaces homeomorphic to their respective G -subspaces of X . To that end fix
k; m; p; q 2 N with k  p.
S
Apply Fact 5 and Fact 2 of V.080 to see that EY .k; m; 1; p; q/ D r2N Gr
where every Gr is open in EY .k; m; 1; p; q/ (and hence is a G -subset of Y )
and there are continuous functions f1 ; : : : ; fp W Gr ! X such that 'm;1 .y/ D
ff1 .y/; : : : ; fp .y/g for any point y 2 Gr . It suffices to show that every Gr is
a countable union of its G -subsets which are homeomorphic to their respective
G -subspaces of X , so we fix r 2 N and f1 ; : : : ; fp as above.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

121

S
Analogously, X D fEX .k 0 ; m0 ; m C 1; p 0 ; q 0 / W k 0 ; m0 ; p 0 ; q 0 2 N; p 0 
k 0 g, soS
we can apply Fact 5 and Fact 2 of V.080 again to convince ourselves that
X D fHs W s 2 Ng where every Hs is a G -subset of X , contained in some
EX .k 0 ; m0 ; mC1; p 0 ; q 0 /, for which there exist continuous maps g1s ; : : : ; glss W Hs !
Y such that ls D p 0 and m0 ;mC1 .x/ D fg1s .x/; : : : ; glss .x/g for any x 2 Hs .
Applying Fact 7 we conclude that
(3) for any y 2 Gr with fi .y/ 2 Hsi for all i  p there exist i  p and j  lsi
such that gjsi .fi .y// D y.
Given any  D .s1 ; : : : ; sp / 2 Np the set Gr 
D fy 2 GS
r W fi .y/ 2 Hsi for
each i  pg is a G -subspace of Y ; it is evident that Gr D fGr 
W  2 Np g
and hence again it suffices to show that every set Gr 
is the countable union of its
G -subsets which are homeomorphic to their respective G -subspaces of X , so we
fix an arbitrary  D .s1 ; : : : ; sp / 2 Np .
S
S
The property (3) implies that Gr 
D ip j ls fy 2 Gr 
W gjsi .fi .y// D
i
yg; every set Q.i; j / D fy 2 Gr 
W gjsi .fi .y// D yg is a G -subset of Y being
closed in Gr 
; therefore Q.i; j / is homeomorphic to a G -subspace of X by Fact 1
of V.080. This completes the desired representation of Y as the countable union of
its G -subspaces each one of which is homeomorphic to a G -subspace of X .
V.082. Let X and Y be metrizable t -equivalent spaces. Prove that X is a countable
union of zero-dimensional subspaces if and only if so is Y .
Solution. Say that a space Z belongs to the class P if Z is the countable union of
its zero-dimensional subspaces. Since every subspace of a zero-dimensional space
is zero-dimensional, we conclude that
(1) if Z 2 P then each Y  Z also belongs to P.
Suppose that X is the countable union of its zero-dimensional subspaces, i.e.,
X 2 P. By Problem
S 080, there exists a family F D fYn W n 2 !g of subspaces of
Y such that Y D F and every Yn is homeomorphic to a subspace of X . Apply
(1) to see that Yn 2 P for any n 2 !; the class P is, evidently,  -additive, so
Y 2 P. Analogously, if Y 2 P then X 2 P, so X is the countable union of its
zero-dimensional subspaces if and only if so is Y .
V.083. Let X and Y be metrizable t -equivalent spaces. Prove that X is a countable

union of its Cech-complete


subspaces if and only if so is Y .
Solution. Say that a space Z belongs to the class P if Z is the countable union of

its Cech-complete
subspaces. Since every G -subspace of a Cech-complete
space is

Cech-complete
(see TFS-260), we conclude that
(1) if Z 2 P then each G -subspace Y  Z also belongs to P.

Suppose that X is the countable union of its Cech-complete


subspaces, i.e.,
X 2 P. By Problem S
080, there exists a family F D fYn W n 2 !g of subspaces
of Y such that Y D
F and every Yn is homeomorphic to a G -subspace of X .

122

2 Solutions of problems 001500

Apply (1) to see that Yn 2 P for any n 2 !; the class P is, evidently,  -additive,
so Y 2 P. Analogously, if Y 2 P then X 2 P, so X is the countable union of its

Cech-complete
subspaces if and only if so is Y .
V.084. Suppose that fa0 ; : : : ; am g  Rn is an independent set. Prove that
(i) the simplex S D a0 ; : : : ; am
is a compact subset of Rn ;
(ii) any two m-dimensional simplexes are homeomorphic;
(iii) the barycentric coordinates are continuous functions from S to 0; 1
.
Solution. Consider the set m D f D . 0 ; : : : ; m / 2 RmC1 W i  0 for all
i  m and 0 C : : : C m D 1g. The i -th projection pi W RmC1 ! R defined
by pi . / D i for any D . 0 ; : : : ; m / 2 RmC1 is continuous for any i  m; an
easy consequence is that the set m is closed in RmC1 . Since also 0  i  1 for
any D . 0 ; : : : ; m / 2 m and i  m, we have m  ImC1 , so m is compact
being closed in the compact space ImC1 .
For any D . 0 ; : : : ; m / 2 m let '. / D 0 a0 C : : : C m am ; since
Rn is a linear topological space, the map ' W m ! Rn is continuous. Besides,
S D '. m /, so S is compact and hence (i) is proved.
Suppose that D . 0 ; : : : ; m /,  D .0 ; : : : ; m /; ;  2 m and '. / D
'./. If 0 2 Rn is the zero vector then . 0  0 / a0 C : : : C . m  m / am D 0
and . 0  0 / C : : : C . m  m / D 0 which implies, together with independency
of fa0 ; : : : ; am g, that i D i for every i  m, i.e., D ; this shows that the map
' is injective. Since '. m / D S , the map ' is a homeomorphism, i.e., we proved
that any m-dimensional simplex is homeomorphic to m ; it follows that any two
m-dimensional simplexes are homeomorphic, so we verified (ii). Finally observe
that if bi W S ! R is the i -th barycentric coordinate function then bi D pi ' 1 , so
every bi is continuous; this settles (iii) and completes our solution.
V.085. Let S be a simplex in Rn and suppose that S0  S1  : : :  Sk are distinct
faces of S . Prove that the points fb.S0 /; : : : ; b.Sk /g are independent. Here b.Si / is
the barycenter of the simplex Si for all i  k.
Solution. Choose an enumeration fa0 ; : : : ; am g of the vertices of S in such a way
that if T0 D a0 ; : : : ; am
; : : : ; Ti D ai ; : : : ; am
; : : : ; Tm D am
then every simplex
Si is listed in the sequence fT0 ; : : : ; Tm g. Since any subset of an independent set is
independent, it is sufficient to prove that the set fb.T0 /; : : : ; b.Tm /g is independent.
n
Let
P0m 2 R be the zero vector and suppose that we are given 0 ; : : : ; m 2 R such
that iD0 i D 0 and 0 b.T0 / C : : : C m b.Tm / D 0. Recalling that, for any i  m,
Pm
Pm
Pm
i
1
we have b.Ti / D miC1
j Di aj , we conclude that
iD0 miC1
j Di aj D 0
1
1
0 C : : : C mC1i
i
which shows that 0 a0 C : : : C m am D 0 where i D mC1
for every i P
m.
1
1
 D .mC1/ . mC1
0 /C: : :C.mC1i / . mC1i
i /C: : :C m
Note that m
Pm iD0 i Pm
and hence iD0 i D iD0 i D 0 which, together with independency of the set
fa0 ; : : : ; am g, implies that i D 0 for each i  m. An immediate consequence
is that i D 0 for all i  m and hence the set H D fb.T0 /; : : : ; b.Tm /g is
independent. We already saw that this implies that the set fb.S0 /; : : : ; b.Sk /g  H
is also independent.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

123

V.086. For a simplex S D a0 ; ; : : : ; am


, consider the family B.S / of all simplexes
of the form b.S0 /; : : : ; b.Sk /
, where S0  S1  : : :  Sk are distinct faces of S .
Prove that P is a simplicial subdivision of S such that any .m  1/-dimensional
simplex T 2 B.S / is a face of one or two m-dimensional members of B.S /
depending on whether T is contained in an .m  1/-dimensional face of S . The
subdivision B.S / is called the barycentric subdivision of the simplex S .
Solution. For any x 2 S we denote by i .x/ its i -th barycentric coordinate in S
for all i D 0; : : : ; m. Take a permutation P D fai0 ; : : : ; aim g of the set fa0 ; : : : ; am g
and let T0 D ai0 ; ai1 ; : : : ; aim
; : : : ; Tl D ail ; ailC1 ; : : : ; aim
; : : : ; Tm D aim
. Say
that the sequence T D fT0 ; : : : ; Tm g and the simplex C D b.T0 /; : : : ; b.Tm /
are
generated by the permutation P.
Pm
Given a point x 2 C there are nonnegative 0 ; : : : ; m such that
iD0 i D 1
P
m
1
and 0 b.T0 / C : : : C m b.Tm / D x. Recalling that b.Tl / D mlC1
j Dl aij for any
Pm
Pm
l
l  m, we conclude that lD0 mlC1 j Dl aij D x; an immediate consequence is
1
1
0 C : : : C mC1l
l for every l  m.
that x D 0 ai0 C : : : C m aim where l D mC1
Pm
1
1
l / C
Note that lD0 l D .m C 1/ . mC1 0 / C : : : C .m C 1  l/ . mC1l
Pm
Pm
: : : C m and hence lD0 l D lD0 l D 1 which shows that every l is the il -th
barycentric coordinate of x in S and, in particular, x 2 S . Thus
(1) for any permutation P D fai0 ; : : : ; aim g of the set fa0 ; : : : ; am g if the sequence
fT0 ; : : : ; Tm g and the simplex C D b.T0 /; : : : ; b.Tm /
are generated by P then
C  S and, for any x 2 C , if 0 ; : : : ; m are the barycentric coordinates of the
1
1
point x in C then il .x/ D mC1
0 C : : : C mC1l
l for every l  m.
Now take any B 2 B.S /; there are distinct faces S0  S1  : : :  Sk
of the simplex S such that B D b.S0 /; : : : ; b.Sk /
. It is easy to find a
permutation P D fai0 ; : : : ; aim g of the set fa0 ; : : : ; am g such that every Si is
listed in the sequence fT0 ; : : : ; Tm g generated by P and hence B  C D
b.T0 /; : : : ; b.Tm /
. Applying (1) we conclude that B  C 
S S . Since the
simplex B 2 B.S / was chosen arbitrarily, we proved that
B.S /  S .
To verify the rest of the properties of B.S / let us show that
(2) if P D fai0 ; : : : ; aim g is a permutation of the set fa0 ; : : : ; am g and C is the
element of B.S / generated by P then, a point x 2 S belongs to C if and only
if i0 .x/  i1 .x/  : : :  im .x/.
If x 2 C then it is easy to see that (1) implies the inequalities in (2). If, on the
other hand, we have a point x 2 S such that i0 .x/  i1 .x/  : : :  im .x/
then let 0 D .m C 1/ i0 .x/ and l D .m C 1  l/. il .x/  il1P.x// for any
l 2 f1; : : : ;P
mg. It is easy to check that l  0 for all l  m and m
lD0 i D 1

b.T
/
which
shows
that
x
2
C
and

is
the
l-th
barycentric
while x D m
l
l
lD0 l
coordinate of the point x for every l  m, so (2) is proved.
Now, if x 2 S then choose a permutation P D fai0 ; : : : ; aim g of the set
fa0 ; : : : ; am g such that i0 .x/  i1 .x/  : : :  im .x/ and apply (2) to see that
x belongsS
to the simplex C generated
S by P. Since C 2 B.S /, we established
that S  B.S / and hence S D B.S /. It is immediate from the definition
of B.S / that if B 2 B.S / then any face of B also belongs to B.S /.

124

2 Solutions of problems 001500

Take a permutation P D fai0 ; : : : ; aim g of the set fa0 ; : : : ; am g and let C be


the simplex generated by P. We have C D fx 2 S W i0 .x/  i1 .x/ 
: : :  im .x/g by the property (2). For any x 2 C let 0 .x/; : : : ; m .x/ be
the barycentric coordinates of x in C . If B is a face of C then there is a set
E  f0; : : : ; mg such that B D fx 2 C W l .x/ D 0 for all l 2 Eg. The
property (1) shows that 0 .x/ D 0 is equivalent to i0 .x/ D 0; if l > 0 then
l .x/ D 0 is equivalent to il .x/ D il1 .x/. Letting i1 .x/ D 0 for any
x 2 S we conclude that B D fx 2 C1 W il .x/ D il1 .x/ for all l 2 Eg.
Therefore
(3) a simplex B is a face of C if and only if there is a set E  f0; : : : ; mg such that
B D fx 2 C W il .x/ D il1 .x/ for any l 2 Eg.
Now assume that P1 D fai0 ; : : : ; aim g and P2 D faj0 ; : : : ; ajm g are permutations of the set fa0 ; : : : ; am g. If Ci is the simplex generated by Pi for every
i 2 f1; 2g then C1 D fx 2 S W il1 .x/  il .x/ for each l  mg and
C2 D fx 2 S W jl1 .x/  jl .x/ for each l  mg.
Given a face B2 of the simplex C2 , an immediate consequence of (3) is that
there exists a set E 0  f0; : : : mg for which B2 D fx 2 C2 W jl1 .x/ D jl .x/
for all l 2 E 0 g.
Fix a point x 2 C1 and l  m and take u; v  m with jl1 D iu and jl D iv ; it
is clear that u v. If u < v then jl1 .x/  jl .x/ is fulfilled automatically;
the property jl1 .x/ D jl .x/ holds if and only if il1 D il for all l 2
fu C 1; : : : ; vg.
If v < u then both conditions jl1 .x/  jl .x/ and jl1 .x/ D jl .x/ are
equivalent to the equalities il1 D il for all l 2 fv C 1; : : : ; ug. Carrying out
this procedure for every l  m we conclude that
(4) there is a set E  f0; : : : ; mg such that C1 \ B2 D fx 2 C1 W il .x/ D il1 .x/
for all l 2 Eg and, in particular, C1 \ B2 is a face of C1 .
For the general case suppose that B1 ; B2 2 B.S / have nonempty intersection
and choose permutations P1 D fai0 ; : : : ; aim g and P2 D faj0 ; : : : ; ajm g of the set
fa0 ; : : : ; am g such that Bi is a face of the simplex Ci generated by Pi for each
i 2 f1; 2g. The condition (2) implies that C1 D fx 2 S W i0 .x/  : : :  im .x/g.
Apply the property (4) to see that we can find a set E2  f0; : : : ; mg such that
C1 \ B2 D fx 2 C1 W il .x/ D il1 .x/ for all l 2 E2 g.
The property (3) demonstrates that there exists a set E1  f0; : : : ; mg for which
B1 D fx 2 C1 W il .x/ D il1 .x/ for all l 2 E1 g. It is straightforward to check that
B1 \ B2 D fx 2 C1 W il .x/ D il1 .x/ for all l 2 E1 [ E2 g, so we can apply (3) to
conclude that B1 \ B2 is a face of C1 . Since C1 and C2 are in a symmetric situation,
the set B1 \ B2 is also a face of C2 . It is evident that any face of Ci contained in Bi
is a face of Bi for every i 2 f1; 2g, so B1 \ B2 is a common face of B1 \ B2 . This
proves that B.S / is a simplicial subdivision of S .
To check the last promise for the family B.S / take an .m  1/-dimensional T 2
B.S / such that T D b.S0 /; : : : ; b.Sm1 /
for some faces S0  : : :  Sm1 of the
simplex S ; fix a permutation fai0 ; : : : ; aim g of the set fa0 ; : : : ; am g such that every
Sl is listed in the sequence fail ; : : : ; aim
W l 2 f0; : : : ; mgg

2 Solutions of problems 001500

125

If S0 S then Sl D ailC1 ; : : : ; aim


for every l 2 f0; : : : ; m  1g; in particular,
T is contained in S0 which is an .m  1/-dimensional face of S . Since no simplex
other than S can have S0 as its proper face, T is a face of the unique m-dimensional
simplex B D b.S /; b.S0 /; : : : ; b.Sm1 /
of the family B.S /.
Now, if S0 D S then b.S / D b.S0 / 2 T ; it is easy to see that b.S / does not
belong to any .m  1/-dimensional face of S , so the simplex T is not contained in
any .m  1/-dimensional face of S . We have two cases to consider.
1) Sm1 D am1 ; am
and hence Sl D ail ; : : : ; aim
for any l  m  1. It is clear
that the simplexes b.S0 /; : : : ; b.Sm1 /; b.am1
/
and b.S0 /; : : : ; b.Sm1 /;
b.am
/
are two distinct m-dimensional elements of B.S / such that T is their
common face. It is straightforward that there are no other possibilities to add to
the sequence T D fS0 ; : : : ; Sm1 g a face F of S in such a way that the sequence
T [ F be decreasing.
2) There exists a number l 2 f0; : : : ; m  2g such that Sl D ail ; : : : ; aim

and SlC1 D ailC2 ; : : : ; aim


. If S 0 D ail ; ailC2 ; : : : ; aim
and S 00 D
ailC1 ; ailC2 ; : : : ; aim
then it is evident that the simplexes b.S0 /; : : : ; b.Sl /;
b.S 0 /; b.SlC1 /; : : : ; b.Sm1 /
and b.S0 /; : : : ; b.Sl /; b.S 00 /; b.SlC1 /; : : : ;
b.Sm1 /
are the m-dimensional elements of B.S / whose common face is T .
It is easy to see that there are no other possibilities to add to the sequence
T D fS0 ; : : : ; Sm1 g a face F of S in such a way that the sequence T [ F be
decreasing.
This proves that an .m  1/-dimensional simplex T 2 B.S / is contained in an
.m  1/-dimensional face of S (we saw that this happens if and only if the first
element of the sequence that determines T is distinct from S ) if and only if T is
a face of exactly one m-dimensional element of B.S /. If S is not contained in an
.m  1/-dimensional face of S (we saw that this happens if and only if the first
element of the sequence that determines T coincides with S ) then T is the common
face of exactly two distinct elements of B.S /.
V.087. Given a simplex S , let B1 .S / be the barycentric
subdivision of S . If Bn .S /
S
is a simplicial subdivision of S , let BnC1 .S / D fB1 .T / W T 2 Bn .S /g. The family
Bn .S / is called the n-th barycentric subdivision of the simplex S . Prove that, for
any simplex S and any " > 0, there exists a natural number n such that the mesh of
the n-th barycentric subdivision of the simplex S is less than ".
q
Solution. For any n 2 N and x D .x1 ; : : : ; xn / 2 Rn let jjxjjn D x12 C : : : C xn2 .
If n is clear we will write jjxjj instead of jjxjjn . Given x; y 2 Rn , it is evident
that jjx  yjjn is the distance between the points x and y. For any set A  Rn let
diam.A/ D supfjjx  yjjn W x; y 2 Ag. If T is a simplex then b.T / is its barycenter.
Fact 1. Let T D a0 ; : : : ; am
 Rn be an m-dimensional simplex. Then for any
points x; y such that x 2 Rn and y 2 T there is k  m for which jjx  yjj 
jjx  ak jj. In particular, diam.T / D maxfjjai  aj jj W i; j 2 f0; : : : ; mgg.

126

2 Solutions of problems 001500

Proof. Take k 2 f0; : : : ; mg such that jjx  aiP


jj  jjx  ak jj for any P
i  m and
m
m
choose numbers 0 ; : : :P
; m 2 0; 1
such
that

D
1
and
y
D
i
iD0
iD0 i ai .
Pm
Pm
m
Then jjx  yjj D jjx 

a
jj
D
jj
.
x


a
/jj



jjx
 ai jj;
i
i
i
i
i
i
iD0
iD0
P iD0
P
m
therefore jjx  yjj  m

jjx

a
jj


jjx

a
jj

jjx

a
jj,
so
k is as
i
i
i
k
k
iD0
iD0
promised. Applying twice this part of our Fact we conclude that, for any x; y 2 T ,
there are k; l 2 f0; : : : ; mg such that jjx  yjj  jjal  ak jj; as a consequence,
diam.T /  d D maxfjjai  aj jj W i; j 2 f0; : : : ; mgg. The opposite inequality is
evident, so diam.T / D d and hence Fact 1 is proved.
Fact 2. Given an m-dimensional simplex T D a0 ; : : : ; am
 Rn , the mesh of its
m
barycentric subdivision B.T / does not exceed mC1
diam.T /.
Proof. Take any simplex B 2 B.T /; there are faces T0  : : :  Tk of the simplex T
such that B D b.T0 /; : : : ; b.Tk /
. Fix j; l 2 f0; : : : ; kg with j < l. Since Tl  Tj ,
there is a permutation fai0 ; : : : ; aim g of the set fa0 ; : : : ; am g and p; q 2 f0; : : : ; mg
such that p < q while Tl D ai0 ; : : : ; aip
and Tj D ai0 ; : : : ; aiq
.
1
For any r  p the equality jjair  b.Tj /jj D jjair  qC1
.ai0 C : : : C aiq /jj shows
P
q
1
1
that jjair b.Tj /jj D qC1 jj hD0 .air aih /jj  qC1 q diam.T / (the last inequality
holds because the summand for h D r is equal to zero). This shows that, for any
m
r  p, we have jjair  b.Tj /jj  mC1
diam.T /. Now apply Fact 1 to see that there
m
is r  q such that jjb.Tj /  b.Tl /jj  jjair  b.Tl /jj  mC1
diam.T /. Since j; l 2
f0; : : : ; kg were chosen arbitrarily, we can apply Fact 1 once more to conclude that
m
diam.B/  mC1
diam.T /. Thus every element of B.T / has diameter not exceeding
m
m

diam.T
/
and
hence the mesh of B.T / does not exceed mC1
diam.T /, i.e.,
mC1
Fact 2 is proved.
Returning to our solution suppose that S D a0 ; : : : ; am
and " > 0. It is a
m n
/ diam.T / for
consequence of Fact 2 that the mesh of Bn .S / does not exceed . mC1
m n
any n 2 N. Since . mC1 / diam.T / ! 0 as n ! 1, there exists n 2 N such that
m n
. mC1
/ diam.T / < " and hence the mesh of Bn .S / is less than ".
V.088 (Sperners lemma). Given a number l 2 N and an m-dimensional simplex
a0 ; : : : ; am
let V be the set of all vertices of simplexes in Bl .a0 ; : : : ; am
/. Suppose
that, for a function h W V ! f0; 1; : : : ; mg, we have h.v/ 2 fi0 ; : : : ; ik g whenever
v 2 ai0 ; : : : ; aik
. Prove that the family of simplexes in Bl .a0 ; : : : ; am
/, on vertices
of which h takes all values from 0 to m, has an odd cardinality.
Solution. All simplexes are subspaces of some Rp ; in most cases, the power p
is not mentioned since we make no use of it. The symbol 0 is used to denote the
respective zero vector of Rp . Given a simplex S , the point b.S / is its barycenter
and B.S / is the barycentric subdivision
of S . We also let B1 .S / D B.S / and, if
S
Bk .S / is defined, then BkC1 .S / D fB.T / W T 2 Bk .S /g.
Fact 1. Assume that S D d0 ; : : : ; dn
is an n-dimensional simplex. If a simplex
T D c0 ; : : : ; ck
is contained in S then k  n.
Proof. Suppose that k > n and let i0 ; : : : ; in be the barycentric coordinates of ci
in S for any i  k. Considering the .n C 1/-tuple vi D . i0 ; : : : ; in / to be a vector

2 Solutions of problems 001500

127

of the space RnC1 for every i  k, observe that the family M D fvi W i  kg has
k C 1 vectors; since k C 1 > n C 1, the family
independent,
P M cannot be linearly
P
so we can choose 0 ; : : : ; k 2 R such that kiD0 i2 0 and kiD0 i vi D 0.
P
P
P
Thus kiD0 i ij D 0 for every j  n and hence A D nj D0 kiD0 i ij D 0.
Pn
P
Pk
It is immediate that A D iD0 i . j D0 ij / D kiD0 i D 0 (we used the fact
P
that nj D0 ij D 1 for every i  k), so the set fc0 ; : : : ; ck g is not independent; since
only independent sets can span a simplex, we obtained a contradiction which shows
that Fact 1 is proved.
Fact 2. Given an arbitrary simplex S D d0 ; : : : ; dn
and a point x 2 S , denote
by i .x/ the i -th barycentric coordinate of x in S for all i D 0; : : : ; n. Fix a
permutation P D fdi0 ; : : : ; din g of the set fd0 ; : : : ; dn g and consider the simplexes
T0 D di0 ; di1 ; : : : ; din
; : : : ; Tl D dil ; dilC1 ; : : : ; din
; : : : ; Tn D din
. Then the
simplex C D b.T0 /; : : : ; b.Tn /
is contained in S and, for any x 2 C , if 0 ; : : : ; n
1
are the barycentric coordinates of the point x in C then il .x/ D nC1
0 C : : : C
1
for every l  n. We will say that the sequence fT0 ; : : : ; Tn g and the simplex
nC1l l
C are generated by the permutation P.
Pn
Proof. Given a point x 2 C there are nonnegative 0 ; : : : ; n such that
iD0 i D 1
P
n
1
and 0 b.T0 / C : : : C n b.Tn / D x. Recalling that b.Tl / D nlC1
d
j Dl ij for any
Pn
P
l
d
D
x;
an
immediate
consequence
is
l  n, we conclude that nlD0 nlC1
j Dl ij
1
1
that x D 0 di0 C : : : C n din where l D nC1 0 C : : : C nC1l l for every l  n.
P
1
1
0 / C : : : C .n C 1  l/ . nC1l
l / C : : : C n
Note that nlD0 l D .n C 1/ . nC1
Pn
Pn
and hence lD0 l D lD0 l D 1 which shows that l D il .x/ for every l  n,
so x 2 S and hence Fact 2 is proved.
Fact 3. Given a simplex S D d0 ; : : : ; dn
and a point x 2 S , denote by i .x/ the
i -th barycentric coordinate of x in S for all i D 0; : : : ; n. If P D fdi0 ; : : : ; din g is
a permutation of the set fd0 ; : : : ; dn g and C is the element of B.S / generated by P
then a point x 2 S belongs to C if and only if i0 .x/  i1 .x/  : : :  in .x/.
Proof. If x 2 C then it is easy to see that Fact 1 implies our inequalities. If, on
the other hand, we have a point x 2 S such that i0 .x/  i1 .x/  : : :  in .x/
then let 0 D .n C 1/ i0 .x/ and l D .n C 1  l/. il .x/  il1
P.x// for any
l 2 f1; : : : ;P
ng. It is easy to check that l  0 for all l  n and nlD0 i D 1
while x D nlD0 l b.Tl / which shows that x 2 C and l is the l-th barycentric
coordinate of the point x in C for every l  n, so Fact 3 is proved.
Fact 4. Given a simplex S D d0 ; : : : ; dn
and a point x 2 S , denote by i .x/
the i -th barycentric coordinate of x in S for all i D 0; : : : ; n. Take a permutation
P D fdi0 ; : : : ; din g of the set fd0 ; : : : ; dn g and let C be the simplex generated by P.
Then a simplex B is a face of C if and only if there is a set E  f0; : : : ; ng such that
B D fx 2 C W il .x/ D il1 .x/ for any l 2 Eg; here i1 .x/ D 0 for any x 2 S .
Proof. Fact 3 shows that C D fx 2 S W i0 .x/  i1 .x/  : : :  in .x/g. For
any point x 2 C let 0 .x/; : : : ; n .x/ be the barycentric coordinates of x in C .

128

2 Solutions of problems 001500

A set B is a face of C if and only if there exists a set E  f0; : : : ; ng such that
B D fx 2 C W l .x/ D 0 for all l 2 Eg. It follows from Fact 2 that 0 .x/ D 0 is
equivalent to i0 .x/ D 0; if l > 0 then l .x/ D 0 is equivalent to il .x/ D il1 .x/.
Therefore B D fx 2 C W il .x/ D il1 .x/ for all l 2 Eg and Fact 4 is proved.
Fact 5. Given a simplex S D d0 ; : : : ; dn
and B 2 B.S / there exists a permutation
P D fdi0 ; : : : ; din g of the set fd0 ; : : : ; dn g such that B is a face of the simplex
generated by P. In particular, every element of B.S / is a face of an n-dimensional
element of B.S /.
Proof. By definition of the family B.S / there exist faces S0  : : :  Sk of the
simplex S such that B D b.S0 /; : : : ; b.Sk /
. Take a permutation P D fdi0 ; : : : ; din g
of the set fd0 ; : : : ; dn g such that every simplex Si is listed in the sequence
T0 D di0 ; di1 ; : : : ; din
; : : : ; Tl D dil ; dilC1 ; : : : ; din
; : : : ; Tn D din
:
It is clear that B is a face of the n-dimensional simplex C generated by the
permutation P, so Fact 5 is proved.
Fact 6. For any simplex S , suppose that B 2 B.S / and S 0 is a face of S such that
B \ S 0 ;; then B \ S 0 is a face of B and hence B \ S 0 2 B.S /.
Proof. By Fact 5, there is a permutation P D fdi0 ; : : : ; din g of the set fd0 ; : : : ; dn g
such that B is a face of the simplex C generated by P. By Fact 4 we can find a set
E  f0; : : : ng for which B D fx 2 C W il1 .x/ D il .x/ for all l 2 Eg.
There is a set E1  f0; : : : ; ng such that S 0 D fx 2 S W il .x/ D 0 for all l 2
E1 g. If p is the maximal element of E1 then B \ S 0 D fx 2 C W il .x/ D il1 .x/
for all l 2 f0; : : : ; pg [ Eg. Applying Fact 4 again we conclude that B \ S 0 is a face
of C ; any face of C contained in B is, evidently, a face of B, so Fact 6 is proved.
Fact 7. For any simplex S and k 2 N, the family Bk .S / is a simplicial subdivision
of S .
Proof. For k D 1 this was proved in Problem 086. Proceeding inductively,
assume
S
that Bk .S / of S is simplicial. It is immediate from the definition that BkC1 .S / D
S and, for any B 2 BkC1 .S /, all faces of B also belong to BkC1 .S /.
Now, if B1 ; B2 2 BkC1 .S / and B1 \ B2 ; then there are P1 ; P2 2 Bk .S / such
that Bi 2 B.Pi / for each i 2 f1; 2g. If P1 D P2 then B1 \ B2 is a common face of
B1 and B2 by Problem 086. If P1 P2 then P D P1 \ P2 is a common face of
P1 and P2 by the induction hypothesis. It follows from Fact 6 that Bi \ P 2 B.P /
and Bi \ P is a face of Bi for every i D 1; 2. Therefore we can apply Problem 086
once more to see that .B1 \ P / \ .B2 \ P / D B1 \ B2 is a common face of
B1 \ P and B2 \ P . It is clear that the common face of B1 \ P and B2 \ P is also a
common face of B1 \B2 , so we proved that BkC1 .S / is also a simplicial subdivision
of S . Therefore Bk .S / is a simplicial subdivision of S for any k 2 N, i.e., Fact 7 is
proved.

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129

Fact 8. If S is a simplex and k 2 N then for any face S 0 of the simplex S and any
P 2 Bk .S /, the set P \ S 0 is a face of P and hence P \ S 0 2 Bk .S 0 /.
Proof. Fact 6 says that our statement is true for k D 1. Proceeding by induction
assume that we proved (6) for any k  l and take a simplex P 2 BlC1 .S / and a
face S 0 of the simplex S . There is B 2 Bl .S / such that P 2 B.B/. By the induction
hypothesis, the set B 0 D B \ S 0 is a face of B, so we can apply Fact 6 again to see
that P \ S 0 D P \ B 0 is a face of P . An immediate consequence of Fact 7 is that
P \ S 0 2 BlC1 .S /, so our induction procedure shows that our statement is true for
any k 2 N, i.e., Fact 8 is proved.
Fact 9. Given k 2 N and a simplex S if a simplex B 2 Bk .S / is contained in
an .n  1/-dimensional face of S then there is a unique n-dimensional simplex
C 2 Bk .S / such that B is a face of C .
Proof. For k D 1 this statement was proved in Problem 086. Proceeding inductively
assume that we proved our Fact for all k  l and take an .n1/-dimensional simplex
B 2 BlC1 .S / which is contained in an .n  1/-dimensional face S 0 of the simplex
S . By Fact 5, there is an n-dimensional simplex E 2 Bl .S / such that B 2 B.E/.
By Fact 8, the set E 0 D E \ S 0 is a face of E; since B  E 0 , it follows from Fact 1
that the dimension of E 0 is at least n  1. Apply Fact 1 again to see that the simplex
E 0 cannot be n-dimensional because S 0 is .n  1/-dimensional and E 0  S 0 .
Therefore E 0 is an .n  1/-dimensional face of E; by the induction hypothesis
it is not a face of any other n-dimensional element of Bl .S /. Since B  E 0 , we
can apply Problem 086 to convince ourselves that there is a unique n-dimensional
simplex B 0 2 B.E/ such that B is a face of B 0 . We must show that B cannot be a
face of any other n-dimensional element of BlC1 .S /.
Assume, toward a contradiction, that there exists an n-dimensional simplex C 2
BlC1 .S /nfB 0 g such that B is a face of C . We saw already that C B.E/, so
there is an n-dimensional simplex D 2 Bl .S /nfEg such that C 2 B.D/. As a
consequence, ; B  D \ E and hence the simplex D 0 D D \ E is the common
.n  1/-dimensional face of D and E (see Fact 7). Since E 0 is not a face of D, the
simplexes D 0 and E 0 are distinct. We have ; B  E 0 \ D 0 , so E 0 \ D 0 is the
common face of E 0 and D 0 by Fact 7. Apply Fact 1 once more to see that E 0 \ D 0
is an .n  1/-dimensional face of both E 0 and D 0 . Since the unique p-dimensional
face of a p-dimensional simplex is the simplex itself, we have D 0 D E 0 which is a
contradiction. Thus B is a face of a unique n-dimensional element of BlC1 .S /, so
the induction step is accomplished and hence Fact 9 is proved.
Fact 10. Given k 2 N and a simplex S if a simplex B 2 Bk .S / is not contained
in any .n  1/-dimensional face of S then there are exactly two n-dimensional
simplexes C1 ; C2 2 Bk .S / such that B is a common face of C1 and C2 .
Proof. For k D 1 this statement was proved in Problem 086. Proceeding inductively
assume that we proved our Fact for all k  l and take an .n  1/-dimensional
simplex B 2 BlC1 .S / which is not contained in any .n  1/-dimensional face S 0 of

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

the simplex S . By Fact 5, there is an n-dimensional simplex E 2 Bl .S / such that


B 2 B.E/. We have two possible cases.
Case 1. The simplex B is contained in an .n  1/-dimensional face E 0 of the
simplex E. By Problem 086, there is a unique n-dimensional simplex C1 2
B.E/ such that B is a face of C1 . The simplex E 0  B is not contained in any
.n  1/-dimensional face of S , so we can apply the induction hypothesis to see
that it is a common face of exactly two n-dimensional elements of Bl .S /. Fix
an n-dimensional simplex D 2 Bl .S /nfEg such that E 0 is also a face of D.
Since our simplex B is also contained in the .n  1/-dimensional face E 0 of the
simplex D, there is a unique n-dimensional simplex C2 2 B.D/ such that B is a
face of C2 . Observe that C1 C2 because otherwise C1 D C1 \ C2  E 0 which
contradicts Fact 1. Thus C1 and C2 are distinct n-dimensional elements of BlC1 .S /
such that B is the common face of C1 and C2 .
Assume, toward a contradiction, that there exists an n-dimensional simplex
C3 2 BlC1 .S /nfC1 ; C2 g such that B is also a face of C3 . We saw already that
C B.E/ [ B.D/, so there is an n-dimensional simplex F 2 Bl .S /nfE [ Dg such
that C3 2 B.F /. As a consequence, ; B  F \ E and hence F 0 D F \ E is the
common .n  1/-dimensional face of F and E (see Fact 7 and Fact 1). Analogously,
F 00 D F \ D is the common .n  1/-dimensional face of F and D. It follows
from B  F 0 \ F 00 and Fact 1 that F 0 \ F 00 is a common .n  1/-dimensional
face of F 0 and F 00 . Therefore F 0 D F 0 \ F 00 D F 00 which shows that F 0 is the
common .n  1/-dimensional face of the three distinct simplexes E; D; F 2 Bl .S /
which is a contradiction with the induction hypothesis. Thus our induction step is
accomplished if Case 1 takes place.
Case 2. The simplex B is not contained in any .n  1/-dimensional face of the
simplex E. By Problem 086, there are exactly two n-dimensional simplexes
C1 2 B.E/ such that B is the common face of C1 and C2 .
Assume, toward a contradiction, that there exists an n-dimensional simplex C3 2
BlC1 .S /nfC1 ; C2 g such that B is also a face of C3 . We saw already that C3 B.E/,
so there exists an n-dimensional simplex F 2 Bl .S /nfEg such that C3 2 B.F /.
As a consequence, ; B  F \ E and hence F 0 D F \ E is the common
.n  1/-dimensional face of F and E (see Fact 7 and Fact 1). It turns out that the
simplex B  F 0 is contained in an .n  1/-dimensional face F 0 of the simplex E;
this contradiction shows that our induction step is accomplished in Case 2 as well,
so Fact 10 is proved.
Returning to our solution let S D a0 ; : : : ; am
; assume first that m D 1 and
hence S D a0
D fa0 g. Then Bl .S / D fS g; the simplex S has the unique vertex
a0 and h.a0 / D a0 by our assumption about the function h. Therefore the relevant
number of simplexes is 1, i.e., our solution is carried out for m D 1.
Proceeding by induction assume that we proved our statement for all m < n and
take an n-dimensional simplex S D a0 ; : : : ; an
and a function h with values in
f0; : : : ; ng defined on the set V of all vertices of Bl .S / such that h.v/ 2 fi0 ; : : : ; ik g
whenever v 2 ai0 ; : : : ; aik
.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

131

Let S D fS1 ; : : : ; Sp g be a faithfully enumerated family of all n-dimensional


simplexes from Bl .S /. For any number i 2 N let Mi D f1; : : : ; i g; for any simplex
T 2 Bl .S / let V .T / be the set of its vertices. Call a simplex T 2 S marked if
h.V .T // D f0; : : : ; ng. We must prove that the cardinality q of the family of marked
simplexes from S is an odd number.
We will say that an .n  1/-dimensional simplex T 2 Bl .S / is adequate if
h.V .T // D f0; : : : ; n  1g. Let T be the family of all .n  1/-dimensional simplexes
from Bl .S /. If we consider the face S 0 D a0 ; : : : ; an1
of the simplex S then it
takes a trivial induction to prove that Bi .S 0 /  Bi .S / for any i 2 N, so Bl .S 0 / 
Bl .S /. It follows from Fact 8 that if T 2 Bl .S / and T  S 0 then T 2 Bl .S 0 /. Thus
the family T 0 D fT 2 T W T  S 0 g consists of all .n  1/-dimensional elements
of Bl .S 0 /.
Let g be the restriction of our function h to the set W of all vertices of the
simplexes from Bl .S 0 /. Then g W W ! f0; : : : ; n  1g and g.v/ 2 fi0 ; : : : ; ik g
whenever v 2 ai0 ; : : : ; aik
. Therefore we can apply the induction hypothesis to see
that the cardinality s of the family E D fT 2 T 0 W g.V .T // D f0; : : : ; n  1gg is an
odd number.
Given i 2 Mp let wi be the number of adequate faces of Si . If Si is marked
then it has only one adequate face, i.e., wi D 1. If a non-marked simplex Si has
an adequate face then we can consider that Si D d0 ; : : : ; dn
and the enumeration
fd0 ; : : : ; dn g of the vertices of Si is chosen in such a way that h.di / D i for any
i  n  1. The simplex Si being non-marked, we have h.dn / D j 2 f0; : : : ; n  1g
and hence the face d0 ; : : : ; dj 1 ; dj C1 ; : : : ; dn
of the simplex Si is also adequate.
It is easy to see that Si has no other adequate faces, so wi D 2. This proves that
(1) if a simplex Si is marked then wi D 1; if Si is not marked then either wi D 0
or wi D 2.
Pp
An immediate consequence of (1) is that the parity of the number w D iD1 wi
coincides with the parity of q, i.e., w  q D 2t for some t 2 N.
Next observe that it follows from our assumption about the function h that the
unique .n  1/-dimensional face of S that can contain an adequate simplex is S 0 .
Therefore an adequate simplex T is either contained in S 0 or not contained in any
.n  1/-dimensional face of S . In the first case T is a face of a unique element of S
by Fact 9; in the second case T is the common face of exactly two simplexes from
S (see Fact 10).
Let u be the number of adequate simplexes T 2 T which are not contained in S 0 .
For any i 2 Mp let w0i be the number of the faces
Pp of Si which belong to E. It is clear
that either w0i D 1 or w0i D 0 and hence s D iD1 w0i . SinceP
every adequate simplex
p
T 2 T nE belongs to exactly two elements of S, in the sum iD1 .wi  w0i / D w  s
every adequate T 2 T nE is counted twice, so w  s D 2u. Therefore q D w  2t D
s C 2.u  t / is an odd number. This accomplishes the induction step of our proof
and completes our solution.

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

V.089 (Browers fixed-point theorem). Prove that, for any n 2 N, if S is an


n-dimensional simplex and f W S ! S is a continuous function then there exists a
point x 2 S such that f .x/ D x.
Solution. All simplexes are subspaces of some Rp with the respective metric; the
power p is not mentioned since we make no use of it. If T is a simplex then V .T /
is the set of vertices of T and B.T / is the barycentric subdivision
of T . We also let
S
B1 .T / D B.T / and, if Bk .T / is defined, then BkC1 .T / D fB.T / W T 2 Bk .T /g.
Fact 1. Given a simplex T D a0 ; : : : ; am
suppose that Fi is a closed subset of
T for any i D 0; : : : ; m. If, additionally, ai0 ; : : : ; aik
 Fi0 [ : : : [ Fik for any
i0 ; : : : ; ik 2 f0; : : : ; mg then F0 \ : : : \ Fm ;.
Proof. Consider the set Ui D T nFi for any i  m; if F0 \ : : : \ Fn D ;
then the family U D fUi W i  mg is an open cover of the compact space T
(see Problem 084), so we can apply TFS-244 to find a number > 0 such that
any set of diameter not exceeding is contained in one of the elements of U .
Apply Problem 087 to find k 2 N such that every element of the k-th barycentric
subdivision Bk .T / of the simplex T has diameter less than . Let V be the set of
vertices of the elements of Bk .T /.
For each v 2 V let Tv be the intersection of all faces of T which contain v. It is
evident that Tv is still a face of T ; therefore there are ai0 ; : : : ; ail 2 fa0 ; : : : ; am g
such that Tv D ai0 ; : : : ; ail
. Since Tv  Fi0 [ : : : [ Fil , there is j  l such that
v 2 Fij ; let h.v/ D ij .
This gives us a map h W V ! f0; : : : ; mg such that v 2 Fh.v/ and ah.v/ is one of
the vertices of Tv for any v 2 V . Consequently, if T 0 is a face of T and v 2 T 0 then
Tv  T 0 and hence ah.v/ 2 V .Tv / is also a vertex of T 0 . This shows that we can
apply Problem 088 to find a simplex B 2 Bk .T / such that h.V .B// D f0; : : : ; mg.
For any i  m there is v 2 V .B/ such that h.v/ D i and hence v 2 Fi ; therefore
B \ Fi ; and hence B is not contained in Ui for each i  m. This contradiction
with the choice of shows that F0 \ : : : \ Fm ;, i.e., Fact 1 is proved.
Returning to our solution let a0 ; : : : ; an be the vertices of the simplex S ; then
S D a0 ; : : : ; an
. Denote by i .x/ the i -th barycentric coordinate of x in S for any
i  n. The set Fi D fx 2 S W i .f .x//  i .x/g is closed in S for any i  n; let
us check that the family fF0 ; : : : ; Fn g satisfies the premises of Fact 1.
Indeed,
0 for all k P
fi0 ; : : : ; im g and
P if x 2 ai0 ; : : : ; aim
then k .x/PD
m
m
hence m
j D0 ij .x/ D 1 which shows that
j D0 ij .f .x// 
j D0 ij .x/ and
hence there exists j  m such that ij .f .x//  ij .x/, i.e., x 2 Fij . This proves
that ai0 ; : : : ; aim
 Fi0 [ : : : [ Fim and therefore we can apply Fact 1 to conclude
that F D F0 \ : : : \ Fn ;. IfP
x 2 F then iP
.f .x//  i .x/ for any i  n;
n
this, together with the equalities niD1 i .x/ D
iD1 i .f .x// D 1 shows that
i .x/ D i .f .x// for every i  n, so f .x/ D x and hence the point x 2 S is as
promised.
V.090. Prove that, for any n 2 N, there is no retraction of the cube In onto its
boundary @In D fx 2 In W jx.i /j D 1 for some i < ng.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

133

Solution. For any m 2 N denote by 0m the zero point of Rm and let eim 2 Rm
be the point defined by eim .i / D 1 and eim .j / D 0 for all j < m with j i .
m
We
qPconsider the space R with the usual metric dm defined by dm .x; y/ D
m1
m
m
2
iD0 .x.i /  y.i // for any points x; y 2 R . Besides, Bm .x; s/ D fy 2 R W
dm .x; y/ < sg is the ball of radius s centered at x.
P
The set Em D fx 2 Rm W x.i /  0 for all i < m and m1
iD0 x.i /  1g
m
is easily seen to be the simplex spanned by the points 0m ; e0m ; : : : ; em1
. For any
m-dimensional simplex S we denote by @S the union of all .mP
 1/-dimensional
faces of S . Then @Em D fx 2 Em W x.0/ : : : x.m  1/ D 0 or m1
iD0 x.i / D 1g.
Fact 1. For any m 2 N there exists a homeomorphism h W Em ! Im such that
h.@Em / D @Im .
Proof. Define a point v0 2 Rm by requiring that v0 .i / D 1 for all i < m; the map
f W Rm ! Rm , defined by f .x/ D 2x C v0 for any x 2 Rm , is a homeomorphism.
m
Let I D fx 2 RQ
W 0  x.i /  1 for all i < mg. Then f .I / D Im and, for the set
m1
@I D fx 2 I W iD0 x.i /.x.i /  1/ D 0g, we have f .@I / D @Im . Thus it suffices
to construct a homeomorphism g W E m ! I such that g.@Em / D @I .
The geometric idea of construction of g is very simple: for any point u 2 Rm
with u.i /  0 for all i < m we define g on the ray Ru D ft u W t 2 R; t  0g as
the unique linear map for which g.Au / D Bu where Au and Bu are the intersection
points of Ru with @Em and @I respectively.
P
To do it formally, let s.x/ D
i<m x.i / and m.x/ D maxi<m x.i / for any
x 2 Rm . Now, define g by requiring that g.0m / D 0m and, if x 2 Em nf0m g then
s.x/
g.x/ D m.x/
x. It is trivial that g W Em ! I is a bijection which is continuous
at every point x 2 Em nf0m g and g.@Em / D @I . However, the map g is also
continuous at 0m because g.Bm .0m ; ms //  Bm .0m ; s/ for any s > 0. Thus g is
a homeomorphism, so h D f g W Em ! Im is the promised homeomorphism.
Fact 1 is proved.
Fact 2. Given a simplex S D a0 ; : : : ; am
denote by Si the .m  1/-dimensional
face of S with ai Si and let Fi be
S a closed subspace of S such that Fi \Si D ; for
any i  m. If, additionally, S D fFi W i 2 f0; : : : ; mgg then F0 \ : : : \ Fm ;.
Proof. Take a face B D ai0 ; : : : ; aik
of the simplex S . If Fi \ B ; then we
must have i 2 fi0 ; : : : ; ik g because otherwise B  Si and hence B \ Fi D ;. As
a consequence, B  Fi0 [ : : : [ Fik , so we can apply Fact 1 of V.089 to conclude
that F0 \ : : : \ Fm ; and hence Fact 2 is proved.
Fact 3. Given a simplex S D a0 ; : : : ; am
there is no retraction r W S ! @S .
Proof. Suppose that r W S ! @S is a retraction, i.e., r is continuous and r.x/ D x
for any x 2 @S . For any i 2 f0; : : : ; mg denote by Si the .m  1/-dimensional face
of S for which ai Si . It is easy to see that S0 \ : : : \ Sm D ;, so the family
f@S nSi W i  mg is an open cover of @S ; since also S0 [ : : : [ Sm D @S , we have
T
1
im .@S nSi / D ;. Let Ui D r .@S nSi / for every i  m; then fU0 ; : : : ; Um g is
an open cover of S such that U0 \ : : : \ Um D ;. The map r being a retraction, the
equality Ui \ Si D ; holds for any i  m.

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

Apply S
Fact 2 of S.226 to choose a family F0 ; : : : ; Fm of closed subsets of S such
that S D fFi W i  mg and Fi  Ui for every i  m. Thus Fi \Si 
TUi \Si D ;
for every i T
 m, so we can apply Fact 2 to convince ourselves that im Fi ;
and hence im Ui ;; this contradiction shows that Fact 3 is proved.
Returning to our solution suppose that there is a retraction r W In ! @In . Apply
Fact 1 to find a simplex S and a homeomorphism h W S ! In such that h.@S / D @In .
It is straightforward that r0 D h1 r h W S ! @S is a retraction; this contradiction
with Fact 3 shows that there exists no retraction of In onto @In .
V.091. Given spaces X and Y and functions f; g 2 C.X; Y /, let f  g denote
the fact that f and g are homotopic. Prove that  is an equivalence relation
on C.X; Y /.
Solution. For any function f 2 C.X; Y / let F .x; t / D f .x/ for any t 2 0; 1
. It
is clear that F W X  0; 1
! Y is continuous; since F .x; 0/ D F .x; 1/ D f .x/
for any x 2 X , we proved that f  f .
Now assume that f; g 2 C.X; Y / and f  g; there exists a continuous map
F W X  0; 1
! Y such that F .x; 0/ D f .x/ and F .x; 1/ D g.x/ for any x 2 X .
Define a function G W X  0; 1
! Y by the equality G.x; t / D F .x; 1  t / for any
x 2 X and t 2 0; 1
. It is immediate that G is continuous while G.x; 0/ D g.x/
and G.x; 1/ D f .x/ for any x 2 X . Therefore g  f .
Finally assume that f; g; h 2 C.X; Y / and f  g  h. There exists continuous
functions F; G W X  0; 1
! Y such that F .x; 0/ D f .x/; F .x; 1/ D G.x; 0/ D
g.x/ and G.x; 1/ D h.x/ for any x 2 X . Define a map H1 W X  0; 12
! Y by the
formula H1 .x; t / D F .x; 2t / for any x 2 X and t 2 0; 12
. We will also need the
map H2 W X  12 ; 1
! Y defined by H2 .x; t / D G.x; 2t  1/ for any x 2 X and
t 2 12 ; 1
. It is clear that both maps H1 and H2 are continuous.
Observe that H1 .x; 12 / D H2 .x; 12 / D g.x/ for any x 2 X ; this, together with
Fact 2 of T.354 shows that the map H D H1 [ H2 is continuous. Recall that the
map H W X  0; 1
! Y is defined by H.x; t / D H1 .x; t / if x 2 X; t  12
and H.x; t / D H2 .x; t / whenever x 2 X and t  12 . Since H.x; 0/ D f .x/
and H.x; 1/ D G.x; 1/ D h.x/ for any x 2 X , we proved that f  h, so being
homotopic is an equivalence relation.
V.092. Given a space X , let f; g W X ! @In be continuous maps such that the
points f .x/ and g.x/ belong to the same face of In for any x 2 X . Prove that f
and g are homotopic.
Solution. Let F .x; t / D .1  t /f .x/ C tg.x/ for any x 2 X and t 2 0; 1
. It is
clear that the map F W X  0; 1
! Rn is continuous while F .x; 0/ D f .x/ and
F .x; 1/ D g.x/ for any x 2 X . Now, if x 2 X then there is a face B of In such that
ff .x/; g.x/g  B. Therefore there is i < n such that either f .x/.i / D g.x/.i / D 1
or f .x/.i / D g.x/.i / D 1. In both cases
F .x; t /.i / D .1  t /f .x/.i / C tg.x/.i / D f .x/.i /.1  t C t / D f .x/.i /

2 Solutions of problems 001500

135

which shows that F .x; t / 2 B for any t 2 0; 1


. Therefore F W .X  0; 1
/  @In ,
so the map F W X  0; 1
! @In witnesses the fact that the functions f and g are
homotopic.
V.093 (Mushroom lemma). Let X be a normal countably paracompact space.
Suppose that F  X is closed and we have continuous homotopic mappings f0 ; f1
of F to the n-dimensional sphere S n D fx 2 RnC1 W x.0/2 C : : : C x.n/2 D 1g.
Prove that, if there exists a continuous map g0 W X ! S n with g0 jF D f0 then
there is a continuous map g1 W X ! S n such that g1 jF D f1 and g1 is homotopic
to g0 .
p
Solution. If m 2 N then jxjm D .x.0//2 C : : : C .x.m  1//2 for any x 2 Rm .
Fact 1. Given a number m 2 N, if Y is a normal space, G is closed in Y and we
have a continuous map f W G ! S m then there exists a set U 2 .G; Y / and a
continuous map g W U ! S m such that gjG D f .
Proof. We can consider that f maps G into RmC1 ; let i .x/ D x.i / for any x 2
RmC1 and i 2 f0; : : : ; mg. The map i f W Y ! R is continuous, so there exists a
continuous function pi W Y ! R such that pi jG D i f for any i  m.
Letting p.y/.i / D pi .y/ for any index i  m we obtain a continuous map
p W Y ! RmC1 such that pjG D f . The set O D fx 2 RmC1 W jxjmC1 0g is
open in RmC1 ; since S m  O, the set U D p 1 .O/ is open in Y and G  U .
y
For any point y 2 O let r.y/ D jyjmC1
; it is evident that the map r W O ! S m
is continuous and r.y/ D y whenever y 2 S m . Thus the map g D r .pjU / W
U ! S m is continuous as well. Given an arbitrary point y 2 G we have p.y/ D
f .y/ 2 S m which shows that g.y/ D r.p.y// D r.f .y// D f .y/ and hence g is
the desired continuous extension of f . Fact 1 is proved.
Returning to our solution fix a continuous map f W F  0; 1
! S n such that
f .x; 0/ D f0 .x/ and f .x; 1/ D f1 .x/; let h.x; 0/ D g0 .x/ for any x 2 X . Since
g0 W X ! S n is a continuous map, the map h W X  f0g ! S n is also continuous.
Furthermore, hj.F  f0g/ D f j.F  f0g/, so the map q D f [ h is continuous by
Fact 2 of T.354.
The space X  0; 1
is normal (see TFS-288) and the set P D .X  f0g/ [ .F 
0; 1
/ is closed in X 0; 1
, so we can apply Fact 1 to find a set U 2 .P; X 0; 1
/
and a continuous map g W U ! S n such that gjP D q. Since 0; 1
is compact,
the projection  W X  0; 1
! X is a perfect map (see Fact 3 of S.288), so
H D ..X  0; 1
/nU / is a closed subset of X disjoint from F . Therefore the set
V D X nH is an open neighborhood of F in X and  1 .V / D V  0; 1
 U .
By normality of X there is a continuous function ' W X ! 0; 1
such that
'.x/ D 1 for any x 2 F and '.x/ D 0 whenever x 2 X nV . Let .x; t / D
g.x; t '.x// for any .x; t / 2 X  0; 1
. It is easy to see that is well defined on
X  0; 1
and W X  0; 1
! S n is a continuous map. Besides, x 2 F implies
t '.x/ D t and hence .x; t / D g.x; t / D f .x; t / for any t 2 0; 1
. This shows
that j.F  0; 1
/ D f ; observe that also .x; 0/ D g.x; 0/ D g0 .x/ for every
x 2 X.

136

2 Solutions of problems 001500

Finally, let g1 .x/ D .x; 1/ for any x 2 X ; then g1 W X ! S n is a continuous


function and witnesses that g0  g1 . Since also g1 .x/ D .x; 1/ D f .x; 1/ D
f1 .x/ for any x 2 F , the function g1 is a continuous extension of f1 , so our solution
is complete.
V.094. For each i < n, consider the faces Fi D fx 2 In W x.i / D 1g and
n
Gi D fx 2 In W x.i / D 1g of the
T n-dimensional cube I . Prove that, if Ci is a
partition between Fi and Gi then fCi W i < ng ;.
Solution. If m 2 N then um 2p
Rm is the zero point of Rm , i.e., um .i / D 0 for every
i < m. Furthermore, jxjm D .x.0//2 C : : : C .x.m  1//2 for any x 2 Rm ; the
set Bm D fx 2 ImC1 W jx.i /j D 1 for some i  mg is the boundary of the .m C 1/dimensional cube ImC1 .
Fact 1. Given m 2 N let '.x/ D
' W Bm ! S m is a homeomorphism.

x
jxjmC1

for any point x 2 Bm . Then the map

Proof. It is clear that the map ' is continuous and '.Bm /  S m . If y 2 S m then t D
maxfjy.i /j W i  mg > 0 and the point x D yt belongs to Bm . It is straightforward
that '.x/ D y, so ' is an onto map.
jx j
If x0 ; x1 2 Bm and '.x0 / D '.x1 / then x1 D tx0 where t D jx10 jmC1
. Assume
mC1
first that t < 1; since jx0 .i /j  1, we have jtx0 .i /j < 1 for all i  m. Therefore
tx0 Bm and hence tx0 x1 . If t > 1 then take a coordinate i  m such that
jx0 .i /j D 1; then jtx0 .i /j > 1 and hence tx0 Bm which shows that x1 tx0 . This
proves that t D 1 and therefore x0 D x1 , i.e., ' is a bijection; the space Bm being
compact, ' is a homeomorphism, so Fact 1 is proved.
T
Returning to our solution assume that fCi W i < ng D ; and fix any i < n.
Take disjoint sets Ui ; Vi 2 .In / such that Fi  Ui ; Gi  Vi and In n.Ui [Vi / D Ci .
The space In being metrizable we can choose continuous functions ai and bi from In
to I D 0; 1
such that Fi D ai1 .0/ and In nUi D bi1 .0/. Analogously, there exist
continuous functions ci ; di W In ! I such that Gi D ci1 .0/ and In nVi D di1 .0/.
di
i
 ai bCb
is continuous, gi W In ! I
It is easy to check that the function gi D ci Cd
i
i
1
while gi .Fi / D f1g and gi .Gi / D f1g; besides, gi .0/ D Ci . Let g.x/.i / D
gi .x/ for any i < n and x 2 In ; then the function g W In ! In is continuous being
the diagonal product of continuous functions g0 ; : : : ; gn1 . It is straightforward that
(1) g.Fi /  Fi and g.Gi /  Gi for any i < n.
For any x 2 In nfun g let m.x/ D maxfjx.0/j; : : : ; jx.n  1/jg; then the point
x
p.x/ D m.x/
is well defined and belongs to Bn1 . It is evident that the map p W
n
I nfun g ! Bn1 is continuous. If g.x/TD un for some x 2 In then gi .x/ D 0 and
hence x 2 Ci for any i < n, i.e., x 2 i<n Ci which is a contradiction. Therefore
g.In /  In nfun g and hence D p g W In ! Bn1 is a continuous map. The
function p being an identity on Bn1 , it follows from (1) that
(2) .Fi /  Fi and .Gi /  Gi for any i < n.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

137

Let id W Bn1 ! Bn1 be the identity map, i.e., id.x/ D x for any point
x 2 Bn1 . It follows from (2) that h D jBn1 W Bn1 ! Bn1 ; apply Problem 092
to see that the maps id and h are homotopic. For any m 2 N the spaces S m and Bm
are homeomorphic by Fact 1, so Mushroom lemma (Problem 093) is applicable for
the respective maps into Bm . Since W In ! Bn1 is a continuous extension of h,
we can apply Problem 093 to the maps h and id to conclude that there exists a map
r W In ! Bn1 such that rjBn1 D id, i.e., r is a retraction of In onto Bn1 ; this
contradiction with Problem 090 shows that our solution is complete.
V.095. For each i 2 !, consider the subsets Fi D fx 2 I! W x.i / D 1g and
Gi D fx 2 I! W T
x.i / D 1g of the cube I! . Prove that, if Ci is any partition between
Fi and Gi then fCi W i 2 !g ;.
Solution. For any m 2 ! let m W I! ! Im be the projection of I! onto its face Im .
Say that a set U  I! is standard if there is m 2 ! and a set V 2 .Im / such that
m1 .V / D U ; inTthis case let j.U / D m.
AssumeTthat i<! Ci D ;; it follows from compactness of I! that there is m 2 !
such that fCi W i < mg D ;. Thus fI! nCi W i < mg is an open cover of the
space I! . The standard sets form a base in I! , so we can choose, for any x 2 I! a
!
!
standard set
x  I nCi for some i < m. Fix a finite set A  I
SOx 3 x such that O
!
for which fOx W x 2 Ag D I .P
It is easy to see that, for n D fj.Ox / W x 2 Ag C m, we have
T
(1) fCi W i < ng D ; and n1 .n .Ox // D Ox for any x 2 A.
Consider the sets Fi0 D fx 2 In W x.i / D 1g and Gi0 D fx 2 In W x.i / D 1g
for every i < n. It turns out that
(2) the set Di D n .Ci / is a partition between Fi0 and Gi0 for any i < n.
To prove this, fix a number i < n and choose disjoint sets Ui ; Vi 2 .I! / such
that Fi  Ui ; Gi  Vi and I! n.Ui [ Vi / D Ci . The map n being closed the sets
Ui0 D In nn .I! nUi / and Vi0 D In nn .I! nVi / are open in In ; it is straightforward
that Ui0 \ Vi0 D ; while Fi0  Ui0 and Gi0  Vi0 . Given a point x 2 In nDi , the space
n1 .x/  Ui [ Vi is connected because n1 .x/ ' I!nn (see Fact 1 of U.493), so
n1 .x/ cannot meet both sets Ui and Vi ; thus either n1 .x/  Ui or n1 .x/  Vi .
This shows that x 2 Ui0 [ Vi0 , i.e., In n.Ui0 [ Vi0 / D Di , so (2) is proved.
Given a point y 2 In take any z 2 I! such that n .z/ D y. There is x 2 A
such that z 2 Ox ; pick i < n for which Ox  I! nCi . It follows fromT(1) that
n1 .y/ D n1 .n .z//  Ox  I! nCi and hence y Di . Therefore
y i<n Di ;
T
the point y 2 In was chosen arbitrarily, so we proved that i<n Di D ;. Since Di
is a partition in the cube In between its faces Fi0 and Gi0 for any i < n, we obtained
a contradiction with Problem 094.
V.096. Prove that, for any n 2 N, the space In is the finite union of its zerodimensional subspaces.
Solution. Let Z0 D Q \ I and Z1 D InZ0 . It is clear that Z0 and Z1 are zerodimensional
Q subspaces of I such that I D Z0 [ Z1 . Now if n > 1 then consider the
set P D fZ.i/ W i < ng for any  2 Dn . Every space P is zero-dimensional by

138

2 Solutions of problems 001500

S
SFFS-302; it is straightforward that In D fP W  2 Dn g, so fP W  2 Dn g is a
finite family of zero-dimensional subspaces of In whose union is In .
V.097. Prove that, for any n 2 N, the space In cannot be represented as the union
of  n-many of its zero-dimensional subspaces.
Solution. A space is cosmic if has a countable network. Given a space X we say
that sets A; B  X are separated in X if A \ B D A \ B D ;.
Fact 1. Suppose that X is a cosmic space such that X nfag is zero-dimensional for
some point a 2 X . Then X is zero-dimensional. In other words, adding a point to a
cosmic zero-dimensional space gives a zero-dimensional space.
Proof. Since .a;
T X /  nw.X / D !, there exists a family fUn W n 2 !g  .a; X /
such that fag D fUn W n 2 !g. It follows from hl.X nfag/ D ! that any subspace
of X nfag is strongly zero-dimensional (see SFFS-301 and SFFS-306); this implies
that the set Fn D X nUn  X nfag is closed in X and strongly zero-dimensional for
any n 2 !. The family F D ffagg[fFn W n 2 !g is countable and consists of
Sclosed
strongly zero-dimensional subsets of X ; the space X is normal and X D F, so
we can apply SFFS-311 to conclude that X is strongly zero-dimensional and hence
zero-dimensional. Fact 1 is proved.
Fact 2. Suppose that X is a second countable space and F; G  X are disjoint
closed subsets of X . Then, for any zero-dimensional Z  X , there is a partition C
between the sets F and G such that C \ Z D ;.
Proof. Observe first that
(1) there exists a second countable compact space K and an embedding e W X ! K
for which e.F / \ e.G/ D ;.
Indeed, the space X is normal, so there is a continuous function f W X ! I such
that f .F /  f0g and f .G/  f1g. If ' W X ! I! is an arbitrary embedding
then the map e D ' f W X ! K D I!  I is still an embedding such that
g.F / \ g.G/ D ;.
To simplify the notation we will identify X and e.X /; thus X  K and the sets
F 0 D F and G 0 D G are disjoint (the bar denotes the closure in K). Call a set
U 2 .K/ adequate if U \ Z D U \ Z and, in particular, the set U \ Z is
clopen in Z. We claim that
(2) adequate sets form a base in K.
To prove it fix a point x 2 K and U 2 .x; K/. Since fxg[Z is zero-dimensional
by Fact 1, there is a clopen subset A of the space fxg [ Z such that x 2 A 
U \ .fxg [ Z/. The sets A and B D ZnA are disjoint and clopen in fxg [ Z; an
easy consequence is that they are separated in K.
Apply Fact 1 of S.291 to find disjoint sets VA ; VB 2 .K/ such that A  VA
and B  VB . We leave to the reader a simple verification of the fact that the set
V D VA \ U is adequate; since also x 2 V  U , the property (2) is proved.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

139

Now apply (2) to find, for any point x 2 F 0 , an adequate set Ox 2 .x; K/ such
0
D ;. The set F 0 being compact, there is a finite P  F 0 for which
that O x \ GS
0
F  O D fOx W x 2 P g. It is evident that O is adequate so C 0 D OnO is a
closed set such that C 0 \ Z D ;. The sets O  F 0 and W D KnO witness that C 0
is a partition between F 0 and G 0 ; an immediate consequence is that C D C 0 \ X is
the promised partition in X between the sets F and G. Fact 2 is proved.
S
Returning to our solution assume that In D fZi W i < ng and every Zi is zerodimensional. The faces Fi D fx 2 In W x.i / D 1g and Gi D fx 2 In W x.i / D 1g
are disjoint and closed in In ; by Fact 2 there is a partition CiTbetween the sets Fi
and Gi such that Ci \ Zi D ; for any i < n. The set C D i<n Ci is nonempty
by Problem 094 and C \ Zi D ; for any i < n; therefore no point of C belongs to
S
fZi W i < ng D In . This contradiction shows that the above representation of In
is impossible and hence our solution is complete.
V.098. Prove that the cube I! cannot be represented as the countable union of
its zero-dimensional subspaces. ProveS(in ZFC) that there exist zero-dimensional
spaces fX W < !1 g such that I! D fX W < !1 g.
S
Solution. Assume that I! D fZi W i < !g and every Zi is zero-dimensional.
The faces Fi D fx 2 I! W x.i / D 1g and Gi D fx 2 I! W x.i / D 1g are disjoint
and closed in I! ; by Fact 2 of V.097 there is a partition CiTbetween the sets Fi and
Gi such that Ci \ Zi D ; for any i < !. The set C D i<! Ci is nonempty by
Problem 095 and C \ Zi D ; for any i < !; therefore no point of C belongs to
S
fZi W i < !g D I! . This contradiction shows that the above representation of I!
is impossible.
Next observe that jc  !1 j D c, so there is a bijection ' W c ! c  !1 . Let
A D ' 1 .c  fg/ for any < !1 . Then
(1) the family
A D fA W < !1 g is disjoint, consists of nonempty subsets of c
S
and A D c.
It is easy to see that
(2) if Y  I and InY is dense in I then Y is zero-dimensional.
Apply Fact 1 of S.480 to find a disjoint family E D fE W S
< cg of subsets of
R such that every E is dense in R. Let H0 D .E0 \ I/ [ .In E/; if 0 < < c
then let H D E \ I.
SThen H D fH W < cg is a disjoint family of dense
subsets of I suchSthat H D I.
Now, if G D fH W 2 A g for any < !1 then it follows from (1)
that S
G D fG W < !1 g is still a family of disjoint dense subsets
of I such
S
that G D I. The property (2) shows that the space P D fG W < g
is zero-dimensional because InP contains a dense set G for any < !1 .
Therefore
(3) the family P DSfP W < !1 g is increasing, consists of zero-dimensional
subsets of I and P D I.
Finally let X D .P /! for every < !1 . Then fX W < !1 g is a family
of zero-dimensional subsets of I! (see SFFS-302). Given a point x 2 I! , for any

140

2 Solutions of problems 001500

i 2 !, there is i < !1 with x.i / 2 Pi . If > supfi W i < !gSthen x.i / 2 P for
any i < ! and hence x 2 .P /! D X . This proves that I! D fX W < !1 g, so
our solution is complete.
V.099. Prove that, for any n 2 N, the spaces In and I! are not t -equivalent.
Solution. Take any n 2 N and assume that In is t -equivalent to I! . Since the space
In is representable as the finite union of its zero-dimensional subspaces (see Problem 096), we can apply Problem 082 to conclude that I! is also the countable
union of its zero-dimensional subspaces. This, however, gives a contradiction with
Problem 098 and shows that the spaces In and I! are not t -equivalent.
V.100. Suppose that X is one of the spaces !1 or !1 C 1. Prove that, for any
distinct m; n 2 N, the spaces .Cp .X //n and .Cp .X //m are not homeomorphic. In
particular, X is not t -equivalent to X X .
Solution. Let I D 0; 1
 R and P D RnQ; for any set X the map idX W X ! X
is the identity on X , i.e., idX .x/ D x for any x 2 X . Given spaces X and Y , a
map h W X ! Y is called constant if there is a point b 2 Y such that f .x/ D b
for any x 2 X ; if we have maps f; g 2 C.X; Y / then the expression f  g says
that f and g are homotopic. Say that spaces X and Y are homotopically equivalent
if there exist maps f W X ! Y and g W Y ! X such that f g  idY and
g f  idX . If n 2 N say that a space X has the n-partition property if for
any family f.F0 ; G0 /; : : : ; .Fn1 ; Gn1 /g of pairs of disjoint closed subsets of X ,
for
T every i < n, there exists a partition Ci between the sets Fi and Gi such that
fCi W i < ng D ;.
If L is a linear topological space then a family f'1 ; : : : ; 'n g of continuous
linear
P
functionals on L is called independent if, for any a1 ; : : : ; an 2 R with niD1 ai2 0
the functional a1 '1 C : : : C an 'n is not identically zero. A linear subspace L0  L is
said to have codimension n 2 N in L if there is an independent family f'1 ; : : : ; 'n g
of continuous linear functionals on L such that L0 D '11 .0/ \ : : : \ 'n1 .0/. Given
ordinals and the interval ;
consists of the ordinals  such that    ;
analogously, .; / D f W < <  g.
Fact 1. Suppose that we have spaces X; Y; Z and maps f; g; h with f; g 2 C.X; Y /
and h 2 C.Y; Z/. If, additionally, f  g then h f  h g.
Proof. Let F W X  I ! Y be a continuous map such that F .x; 0/ D f .x/ and
F .x; 1/ D g.x/ for any x 2 X . Then G D h F W X  I ! Z is a continuous
map such that G.x; 0/ D h.F .x; 0// D .h f /.x/ and G.x; 1/ D h.F .x; 1// D
.h g/.x/ for any x 2 X , i.e., G witnesses that h f and h g are homotopic.
Fact 1 is proved.
Fact 2. Suppose that we have spaces X; Y; Z and maps f; g; h with f; g 2 C.Y; Z/
and h 2 C.X; Y /. If, additionally, f  g then f h  g h.
Proof. Since f is homotopic to g, we can find a continuous map F W Y  I ! Z
such that F .y; 0/ D f .y/ and F .y; 1/ D g.y/ for any y 2 Y . Let H.x; t / D
.h.x/; t / for any x 2 X and t 2 I ; then H W X  I ! Y  I is a continuous map.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

141

It is evident that the map G D F H W X  I ! Z is also continuous and


G.x; 0/ D F .h.x/; 0/ D .f h/.x/ and G.x; 1/ D F .h.x/; 1/ D .g h/.x/ for
any x 2 X , i.e., G witnesses that f h and g h are homotopic. Fact 2 is proved.
Fact 3. Homotopical equivalence is an equivalence relation on the class of topological spaces.
Proof. It is clear from the definition that any space is homotopically equivalent to
itself and X is homotopically equivalent to Y if and only if Y is homotopically
equivalent to X . Now assume that X is homotopically equivalent to Y and Y is
homotopically equivalent to Z. To witness homotopical equivalence of X and Y
choose continuous maps f W X ! Y and g W Y ! X such that f g  idY and
g f  idX . Analogously, there exist continuous maps u W Y ! Z and v W Z ! Y
such that u v  idZ and v u  idY .
Then h D u f W X ! Z and w D g v W Z ! X are continuous maps; it
follows from Fact 1 and Fact 2 that h w D u f g v  u idY v D u v  idZ .
Analogously, w h D g v u f  g idY f D g f D idX and hence the
maps h and w witness homotopical equivalence of X and Z. Fact 3 is proved.
Fact 4. If a second countable space is representable as the union of at most n-many
zero-dimensional subspaces then it has the n-partition property.
S
Proof. Take a second countable space X such that X D fZi W i < ng and every
Zi is zero-dimensional. Assume that Fi and Gi are disjoint closed subsets of X for
any i < n. By Fact 2 of V.097 there is a partition C
Ti between the sets Fi and Gi
such
that
C
\
Z
D
;
for
any
i
<
n.
Then
C
D
i
i
i<n Ci does not meet the set
S
i<n Zi D X which shows that C D ; and hence Fact 4 is proved.
Fact 5. Suppose that X is a normal space. If F  X is closed and U 2 .F; X /
then there exists a cozero set V such that F  V  V  U .
Proof. By normality of X there is a continuous function f W X ! I such that
f .F /  f0g and f .X nU /  f1g. Then V D f 1 .0; 12 // is a cozero set by Fact 1
of T.252. We have F  V  V  f 1 .0; 12
/  U , so Fact 5 is proved.
Fact 6. Suppose that X is a normal space and fU1 ; : : : ; Un g is an open cover of X
for some n 2 N. If Fi is a closed subset of X with Fi  Ui for any i  n then there
exists a cozero set Vi such that Fi  Vi  V i  Ui for each i  n and fV1 ; : : : ; Vn g
is a cover of X .
Proof. It is evident that the set F D F1 [ .X n.U2 [ : : : [ Un // is closed in Z
and F  U1 ; besides F [ U2 [ : : : [ Un D X . Since X is normal, we can apply
Fact 5 to find a cozero set V1 such that F  V1  V 1  U1 ; it is clear that
V1 [ U2 [ : : : [ Un D X .
Assume that 1  k < n and we have constructed cozero sets V1 ; : : : ; Vk such
that Fi  Vi  V i  Ui and V1 [ : : : [ Vi [ UiC1 [ : : : [ Un D X for any i  k.
The set F D FkC1 [ .X n.V1 [ : : : [ Vk [ UkC2 [ : : : [ Un // is closed in X and
F  UkC1 . Since X is normal, we can apply Fact 5 to find a cozero set VkC1 such

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

that F  VkC1  V kC1  UkC1 ; it is clear that FkC1  VkC1  V kC1  UkC1 and
V1 [: : :[VkC1 [UkC2 [: : :[Un D X , so our inductive construction can be continued
to obtain a family fV1 ; : : : ; Vn g of cozero subsets of X such that Fi  Vi  V i  Ui
for every i  n and V1 [ : : : [ Vn D X . Fact 6 is proved.
Fact 7. Suppose that, for some n 2 !, a normal countably paracompact space X
has the .n C 1/-partition property. Then for any closed set F  X and any function
f 2 C.F; S n / there is a continuous map h W X ! S n such that hjF D f .
Proof. Denote by u the zero point of RnC1 , i.e., u.i / D 0 for every i  n. As usual,
the set Bn D fx 2 InC1 W jx.i /j D 1 for some i  ng is the boundary of the .n C 1/dimensional cube InC1 . Since Bn ' S n by Fact 1 of V.094, it suffices to prove our
Fact replacing S n with Bn , so we consider from now on that f W F ! Bn . For any
i  n, let Fi0 D fx 2 Bn W x.i / D 1g and Gi0 D fx 2 Bn W x.i / D 1g; the sets
Fi D f 1 .Fi0 / and Gi D f 1 .Gi0 / are disjoint and closed in F and hence
T in X , so
we can find a partition Ci0 in X between the sets Fi and Gi such that in Ci0 D ;.
For every partition Ci0 take disjoint sets Ui0 ; Vi0 2 .X / such that Fi  Ui0 ; Gi  Vi0
and X n.Ui0 [ Vi0 / D Ci0 .
The family fU00 ; V00 ; : : : ; Un0 ; Vn0 g is an open cover of the space X . By Fact 6 there
are cozeroS
sets U0 ; V0 ; : : : ; Un ; Vn such that Fi  Ui  Ui0 ; Gi  Vi  Vi0 for every
i  n and fUi [Vi W i  ng D X . Therefore Ci D X n.Ui [Vi / is a zero-set which
is a partition between Fi andTGi for every i  n. The family fU0 ; V0 ; : : : ; Un ; Vn g
being a cover of X , we have in Ci D ;.
Fix i  n and apply Fact 1 of S.499 and Fact 1 of T.252 to find continuous
functions ai and bi from X to I such that ai .Fi /  f0g; ai .X nUi /  f1g and
X nUi D bi1 .0/. Analogously, there exist functions ci ; di 2 Cp .X; I / such that
ci .Gi /  f0g; ci .X nVi /  f1g and X nVi D di1 .0/. It is easy to check that the
di
i
 ai bCb
is continuous, gi W X ! I while gi .Fi /  f1g and
function gi D ci Cd
i
i
1
gi .Gi /  f1g; besides, gi .0/ D Ci .
Let g.x/.i / D gi .x/ for any i  n and x 2 X ; then the function g W X ! InC1
is continuous being the diagonal product of continuous functions g0 ; : : : ; gn . It is
straightforward that
. / g.Fi /  Fi0 and g.Gi /  Gi0 for any i  n.
For any x 2 InC1 nfug, let m.x/ D maxfjx.0/j; : : : ; jx.n/jg; then the point
x
p.x/ D m.x/
is well defined and belongs to Bn . It is evident that the mapping
nC1
p W I nfug ! Bn is continuous. If g.x/
T D u for some x 2 X then gi .x/ D 0 and
hence x 2 Ci for any i  n, i.e., x 2 in Ci which is a contradiction. Therefore
g.X /  InC1 nfug and hence D p g W X ! Bn is a continuous map. The
function p being an identity on Bn , it follows from . / that
. / .Fi /  Fi0 and .Gi /  Gi0 for any i  n.
S
Given x 2 F , it follows from in .Fi0 [ Gi0 / D Bn that f .x/ 2 Fi0 [ Gi0 for
some i  n. If f .x/ 2 Fi0 then x 2 Fi and hence .x/ 2 Fi0 by . /; analogously,
if f .x/ 2 Gi0 then .x/ 2 Gi0 which shows that .x/ and f .x/ belong to the

2 Solutions of problems 001500

143

same face of Bn for any x 2 F . Apply Problem 092 to see that the maps f and
jF are homotopic. For any m 2 N the spaces S m and Bm are homeomorphic by
Fact 1 of V.094, so Mushroom lemma (Problem 093) is applicable for the respective
maps into Bm . Since W X ! Bn is a continuous extension of jF , we can apply
Problem 093 to the maps jF and f to conclude that there is a continuous map
h W X ! S n with hjF D f , so Fact 7 is proved.
Fact 8. For any n 2 N both spaces Rn and S n are representable as the union of at
most .n C 1/-many of their zero-dimensional subspaces.
Proof. Consider the set Z.k; m/ D fx 2 Rm W jfi < m W x.i / 2 Pgj D kg for every
m 2 N and k  m. We will show that every Z.k; m/ is zero-dimensional. To do this,
fix k  m and let H.r1 ; : : : ; rmk ; i1 ; : : : ; imk / D fx 2 Z.k; m/ W x.ij / D rj for
all j  m  kg for any r1 ; : : : ; rmk 2 Q and distinct i1 ; : : : ; imk 2 f0; : : : ; m  1g.
Every set H.r1 ; : : : ; rmk ; i1 ; : : : ; imk / is zero-dimensional being homeomorphic to Pk . The family H D fH.r1 ; : : : ; rmk ; i1 ; : : : ; imk / W ri 2 Q for each
i S
m  k and i1 ; : : : ; imk are distinct elements of f0; : : : ; m  1gg is countable
and H D Z.k; m/. It turns out that every set H D H.r1 ; : : : ; rmk ; i1 ; : : : ; imk /
is closed in Z.k; m/.
Indeed, if x 2 Z.k; m/ is an accumulation point of H then x.ij / D rj for
any j  m  k. Therefore x.i / 2 P for any i fi1 ; : : : ; imk g which shows
that x 2 H , i.e., H is closed in Z.k; m/. Finally, apply SFFS-311 and SFFS-306
to conclude that Z.k; m/ is zero-dimensional for every k  m. We have Rn D
Z.0; n/ [ : : : [ Z.n; n/, so Rn as the union of .n C 1/-many zero-dimensional
subspaces.
Recall that the boundary Bn D fx 2 InC1 W jx.i /j D 1 for some i  ng of the
.n C 1/-dimensional cube InC1 is homeomorphic to S n by Fact 1 of V.094, so it
suffices to show that Bn is representable as the union of at most .n C 1/-many of its
zero-dimensional subspaces. Now, RnC1 D Z.0; nC1/[: : :[Z.nC1; nC1/; since
every point of Bn has a rational coordinate (either 1 or 1), the set Bn does not meet
Z.nC1; nC1/ and therefore Bn D .Z.0; nC1/\Bn /[: : :[.Z.n; nC1/\Bn / is the
desired representation of Bn as the union of at most .n C 1/-many zero-dimensional
spaces. Fact 8 is proved.
Fact 9. If n < m then any continuous function f W S n ! S m is homotopic to a
constant map.
P
Proof. Fix a map f 2 C.S n ; S m / and let W D fx 2 RnC1 W niD0 .x.i //2  1g
be the .n C 1/-dimensional ball in RnC1 whose boundary is S n . There are zerodimensional spaces Z0 ; : : : ; ZnC2 such that RnC1 D Z0 [ : : : [ ZnC2 (see Fact 8);
0
every Zi0 D Zi \W is zero-dimensional and W D Z00 [: : :[ZnC2
which shows that
the metrizable space W has the .n C 2/-partition property by Fact 4. This, together
with n C 2  m C 1 implies that W also has .m C 1/-partition property, so we
can apply Fact 7 to the space W , its closed subspace S n and the map f to obtain a
continuous map g W W ! S m such that gjS n D f .

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

Now let F .x; t / D g.tx/ for any x 2 S n and t 2 I . The map F W S n  I ! S m


is continuous, F .x; 1/ D g.x/ D f .x/ and F .x; 0/ D g.0/ for any x 2 S n which
shows that the map f is homotopic to a constant map h W S n ! fg.0/g and hence
Fact 9 is proved.
Fact 10. For any n 2 ! and p 2 RnC1 the spaces RnC1 nfpg and S n are
homotopically equivalent.
p
Proof. For any x 2 RnC1 let jxj D .x.0//2 C : : : C .x.n//2 and denote by u
the zero point of RnC1 . The space RnC1 nfug and RnC1 nfpg are easily seen to be
homeomorphic, so it suffices to show that RnC1 nfug is homotopically equivalent to
S n (see Fact 3). Define a map g W S n ! RnC1 nfug by g.x/ D x for any x 2 S n ; it
is evident that g is continuous.
x
Letting f .x/ D jxj
for any x 2 RnC1 nfug we also obtain a continuous map f W
nC1
n
R nfug ! S . To see that the maps f and g witness homotopical equivalence of
RnC1 nfug and S n observe first that f g D idS n because f is a retraction.
For any x 2 RnC1 nfug and t 2 I let F .x; t / D .1  t /x C tf .x/; it is clear that
F .x; 0/ D x and F .x; 1/ D f .x/ for any x 2 RnC1 nfug. If F .x; t / D u then x.1 
t
t
t C jxj
/ D u which implies that 1  t C jxj
D 0 and hence jxj.1  t / C t D 0. Since
the last equality cannot hold for t 2 I and x u, we have obtained a contradiction;
therefore F W .RnC1 nfug/  I ! RnC1 nfug is a continuous map which witnesses
that g f D f is homotopic to idRnC1 nfug . Fact 10 is proved.
Fact 11. For any distinct n; m 2 N the spaces S n and S m are not homotopically
equivalent.
Proof. There is no loss of generality to assume that n < m; suppose that the spheres
S n and S m are homotopically equivalent. There exist continuous maps f W S n !
S m and g W S m ! S n such that f g is homotopic to idS m . There is a point a 2 S m
such that the map f is homotopic to the constant map d W S n ! fag (see Fact 9).
The map d g is also constant and d g  f g by Fact 2. Being homotopic is
a transitive relation (see Problem 091), so idS m is homotopic to a constant map. It
is easy to see that this implies that S m is homotopically equivalent to a one-point
space.
Let Bm D fx 2 ImC1 W jx.i /j D 1 for some i  mg be the boundary of
the .m C 1/-dimensional cube ImC1 . It was proved in Fact 1 of V.094 that Bm
is homeomorphic to S m , so Bm is also homotopically equivalent to a one-point
space (see Fact 3). Let E be a one-point space for which there are (automatically
continuous) maps r W Bm ! E and s W E ! Bm such that s r  idBm .
The map w D s r W Bm ! Bm is constant, so let b 2 Bm be the point such that
w.Bm / D fbg. Letting q.x/ D b for any x 2 ImC1 we obtain a continuous extension
q W ImC1 ! Bm of the map w. The space Bm being homeomorphic to S m , we can
apply Mushroom lemma (Problem 093) to the space ImC1 , its closed subset Bm and
the pair of homotopic maps w; idBm W Bm ! Bm . Since q is a continuous extension
of the map w, there exists a continuous map  W ImC1 ! Bm such that jBm D idBm ,
i.e.,  is a retraction of ImC1 onto Bm . This, however, contradicts Problem 090 and
shows that Fact 11 is proved.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

145

Fact 12. Assume that P and Q are spaces with the following properties:
S
S
(i) P D fP W < !1 g and Q D fQ W < !1 g;
(ii) the sets P and Q are countable for any < !1 ;
(iii) P  P
S and Q  Q wheneverS < < !1 ;
(iv) P D fP W < g and Q D fQ W < g if < !1 is a limit ordinal.
Suppose additionally that sets R  Cp .P / and S  Cp .Q/ are dense in Cp .P /
and Cp .Q/ respectively and there exists a homeomorphism ' W R ! S . Then
the set A D f < !1 W for any f; g 2 R we have f jP D gjP if and only if
'.f /jQ D '.g/jQ g is closed and unbounded in !1 .
Proof. Let p W R ! Cp .P / and q W S ! Cp .Q / be the restriction maps for
any < !1 . Suppose that fn W n 2 !g  A and n < nC1 for any n 2 !. Let
D supn2! n and take any f; g 2 R.
Observe that the properties (iii) and (iv) imply that f jP D gjP if and only
if f jPn D gjPn for any n 2 !. By our choice of A this happens if and only if
'.f /jQn D '.g/jQn for any n 2 ! and the last statement is equivalent (due to
(iii) and (iv) again) to '.f /jQ D '.g/jQ . Therefore 2 A, so we proved that
the set A is closed in !1 .
To see that the set A is unbounded take an arbitrary ordinal 2 !1 and let
0 D . Then q0 ' W R ! Cp .Q0 / is a continuous map of R to a second
countable space, so we can apply TFS-299 together with (i) and (iii) to find an
ordinal 0 2 .0 ; !1 / such that p0 .f / D p0 .g/ implies q0 .'.f // D q0 .'.g//
for any f; g 2 R. Analogously, there is an ordinal 1 2 .0 ; !1 / such that the
equality q1 .f / D q1 .g/ implies p0 .' 1 .f // D p0 .' 1 .g// for any f; g 2 S .
Continuing this construction inductively, we obtain sequences fn W n 2 !g and
fn W n 2 !g of countable ordinals with the following properties:
(1) D 0 and n < n < nC1 for any n 2 !;
(2) for any n 2 ! and f; g 2 R, if pn .f / D pn .g/ then qn .'.f // D qn .'.g//;
(3) for any n 2 ! and f; g 2 S , if qnC1 .f / D qnC1 .g/ then pn .' 1 .f // D
pn .' 1 .g//;
It is evident that D supn2! n D supn2! n > ; to prove that 2 A take any
f; g 2 R. If p .f / D p .g/ then pn .f / D pn .g/ and hence we have the equality
qn .'.f // D qn .'.g// (see (2)) for any n 2 !. It follows from the properties
(iii) and (iv) that q .'.f // D q .'.g//.
Now let f0 D '.f /; g0 D '.g/ and assume that q .f0 / D q .g0 /. Then we have
qnC1 .f0 / D qnC1 .g0 / and hence pn .' 1 .f0 // D pn .' 1 .g0 // for any n 2 ! by
(3). Apply (iv) to conclude that p .f / D p .' 1 .f0 // D p .' 1 .g0 // D p .g/,
so p .f / D p .g/ if and only if q .'.f // D q .'.g// and therefore 2 A. This
shows that A is unbounded and finishes the proof of Fact 12.
Fact 13. Assume that R and S are spaces with the following properties:
S
S
(i) R D fR W < !1 g and S D fS W < !1 g;
(ii) R is a separable closed subspace of R and S is a separable closed subspace
of S for any < !1 ;

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

(iii) R  R and S  S whenever < < !1 ;


S
S
(iv) R D fR W < g and S D fS W < g if < !1 is a limit ordinal.
Suppose additionally that ' W R ! S is a homeomorphism. Then B D f <
!1 W '.R / D S g is closed and unbounded in !1 .
Proof. Take a sequence fn W n 2 !g  B such that n < nC1 for any n 2 ! and
let D supn2!
a homeomorphism, it is closed, so we have
S n . The map ' being
S
S
'.R / D '
fRn W n 2 !g D f'.Rn / W n 2 !g D fSn W n 2 !g D S
and hence 2 B, i.e., the set B is closed in !1 .
To see that B is unbounded take any < !1 and let 0 D . The space S0 being
separable, it follows from (i) and (iii) that there is an ordinal 0 > 0 such that
'.R0 / \ S0 is dense in S0 ; since '.R0 / is closed in S , we have S0  '.R0 /.
Analogously, there is an ordinal 1 > 0 such that R0  ' 1 .S1 /. Continuing
this construction inductively we obtain sequences fn W n 2 !g and fn W n 2 !g
with the following properties:
(4) D 0 and n < n < nC1 for any n 2 !;
(5) Sn  '.Rn / for any n 2 !;
(6) Rn  ' 1 .SnC1 / and hence '.Rn /  SnC1 for any n 2 !.
If D supn2! n D supn2! n then it follows from the properties (4) and (5)
that
'.R / D '

[

 [
[
fRn W n 2 !g D
f'.Rn / W n 2 !g 
fSn W n 2 !g D S ;

so '.R /  S . Analogously, it follows from the properties (4) and (6) that
'.R / D '

[
 [
[
fRn W n 2 !g D
f'.Rn / W n 2 !g 
fSnC1 W n 2 !g D S ;

so '.R / D S and hence 2 B. Thus B is also unbounded, i.e., Fact 13 is proved.


Fact 14. Suppose that L is a linear space and f0 ; : : : ; fn1 are linear functionals
on L. Then a linear functional f W L ! R is a linear combination of f0 ; : : : ; fn1
1
if and only if f01 .0/ \ : : : \ fn1
.0/  f 1 .0/.
Proof. If there are 0 ; : : : ; n1 2 R such that f D 0 f0 C : : : C n1 fn1 then
1
for any point x 2 K D f01 .0/ \ : : : \ fn1
.0/ we have fi .x/ D 0 for all i < n, so
1
f .x/ D 0, i.e., x 2 f .0/ and therefore K  f 1 .0/. This proves necessity.
Now assume that K  f 1 .0/ and consider the map W L ! Rn defined by
.x/ D .f0 .x/; : : : ; fn1 .x// for any x 2 L. It is straightforward that is a linear
map; let ei .j / D 0 for any distinct i; j < n and ei .i / D 1 whenever i < n. Then
e0 ; : : : ; en1 is a basis in Rn ; we claim that
(7) there exists a linear functional h W Rn ! R such that h D f .
To prove this observe first that if u is the zero vector of Rn then 1 .u/ D K;
given any y 2 .L/ take any x 2 1 .y/ and let h.y/ D f .x/. This definition

2 Solutions of problems 001500

147

must be consistent, of course, so take any x0 ; x1 2 1 .y/. Then .x0 / D .x1 /


which shows that .x0 x1 / D u and hence x0 x1 2 K; an immediate consequence
is that x0 x1 2 f 1 .0/ and therefore f .x0 / D f .x1 /, i.e., this definition is, indeed,
consistent. So far, the function h is defined on .L/ which is a linear subspace of
Rn ; besides, h is a linear functional on .L/. Using Fact 1 of S.489 and Fact 3 of
S.489 it is easy to see that h can be extended linearly over the whole Rn , so (7) is
proved.
Finally let i D h.ei / for each i < n and take any point x 2 L. We have
.x/ D f0 .x/e0 C : : : C fn1 .x/en1 , so we can apply the property (7) to conclude
that
f .x/ D h..x// D f0 .x/h.e0 / C : : : C fn1 .x/h.en1 / D 0 f0 .x/ C : : : C n1 fn1 .x/

which shows that f D 0 f0 C : : : C n1 fn1 , so Fact 14 is proved.


Fact 15. Suppose that L is a linear topological space and K  L is a linear
subspace of L of codimension n. Then LnK is homotopically equivalent to S n1 .
Proof. Denote by u the zero vector of the space L and fix independent
continuous
Tn
1
linear functionals f1 ; : : : ; fn on the space
L
such
that
K
D
f
iD1 i .0/. Then,
T
for any i  n there is a vector xi 2 ffj1 .0/ W j 2 f1; : : : ; ngnfi gg such that
fi .xi / 0 (see Fact 14); now, if i D f .x1 i / xi then fi .j / D 0 if i j while
fi .i / D 1 for any i  n.
The vectors 1 ; : : : ; n are easily seen to be linearly independent, so their linear
hull M is an n-dimensional linear subspace of L. Let r.x/ D f1 .x/1 C : : : C
fn .x/n for any x 2 L. Then r W L ! M is a continuous linear map (this is an
easy exercise left to the reader) such that r.LnK/ D M nfug and r.x/ D x for any
x 2 M . Let r0 D rj.LnK/ W LnK ! M nfug.
Define a map e W M nfug ! L to be the identity, i.e., e.x/ D x for any point
x 2 M nfug. It is clear that r0 e D idM nfug . Let F .x; t / D .1  t /x C t r0 .x/ for
any x 2 LnK and t 2 I . Then F W .LnK/  I ! LnK is a continuous map such
that F .x; 0/ D x and F .x; 1/ D r0 .x/ for any x 2 LnK; as a consequence, the
map e r0 D r0 is homotopic to idLnK , i.e., the maps e and r0 witness homotopic
equivalence of LnK and M nfug.
For any i  n and a 2 R let i .a/ D ai ; it follows from the axioms of linear
topological space that the map i W R ! L is continuous. Consequently, the map
 W Rn ! L defined by .a1 ; : : : ; an / D a1 1 C: : :Can n for any .a1 ; : : : ; an / 2 Rn
is continuous as well. It is clear that, actually,  W Rn ! M ; now if we define a
map W M ! L by .x/ D .f1 .x/; : : : ; fn .x// then is continuous because so
is every fi . Since is the inverse of , the spaces M and Rn are homeomorphic
and hence M nfug ' Rn nfpg where p D .u/ is the zero point of Rn . Thus LnK
is homotopically equivalent to Rn nfpg by Fact 3; since Rn nfpg is homotopically
equivalent to S n1 by Fact 10, we can apply Fact 3 once more to conclude that
LnK is homotopically equivalent to S n1 , so Fact 15 is proved.

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

Fact 16. Let L and L0 be linear topological spaces and suppose that K  L
and K 0  L0 are linear subspaces of L and L0 respectively. Assume also that K
is of codimension m in L while K 0 is of codimension n in L0 . If there exists a
homeomorphism h W L ! L0 such that h.K/ D K 0 then m D n.
Proof. Since h.LnK/ D L0 nK 0 , the spaces LnK and L0 nK 0 are homeomorphic
and hence homotopically equivalent. By Fact 15, the space LnK is homotopically
equivalent to S m1 while L0 nK 0 is homotopically equivalent to S n1 . By Fact 3, the
spaces S m1 and S n1 are homotopically equivalent so m  1 D n  1 by Fact 11.
This, of course, implies m D n, so Fact 16 is proved.
Returning to our solution let X D !1 and fix distinct m; n 2 N. Since
.Cp .X //k ' Cp .X  k/ for any k 2 N, it suffices to show that the spaces
Cp .X  n/ and Cp .X  m/ are not homeomorphic. Let u and v be the zero functions
on X  n and X  m respectively. Assume toward a contradiction that there is a
homeomorphism ' W Cp .X  n/ ! Cp .X  m/. It follows from homogeneity of
the spaces Cp .X  n/ and Cp .X  m/ that we can assume that '.u/ D v.
Let P D  n and Q D  m for any < !1 . The families fP W < !1 g
and fQ W < !1 g satisfy the premises of Fact 12 if P D X  n and Q D X  m,
so there is a closed unbounded A  !1 such that,
(8) for any 2 A and f; g 2 Cp .X  n/ we have f jP D gjP if and only if
'.f /jQ D '.g/jQ .
For any 2 !1 denote by E the set of functions from Cp .X  n/ which are
constant starting from , i.e., E D ff 2 Cp .X  n/ W f ..; i // D f ..; i //
for any  and i < ng. Analogously, F D ff 2 Cp .X  m/ W f ..; i // D
f ..; i // for any  and i < mg.
It is straightforward to check that every set E is closed in Cp .X  n/ and F is
closed in Cp .X  m/; besides,
S E  E and F  F whenever < < !1 . It
follows
from
TFS-314
that
fE W < !1 g D Cp .X  n/ and we have the equality
S
fF W < !1 g D Cp .X  m/.
Fix < !1 and let  W Cp .X  n/ ! Cp .PC1 / be the restriction map. Then
p D  jE W E ! Cp .PC1 / is a condensation. For any O1 ; : : : ; Ok 2 .R/ and
x1 ; : : : ; xk 2 X n let x1 ; : : : ; xk I O1 ; : : : ; Ok
D ff 2 Cp .X n/ W f .xi / 2 Oi for
any i  kg. The family B D fx1 ; : : : ; xk I O1 ; : : : ; Ok
W k 2 N; x1 ; : : : ; xk 2 X n
and O1 ; : : : ; Ok 2 .R/g is a base in the space Cp .X n/. It is evident that the family
B 0 D fx1 ; : : : ; xk I O1 ; : : : ; Ok
2 B W .; i / 2 fx1 ; : : : ; xk g for any i < ng is also a
base in Cp .X  n/.
Observe that, for any U D x1 ; : : : ; xk I O1 ; : : : ; Ok
2 B 0 , the set p .U / is open
in Cp .PC1 / because p .U / D ff 2 Cp .PC1 / W f .xij / 2 Oij ; j D 1; : : : ; lg
where fxi1 ; : : : ; xil g D fx1 ; : : : ; xk g \ PC1 . Thus p is a homeomorphism being
an open condensation (see TFS-155 and Fact 2 of S.491).
This proves that every E is second countable and hence separable. Analogously,
the space
< !1 . We leave it to the reader to check that
S F is separable for anyS
E D fE W < g and F D fF W < g for any limit ordinal . Therefore
we can apply Fact 13 to the families fE W < !1 g and fF W < !1 g to conclude

2 Solutions of problems 001500

149

that there exists a closed unbounded set A0  !1 such that '.E / D F for any
2 A0 . The set B D A \ A0 is also closed and unbounded in !1 .
Fix an ordinal 2 B and let C D nnf 2 B W < g; consider the sets L D
fx 2 EC W xjP D ujP g and M D fy 2 FC W yjQ D vjQ g. An immediate
consequence of (8) is that '.L / D M for any 2 B; besides, both L and M are
closed linear subspaces of Cp .X  n/ and Cp .X  m/ respectively. For any i < n
define a linear functional di W L ! R by the equality di .f / D f .. C ; i // for
any f 2 L . Analogously, let ei .g/ D g.. C ; i // for any i < m and f 2 M .
Then fdi W i < ng and fei W i < mg are independent
of continuous
T families
1
linear functionals
on
L
and
M
respectively;
let
K
D
f.d
/
.0/
W i < ng and

i
T
N D f.ei /1 .0/ W i < mg.
Since n m, we can apply Fact 16 to see that '.K / N and hence either
'.K / 6 N or ' 1 .N / 6 K for any 2 B. Thus either '.K / 6 N or
' 1 .N / 6 K for uncountably many . These two cases being analogous, we
can assume, without loss of generality, that there is an uncountable B 0  B such
that '.K / 6 N for all 2 B 0 . Thus there is a function f 2 K such that
j'.f /.. C ; j //j > 0 for any 2 B 0 .
There exist: " > 0, an uncountable set B 00  B 0 and j < m such that j D j and
j'.f /.. C ; j //j  " for any 2 B 00 . Choose a sequence fi W i 2 !g  B 00 such
that iC1 > iC for any i 2 !. Since f1
.Rnf0g/  i ; iC
 n for any i 2 !,
i
1
the family ffi .Rnf0g/ W i 2 !g is disjoint and hence the sequence ffi W i 2 !g
converges to u in L . Every '.fi / is constant on each !1  fkg starting from iC ,
so if > supfiC W i 2 !g then j'.fi /..; j //j  " for every i 2 !. Therefore the
sequence f'.fi / W i 2 !g does not converge to zero which is a contradiction with
continuity of '. Thus the spaces Cp .X  n/ and Cp .X  m/ are not homeomorphic.
To settle the case when X D !1 C 1 we will first prove that
(9) the space Cp .X / is linearly isomorphic to the subspace D ff 2 Cp .!1 / W
there exists < !1 such that f ./ D 0 for any  g of the space Cp .!1 /.
The space !1 C 1 being homeomorphic to 1; !1
it suffices to construct a linear
homeomorphism between and Cp .1; !1
/. To do so take any function f 2
and let .f /./ D f .0/ C f ./ for any 2 1; !1
; then .f / 2 Cp .1; !1
/ and
the map  W ! Cp .1; !1
/ is a linear homeomorphism (this is an easy exercise
which is left to the reader), so (9) is proved.
Now assume that there is a homeomorphism  W n ! m ; by homogeneity
of n and m we can consider, without loss of generality, that .u/ D v. We
consider that n and m are the respective subsets of Cp .!1  n/ and Cp .!1  m/.
Since is dense in Cp .!1 /, the sets n and m are dense in Cp .!1  n/ and
Cp .!1  m/ respectively. We use the same notation as in the first part of our proof
and, in particular, P D  n and Q D  m for any < !1 . Since Fact 12
is also applicable to the homeomorphism  and the families fP W < !1 g and
fQ W < !1 g, we conclude that there exists a closed unbounded set J  !1
such that

150

2 Solutions of problems 001500

(10) for any 2 J and f; g 2 n the equality f jP D gjP holds if and only if
.f /jQ D .g/jQ .
Recall that E D ff 2 Cp .!1  n/ W f ..; i // D f ..; i // for any  and
i < ng and F Dff 2 Cp .!1  m/ W f ..; i //Df ..; i // for any  and i < mg
for every < !1 . We saw that E and F are closed second countable subsets of
Cp .!1  n/ and Cp .!1  m/ respectively; therefore E0 D E \ n and F0 D
F \ m are second countable closed subsets of n and m respectively. It is easy
to check that, for the families fE0 W < !1 g and fF0 W < !1 g, the premises of
Fact 13 are satisfied, so there exists a closed unbounded subset J 0  !1 such that
.E0 / D F0 for all 2 J 0 .
The set J \ J 0 being also closed and unbounded in !1 , we can find a limit
ordinal 2 J \ J 0 . Consider the sets K D ff 2 n W f ..; i // D 0 for all
i < ng and M D fg 2 m W g..; i // D 0 for all i < mg. It is easy to see that K
is a linear subspace of n of codimension n and M is a linear subspace of m of
codimension m. Therefore .K/ M by Fact 16.
Now fix any function f 2 K and let qf ..; i // D f ..; i // for any < . If
 then let qf ..; i // D 0 for all i < n. It follows from qf 2 E0 and 2 J 0
that h D .qf / 2 F0 and, in particular, h..; i // D 0 for any i < m. We also have
qf j  n D f j  n, so 2 J implies that hj  m D .f /j  m. The ordinal
is a limit while the functions h and .f / are continuous on  n; this, evidently,
implies that .f /..; i // D h..; i // D 0 for any i < m and therefore .f / 2 M .
An identical proof shows that 1 .g/ 2 K for any g 2 M , so .K/ D M ; this
contradiction proves that the spaces .Cp .!1 C 1//n and .Cp .!1 C 1//m are not
homeomorphic and hence our solution is complete.
V.101. Prove that a nonempty family B  exp.X X / is a base for some uniformity
on X if and only if it has the following properties:
T
(1)
B D ;
(2) for any U 2 B, there is V 2 B such that V 1  U ;
(3) for any U 2 B, there is V 2 B such that V V  U ;
(4) if U; V 2 B then there is W 2 B such that W  U \ V .
Solution.
T Suppose that .X; U / is a uniform space and B  U is a base of U . Then
 B by (U1); now if z 2 X 2 n then there is U 2 U such that z U . Since B
is a base of U , there
T is B 2 B
Twith B  U . Therefore z B and hence no point of
X 2 n belongs to B, i.e., B D , so we proved that B has (1).
Now, if U 2 B then V 0 D U 1 2 U ; choose V  V 0 with V 2 B. Then
1
V  .V 0 /1 D U , so (2) is proved. Analogously, if U 2 B then there is V 0 2 U
such that V 0 V 0  U ; choose V  V 0 with V 2 B. Then V V  V 0 V 0  U
and hence we also have (3).
To see that (4) holds too, assume that U; V 2 B; then U \ V 2 U by (U1), so
there is W 2 B such that W  U \ V ; this finishes the proof of necessity.
To establish sufficiency, take a nonempty B  exp.X  X / with the properties
(1)(4) and consider the family U D fU  X  X W there is B 2 B such that

2 Solutions of problems 001500

151

B T
U g. Given U 2 U , we have U
T  B T for some B 2TB and therefore
 U . It is clear that B  U , so U  B D and hence U D .
Next, take any U 2 U and fix B 2 B with B  U . The property (2) shows that
there is V 2 B such that V 1  B. This implies that V D .V 1 /1  B 1  U 1
and hence U 1 2 U . Analogously, if U; V 2 U then there are B; C 2 B with
B  U and C  V . It follows from (4) that we can find a set D 2 B such that
D  B \ C  U \ V ; thus U \ V 2 U and hence the condition (U1) is satisfied
for the family U .
Given U 2 U and V  X  X with V  U there is B 2 B such that B  U ;
then B  V and hence V 2 U . This proves that the first part of (U2) holds for U .
Finally, take any U 2 U and pick B 2 B with B  U . The property (3) shows
that there is a set V 2 B such that V V  B; then V 2 U and V V  U , so
(U2) is also fulfilled for U and hence U is a uniformity on X . Our definition of U
implies that B is a base of U , so we established sufficiency and hence our solution
is complete.
V.102. Suppose that a nonempty family S  exp.X  X / has the following
properties:
T
(1)
S D ;
(2) for any U 2 S, there is V 2 S such that V 1  U ;
(3) for any U 2 S, there is V 2 S such that V V  U .
Prove that S is a subbase for some uniformity on X . As a consequence, the union
of any family of uniformities on X is a subbase of some uniformity on X .
Solution. Let B be the family of all finite intersections of the elements of S. Then
B T
; and S
T  B. It is clear that TB for any B 2 B and hence we have
 B  S D which shows that B D .
Take any B 2 B and fix S1 ; : : : ; Sn 2 S such that B D S1 \ : : : \ Sn . It follows
from (2) that there exist T1 ; : : : ; Tn 2 S with Ti1  Si for any i  n. Then
C D T1 \ : : : \ Tn 2 B and C 1 D T11 \ : : : \ Tn1  S1 \ : : : \ Sn D B; this
proves that the properties (1) and (2) of Problem 101 are fulfilled for B. It is clear
that U \ V 2 B whenever U; V 2 B, so the condition (4) of Problem 101 is also
satisfied for B.
To prove that the property (3) of Problem 101 holds as well take any B 2 B and
pick S1 ; : : : ; Sn 2 S for which B D S1 \ : : : \ Sn . Our property (3) guarantees
existence of T1 ; : : : ; Tn 2 S such that Ti Ti  Si for any i  n. The set C D
T1 \ : : : \ Tn belongs to B; if .x; y/ 2 C C then there exists z 2 X such that
.x; z/ 2 C and .z; y/ 2 C . As a consequence, .x; z/ 2 Ti andT.z; y/ 2 Ti , i.e.,
.x; y/ 2 Ti Ti  Si for each i  n. This proves that .x; y/ 2 in Si D B and
hence C C  B, so the condition (3) of Problem 101 is satisfied.
Thus we can apply Problem 101 to the family B to conclude that there is a
uniformity U on X such that B is a base of U ; it is evident that S is a subbase
of U . Finally, observe that our properties (1)(3) are fulfilled for any uniformity and
hence for any union of uniformities. Therefore any union of uniformities on X is a
base of some uniformity of X .

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

V.103. Let .X; U / be a uniform space. Prove that


(1) Int.A/ D fx W U.x/  A for some U 2 U g for any set A  X ; in particular,
x 2 Int.U.x// for any U 2 U ;
(2) if B is a base of the uniformity U then, for any x 2 X and O 2 .x; X / there
is B 2 B such that, B.x/  O. In particular, the family fInt.B.x// W B 2 Bg
is a local base of the space X at x.
(3) if S is a subbase of
T U then, for any x 2 X and O 2 .x; X /, there is a finite
S 0  S such that fS.x/ W S 2 S 0 g  O.
(4) for any U 2 U , the interior (in X  X ) of the set U also belongs to U . As a
consequence,
the family of all open symmetric elements of U is a base of U ;
T
(5) A D TfU.A/ W U 2 U g for any A  X ;
(6) B D fU B U W U 2 U g for any B  X  X ;
(7) the family of all closed symmetric elements of U is a base of U .
Solution. To prove (1) let OA D fx W U.x/  A for some U 2 U g. If x 2 Int.A/
then, by definition of the topology generated by U , there is U 2 U such that x 2
U.x/  Int.A/  A, so x 2 OA . This proves that Int.A/  OA .
Now, if x 2 OA then fix U; V 2 U for which U.x/  A and V V  U . Take
a point y 2 V .x/; if z 2 V .y/ then it follows from .x; y/ 2 V and .y; z/ 2 V that
.x; z/ 2 V V , so z 2 .V V /.x/  U.x/  A. Thus V .y/  A for any y 2 V .x/
which shows that V .x/  OA . It turns out that, for any x 2 OA , there is V 2 U
such that V .x/  OA ; therefore OA  A is an open set and hence OA  Int.A/.
We checked that OA D Int.A/, so (1) is proved.
To deal with (2) observe that, by definition of the topology generated by U , there
is a set U 2 U with U.x/  O; pick B 2 B such that B  U . Then B.x/ 
U.x/  O; since also x 2 Int.B.x//  B.x/  O (see (1)), we proved that the
family fInt.B.x// W B 2 Bg is a local base at x.
As to (3), take a set U 2 U for which U.x/  O. The family S being a subbase
of U there are n 2 ! and S1 ; : : : ; Sn 2 S such that S D S1 \ : : : \ Sn  U . If
y 2 S1 .x/\: : :\Sn .x/ then .x; y/ 2 Si for any i  n and therefore .x; y/ 2 S  U
which implies that y 2 U.x/  O. Thus S1 .x/ \ : : : \ Sn .x/  O, so the family
S 0 D fS1 ; : : : ; Sn g is as promised.
To settle (4) take any U 2 U ; there exists a set V0 2 U such that V0 V0  U .
Applying the property (U2) again we can find V1 2 U with V1 V1  V0 . Therefore
.V1 V1 / .V1 V1 /  V0 V0  U . It follows from  V1 that V1  V1 V1 , so
V1 .V1 V1 /  .V1 V1 / .V1 V1 /  U . It is easy to see that the composition is
associative, i.e., A .B C / D .A B/ C for any A; B; C  X  X ; this makes it
possible to omit parenthesis in the expressions that involve composition, so we will
write V1 V1 V1 instead of V1 .V1 V1 /.
The set V D V1 \ .V1 /1 is a symmetric element of U and it follows from
V  V1 that V V V  V1 V1 V1  U . If .x; y/ 2 V then x 2 G D Int.V .x//
and y 2 H D Int.V .y// (see (1)). The set Q D G  H is open in X  X and
.x; y/ 2 Q. If .z; t / 2 Q then .x; z/ 2 V and .y; t / 2 V ; the set V being symmetric
we have .z; x/ 2 V ; this, together with .x; y/ 2 V and .y; t / 2 V implies that
.z; t / 2 V V V  U .

2 Solutions of problems 001500

153

The point .z; t / 2 Q was taken arbitrarily, so Q  U and hence the point
.x; y/ 2 Q  U belongs to the interior of U . Thus V  Int.U / which shows
that Int.U / 2 U . This proves that open elements of U form a base of U . Now, if
U 2 U then V D Int.U / is open in X  X ; it is an easy exercise that V 1 is open in
X  X as well. Therefore W D V \ V 1 is an open symmetric element of U with
W  U , so open symmetric elements of U also constitute a base of U , i.e., (4) is
proved.
For (5), fix a set A  X ; given U 2 U , it follows from (U2) and (4) that there is
a symmetric V 2 U with V  U . For any x 2 A, the set V .x/ is a neighborhood
of x by (1), so V .x/ \ A ;. Therefore there is a 2 A with .x; a/ 2 V and hence
.a; x/ 2 V , i.e., x 2 V .a/  U.a/ which shows that
T x 2 U.A/. The point x 2 A
and the set U 2 U were chosen arbitrarily, so A  fU.A/ W U 2 U g.
To establish the opposite inclusion take any point x 2 X nA. There is U 2 U with
U.x/  X nA; apply (U2) and (4) to choose a symmetric V 2 U such that V  U .
If x 2 V .a/ for some a 2 A then .a; x/ 2 V and hence .x; a/ 2 V ; this implies
a 2 V .x/ while V T
.x/  U.x/  X nA. This contradiction
shows that x V .A/
T
and therefore x fU.A/ W U 2 U g whence A D fU.A/ W U 2 U g, i.e., (5) is
proved.
T
Passing to (6), fix a set B  X  X and let P D fU B U W U 2 U g.
Given .x; y/ 2 B fix any set U 2 U and apply (4) to choose a symmetric set V 2 U
such that V  U . Then V .x/  V .y/ is a neighborhood of .x; y/ (see (1)), so
there is .z; t / 2 .V .x/  V .y// \ B. The set V being symmetric, it follows from
.y; t / 2 V that .t; y/ 2 V which implies, together with .x; z/ 2 V and .z; t / 2 B,
that .x; y/ 2 V B V  U B U . This shows that B  U B U for any
U 2 U , i.e., B  P .
To obtain the opposite inclusion take any point .x; y/ 2 .X  X /nB. It follows
from (2) and (U1) that there is U 2 U such that .U.x/  U.y// \ B D ;. Take a
symmetric V 2 U with V  U (see (4)). If .x; y/ 2 V B V then there are z; t 2 X
for which .x; z/ 2 V; .z; t / 2 B and .t; y/ 2 V . The set V being symmetric we
have t 2 V .y/ and therefore .z; t / 2 .V .x/  V .y// \ B which is a contradiction.
Thus P  B and hence P D B, i.e., (6) is proved.
To prove (7) take any U 2 U and find a set V0 2 U with V0 V0  U . Apply (U2)
again to obtain a set V1 2 U such that V1 V1  V0 . It is easy to see that V1 V1 V1 
U . It follows from (4) that there is a symmetric V 2 U with V  V1 ; consequently,
V V V  V1 V1 V1  U . Now, (6) implies that V  V V V  U . To see that V
 1
is symmetric, it suffices to show that V
 V , so assume toward a contradiction
that .x; y/ 2 V and .y; x/ V . It follows from (6) that there is W 0 2 U such
that .y; x/ W 0 V W 0 . Choose a symmetric W 2 U such that W  W 0 ; it
is straightforward that R D W V W is a symmetric set for which .x; y/ 2 R
and .y; x/ R; this contradiction shows that G D V is a closed symmetric set
contained in U . Finally, observe that G 2 U because V  G and V 2 U . Thus
every U 2 U contains a closed symmetric G 2 U , so closed symmetric elements of
U constitute a base of U ; this proves (7) and makes our solution complete.

154

2 Solutions of problems 001500

V.104. Given uniform spaces .X; U / and .Y; V/, prove that every uniformly continuous map f W X ! Y is continuous. In particular, every uniform isomorphism is a
homeomorphism.
Solution. Fix an arbitrary point x 2 X and let y D f .x/. To prove that f is
continuous at x take a set O 2 .y; Y /. There is V 2 V with V .y/  O;
by uniform continuity of f , there exists a set U 2 U such that .x; y/ 2 U
implies .f .x/; f .y// 2 V . The set G D Int.U.x// is open in X and x 2 G
(see Problem 103). If t 2 G then t 2 U.x/ and hence .x; t / 2 U ; consequently,
.y; f .t // 2 V which shows that f .t / 2 V .y/  O. The point t 2 G was chosen
arbitrarily, so f .G/  V .x/  O, i.e., the set G witnesses continuity of the map f
at the point x.
V.105. Suppose
that .Xt ; Ut / is a uniform space for every t 2 T and consider the
Q
set X D t2T Xt . Let pt W X ! Xt be the natural projection for every t 2 T ;
prove that
S
(1) the family S D fpt1 .Ut / W t 2 T g is a subbase of a unique uniformity on X ,
i.e., the uniform product .X; U / of the spaces f.Xt ; Ut / W t 2 T g is well defined;
(2) every map pt W .X; U / ! .Xt ; Ut / is uniformlyQcontinuous;
(3) U coincides with the topology of the product f.Xt ; Ut / W t 2 T g.
Solution. Let D .X / be the diagonal of X . Denote by t the diagonal .Xt /
of theTspace Xt and let St D pt1 .Ut /; it follows from  .pt  pt /1 . t / that
 St for every t 2 T .
Fix t 2 T , a set U 2 St and V 2 Ut such that U D .pt  pt /1 .V /. A point
.x; y/ from X  X belongs to the set U 1 if and only if .y; x/ 2 U which happens
if and only if .pt .y/; pt .x// 2 V which occurs if and only if .pt .x/; pt .y// 2 V 1 .
This shows that U 1 D .pt  pt /1 .V 1 / and hence
T
(i)  St and, for any U 2 St , the set U 1 also belongs to St .
Next, choose a set V 0 2 Ut such that V 0 V 0  V . The set W D .pt  pt /1 .V 0 /
belongs to St . If .x; z/ 2 W W then there is y 2 X such that .x; y/ 2 W and
.y; z/ 2 W . This implies that .pt .x/; pt .y// 2 V 0 and .pt .y/; pt .z// 2 V 0 and
therefore .pt .x/; pt .z// 2 V 0 V 0  V . Thus .x; z/ 2 U for any .x; z/ 2 W W ,
i.e., W W  U . This proves that
(ii) for any U 2 St there is W 2 St such that W W  U .
S
It is straightforward that the family S D t2T St also has the properties (i) and
(ii). Given a point .x; y/ 2 .X  X /n we have x y, so there is t 2 T such
that pt .x/ pt .y/ and hence .pt .x/; pt .y// 2 .Xt  Xt /n t . The family Ut being
a uniformity on Xt , there is V 2 Ut such that .pt .x/; pt .y// V and therefore
.x; y/ .pt  pt /1 .V / 2 St  S. This implies that
T
(iii) fS W S 2 Sg D ,
so the family S satisfies the premises of Problem 102 and hence there exists a
uniformity for which S is a subbase. The family B of all finite intersections of

2 Solutions of problems 001500

155

the elements of S has to be a base of any uniformity U for which S is a subbase.


Besides, U D fE  X  X W there is B 2 B with B  Eg, so U is uniquely
determined by B and hence by S. This settles (1).
Given V 2 Ut the set .pt  pt /1 .V / belongs to St and hence to U . This shows
that every pt is uniformly continuous, i.e., we Q
established (2).
Denote by  the topology of the product t2T .Xt ; Ut / and let e W X ! X
be the identity map. To see that e W .X; U / ! .X; / is continuous, observe that
every map pt e D pt W .X; U / ! .Xt ; Ut / is uniformly continuous being the
natural projection of the uniform product .X; U / onto the factor .Xt ; Ut / (see (2));
thus pt is continuous by Problem 104. Therefore e is continuous by TFS-102; as a
consequence, e 1 .V / D V 2 U for any V 2 , i.e.,   U .
To show that e W .X; / ! .X; U / is also continuous fix a point x 2 X and a
set O 2 U with x 2 O. There is U 2 U such that U.x/  O; the family S being a
subbase of .X; UT
/ we can choose a finite S  T and a set Ut 2 Ut for any t 2 S in
such a way that f.pt  pt /1 .Ut / W t 2 S g  U .
For every t 2 T let St D .pt  pt /1 .Ut /; it follows from Problem
103 that there
T
is Vt 2 Ut such that pt .x/ 2 Vt  Ut .pt .x//. The set V D fpt1 .Vt / W t 2 S g
belongs to  and x 2 V . If y 2 V then pt .y/ 2 Vt ; thus .p
Tt .x/; pt .y// 2 Ut and
hence .x; y/ 2 St for any t 2 S . This shows that .x; y/ 2 fSt W t 2 S g  U ; an
immediate consequence is that y 2 U.x/  O. Since the point y 2 V was chosen
arbitrarily, we proved that V D e.V /  O and hence the map e W .X; / ! .X; U /
is continuous at every point x 2 X . Finally, observe that e 1 .V / D V 2  for any
V 2 U , so U   and hence U D , i.e., (3) is proved, so our solution is
complete.
V.106. Let .X; U / be the uniform product of the family f.Xt ; Ut / W t 2 T g. Given a
uniform space .Y; V/, prove that a map f W Y ! X is uniformly continuous if and
only if pt f W Y ! Xt is uniformly continuous for any t 2 T . Here, as always,
the map pt W X ! Xt is the natural projection.
Solution. It is an easy exercise that a composition of two uniformly continuous
maps is a uniformly continuous map. Therefore, if f W Y ! X is uniformly
continuous then so is every map pt f (see Problem 105). This proves necessity.
To establish sufficiency assume that the map pt f isS
uniformly continuous for
any t 2 T and fix a set U 2 U . Since the family S D fpt1 .Ut / W t 2 T g is a
subbase
of U , there exists a finite S  T and a set Ut 2 Ut for every t 2 S such that
T
f.pt  pt /1 .Ut / W t 2 S g  U ; let St D .pt  pt /1 .Ut / for each t 2 S . The set
Vt D .f  f /1 .St / D ..pt f /  .pt f //1 .Ut / belongs to V for every
Tt 2 S
because the map pt f is uniformly continuous. Consequently, the set V D t2S Vt
belongs to V; if .z; t / 2 V then .z; t / 2 Vt and hence .f .z/; f .t // 2 St for every
t 2 S.
T
This implies that .f .z/; f .t // 2 t2S St  U for any .z; t / 2 V and therefore
.f  f /.V /  U , i.e., V  .f  f /1 .U / which shows that .f  f /1 .U / 2 V.
The set U 2 U was chosen arbitrarily so the map f is uniformly continuous and
hence we completed the proof of sufficiency.

156

2 Solutions of problems 001500

V.107. Prove that, for any uniform space .X; U /, a pseudometric d W X  X ! R


is uniformly continuous with respect to the uniform square of .X; U / if and only if
the set Or D f.x; y/ 2 X  X W d.x; y/ < rg belongs to U for any r > 0. Such
pseudometrics will be called uniformly continuous on .X; U /.
Solution. Let .X  X; V/ be the uniform square of the space .X; U /. For any point
z D .x; y/ 2 X  X let p0 .z/ D x and p1 .z/ D y. The maps p0 ; p1 W X  X ! X
are the natural projections of X  X onto its factors so the family p01 .U / [ p11 .U /
is a subbase of .X  X; V/.
Assume that the pseudometric d is uniformly continuous and fix r > 0. There
exists V 2 V such that jd.z1 /  d.z2 /j < r for any point .z1 ; zT
We can find
2/ 2 V . T
1
finite families S0  p01 .U / and
S

p
.U
/
such
that
S
D
.
S
/\.
S1 /  V .
0
1
T 1
T
It is easy to see that S0 D
S0 2 p01 .U / and S1 D
S1 2 p11 .U /, so fix
W0 ; W1 2 U for which .p0  p0 /1 .W0 / D S0 and .p1  p1 /1 .W1 / D S1 .
Since W D W0 \ W1 2 U , the set G D .p0  p0 /1 .W / \ .p1  p1 /1 .W /
belongs to V; besides, G  S0 \ S1  V and therefore jd.z0 /  d.z1 /j < r for any
.z0 ; z1 / 2 G. Now, if z D .x; y/ 2 W then let z0 D z and z1 D .y; y/. It is clear that
.x; y/ D .p0 .z0 /; p0 .z1 // 2 W and .y; y/ D .p1 .z0 /; p1 .z1 // 2 W , so .z0 ; z1 / 2 G
and therefore jd.x; y/  d.y; y/j D d.x; y/ < r; an immediate consequence is that
G  Or and hence Or 2 U . Thus Or 2 U for any r > 0, i.e., we have established
necessity.
For sufficiency, assume that Or 2 U for any r > 0 and fix " > 0. Then W D
O"=2 2 U and hence V D .p0  p0 /1 .W / \ .p1  p1 /1 .W / 2 V. Take any point
.z0 ; z1 / 2 V ; then z0 D .x0 ; y0 / and z1 D .x1 ; y1 / where f.x0 ; x1 /; .y0 ; y1 /g  W ,
so it follows from the triangle inequality that
d.x0 ; y0 /  d.x0 ; x1 /Cd.x1 ; y1 /Cd.y1 ; y0 / <

"
"
Cd.x1 ; y1 /C D d.x1 ; y1 /C";
2
2

so d.x0 ; y0 /  d.x1 ; y1 / < ". Analogously,


d.x1 ; y1 /  d.x1 ; x0 /Cd.x0 ; y0 /Cd.y0 ; y1 / <

"
"
Cd.x0 ; y0 /C D d.x0 ; y0 /C";
2
2

which shows that d.x1 ; y1 /d.x0 ; y0 / < " and therefore jd.x1 ; y1 /d.x0 ; y0 /j < ".
We proved that jd.z0 /  d.z1 /j < " for any point .z0 ; z1 / 2 V , so the function
d W .X  X; V/ ! R is uniformly continuous, i.e., we settled sufficiency.
V.108. Suppose that a sequence fUn W n 2 !g of subsets of X X has the following
properties:
(1) U0 D X  X and  Un for any n 2 !;
(2) the set Un is symmetric and UnC1 UnC1 UnC1  Un for any n 2 !.
Prove that there exists a pseudometric d on the set X such that, for any n 2 N,
we have Un  f.x; y/ W d.x; y/  2n g  Un1 .

2 Solutions of problems 001500

157

Solution. Given x; y 2 X , a set C D fx0 ; x1 ; : : : ; xn g  X is a chain which


connects the points x and y if x0 D x and xn D y; we will say that the number of
links of C is equal to n. It is an easy exercise, that for any A  X  X with  A,
. / a point .x; y/ 2 X  X belongs to A A A if and only if there exist z; t 2 X
such that f.x; z/; .z; t /; .t; y/g  A.
An immediate consequence of . / is that UnC1  Un for each
T n 2 !. Given
any point .x; y/ 2 X  X let  .x; y/ D 0 if .x; y/ 2 U D fUn W n 2 !g.
If the point .x; y/ belongs to .X  X /nU then there is a unique n 2 ! such that
.x; y/ 2 P
Un nUnC1 ; let  .x; y/ D 2n . For each chain C D fx0 ; : : : ; xn g the number
l.C / D n1
iD0  .xi ; xiC1 / can be thought of as the length of the chain C . If x; y 2
X then the formula d.x; y/ D inffl.C / W C is a chain that connects x and yg
defines a function d W X  X ! 0; C1/; we will show that d is the promised
pseudometric.
Since fx; yg is a chain which connects x and y, we have d.x; y/   .x; y/ for
any x; y 2 X . Therefore d.x; x/   .x; x/ D 0 and hence d.x; x/ D 0 for any
x 2 X.
To prove that d is symmetric observe that  .x; y/ D  .y; x/ for any x; y 2 X
because every Un is a symmetric set. Now if x; y 2 X and C D fx0 ; x1 ; : : : ; xn g is a
chain which connects x and y then the chain C 0 D fxn ; xn1 ; : : : ; x1 ; x0 g connects
y and x; it follows from the equalities  .xi ; xiC1 / D  .xiC1 ; xi /; i D 0; : : : ; n  1,
that l.C / D l.C 0 /. Thus, for every chain C connecting x and y there is a chain C 0
which connects y and x such that l.C 0 / D l.C /. An evident consequence is that
d.x; y/ D d.y; x/ for any x; y 2 X .
To see that the triangle inequality also holds for d take any points x; y; z 2 X
and " > 0. There exist chains C 0 D fx0 ; : : : ; xn g and C 00 D fy0 ; : : : ; yk g such that
l.C 0 / < d.x; y/ C 2" and l.C 00 / < d.y; z/ C 2" while C 0 connects x and y and C 00
connects y and z. The set C D fx0 ; : : : ; xn ; y0 ; : : : ; yk g is a chain connecting the
points x and z, so d.x; z/  l.C / D l.C 0 / C l.C 00 / < d.x; y/ C d.y; z/ C ". Thus
d.x; z/ < d.x; y/Cd.y; z/C" for any " > 0 and hence d.x; z/  d.x; y/Cd.y; z/,
i.e., we indeed have the triangle inequality for d , so d is a pseudometric on the set X .
Our next step is to establish that
 d.x; y/   .x; y/ for any x; y 2 X .
We have already seen that the rightmost inequality in (i) is true, so let us prove
that d.x; y/  12  .x; y/ for any x; y 2 X . It suffices to show that,
(ii) for any chain C which connects the points x and y, we have l.C /  12  .x; y/.
(i)

1
 .x; y/
2

We will prove (ii) by induction on the number m of links of C . If m D 1 then


C D fx; yg, so l.C / D  .x; y/  12  .x; y/. Now assume that m > 1 and we
have established that l.C /  12  .x; y/ whenever C is a chain with < m-many links
connecting x and y.
To accomplish the inductive step take any chain C D fx0 ; : : : ; xm g with x0 D x
and xm D y. Letting a0 D 0 and ak D  .x0 ; x1 / C : : : C  .xk1 ; xk / for any
k 2 f1; : : : ; mg we obtain a sequence a0  : : :  am in which a D am is equal to the
length of the chain C . It is easy to see that there exists a number k 2 f0; : : : ; m  1g
such that ak  a2 and akC1  a2 .

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

If .x; y/ 2 U then  .x; y/ D 0, so l.C /  12  .x; y/. If the point .x; y/ does not
belong to U then .x; y/ 2 Un nUnC1 for some n 2 ! and hence  .x; y/ D 2n . If
H D f.x; xk /; .xk ; xkC1 /; .xkC1 ; y/g  UnC2 then .x; y/ 2 UnC2 UnC2 UnC2 
UnC1 (see . /) which is a contradiction. Thus one of the elements of H does not
belong to UnC2 .
If .xk ; xkC1 / UnC2 then l.C /   .xk ; xkC1 /  2n1 D 12  .x; y/. In the case
when .x; xk / UnC2 apply the induction hypothesis to the chain C 0 D fx0 ; : : : ; xk g
to see that ak D l.C 0 /  12  .x; xk /  12 2n1 D 2n2 . By our choice of k, we
have l.C / D a  2ak  2n1 D 12  .x; y/. Finally, if .xkC1 ; xm / UnC2 then we
can apply the induction hypothesis to the chain C 00 D fxkC1 ; : : : ; xm g. This gives
1
 .xkC1 ; xm /  l.C 00 / D l.C /  akC1  a2 , so it follows from  .xkC1 ; xm / 
2
n1
that a2  2n2 , i.e., a  2n1 D 12  .x; y/, so we proved (ii). The leftmost
2
inequality of (i) is an immediate consequence of (ii), so (i) is proved as well.
Given an arbitrary n 2 !, we have  .x; y/  2n for any .x; y/ 2 Un , so
d.x; y/   .x; y/  2n ; this shows that Un  f.x; y/ W d.x; y/  2n g. Now
if d.x; y/  2n then  .x; y/  2n1 by the property (i), so .x; y/ 2 Un1 ; this
implies that f.x; y/ W d.x; y/  2n g  Un1 and hence our solution is complete.
V.109. Given a uniform space .X; U / and U 2 U , prove that there is a uniformly
continuous pseudometric  on .X; U / such that f.x; y/ 2 X  X W .x; y/ < 1g
 U.
Solution. We will first prove the following easy statement.
(i) Suppose that A; B; C  X  X and  A \ B \ C . If B B  A and
C C  B then C C C  A.
To show that (i) holds take a point .x; y/ 2 C C C ; there exist z; t 2 X
such that f.x; z/; .z; t /; .t; y/g  C . As a consequence, .x; t / 2 C C  B; it
follows from f.t; y/; .y; y/g  C that .t; y/ 2 C C  B, so f.x; t /; .t; y/g 
B and therefore .x; y/ 2 B B  A, so (i) is proved.
It follows from Problem 103 that there exists a symmetric set U1 2 U with U1 
U . The property (i) and Problem 103 make it possible to construct a sequence
fUn W n 2 Nnf1gg of symmetric elements of U such that UnC1 UnC1 UnC1 
Un for any n 2 N. Letting U0 D X  X we obtain a sequence fUn W n 2 !g
which satisfies the premises of Problem 108. Thus there exists a pseudometric
d W X  X ! 0; C1/ such that
(ii) Un  f.x; y/ 2 X  X W d.x; y/  2n g  Un1 for any n 2 N.
It is straightforward that  D 4d is also a pseudometric on X . If .x; y/ < 1
then d.x; y/ < 14 D 22 , so (ii) shows that .x; y/ 2 U1  U . Therefore we have
the inclusion f.x; y/ 2 X  X W d.x; y/ < 1g  U .
Finally, take any r > 0 and fix n 2 ! such that 2n2 < r. If .x; y/  2n then
d.x; y/  14 2n D 2n2 < r which shows, together with (ii), that
Un  f.x; y/ 2 X  X W d.x; y/  2n g  f.x; y/ 2 X  X W d.x; y/ < rg.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

159

An immediate consequence is that f.x; y/ 2 X  X W d.x; y/ < rg 2 U for any


r > 0, so the pseudometric  is uniformly continuous on .X; U / by Problem 107.
V.110. Prove that a topological space X is Tychonoff if and only if there exists a
uniformity U on the set X such that .X / D U .
Solution. Suppose first that there exists a uniformity U on the set X such that U D
.X /. Given x 2 X pick any y 2 X nfxg; the point .y; x/ does not belong to
the diagonal of the space X , so there is U 2 U such that .y; x/ U and therefore
x U.y/. It follows from Problem 103 that V D Int.U.y// 2 .y; X /; since
x V , we proved that every y 2 X nfxg has a neighborhood V  X nfxg. Thus
X nfxg is open for every x 2 X , i.e., X is a T1 -space.
Now fix a point a 2 X and O 2 .a; X /. There is a set U 2 U such that
U.a/  O; by Problem 109 there exists a uniformly continuous pseudometric  W
X  X ! R such that G D f.x; y/ W .x; y/ < 1g  U . Since  is continuous on
X  X by Problem 104, the function g W X ! R, defined by g.x/ D .a; x/ for
any x 2 X , is continuous as well.
It is clear that g.a/ D 0; given x 2 X nO, it follows from U.a/  O that
.a; x/ U and hence g.x/ D .a; x/  1. Thus the function f W X ! R defined
by the formula f .x/ D 1  nnfg.x/; 1g for any x 2 X , is continuous on X and
f .a/ D 1 while f .X nO/  f0g. This shows that X is a Tychonoff space, i.e., we
proved sufficiency.
To establish necessity, suppose that X is a Tychonoff space and consider the set
O.f; r/ D f.x; y/ 2 X  X W jf .x/  f .y/j < rg for each f 2 Cp .X /. Clearly,
every element of the family S D fO.f; r/ W f 2 Cp .X /; r > 0g contains . If
.x; y/ then x y, so there is f 2 Cp .X / for which f .x/
T D 0 and f .y/ D 1;
an immediate consequence is that .x; y/ O.f; 1/ 2 S, so S D .
Suppose that U D O.f; r/ 2 S; then V D O.f; 2r / 2 S. If f.x; y/; .y; z/g  V
then jf .x/  f .z/j  jf .x/  f .y/j C jf .y/  f .z/j < 2r C 2r D r and hence
.x; z/ 2 U . This proves that V V  U , so the family S satisfies the conditions (1)
and (3) of Problem 102. Since every element of S is a symmetric subset of X  X ,
the condition (2) is satisfied as well, so there is a uniformity U on the set X such
that S is a subbase of U .
Take any O 2 .X / and x 2 O. There is f 2 Cp .X / such that f .x/ D 1 and
f .X nO/  f0g. The set U D O.f; 1/ belongs to the family U ; if y 2 U.x/ then
jf .y/  f .x/j D jf .y/  1j < 1 which shows that f .y/ > 0 and hence y 2 O.
Therefore U.x/  O, i.e., we proved that, for every x 2 O there is U 2 U for
which U.x/  O. Consequently, O 2 U , so we proved that .X /  U .
Finally, fix a set O 2 U ; given a point x 2 O there is U 2 U with U.x/  O.
The family S being a subbase of U we can find k 2 N and V1 ; : : : ; Vk 2 S for
which V D V1 \ : : : \ Vk  U . Choose fi 2 Cp .X / and ri > 0 such that Vi D
O.fi ; ri / for all i  k. The function fi is continuous so the set Vi .x/ D fy 2
X W jfi .y/  fi .x/j < ri g is open in X for every i 2 f1; : : : ; kg; thus V .x/ D
V1 .x/ \ : : : \ Vk .x/ 2 .x; X / and V .x/  U.x/  O. It turns out that, for
every point x 2 O, there is a set V .x/ 2 .x; X / with V .x/  O; this shows
that O 2 .X / and proves that U  .X / and hence U D .X /, i.e., we settled
necessity.

160

2 Solutions of problems 001500

V.111. Given a metric  on a set X and a number r > 0, consider the set Ur D
f.x; y/ 2 X  X W .x; y/ < rg. Prove that the family B D fUr W r > 0g forms a
base of some uniformity U on the set X . The uniformity U is called the uniformity
induced by the metric . A uniform space .X; U / is called uniformly metrizable if
U D U for some metric  on the set X .
Solution. It is evident that the diagonal of the space X is contained in every
element of B. If .x; y/ 2 .X
T  X /n then x y and hence r D .x; y/ > 0; it is
clear that .x; y/ Ur , so B D .
An immediate consequence of the definition is that every Ur is a symmetric
subset of X  X . Now if U; V 2 B then U D Ur and V D Us for some positive
numbers r and s. If t D nnfr; sg then U \ V D Ut 2 B, so the properties (1), (2),
and (4) of Problem 101 are fulfilled for B.
To see that the property (3) of Problem 101 also holds for B take any U 2 B; then
U D Ur for some r > 0. The set V D Ur=2 also belongs to B; if f.x; y/; .y; z/g  V
then .x; z/  .x; y/C.y; z/ < 2r C 2r D r, so .x; z/ 2 Ur D U . Thus V V  U ,
so all conditions (1)(4) of Problem 101 are satisfied for B and hence there exists a
uniformity U such that B is a base of U .
V.112. Prove that a uniform space .X; U / is uniformly metrizable if and only if U
has a countable base.
Solution. Assume that the space .X; U / is uniformly metrizable and hence there
exists a metric  such that the family B D fUr W r > 0g is a base for U ; here
Ur D f.x; y/ 2 X  X W .x; y/ < rg for any r > 0. The family B0 D fUr W r > 0
and r 2 Qg is countable and it is straightforward that B is a base for U ; this proves
necessity.
Now assume that there exists a countable base B for the uniformity U and let
fBn W n 2 Ng be an enumeration of B. Using Problems 101 and 103 it is easy to
construct by induction a family fUn W n 2 !g of symmetric elements of U with the
following properties:
(i) U0 D X  X and Un  Bn for each n 2 N;
(ii) UnC1 UnC1 UnC1  Un for any n 2 !.
By Problem 108, there exists a pseudometric d on the set X such that
(iii) Un  f.x; y/ W d.x; y/  2n g  Un1 for every n 2 N.
Given distinct x; y 2 X the point .x; y/ does not belong to the diagonal of the
space X , so there is U 2 U with .x; y/ U . The family B being a base of U we
can find n 2 N for which Bn  U and therefore .x; y/ Bn . It follows from (i) that
.x; y/ Un and hence d.x; y/ > 2n1 > 0 by (iii). Thus d is actually a metric on
X ; let us show that U is induced by d .
Let Or D f.x; y/ 2 X  X W d.x; y/ < rg for any r > 0; we must prove that the
family O D fOr W r > 0g is a base of U . If r > 0 then there is n 2 ! with 2n < r.
The property (iii) implies that Un  f.x; y/ 2 X  X W d.x; y/  2n g  Or , so
Or 2 U for any r > 0, i.e., O  U .

2 Solutions of problems 001500

161

Finally, if U 2 U then pick n 2 N with Bn  U . Then Un  U by (i); it


follows from the property (iii) that, for r D 2n1 > 0 we have the inclusions
Or  f.x; y/ 2 X  X W d.x; y/  rg  Un  U , so O is, indeed, a base of U , i.e.,
U is induced by the metric d . This proves sufficiency and completes our solution.
V.113. Prove that every uniform space is uniformly isomorphic to a subspace of a
product of uniformly metrizable spaces.
Solution. The following statement will help us to show that, for any uniform space,
there is a sufficiently large family of uniformly continuous mappings of this space
into uniformly metrizable spaces.
Fact 1. If .X; U / is a uniform space and d is a uniformly continuous pseudometric
on .X; U / then there exists a metric space .Y; / and a map ' W X ! Y such that
d.x; y/ D .'.x/; '.y// for any x; y 2 X . In particular, the map ' is uniformly
continuous if we consider Y with the uniformity V induced by the metric .
Proof. For any x; y 2 X , let x  y if and only if d.x; y/ D 0. Then  is an
equivalence relationship on X . Indeed, it follows from d.x; x/ D 0 that x  x;
now, if x  y then d.y; x/ D d.x; y/ D 0, so y  x. To check transitivity,
observe that x  y and y  z imply that d.x; y/ D d.y; z/ D 0, so d.x; z/ 
d.x; y/ C d.y; z/ D 0 which shows that x  z. Let Px D fy 2 X W y  xg for any
x 2 X.
The space X is the disjoint union of the classes of equivalence with respect to ,
i.e., for the family fPx W x 2 X g we have either
Px D Py or Px \ Py D ; for any
S
x; y 2 X . Choose a set Y  X such that fPy W y 2 Y g D X and Py \ Pz D ;
for distinct y; z 2 Y .
Given y; z 2 Y let .y; z/ D d.y; z/; the function  W Y  Y ! R is a metric
on Y . To prove it, assume that .y; z/ D 0 for some y; z 2 Y . If y z then
Py \ Pz D ; and hence z Py which shows that .y; z/ D d.y; z/ > 0. Therefore
.y; z/ D 0 implies y D z; the other axioms of metric are fulfilled for  because it
coincides with the pseudometric d on Y . Thus .Y; / is metric space.
For each x 2 X there is a unique y 2 Y with x 2 Py ; let '.x/ D y. To see that
the map ' W X ! Y has the promised properties take x; y 2 X . If a D '.x/ and
b D '.y/ then x 2 Pa and y 2 Pb ; therefore d.x; a/ D d.y; b/ D 0. Consequently,
.a; b/ D d.a; b/  d.a; x/ C d.x; y/ C d.y; b/ D d.x; y/. On the other hand,
we have the inequality d.x; y/  d.x; a/ C d.a; b/ C d.b; y/ D d.a; b/ D .a; b/
which implies that .a; b/ D d.x; y/, i.e., d.x; y/ D .'.x/; '.y// for any
x; y 2 X.
Let V be the uniformity induced on Y by the metric . To see that the map
' W .X; U / ! .Y; V/ is uniformly continuous take any V 2 V. There is r > 0
such that Wr D f.y; z/ 2 Y  Y W .y; z/ < rg  V . It is straightforward that
.'  '/1 .Wr /  Or D f.x; y/ 2 X  X W d.x; y/ < rg. The pseudometric d
being uniformly continuous, we have Or 2 U (see Problem 107), so it follows from
the equality U D .'  '/1 .V /  Or that U 2 U , so the map ' is uniformly
continuous and Fact 1 is proved.

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

Returning to our solution fix a uniform space .X; U / and apply Problem 109 to
construct, for any U 2 U , a uniformly continuous pseudometric dU on the space
.X; U / such that OU D f.x; y/ 2 X  X W dU .x; y/ < 1g  U . Fact 1 guarantees
us that there exists a metric space .YU ; U / and a map 'U W X ! YU such that
dU .x; y/ D U .'U .x/; 'U .y// for any x; y 2 X and, in particular, 'U is uniformly
continuous if we
Q consider the set Y with the uniformity VU induced by U .
Let Y D
fYU W U 2 U g be the uniform product of the family fYU W
U 2 U g; since every YU is uniformly metrizable, it suffices to construct a uniform
isomorphism of .X; U / onto a subspace of Y . For every x 2 X let '.x/.U / D
'U .x/ for each U 2 U ; then ' W X ! Y is the diagonal product of the family
f'U W U 2 U g.
To show that the map ' W X ! X 0 D '.X / is a uniform isomorphism consider
the natural projection pU W Y ! YU for each U 2 U . It is straightforward that
pU ' D 'U , so the map pU ' is uniformly continuous for every U 2 U . It
follows from Problem 106 that the map ' is uniformly continuous.
Given distinct points x; y 2 X there is a set U 2 U such that .x; y/ U and
hence dU .x; y/  1. Then U .'U .x/; 'U .y//  1 which implies that 'U .x/
'U .y/, so '.x/ '.x/, i.e., the map ' is a bijection.
To finally see that ' 1 W X 0 ! X is uniformly continuous fix a set U 2 U . Then
W D f.s; t / 2 YU  YU W U .s; t / < 1g belongs to the uniformity VU and hence the
set V D f.a; b/ 2 X 0  X 0 W .pU .a/; pU .b// 2 W g is an element of the uniformity
V 0 induced on X 0 from Y . It is an easy exercise that .' 1  ' 1 /.V / coincides with
the set OU  U , so .' 1  ' 1 /1 .U / D .'  '/.U /  .'  '/.OU / D V
belongs to V 0 and therefore the map ' 1 is uniformly continuous. This proves that
' W X ! X 0 is a uniform isomorphism and completes our solution.
V.114. Given a uniform space .X; U / prove that the following conditions are
equivalent:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
(viii)

the space .X; U / is complete;


T
if C is a centered Cauchy family of closed subsets of XTthen C ;;
if C is a centered Cauchy family of subsets
T of X then fC W C 2 Cg ;;
if B is a Cauchy filter base on X then fB W B 2 Bg T;;
if B is a Cauchy filter base of closed subsets of X then B ;;
any Cauchy filter F on X converges to
Ta point x 2 X , i.e., .x; X /  F;
if E is a Cauchy ultrafilter on X then fE W E 2 Eg ;;
if E is a Cauchy ultrafilter on X then it converges to a point x 2 X .

Solution. Assume that .X; U / is complete and fix a centered Cauchy family C of
closed subsets of X . There exists a filter F  exp.X / such T
that C  F (see TFS117). It is evident
that
F
is
still
a
Cauchy
family,
so
P
D
fF W F 2 Fg ;.
T
T
T
Then P  fC W C 2 Cg D C, so C ;, i.e., we proved that (i)H)(ii).
Now, if the property (ii) holds and C  exp.X / is a centered Cauchy family then
C 0 D fC W C 2 Cg is a centered family of closed subsets of X ; take any U 2 U . By
Problem 103, there is a closed set V  X  X such that V 2 U and V  U . The
family C being Cauchy there is C 2 C with C C  V . An immediate consequence

2 Solutions of problems 001500

163

is that C  C  V DT
V  U ; this proves that C 0 is also a Cauchy family. Applying
(ii) we conclude that C 0 ;, i.e., (iii) holds and hence we settled (ii)H)(iii).
Every Cauchy filter base on X is a centered Cauchy family of subsets of X , so
(iii)H)(iv).
T
T If (iv) holds and B is a Cauchy filter base of closed subsets of X then
B D fB W B 2 Bg ; by (iv); this shows that (iv)H)(v).
Next assume that (v) holds and take a Cauchy filter F on the set X . Given F; G 2
F we have F \ G  F \ G; this implies that the family F 0 D fF W F 2 Fg is a
filter base of closed subsets of X . Take any U 2 U ; by Problem 103, there is a closed
set V  X  X such that V 2 U and V  U . The family F being Cauchy there is
F 2 F with F F  V . An immediate consequence is that F F  V D V  U ;
this proves that F 0 is also a CauchyTfamily.
Thus we can pick a point x 2 F 0 ; we claim that the filter F converges to x.
To see this take an arbitrary set O 2 .x; X /; there exists U 2 U with U.x/  O.
Apply Problem 103 to find a closed V  X  X such that V  U and V 2 U . The
family F being Cauchy, we can find F 2 F with F  F  V . Then F  F  V D
V  U ; given any y 2 F it follows from fx; yg  F that .x; y/ 2 F  F  U , so
y 2 U.x/. Thus F  U.x/  O and hence O 2 F; this proves that .x; X /  F
and settles the implication (v)H)(vi).
To establish (vi)H)(vii), assume that (vi) is true and take a Cauchy ultrafilter
E  exp.X /. Since any ultrafilter is a filter, we can apply (vi) to find a point x 2 X
such that .x; X /  E. If x E for some E 2 E then O D X nE 2 .x; X / and
hence
TO 2 E which, together with O \ E D ; gives a contradiction. Therefore
x 2 fE W E 2 Eg, so the implication (vi)H)(vii) is proved.
For (vii)H)(viii) suppose that (vii) is T
fulfilled and take any Cauchy ultrafilter
E  exp.X /; there exists a point x 2
fE W E 2 Eg. If O E for some
O 2 .x; X / then E D X nO 2 E (see TFS-117), so x E D E which is a
contradiction. Thus the ultrafilter E converges to x and (vii)H)(viii) is proved.
Finally assume that (viii) is satisfied and take any Cauchy filter F on the
set X . There exists an ultrafilter E  exp.X / with F  E (see TFS-117); it is
straightforward that E is also Cauchy, so it converges to a point x 2 X . If there
is F 2 F with x F then O D X nF 2 .x; X / which shows that O 2 E
which,Ttogether with F 2 E and O \ F D ;, gives a contradiction. Therefore
x 2
fF W F 2 Fg; this proves that (viii)H)(i) and hence our solution is
complete.
V.115. Prove that any closed uniform subspace of a complete uniform space is
complete.
Solution. Suppose that .X; U / is a complete uniform space and F is a closed
subspace of X ; denote by V the uniformity induced on F from .X; U /. Take any
centered family C of closed subsets of F which is Cauchy in .F; V/; all elements
of C are also closed in X . If U 2 U then V D U \ .F  F / 2 V; the family C
being Cauchy in .F; V/ there is C 2 C such that C  C  V 
T U . An immediate
consequence is that C is also a Cauchy family in .X; U /; thus C ; and hence
the space .F; V/ is complete by Problem 114.

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

V.116. Let .X; U / be a uniform space such that some Y  X is complete


considered as a uniform subspace of .X; U /. Prove that Y is closed in X .
Solution. Let V be the uniformity induced on Y from .X; U /. If Y is not closed in
X then fix a point y 2 Y nY and let B D fO 0 \Y W O 0 2 .y; X /g. Obviously, B is a
filter base of subsets of Y . Given a set V 2 V fix U 2 U such that U \ .Y  Y / D V
and choose a symmetric W 2 U for which W W  U .
Apply Problem 103 to find an open neighborhood O 0 of the point y in X such that
0
O  W .y/; then O D O 0 \ Y 2 B. If z; t 2 O then f.y; z/; .y; t /g  W ; the set W
being symmetric, we have f.z; y/; .y; t /g  W and therefore .z; t / 2 W W  U .
This shows that O  O  U \ .Y  Y / D V , so B is a Cauchy
T family in .Y; V/.
The space .Y; V/ is complete, so there exists a point x 2 fclY .O/ W O 2 Bg;
the points x and y are distinct, so we can choose disjoint sets G; H 2 .X / such
that x 2 G and y 2 H . Then O D G \ Y 2 B and x clY .O/; this contradiction
shows that Y is closed in X .
V.117. Prove that, for any family A D f.Xt ; Ut / W t 2 T g of complete uniform
spaces, the uniform product .X; U / of the family A is complete.
Solution. Let pt W X ! Xt be the natural projection for any t 2 T . Suppose
that F is a Cauchy filter on the space .X; U /. It is easy to verify that the family
Ft D fpt .F / W F 2 Fg is a Cauchy filter on .Xt ; Ut /; by completeness of .Xt ; Ut /
we can apply Problem 114 to fix a point at 2 Xt with .at ; Xt /  Ft for every
t 2 T.
Define a point x 2 X by letting x.t / D at for each t 2 T and assume that
there exists a set F 2 F with x F . Then there isT
a finite S  T and a set
Ot 2 .at ; Xt / for any t 2 S such that the set O D fpt1 .Ot / W t 2 S g does
not meet F . However, Ot 2 Ft , so there is Wt 2 F such that pt .Wt / D Ot ; an
immediate consequence is that Wt  pt1 .Ot / and hence pt1 .Ot / 2 F for any
t 2 S . Therefore
O and F are
T
T two disjoint elements of F; this contradiction shows
that x 2 fF W F 2 Fg, so fF W F 2 Fg ; for any Cauchy filter F on .X; U /,
i.e., the space .X; U / is complete.
V.118. Let .X; U / be a uniform space such that the uniformity U is induced by a
metric . Prove that .X; U / is complete if and only if the metric space .X; / is
complete.
Solution. Assume first that the space .X; U / is complete and take a sequence F D
fFn W n 2 !g of nonempty closed subsets of X such that FnC1  Fn for any n 2 !
and diam.Fn / ! 0. It is clear that F is a filter base in X . Given U 2 U there exists
r > 0 for which Or D f.x; y/ 2 X  X W .x; y/ < rg  U . Pick n 2 ! such
that d D diam.Fn / < r; then .x; y/  d < r for any x; y 2 Fn which implies
that Fn  Fn  Or  U . Thus F is aTCauchy family; by completeness of .X; U /
we can apply Problem 114 to see that F ;. Therefore the metric space .X; /
is complete by TFS-236; this proves necessity.
Now assume that the metric space .X; / is complete and take a centered Cauchy
family F of closed subsets of X . Given any r > 0, the set Or=2 belongs to U , so

2 Solutions of problems 001500

165

there exists F 2 F such that F  F  Or=2 ; then d.x; y/ < 2r for any x; y 2 F
and hence diam.F /  2r < r. This shows that the family F hasTsets of arbitrarily
small diameter, so we can apply TFS-236 once more to see that F ;. Finally,
apply Problem 114 to conclude that .X; U / is complete; this settles sufficiency.
V.119. Let A be a dense subspace of a uniform space .X; U /. Suppose that f W
A ! Y is a uniformly continuous map of .A; UAX / to a complete uniform space
.Y; V/. Prove that there is a uniformly continuous map F W X ! Y such that
F jA D f .
Solution. If x 2 X then the set O \ A is nonempty for any O 2 .x; X /, so the
family Ox D fO \ A W O 2 .x; X /g is a filter base of subsets of A. An easy
consequence is that the family Ux D ff .P / W P 2 Ox g is a filter base of subsets of
Y for every x 2 X .
Fix a point x 2 X and V 2 V; by uniform continuity of f there is a set U 0 2 U
such that .f .a/; f .b// 2 V whenever .a; b/ 2 U 0 \ .A  A/. Apply Problem 103
to find a symmetric U 2 U for which U U  U 0 . The set O D Int.U.x// is an
open neighborhood of x in X by Problem 103, so P D O \ A 2 Ox and therefore
Q D f .P / 2 Ux . Now if z; t 2 Q then pick a; b 2 P with f .a/ D z; f .b/ D t .
Since fa; bg  U.x/, we have f.x; a/; .x; b/g  U and hence .a; x/ 2 U by the
symmetry of U . Consequently, .a; b/ 2 U U  U 0 which shows that .z; t / D
.f .a/; f .b// 2 V . The points z; t 2 Q were chosen arbitrarily, so Q  Q  V
and T
hence Ux is a Cauchy filter base in .Y; V/. By Problem 114 there is a point
y 2 fQ W Q 2 Ux g; let F .x/ D y. This defines a map F W X ! Y . T
Given a 2 A observe that f .a/ 2 Q for any Q 2 Ua , so f .a/ 2 fQ W Q 2
Ua g. If z 2 Y nff .a/g then there is V 2 V with .f .a/; z/ V ; by Problem 103,
we can find a closed W 2 V such that W  V . The family Ua being Cauchy,
there is Q 2 Ua for which Q  Q  W . The set W being closed we also have
Q  Q TW  V which shows that .f .a/; z/ Q  Q, i.e., z Q. Therefore
z R D fQ W Q 2 Ua g and hence f .a/ is the unique element of R; this proves
that F .a/ D f .a/ for each a 2 A, i.e., F jA D f .
To finally see that the map F W .X; U / ! .Y; V/ is uniformly continuous fix any
V 2 V and apply Problem 103 to find a closed set V0 2 V with V0  V . The map
f being uniformly continuous, we can find U 2 U such that .f .a/; f .b// 2 V0
whenever .a; b/ 2 U \ .A  A/. Apply Problem 103 to find a symmetric set W 2 U
with W W W  U . Now, if .x; y/ 2 W then H D Int.W .x// \ A 2 Ox
and G D Int.W .y// \ A 2 Oy , so Q0 D f .H / 2 Ux and Q1 D f .G/ 2 Uy .
If a 2 H and b 2 G then f.a; x/; .x; y/; .y; b/g  W which shows that .a; b/ 2
W W W  U and therefore .f .a/; f .b// 2 V0 . This proves that Q0  Q1  V0 ;
the set V0 being closed, we conclude that Q0  Q1  V0  V . By definition of F ,
we have F .x/ 2 Q0 and F .y/ 2 Q1 . Consequently, .F .x/; F .y// 2 Q0 Q1  V ;
the point .x; y/ 2 W was chosen arbitrarily so .F  F /.W /  V and hence F is a
uniformly continuous map.
V.120. Let .X; U / and .Y; V/ be complete uniform spaces. Suppose that A is a
dense subspace of X and B is a dense subspace of Y . Prove that every uniform
isomorphism between the uniform spaces .A; UAX / and .B; VBY / is extendable to a
uniform isomorphism between .X; U / and .Y; V/.

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

Solution. Let idX W X ! X and idY W Y ! Y be the identity maps on the


spaces X and Y respectively and assume that a map ' W .A; UAX / ! .B; VBY / is a
uniform isomorphism. It is straightforward that the maps ' W .A; UAX / ! .Y; V/ and
' 1 W .B; VBY / ! .X; U / are uniformly continuous, so we can apply Problem 119
to find uniformly continuous maps W .X; U / ! .Y; V/ and  W .Y; V/ ! .X; U /
such that jA D ' and  jB D ' 1 .
Since .  /.y/ D '.' 1 .y// D y for any y 2 B, the continuous maps idY
and  coincide on a dense set B of the space Y . By Fact 0 of S.351, we have
 D idY . Analogously, . /.x/ D ' 1 .'.x// D x for any x 2 A, i.e.,
the continuous maps  and idX coincide on a dense subset A of the space X .
Therefore  D idX which shows that  D 1 and hence both maps and 
are uniform isomorphisms.
V.121. Prove that every uniform space .X; U / is uniformly isomorphic to a dense
subspace of a complete uniform space .X  ; U  /. The space .X  ; U  / is called the
completion of the space .X; U /. Prove that the completion of .X; U / is unique in the
sense that, if .Y; V/ is a complete uniform space such that .X; U / is a dense uniform
subspace of .Y; V/ then there is a uniform isomorphism W X  ! Y such that
.x/ D x for any x 2 X .
Solution. By Problem 113, Q
we can assume that X is a uniform subspace of the
uniform product .M; U / D t2T .Mt ; Ut / of some family f.Mt ; Ut / W t 2 T g of
uniformly metrizable spaces. Let t W Mt  Mt ! R be a metric which induces the
uniformity Ut for every t 2 T . It follows from TFS-237 that there exists a complete
metric space .Nt ; dt / such that Mt is a dense subspace of Nt and dt j.Mt Mt / D t
for each t 2 T .
If Wt is the uniformity on Nt induced by the metric dt then it is easy to see that
the uniformity induced by Wt on
Q Mt coincides with Ut for any t 2 T . Another easy
exercise is that if .N; W/ D t2T .Nt ; Wt / is the uniform product of the family
f.Nt ; Wt / W t 2 T g then the uniformity W induces the uniformity U on the set M .
Thus .X; U / is a uniform subspace of the space .N; W/; apply Problem 117
to see that the space .N; W/ is complete. Let X  be the closure of X in N and
denote by U  the uniformity induced on X  from .N; W/. Clearly, .X; U / is a dense
uniform subspace of the space .X  ; U  /; it follows from Problem 115 that .X  ; U  /
is complete.
Finally, assume that .X; U / is a dense uniform subspace of some complete
uniform space .Y; V/. Letting '.x/ D x for any x 2 X we obtain a uniform
isomorphism of .X; U / onto itself. Considering ' to be an isomorphism between the
respective dense subspaces of .X  ; U  / and .Y; V/ (both of which coincide with X ),
we can apply Problem 120 to find a uniform isomorphism W .X  ; U  / ! .Y; V/
such that jX D ', i.e., .x/ D x for every x 2 X .
V.122. Let X be a paracompact Tychonoff space. Prove that the family of all
neighborhoods of the diagonal of X is a uniformity on X which generates .X /.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

167

Solution. Let U be the family of all neighborhoods of the diagonal of the


space X . Since X is Tychonoff, any point .x; y/ is closed in X  X , so
T the set
.X  X /nf.x; y/g belongs to U for any .x; y/ 2 .X  X /n . Thus D U .
The map ' W X X ! X X defined by '.x; y/ D .y; x/ for any .x; y/ 2 X X
is easily seen to be a homeomorphism for which '. / D . Therefore, for any
U 2 U , the set '.U / D U 1 is still a neighborhood of , so U 1 2 U . It is evident
that the intersection of two neighborhoods of is still a neighborhood of , so the
axiom (U1) is fulfilled for U .
If U 2 U then U is a neighborhood of , so every W  U is also a neighborhood
of , i.e., W 2 U . To check the second part of (U2) fix a set U 2 U ; then U0 D
Int.U /  . For each x 2 X fix a set Ox 2 .x; X / such that Ox  Ox  U0 ;
then O D fOx W x 2 X g is an open cover of the space X . By paracompactness of
X weScan find an open star refinement H of the cover O (see TFS-230). The set
V D fH  H W H 2 Hg is an open neighborhood of , so V 2 U .
Next, assume that f.a; b/; .b; c/g  V for some a; b; c 2 X ; then there are
H; G 2 H with .a; b/ 2 H  H and .b; c/ 2 G  G. This implies fa; bg  H and
fb; cg  G which shows that b 2 H \ G; by our choice of the cover H there is
x 2 X for which G [ H  Ox . Thus .a; c/ 2 Ox  Ox  U0  U ; this proves that
V V  U0  U , so the property (U2) also holds for U . Therefore the family U of
all neighborhoods of the diagonal of X is a uniformity on X .
To see that U generates the topology of X take any U 2 U and fix U0 2 .X X /
with  U0  U . Given any x 2 X the set O D U0 \.fxgX / is open in fxgX ;
there is an evident homeomorphism between fxg  X and X which takes O onto
U0 .x/, so U0 .x/  U.x/ is open in X . Therefore U.x/ is a neighborhood of x for
any x 2 X and U 2 U . If H 2 U then, for every x 2 H , there is U 2 U with
U.x/  H ; we already saw that every U.x/ is a neighborhood of x, so H is open
in X and hence we proved that U  .X /.
Finally, if O 2 .X / and x 2 O then pick a set W 2 .x; X / with W  O and
let G D X nW ; the set U D .O  O/ [ .G  G/ is an open neighborhood of the
diagonal, i.e., U 2 U . If .x; y/ 2 U then .x; y/ G  G, so y 2 O and hence
U.x/  O. This shows that O 2 U ; since we have chosen O 2 .X / arbitrarily,
we proved that .X /  U and hence .X / D U , i.e., the topology generated by U
coincides with .X /.
V.123. Suppose that X is a Tychonoff space such that the family of all neighborhoods of the diagonal of X is a uniformity on X which generates .X /. Prove that
X is collectionwise normal.
Solution. Let U be the family of all neighborhoods of the diagonal of the
space X . Given a discrete family F of closed subsets of X , we can fix a set
Ox 2 .x; X / whichS
intersects at most one element of F for every point x 2 X .
It is clear that U D fOx  Ox W x 2 X g is an element of U , so we can find a
symmetric set V 2 U with V V  U .
S
For every F 2 F, apply Problem 103 to see that OF D fV .x/ W x 2 F g is a
neighborhood of the set F . Suppose that F and G are distinct elements of F and
a 2 OF \ OG . There are y 2 F and z 2 G such that a 2 V .y/ \ V .z/; it follows

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

from f.y; a/; .a; z/g  V that .y; z/ 2 V V  U . As a consequence, there exists
x 2 X with .y; z/ 2 Ox  Ox and hence fy; zg  Ox , i.e., Ox intersects both F and
G which is a contradiction. Thus the family fInt.OF / W F 2 Fg is disjoint, so we
can apply Fact 1 of S.302 to conclude that X is collectionwise normal.
V.124. Give an example of a Tychonoff countably compact non-compact (and
hence non-paracompact) space X such that the family of all neighborhoods of the
diagonal of X is a uniformity on X which generates .X /.
Solution. Our space X will be the ordinal !1 with its order topology; given ordinals
;  !1 let .;
D f W <   g. We will prove that the family
O D fO  X  X W O is a neighborhood of X in X  X g
is a uniformity on X which generates .X /. Observe first that the space X is
countably compact and non-compact being a proper dense subspace of the space
K D !1 C 1 (see TFS-314). The space K being compact, it follows from
Problem 122 that the family V of all neighborhoods of the diagonal K in the space
K  K is a uniformity on K which generates .K/. Therefore U D fV \ .X  X / W
V 2 Vg is a uniformity on X which generates the topology of X . It is evident that
every U 2 U is a neighborhood of the diagonal X in the space X  X , i.e., U  O.
To see that O  U fix any O 2 O. For any limit ordinal 2 X there is './ <
such that the set W D .'./;
 .'./;
is contained in O; let W D f.; /g
for any successor ordinal . By Pressing-Down Lemma (SFFS-067) there is  < !1
and an uncountable
S A  X such that './ D  for every S2 A.
The set H D fW W   g is open in K while G D fW W 2 Ag is easily
seen to coincide with ..; !1
.; !1
/\.X X /. The set V D H [..; !1
.; !1
/
belongs to the family V being a neighborhood of the set K in the space K  K.
Since V \.X X /  H [G  O, we conclude that O 2 U ; this proves that O D U
and hence the family O of all neighborhoods of X in X  X is a uniformity which
generates .X /.
V.125. Prove that, for any compact uniform space .X; U /, the uniformity U
coincides with the family of all neighborhoods of the diagonal of X .
Solution. Let O be the family of all neighborhoods in X  X of the diagonal of
the space X . It follows from Problem 103 that every U 2 U is a neighborhood of
, i.e., U  O.
To see that O  U fix a set O 2 O. Apply Problem 103 again to observe
T that the
family F D fU 2 U W U is closed in X X g is a base of U and therefore F D .
Since all elements of F are compact,T
we can apply Fact 1 of S.326 to conclude that
there is a finite F 0  F with U D F 0  O. The set U  O is an element of
U , so O 2 U ; this proves that O  U and hence O D U , i.e., the uniformity U
coincides with the family of all neighborhoods of in X  X .
V.126. Suppose that .X; U / a compact uniform space. Prove that, for any uniform
space .Y; V/, any continuous map f W X ! Y is uniformly continuous.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

169

Solution. Denote by X and Y the diagonals of the spaces X and Y respectively.


Fix a set V 2 V; by Problem 103 we can find W 2 . Y ; Y  Y / with W  V .
Since f is continuous, the map f  f is continuous as well, so the set U D .f 
f /1 .W / is open in X  X and X  U . The space X being compact, we can
apply Problem 125 to see that U 2 U ; it follows from U  .f  f /1 .V / that
.f  f /1 .V / 2 U , so the map f is uniformly continuous.
V.127. Let .X; U / be a uniform space such that the uniformity U is induced by a
metric . Prove that .X; U / is totally bounded if and only if the metric space .X; /
is totally bounded.
Solution. Assume first that the space .X; U / is totally bounded; given " > 0, the set
U D f.x; y/ 2 X  X W .x; y/ < "g belongs to U , so there is a finite set P  X
such that U.P / D X . Thus, for
S any x 2 X , there is p 2 P with x 2 U.p/ and
hence d.x; p/ < ". Therefore fB .p; "/ W p 2 P g D X which shows that .X; /
is totally bounded, i.e., we established necessity.
Now, if .X; / is totally bounded, then take any U 2 U ; there is " > 0 such that
V D f.x;
S y/ 2 X  X W .x; y/ < "g  U . There exists a finite set P  X for
which fB .p; "/ W p 2 P g D X . Given any point x 2 X there is p 2 P with
.x; p/ < ", so .p; x/ 2 V  U and hence x 2 U.p/. This proves that X D U.P /
and hence .X; U / is totally bounded, i.e., we settled sufficiency.
V.128. Prove that a uniform space .X; U / is totally bounded if and only if every
ultrafilter on X is a Cauchy family with respect to U .
Solution. Suppose first that .X; U / is totally bounded and take an ultrafilter F on
the set X . Fix a set U 2 U and apply Problem 103 to find a symmetric V 2 U such
that V V  U . There exists a finite set A  X with V .A/ D X .
Given a point x 2 A withTV .x/ F we have X nV .x/ 2 F, so if V .x/ F
for every x 2 A then ; D fX nV .x/ W x 2 Ag 2 F which is a contradiction.
Therefore V .a/ 2 F for some a 2 A. The set V being symmetric, for any points
x; y 2 V .a/ we have f.x; a/; .a; y/g  V and hence .x; y/ 2 V V  U ; this
shows that V .a/  V .a/  U . Recalling that V .a/ 2 F we conclude that F is a
Cauchy ultrafilter on X , i.e., we proved necessity.
Now assume that every ultrafilter on X is a Cauchy family with respect to U and
fix a set U 2 U . If U.A/ X for any finite A  X then the family E D fX nU.x/ W
x 2 X g is centered, so there exists an ultrafilter F on the set X such that E  F
(see TFS-117). By our assumption, F is a Cauchy family, so there is F 2 F with
F  F  U.
Fix an arbitrary point a 2 F and observe that, for any x 2 F , it follows from
.a; x/ 2 F  F  U that x 2 U.a/; this proves that F  U.a/. An immediate
consequence is that U.a/ 2 F; since also X nU.a/ 2 F by our choice of F, we
obtained a contradiction which shows that U.A/ D X for some finite A  X and
hence .X; U / is totally bounded. This settles sufficiency.
V.129. Prove that any uniform product of totally bounded uniform spaces is totally
bounded.

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

Solution. Suppose that a uniform space .Xt ; Ut / is totally bounded for any t 2 T
and let .X; U / be the uniform product of the family f.Xt ; Ut / W t 2 T g. Then X D
Q
t2T Xt ; let pt W X ! Xt be the natural projection for any t 2 T .
Fix an ultrafilter F on the set X and any U 2 U ; by definition of the uniform
product, there isTa finite S  T and a family fWt W t 2 S g such that Wt 2 Ut for
each t 2 S and f.pt  pt /1 .Wt / W t 2 S g  U .
It is straightforward that Ft D fpt .F / W F 2 Fg is an ultrafilter on the set Xt ;
the space .Xt ; Ut / being totally bounded, Ft is a Cauchy family with respect to Ut
for every t 2 S . Consequently,
T there is Ft 2 F such that pt .Ft /  pt .Ft /  Wt for
each t 2 S . The set F D t2S Ft belongs to F; take any x; y 2 F .
We have pt .F /  pt .F /  pt .FT
t /  pt .Ft /  Wt , so .pt .x/; pt .y// 2 Wt for
every t 2 S and therefore .x; y/ 2 f.pt  pt /1 .Wt / W t 2 S g  U . The points
x; y 2 F were taken arbitrarily, so we proved that F  F  U and hence F is a
Cauchy ultrafilter on X . Finally apply Problem 128 to conclude that .X; U / is totally
bounded.
V.130. Prove that a uniform space is compact if and only if it is complete and totally
bounded. Deduce from this fact that a uniform space is totally bounded if and only
if its completion is compact.
Solution. If a uniform space .X; U / is compact then each centered family of closed
subsets of X (which does not even need to be a Cauchy family) has a nonempty
intersection; this, together with Problem 114 implies that X is complete. Given any
U 2 U , the family fInt.U.x// W x 2 X g is S
an open cover of X by Problem 103.
Therefore there is a finite A  X with X D fInt.U.x// W x 2 Ag; an immediate
consequence is that U.A/ D X and hence X is totally bounded, i.e., we proved
necessity.
Now assume that a uniform space .X; U / is complete and totally bounded. Given
an ultrafilter F on the
T set X it is a Cauchy family by Problem 128; by completeness
of .X; U / we have fF W F 2 Fg ; (see Problem 114). Finally, apply TFS118 to conclude that X is compact; this settles sufficiency and shows that a uniform
space is compact if and only if it is complete and totally bounded.
Next suppose that .X; U / is a uniform space such that its completion .X  ; U  /
is compact. Fix an arbitrary ultrafilter F on the set X and U 2 U . Since F can be
considered a filter base on X  , there exists an ultrafilter F  on the set X  such that
F  F  . Choose a set V 2 U  with V \.X X / D U . The uniform space .X  ; U  /
being totally bounded, the ultrafilter F  is a Cauchy family by Problem 128, so there
is F  2 F  with F   F   V . Observe that X 2 F  , so F D F  \ X 2 F  .
If F F then G D X nF 2 F and hence G 2 F  , so F and G are two disjoint
elements of F  . This contradiction shows that F 2 F; besides, F  F  .F  
F  / \ .X  X /  V \ .X  X / D U . Thus every ultrafilter on X is a Cauchy
family and hence .X; U / is totally bounded by Problem 128.
Finally assume that .X; U / is totally bounded and let .X  ; U  / be the completion
of .X; U /. Fix an arbitrary set V 2 U  and apply Problem 103 to find a closed
W 2 U  with W  V . The set G D W \ .X  X / belongs to U , so there is a finite
A  X such that G.A/ D X .

2 Solutions of problems 001500

171

For any a 2 A the set Pa D W \ .fag  X  / is closed in fag  X  ; an evident



homeomorphism from fag  X  onto
in
S X takes Pa onto W .a/, so W .a/ is closed

X for any a 2 A. Thus W .A/ D fW .a/ W a 2 Ag is a closed subset of X  such
that X D G.A/  W .A/. The set X being dense in X  , we have W .A/ D X  ; this
proves that .X  ; U  / is totally bounded. Since .X  ; U  / is also complete, it has to
be compact, so we have finally established that a space .X; U / is totally bounded if
and only if its completion .X  ; U  / is compact.
V.131. Prove that a Tychonoff space X is pseudocompact if and only if every
uniformity U on the set X with U D .X / is totally bounded.
Solution. Suppose that X is pseudocompact and some uniformity U generates the
topology of X . Given U 2 U suppose that U.A/ X for any finite A  X and find
a symmetric set V 2 U such that V V V V  U (see Problem
103). Construct
S
by induction a set Y D fxn W n 2 !g  X such that xnC1 fU.xi / W i  ng for
every n 2 !.
To see that the family fV .xi / W i 2 !g is discrete fix a point x 2 X and suppose
that there are distinct i; j 2 ! such that V .x/ \ V .xi / ; and V .x/ \ V .xj / ;;
we can assume, without loss of generality, that i < j . If y 2 V .x/ \ V .xi / and
z 2 V .x/ \ V .xj / then f.xi ; y/; .y; x/; .x; z/; .z; xj /g  V (we used the fact that
V is symmetric). Thus .xi ; xj / 2 V V V V  U , i.e., xj 2 U.xi / which is
a contradiction with the choice of the set Y . This shows that Int.V .x// is an open
neighborhood of the point x (see Problem 103) which intersects at most one element
of the family fV .xi / W i 2 !g. Therefore fInt.V .xi // W i 2 !g is an infinite discrete
family of nonempty open subsets of X . This contradiction with pseudocompactness
of X proves that there is a finite A  X with U.A/ D X , i.e., .X; U / is totally
bounded and hence we established necessity.
For sufficiency, assume that every uniformity on the set X is totally bounded
whenever it generates the topology of X . The space X being Tychonoff, we can
fix a uniformity U on the set X such that U D .X /. If X is not pseudocompact
then there exists a continuous unbounded function f W X ! R; consider the set
Or D f.x; y/ 2 X  X W jf .x/  f .y/j < rg for each r > 0. It is clear that
Or D Or1 and Or Or  O2r for any r > 0. An easy consequence is that
the family U [ fOr W r > 0g generates a uniformity V on X as a subbase (see
Problem 102); let O D fOr W r > 0g.
Given a set W 2 V fix a point x 2 W ; there is V 2TV with VT
.x/  W . There
0
0
0
exist finite families
U

U
and
O

O
such
that
.
U
/
\
.
O/  V . It is
T
T
clear that U D U 0 2 U and O D O0 2 O, so fix r > 0 such that O D Or .
It follows from continuity of the function f that the set Or .x/ is open in X ; thus
the set Int.U.x// \ Or .x/ is an open neighborhood of x contained in V .x/  W .
The point x 2 W was chosen arbitrarily, so we proved that every point of W has
a neighborhood contained in W ; thus W is open in X , i.e., V  .X /. It follows
from U  V that .X / D U  V , so we have V D .X / and therefore the space
.X; V/ is totally bounded.

172

2 Solutions of problems 001500

Since O1 2 V, there exists a finite set A  X such that O1 .A/ D X ; let q D


maxfjf .x/j W x 2 Ag C 2. Given any y 2 X there is x 2 A with y 2 O1 .x/ and
hence jf .x/  f .y/j < 1; an immediate consequence is that jf .y/j  jf .x/j C 1 
q. It turns out that jf .y/j  q for any y 2 X , i.e., the function f is bounded. This
contradiction shows that X is pseudocompact, so we settled sufficiency.
V.132. For any Tychonoff space X let US
X be the family of all uniformities on the
set X which generate .X /. Note that UX can be considered a subbase of a
uniformity NX (called the universal uniformity) on the set X . Prove that
(i) the topology generated by NX coincides with .X / and hence NX 2 UX ;
(ii) if Y is a Tychonoff space and f W X ! Y is a continuous map then the map
f W .X; NX / ! .Y; V/ is uniformly continuous for any uniformity V 2 UY .
Solution. ItSis straightforward that all conditions of Problem 102 are satisfied for
the family UX , so it can, indeed, be considered a subbase for a uniformity NX
on the set X . Apply Problem 110 to fix a uniformity U on the set X such that
U D .X /. It follows from U  NX that .X / D U  NX .
To prove the opposite inclusion take anySO 2 NX and a point x 2 O; there
is N 2 NX with N.x/  O. The family UX being a subbase of NX we can
choose U1 ; : : : ; Un 2 UX and a set Ui 2 Ui for each i  n in such a way that
U D U1 \ : : : \ Un  N . It follows from Problem 103 that x 2 Wi D Int.Ui .x//
for every i  n, so W D W1 \ : : : \ Wn 2 .x; X /; since also W  N.x/  O,
we proved that every point of O has a neighborhood contained in O, i.e., O is open
in X and hence NX D .X / which shows that we have verified (i).
Now fix a space Y , a continuous map f W X ! Y and a uniformity V on
Y such that V D .Y /. Consider the family V 0 D f.f  f /1 .V / W V 2 Vg.
Given W D .f  f /1 .V / 2 V 0 there is a symmetric H 2 V with H  V . It is
straightforward that the set G D .f  f /1 .H / is symmetric and G 1 D G  W .
Furthermore, there is P 2 V such that P P  V ; an immediate consequence is
that, for the set Q D .f  f /1 .P /, we have Q Q  W .
This shows that the family M D NX [V 0 satisfies the conditions of Problem 102
and hence there is a uniformity W on the set X for which M is a subbase. It is clear
that .X / D NX  M . To show that also M  .X / take any O 2 M and
fix a point x 2 O; there is a set W 2 W with W .x/  O. The family M being a
: ; Nk 2 NX and H1 ; : : : ; Hl 2 V 0 such that, for the
subbase ofTW there are N1 ; : :T
sets N D ik Ni and H D il Hi , we have N \ H  W .
It is evident that N 2 NX and H 2 V 0 ; since NX generates the topology of X ,
there is Q 2 .x; X / with Q  N.x/ (see Problem 103). Take a set G 2 V such
that H D .f  f /1 .G/; since the set G.y/ is a neighborhood of y D f .x/ (see
Problem 103), there is a set P 2 .x; X / for which f .P /  G.y/; this implies that
P  H.x/ and therefore Q \ P is an open neighborhood of the point x contained
in the set N.x/ \ H.x/  W .x/  O. This proves that O is open in X and hence
W  .X /, i.e., W D .X /.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

173

As a consequence, W 2 UX which shows that W  NX and, in particular,


V 0  NX . In other words, .f  f /1 .V / 2 NX for any V 2 V; thus the map
f W .X; NX / ! .Y; V/ is uniformly continuous and hence we settled (ii).
V.133. Let X be a Tychonoff space. Prove that the following are equivalent:
(i) there exists a complete uniformity U on the set X such that U D .X /;
(ii) the universal uniformity on the space X is complete;
(iii) the space X is Dieudonn complete.
Solution. It is evident that (ii)H)(i). Assume that there exists a complete uniformity U on the set X such that U D .X / and apply Problem 113 to find a family
F D f.Mt ; Mt / W t 2 T g of uniformly metrizable spaces such that .X; U / is a
uniform subspace of the uniform productQ
.M; M/ of the family F. By, Problem 116,
the set X is closed in the product M D t2T Mt , so X is Dieudonn complete and
hence we established that (i)H)(iii).
Fact 1. Suppose that Z is a set and V; V 0 are uniformities on Z such that V  V 0
and V D V 0 . If .Z; V/ is complete then the space .Z; V 0 / is also complete.
Proof. Fix a filter E on the set Z which isTa Cauchy family in .Z; V 0 /. It is clear that
E is also a Cauchy family in .Z; V/, so fE W E 2 Eg ; (see Problem 114; the
closure is taken in the topology D V D V 0 ). Applying Problem 114 again we
conclude that .X; V 0 / is also complete so Fact 1 is proved.
Returning to our solution assume that there is a complete uniformity U on the set
X for which U D .X /. If N is the universal uniformity on X then N D .X /
and U  N , so we can apply Fact 1 to see that .X; N / is complete as well. This
settles (i)H)(ii), so (i) (ii).
Finally, if X is Dieudonn
Q complete then we can consider that X is a closed
subspace of a product M D t2T Mt of complete metric spaces (see TFS-459). If
t is the respective complete metric on Mt then the uniformity Mt on the set Mt ,
generated by t , is complete for any t 2 T (see Problems 111 and 118). Thus the
uniform product .M; M/ of the family f.Mt ; Mt / W t 2 T g is a complete uniform
space such that .M / D M (see Problems 105 and 117). The set X being closed
in M , the uniformity V generated on X from .M; M/ is complete by Problem 115.
Since X is a subspace of M , the topology V coincides with .X /. Thus, any
Dieudonn complete space X has a complete uniformity V with V D .X /, i.e.,
we showed that (iii)H)(i); this finishes our solution.
V.134. For any linear topological space L denote by 0L its zero vector and let
G.U / D f.x; y/ 2 L  L W x  y 2 U g for any U 2 .0L ; L/. Prove that
(i) the family BL D fG.U / W U 2 .0L ; L/g forms a base for a uniformity UL on
the set L (called the linear uniformity on L).
(ii) If M is a linear subspace of L then the linear uniformity UM on the set M
coincides with the subspace uniformity induced on M from L.

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

(iii) If L0 is a linear topological space then a map f W L ! L0 is uniformly


continuous if and only if, for any U 0 2 .0L0 ; L0 / there exists U 2 .0L ; L/
such that f .x/  f .y/ 2 U 0 for any x; y 2 L with x  y 2 U .
(iv) If L0 is a linear topological space then any linear continuous map f W
L ! L0 is uniformly continuous if L and L0 are considered with their linear
uniformities. In particular, any linear isomorphism between L and L0 is a
uniform isomorphism.
Solution. (i) Fix a set U 2 .0L ; L/; it follows from continuity of arithmetical
operations in L that U D fx W x 2 U g is an open neighborhood of 0L .
Therefore V D U \ .U / 2 .0L ; L/ and it is straightforward that G.V / D
.G.V //1  G.U /.
Apply continuity of operations in L once more to see that there exists a set W 2
.0L ; L/ such that W C W D fx C y W x; y 2 W g  U . If f.x; y/; .y; z/g 
G.W / then x  y 2 W and y  z 2 W , so x  z 2 W C W  U , i.e.,
.x; z/ 2 G.U /. This shows that G.W / G.W /  G.U /.
Now, if x; y 2 L and x y then x  y 0L , so there is U 2 .0L ; L/
such that x  y U and hence .x; y/ G.U /. This proves that the set
T
BL coincides with the diagonal of the space L. Since also G.U \ V / D
G.U / \ G.V / for any U; V 2 .0L ; L/, the family BL satisfies all premises of
Problem 101, so it indeed forms a base of a uniformity on L, i.e., (i) is proved.
(ii) Let GM .U / D f.x; y/ 2 M  M W x  y 2 U g for any U 2 .0L ; M /. It
is immediate that G.U / \ .M  M / D GM .U \ M / for any U 2 .0L ; L/;
this shows that fW \ .M  M / W W 2 BL g D BM . Given Q 2 UL there
is W 2 BL with W  Q; thus W 0 D W \ .M  M / 2 BL and hence
W 0  Q \ .M  M /. This proves that Q \ .M  M / belongs to UM for any
Q 2 UL , i.e., the uniformity induced on M from L is contained in the linear
uniformity of L.
Next take any Q 2 UM ; there is U 2 .0L ; M / such that GM .U /  Q.
Fix U 0 2 .L/ such that U 0 \ M D U : then W D G.U 0 / [ Q 2 UL and
W \ .M  M / D Q. Thus the subspace uniformity induced on M from L
coincides with UM , i.e., (ii) is proved.
(iii) Suppose that a map f W L ! L0 is uniformly continuous and fix a set U 0 2
.0L0 ; L0 /. The set W 0 D G 0 .U 0 / D f.z; t / 2 L0  L0 W z  t 2 U 0 g belongs to
UL0 , so there is W 2 UL such that .f  f /.W /  W 0 . The family BL being a
base of UL we can find U 2 .0L ; L/ for which G.U /  W . Now, if x; y 2 L
and x  y 2 U then .x; y/ 2 G.U /  W and therefore .f .x/; f .y// 2 W 0
which shows that f .x/  f .y/ 2 U 0 and hence we settled necessity.
For sufficiency assume that the second condition of (iii) is satisfied. Given any
W 0 2 UL0 there is U 0 2 .0L0 ; L0 / with G 0 .U 0 /  W 0 ; fix a set U 2 .0L ; L/
such that f .x/  f .y/ 2 U 0 whenever x  y 2 U ; it is easy to see that this
implies that .f  f /.G.U //  G 0 .U 0 /  W 0 . Since W D G.U / belongs to
UL , we established that f is uniformly continuous, so (iii) is proved.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

175

(iv) If f W L ! L0 is a continuous linear map then fix a set W 2 UL0 and any
U 0 2 .0L0 ; L0 / such that G 0 .U 0 /  W 0 . The map f being continuous at 0L
there is U 2 .0L ; L/ for which f .U /  U 0 ; let W D G.U /.
If .x; y/ 2 W then x  y 2 U and hence f .x/  f .y/ D f .x  y/ 2 f .U / 
U 0 which shows that .f .x/; f .y// 2 W 0 . Thus .f  f /.W /  W 0 and hence
the map f is uniformly continuous. This settles (iv) and makes our solution
complete.
V.135. Prove that the linear uniformity of RX coincides with the uniform product
of the respective family of real lines. Deduce from this fact that RX is the completion
of Cp .X / for any space X , so Cp .X / is complete as a uniform space if and only if
X is discrete.
Solution. Denote by L the linear uniformity on the space RX and let U be the
uniform product of the jX j-many real lines; the symbol 0 stands for the zero function
on X , i.e., 0 is the zero vector of RX . Recall that the natural projection px W RX ! R
of RX onto its factor determined by x is defined by px .f / D f .x/ for any f 2 RX .
Besides, O" D f.x; y/ 2 R2 W jx  yj < "g for all " > 0 and O D fO" W " > 0g is
the standard base of the linear uniformity on R.
Given an arbitrary set L 2 L there exists a set U 2 .0; RX / such that
G.U / D f.f; g/ 2 .Cp .X //2 W f  g 2 U g  L:
Making the set U smaller if necessary, we can assume that there are x1 ; : : : ; xn 2 X
and " > 0 suchT
that U D x1 ; : : : ; xn ; "
D ff 2 RX W jf .xi /j < " for all i  ng.
Then G.U / D f.pxi  pxi /1 .O" / W i  ng is an element of the standard base of
the uniform product (see Problem 105), so G.U / 2 U and hence L 2 U ; this proves
that L  U .
To prove the opposite inclusion take an arbitrary set W 2 U ; by the definition
of the uniform
product, there exist x1 ; : : : ; xn 2 X and "1 ; : : : ; "n > 0 such that
T
W 0 D f.pxi  pxi /1 .O"i / W i  ng  W . Now, if " D nnf"1 ; : : : ; "n g and
U D x1 ; : : : ; xn ; "
then it is straightforward that G.U /  W 0  W and hence
W 2 L, i.e., we proved that U D L.
By Problem 134, the space Cp .X / with its linear uniformity is a dense uniform
subspace of RX ; the space RX being complete by Problem 117, we can apply
Problem 121 to conclude that RX is canonically isomorphic to the completion of
the uniform space Cp .X /.
Finally, if X is discrete then Cp .X / D RX is complete by Problem 117; if,
on the other hand, the uniform space Cp .X / is complete then its closed in RX by
Problem 116, so Cp .X / D RX and hence X is discrete (see Fact 1 of S.265).
V.136. Prove that Cp .X / is  -totally bounded as a uniform space if and only if X
is pseudocompact. More formally, X is pseudocompact ifS
and only if there exists a
family fCn W n 2 !g  exp.Cp .X // such that Cp .X / D fCn W n 2 !g and each
Cn is totally bounded considered as a uniform subspace of Cp .X /. In particular, if
Cp .X / is uniformly isomorphic to Cp .Y / then the space X is pseudocompact if and
only if so is Y .

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

Solution. Suppose first that the space X is pseudocompact and consider the set
Cn D ff 2 Cp .X / W f .x/ 2 n; S
n
g for any n 2 !. It follows from
pseudocompactness of X that Cp .X / D fCn W n 2 !g; besides, every Cn is
dense in the compact set Kn D n; n
X .
Let Un (or Vn respectively) be the subspace uniformity induced on Kn (or Cn
respectively) from RX . Then .Cn ; Vn / is a dense uniform subspace of .Kn ; Un /. The
space .Kn ; Un / is compact and hence complete by Problem 130; apply Problem 121
to see that .Kn ; Un / is the completion of .Cn ; Vn /, so .Cn ; Vn / is totally bounded
by Problem 130. It is easy to see that Vn is also the subspace uniformity induced
on Cn from Cp .X / (see Problems 134 and 135). Therefore every Cn is a totally
bounded uniform subspace of Cp .X /, so Cp .X / is  -totally bounded. This proves
sufficiency.
Fact 1. Given uniform spaces .Y; V/ and .Z; W/ suppose that f W Y ! Z is a
uniformly continuous surjective map and .Y; V/ is totally bounded. Then .Z; W/ is
totally bounded as well.
Proof. If W 2 W then there is V 2 V such that .f  f /.V /  W . The space
.Y; V/ being totally bounded there is a finite set A  Y for which V .A/ D Y . The
set B D f .A/  Z is finite; given any z 2 Z fix y 2 Y with f .y/ D z. There
exists a 2 A such that y 2 V .a/ and hence .a; y/ 2 V . Let b D f .a/; then b 2 B
and .f .a/; f .y// D .b; z/ 2 W , so z 2 W .b/. This shows that W .B/ D Z and
hence .Z; W/ is totally bounded, so Fact 1 is proved.
Fact 2. The space R! with its linear uniformity is not  -totally bounded.
Proof. For every n 2 ! the natural projection pn W R! ! R onto the n-th factor
is uniformly continuous (see Problems 106 and 135; each factor is also considered
with its linear uniformity).
S
Assume that R! D n2! Cn and every subspace Cn is totally bounded. If rn 2
Rnpn .Cn / for each n 2S! then define a point x 2 R! by letting x.n/ D rn for all
n 2 !. Then x 2 R! n. n2! Cn / which is a contradiction. Thus there exists m 2 !
such that pm .Cm / D R. The map pm jCm W Cm ! R is also uniformly continuous,
so R is totally bounded by Fact 1. Since R is also complete, it has to be compact
(see Problem 130); this contradiction shows that R! is not  -totally bounded, i.e.,
Fact 2 is proved.
Returning to our solution assume that the uniform space Cp .X / is  -totally
bounded. If X is not pseudocompact then there is a closed discrete faithfully indexed
set D D fdn W n 2 !g  X which is C -embedded in X . The restriction map
 W Cp .X / ! RD is continuous, surjective, linear and hence uniformly continuous
(see Problem 134). This, together with Fact 1, implies that RD is  -totally bounded.
The space RD is linearly (and hence uniformly) isomorphic to R! , so R! is  -totally
bounded. This contradiction with Fact 2 shows that X is pseudocompact and hence
we proved necessity.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

177

Finally note that if Cp .X / and Cp .Y / are uniformly isomorphic then Cp .X / is


 -totally bounded if and only if so is Cp .Y /; therefore the space X is pseudocompact if and only if so is Y .
u

V.137. Observe that X  Y implies X  Y . Given an example of t -equivalent


spaces X and Y which are not u-equivalent.
Solution. If ' W Cp .X / ! Cp .Y / is a uniform isomorphism then it is also a homet
omorphism by Problem 104. Therefore X  Y , i.e., we proved that u-equivalence
implies t -equivalence.
Next observe that R is t -equivalent to 0; 1
by Problem 027; every space
u-equivalent to the compact (and hence pseudocompact) space 0; 1
has to be
pseudocompact by Problem 136, so X D R and Y D 0; 1
are t -equivalent spaces
which are not u-equivalent.
V.138. Suppose that Cp .X / is uniformly isomorphic to Cp .Y /. Prove that X is
compact if and only if so is Y .
t

Solution. Assume that X is compact; we have X  Y by Problem 137, so the


space Y is  -compact by Problem 043. It follows from Problem 136 that Y is
pseudocompact and hence compact. Analogously, compactness of Y also implies
compactness of X , so X is compact if and only if so is Y .
V.139. Suppose that the spaces X and Y are u-equivalent. Prove that there exists
a homeomorphism ' W RX ! RY such that '.Cp .X // D Cp .Y /.
Solution. Let  W Cp .X / ! Cp .Y / be a uniform isomorphism. The uniform
spaces RX and RY being the completions of Cp .X / and Cp .Y / respectively
(see Problem 135) we can apply Problem 120 to conclude that there exists a
uniform isomorphism ' W RX ! RY such that 'jCp .X / D  and hence
'.Cp .X // D .Cp .X // D Cp .Y /. It follows from Problem 104 that the map '
is a homeomorphism.
V.140. Let F D fF1 ; : : : ; Fk g be a family of functionally closed subsets of a
Tychonoff space X . Suppose that fU1 ; : : : ; Uk g is a family of functionally open
subsets of X such that Fi  Ui for each i . Prove that the family F has a functionally
open swelling fW1 ; : : : ; Wk g such that Fi  Wi  W i  Ui for each i  k.
Solution. Observe first that a functionally open set is the same as a cozero set (see
Fact 1 of T.252) and the concept of a functionally closed set coincides with the
concept of a zero-set by Fact 1 of S.499.
Fact 1. Given disjoint functionally closed sets F and G in a space Z there exists
a function f 2 C.Z; 0; 1
/ such that f .F /  f0g and f .G/  f1g. In particular,
there exist functionally open sets O.F / and O.G/ and disjoint functionally closed
sets P .F /; P .G/ such that F  O.F /  P .F / and G  O.G/  P .G/.
1
Proof. Take uF ; uG 2 C.Z; 0; 1
/ such that F D u1
F .0/ and G D uG .0/. Then
uF
uF C uG is strictly positive on Z, so the function f D uF CuG is well defined and

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

continuous on Z. It is evident that f .x/ D 1 for any x 2 G and f .x/ D 0 whenever


x 2 F . Therefore the sets O.F / D f 1 .0; 13 // and P .F / D f 1 .0; 13
/ together
with the sets O.G/ D f 1 .. 23 ; 1
/ and P .G/ D f 1 . 23 ; 1
/ constitute the promised
functionally open (closed) neighborhoods of the sets F and G respectively, so Fact 1
is proved.
Fact 2. Suppose that F is functionally closed in a space Z and O is a functionally
open subset of Z for which F  O. Then there is a functionally open set G  Z
such that F  G  G  O.
Proof. The sets F and X nO are functionally closed and disjoint; this makes it
possible to apply Fact 1 to find disjoint functionally open sets G and G 0 such
that F  G and X nO  G 0 . It follows from G \ G 0 D ; that G  O, so
F  G  G  O and hence Fact 2 is proved.
S
Returning to our solution consider the set 1 D
fP W there exist distinct
numbers i1 ; : : : ; im 2 f2; : : : ; kg such that P D Fi1 \ : : : \ Fim and P \ F1 D ;g.
The set 1 is functionally closed being a finite union of functionally closed sets (see
Fact 1 of S.499); since also 1 \ F1 D ;, we can find a function f1 2 C.X; 0; 1
/
for which f1 .F1 /  f0g and f .1 /  f1g (see Fact 1). The set K1 D f11 .0; 12
/ is
functionally closed and the family F1 D fK1 ; F2 ; : : : ; Fk g is a swelling of F.
Proceeding by induction assume that 1  n < k and we have constructed
functions f1 ; : : : ; fn 2 C.X; 0; 1
/ with the following properties:
(1) fi .Fi /  f0g for any i  n;
(2) if Ki D fi1 .0; 12
/ for each i  n then the family fK1 ; : : : ; Kn ; FnC1 ; : : : ; Fk g
is a swelling of F.
S
For the family Fn D fK1 ; : : : ; Kn ; FnC1 ; : : : ; Fk g let nC1 D fP W there exist
P1 ; : : : ; Pm 2 Fn nfFnC1 g such that P D P1 \: : :\Pm and P \FnC1 D ;g. The set
nC1 being functionally closed and disjoint from FnC1 we can apply Fact 1 again
to find fnC1 2 C.X; 0; 1
/ such that fnC1 .FnC1 /  f0g and fnC1 .nC1 /  f1g.
1
If KnC1 D fnC1
.0; 12
/ then FnC1 D fK1 ; : : : ; Kn ; KnC1 ; FnC2 ; : : : ; Fk g is
easily seen to be a swelling of Fn ; since Fn is a swelling of F, the family FnC1
is a swelling of F as well, so our inductive procedure can be continued to construct
functions f1 ; : : : ; fk 2 C.X; 0; 1
/ such that the properties (1) and (2) are fulfilled
for n D k. In particular, K D fK1 ; : : : ; Kk g is a swelling of F.
If Hi D fi1 .0; 12 // then the set Hi is functionally open for every i  k and
the family H D fH1 ; : : : ; Hn g is also a swelling of F. Apply Fact 2 to find a
functionally open set Wi for which Fi  Wi  W i  Hi \ Ui for every i  k;
then fW1 ; : : : ; Wk g is the promised swelling of F, so our solution is complete.
V.141. Let F D fF1 ; : : : ; Fk g be a family of closed subsets of a normal space X .
Suppose that fU1 ; : : : ; Uk g is a family of open subsets of X such that Fi  Ui for
each i  k. Prove that the family F has an open swelling fW1 ; : : : ; Wk g such that
Fi  Wi  W i  Ui for each i  k.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

179

S
Solution. Consider the set 1 D fP W there exist i1 ; : : : ; im 2 f2; : : : ; kg such
that P D Fi1 \ : : : \ Fim and P \ F1 D ;g. The set 1 is closed and disjoint from
F1 ; by normality of the space X we can find a function f1 2 C.X; 0; 1
/ for which
f1 .F1 /  f0g and f .1 /  f1g. The set K1 D f11 .0; 12
/ is closed and the family
F1 D fK1 ; F2 ; : : : ; Fk g is a swelling of F.
Proceeding by induction assume that 1  n < k and we have constructed
functions f1 ; : : : ; fn 2 C.X; 0; 1
/ with the following properties:
(1) fi .Fi /  f0g for any i  n;
(2) if Ki D fi1 .0; 12
/ for each i  n then the family fK1 ; : : : ; Kn ; FnC1 ; : : : ; Fk g
is a swelling of F.
S
For the family Fn D fK1 ; : : : ; Kn ; FnC1 ; : : : ; Fk g let nC1 D fP W there exist
P1 ; : : : ; Pm 2 Fn nfFnC1 g such that P D P1 \ : : : \ Pm and P \ FnC1 D ;g. The
set nC1 is closed and disjoint from FnC1 ; the space X being normal we can find a
function fnC1 2 C.X; 0; 1
/ such that fnC1 .FnC1 /  f0g and fnC1 .nC1 /  f1g.
1
If KnC1 D fnC1
.0; 12
/ then FnC1 D fK1 ; : : : ; Kn ; KnC1 ; FnC2 ; : : : ; Fk g is
easily seen to be a swelling of Fn ; since Fn is a swelling of F, the family FnC1
is a swelling of F as well, so our inductive procedure can be continued to construct
functions f1 ; : : : ; fk 2 C.X; 0; 1
/ such that the properties (1) and (2) are fulfilled
for n D k. In particular, K D fK1 ; : : : ; Kk g is a swelling of F.
If Hi D fi1 .0; 12 // then the set Hi is open for every i  k and the family
H D fH1 ; : : : ; Hn g is also a swelling of F. By normality of X we can find an open
set Wi for which Fi  Wi  W i  Hi \ Ui for all i  k; then fW1 ; : : : ; Wk g is the
promised swelling of F.
V.142. Let U D fU1 ; : : : ; Uk g be a functionally open cover of a Tychonoff space X .
Prove that U has shrinkings F D fF1 ; : : : ; Fk g and W D fW1 ; : : : ; Wk g such that
F is functionally closed, W is functionally open and Fi  Wi  W i  Ui for every
i  k.
Solution. Consider the set Pi D X nUi for each i  k. Then all elements of the
family P D fP1 ; : : : ; Pk g are functionally closed, so we can apply Problem 140 to
find a functionally open swelling O D fO1 ; : : :T
; Ok g of the family
T P. If Fi D X nOi
then Fi  Ui for all i  k; it follows from P D ; that O D ; and hence
the family F D fF1 ; : : : ; Fk g covers X , i.e., F is a functionally closed shrinking
of U . By Fact 2 of V.140 there exists a functionally open set Wi such that Fi 
Wi  W i  Ui for each i  k; it is evident that the functionally open family
W D fW1 ; : : : ; Wk g is also a shrinking of U .
V.143. Let U D fU1 ; : : : ; Uk g be an open cover of a normal space X . Prove that
U has shrinkings F D fF1 ; : : : ; Fk g and W D fW1 ; : : : ; Wk g such that F is closed,
W is open and Fi  Wi  W i  Ui for every i  k.
Solution. Consider the set Pi D X nUi for each i  k. Then all elements of the
family P D fP1 ; : : : ; Pk g are closed in X , so we can apply Problem 141 to find an
open swelling O D fO1 ; : : : ; OkT
g of the family T
P. If Fi D X nOi then Fi  Ui
for all i  k; it follows from P D ; that O D ; and hence the family

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

F D fF1 ; : : : ; Fk g covers X , i.e., F is a closed shrinking of U . By normality of X


there exists an open set Wi such that Fi  Wi  W i  Ui for each i  k; it is
evident that the family W D fW1 ; : : : ; Wk g is also a shrinking of U .
V.144. Prove that, for any Tychonoff space X , the following conditions are
equivalent:
(i) dim X  n;
(ii) every finite functionally open cover of X has a finite functionally closed
refinement of order  n C 1;
(iii) every finite functionally open cover of X has a functionally closed shrinking of
order  n C 1;
(iv) every finite functionally open cover of X has a functionally open shrinking of
order  n C 1.
Solution. Suppose that dim X  n and take a finite functionally open cover U
of the space X . There exists a finite functionally open refinement V of the family
U of order at most n C 1; take a faithful enumeration fV1 ; : : : ; Vk g of the family
V. It follows from Problem 142, that V has a functionally closed shrinking F D
fF1 ; : : : ; Fk g. It is straightforward that the order of F is at most n C 1; the family F
being a refinement of V, it is also a refinement of U , so we proved that (i)H)(ii).
Now, if (ii) holds then take a functionally open cover U D fU1 ; : : : ; Uk g of the
space X . There exists a functionally closed refinement F of the family U of order
at mostSn C 1. For any F 2 F fix a number i.F / such that F  Ui.F / and let
Gj D fF 2 F W i.F / D j g for every j  k. The family G D fG1 ; : : : ; Gk g
is a functionally closed shrinking of U . If there are distinct j1 ; : : : ; jnC2 such that
P D Gj1 \ : : : \ GjnC2 ; then pick a point x 2 P . There are F1 ; : : : ; FnC2 2 F
such that x 2 F1 \ : : : \ FnC2 and i.Fm / D jm for every m  n C 2.
Therefore F1 ; : : : ; FnC2 are distinct elements of F with nonempty intersection. This
contradiction with ord.F/  nC1 shows that ord.G/  nC1, so G is a functionally
closed shrinking of U of order at most n C 1, i.e., we established that (ii)H)(iii).
Next assume that the condition (iii) is satisfied and take a functionally open cover
U D fU1 ; : : : ; Uk g of the space X . There exists a functionally closed shrinking
F D fF1 ; : : : ; Fk g of the family U such that ord.F/  n C 1. By Problem 140
there exists a functionally open swelling V D fV1 ; : : : ; Vn g of the family F such
that Vi  V i  Ui for each i  k. Thus V is a functionally open shrinking of U
of order at most n C 1, i.e., we settled (iii)H)(iv). The implication (iv)H)(i) is
evident, so our solution is complete.
V.145. Prove that, for any normal X , the following conditions are equivalent:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)

dim X  n;
every finite open cover of X
every finite open cover of X
every finite open cover of X
every finite open cover of X

has a finite open refinement of order  n C 1;


has a finite closed refinement of order  n C 1;
has a closed shrinking of order  n C 1;
has an open shrinking of order  n C 1.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

181

Solution. Suppose that dim X  n and U D fU1 ; : : : ; Uk g is an open cover of X .


It follows from Problem 143 that U has a closed shrinking F D fF1 ; : : : ; Fk g. By
Fact 5 of V.100 we can choose a functionally open set Vi such that Fi  Vi  Ui for
every i  k. It is evident that V D fV1 ; : : : ; Vk g is a functionally open refinement of
U . Since dim X  n, the family V has a finite functionally open refinement W with
ord.W/  n C 1; it is clear that W is also an open refinement of U , so (i)H)(ii) is
proved.
Now assume that (ii) holds and take a finite open cover U of the space X . There
exists a finite open refinement V of the family U of order at most n C 1; take a
faithful enumeration fV1 ; : : : ; Vk g of the family V. It follows from Problem 143,
that V has a closed shrinking F D fF1 ; : : : ; Fk g. It is straightforward that the order
of F is at most n C 1; the family F being a refinement of V, it is also a refinement
of U , so we proved that (ii)H)(iii).
Next suppose that (iii) holds and take an open cover U D fU1 ; : : : ; Uk g of the
space X . There exists a closed refinement F of the family U of order at most n C 1.
For any set F 2 F fix a number i.F / such that F  Ui.F / and consider the set Gj D
S
fF 2 F W i.F / D j g for every j  k. The family G D fG1 ; : : : ; Gk g is a closed
shrinking of U . If there are distinct j1 ; : : : ; jnC2 such that P D Gj1 \: : :\GjnC2 ;
then pick a point x 2 P . There are F1 ; : : : ; FnC2 2 F such that x 2 F1 \ : : : \ FnC2
and i.Fm / D jm for every m  n C 2. Therefore F1 ; : : : ; FnC2 are distinct elements
of F with nonempty intersection. This contradiction with ord.F/  n C 1 shows
that ord.G/  n C 1, so G is a closed shrinking of U of order at most n C 1, i.e., we
established that (iii)H)(iv).
If the property (iv) holds then take an open cover U D fU1 ; : : : ; Uk g of the
space X . There exists a closed shrinking F D fF1 ; : : : ; Fk g of the family U such that
ord.F/  n C 1. By Problem 141 there exists an open swelling V D fV1 ; : : : ; Vn g of
the family F such that Vi  V i  Ui for each i  k. Thus V is an open shrinking
of U of order at most n C 1, i.e., we settled (iv)H)(v).
Finally, assume that the condition (v) is satisfied and fix a functionally open cover
U D fU1 ; : : : ; Uk g of the space X . Take an open shrinking V D fV1 ; : : : ; Vk g of the
family U such that ord.V/  n C 1; it follows from Problem 143 that we can find
a closed shrinking F D fF1 ; : : : ; Fk g of the family V. Apply Fact 5 of V.100 again
to find a functionally open set Wi such that Fi  Wi  Vi for all i  k. It is
easy to see that W D fW1 ; : : : ; Wk g is a functionally open shrinking of U with
ord.W/  n C 1, so dim X  n by Problem 144; this settles (v)H)(i) and hence
our solution is complete.
V.146. Suppose that X is a Tychonoff space and Y is a C  -embedded subset of X .
Prove that dim Y  dim X . In particular, if X is normal then dim F  dim X for
any closed F  X .
Solution. Our statement is clear if dim X D 1, so assume dim X  n 2 !.
Take a functionally open cover U D fU1 ; : : : ; Um g of the space Y ; by Problem 142
the family U has a functionally closed shrinking F D fF1 ; : : : ; Fm g. Apply Fact 1
ofV.140 to find a function fi 2 C.Y; 0; 1
/ such that fi .Fi /  f1g and fi .Y nUi / 
f0g for every i  m. The set Y being C  -embedded in X there exist g1 ; : : : ; gm 2

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

C.X / for which gi jY D fi for every i  m. Let u.x/ D 1 for all x 2 X ; if


hi D max.u  1; nn.gi ; u// then hi 2 C.X; 0; 1
/ andThi jY D fi for each i  m.
1
Every set Oi D h1
fh1
i ..0; 1
/ is open in X ; if O D
i .0; 2 // W i  mg then
O D fO; O1 ; : : : ; Om g is a functionally open cover of X ; observe that Oi \ Y  Ui
for all i  m. By Problem 144 we can find a functionally closed shrinking P D
fP; P1 ; : : : ; Pm g of the cover O such that ord.P/  n C 1. However, O \ Y D ;
which shows that P \ Y D ; and therefore fP1 \ Y; : : : ; Pm \ Y g is a functionally
closed shrinking of U of order at most n C 1. Applying Problem 144 again we
conclude that dim.Y /  n, so dim Y  dim X . Finally, if X is normal and F is
closed in X then F is even C -embedded in X , so dim F  dim X .
V.147. Prove that dim X D dim X for any Tychonoff space X . Deduce from this
fact that dim X D dim Y for any Y with X  Y  X .
Solution. Since X is C  -embedded in X , the inequality dim X  dim X is a
consequence of Problem 146.
Fact 1. Given a Tychonoff space Z, suppose that F1 ; : : : ; Fm are functionally
closed subsets of Z such that F1 \: : :\Fm D ;. Then clZ .F1 /\: : :\clZ .Fm / D ;.
Proof. Suppose that there exists a point z 2 clZ .F1 / \ : : : \ clZ .Fm / and fix a
function fi 2 Cp .Z; 0; 1
/ such that Fi D fi1 .0/ for every i  m. It follows from
F1 \ : : : \ Fm D ; that the function f D f1 C : : : C fm is strictly positive at any
point of Z, so gi D ffi 2 Cp .Z; 0; 1
/ and gi .Fi /  f0g for each i  m. Besides,
Pm
iD1 gi .x/ D 1 for any x 2 Z.
Let u.x/ D 1 for any x 2 Z. There exists a function hi 2 Cp .Z; 0; 1
/ such
that hi jZ D gi ; it follows from gi .Fi /  f0g that
P hi .clZ .Fi //  f0g and hence
hi .z/ D P
0 for every i  m. The function h D m
iD1 hi is continuous on Z and
m
hjZ D
g
D
ujZ;
the
set
Z
being
dense
in Z we have h D u and, in
iD1 i
particular, h.z/ D 1. This contradiction with hi .z/ D 0 for every i  m shows that
clZ .F1 / \ : : : \ clZ .Fm / D ; and hence Fact 1 is proved.
To prove that dim X  dim X suppose that dim X  n; if n D 1 then there is
nothing to prove. If n 2 !, take an open cover U D fU1 ; : : : ; Um g of the space X .
By Problem 143, there exists a functionally open shrinking W D fW1 ; : : : ; Wm g of
the cover U such that W i  Ui for every i  m (the bar denotes the closure in
X ). The cover fX \ Wi W i  mg of the space X has a functionally open (in X )
shrinking fV1 ; : : : ; Vm g of order at most n C 1 (see Problem 144).
Consider the set Oi D X nX nVi ; it is straightforward that Oi is open in X and
Oi \ X D Vi for each i  m. Therefore O i D V i  W i  Ui for every i  m.
The
of functionally closed subsets of X and
T family F D fX nVi W i  mg consists T
F D ;. Apply Fact 1 to conclude that fX nVi W i  mg D ; and hence the
family O D fO1 ; : : : ; Om g is a cover of X .
Next, assume that i1 ; : : : ; inC2 are distinct elements of f1; : : : ; mg and the set
H D Oi1 \ : : : \ OinC2 is nonempty. The space X being dense in X , we have
H \ X D Vi1 \ : : : VinC2 ;, i.e., the order of the family fV1 ; : : : ; Vm g is at least

2 Solutions of problems 001500

183

n C 2 which is a contradiction. Thus O is an open shrinking of U of order  n C 1,


so dim X  n by Problem 145. Therefore dim X  dim X and hence we proved
that dim X D dim X for any space X .
Finally, observe that if X  Y  X then Y D X by Fact 1 of S.393, so
dim Y D dim Y D dim X D dim X and hence our solution is complete.
V.148. Prove that a Tychonoff space X is strongly zero-dimensional if and only if
X is normal and dim X D 0. Give an example of a Tychonoff space X such that
dim X D 0 while X is not strongly zero-dimensional.
Solution. It is evident that, dim X D 0 for any strongly zero-dimensional space
X ; besides, X has to be normal by SFFS-308. This proves necessity. Now if X is
normal and dim X D 0 then take any open cover U D fU1 ; : : : ; Um g of the space
X . By Problem 145, there exists an open shrinking V of order 1 of the cover U ; this,
evidently, implies that the family V is an open disjoint refinement of U , i.e., X is
strongly zero-dimensional.
Fact 1. Given an uncountable cardinal  let D fx 2 D W jx 1 .1/j  !g. Then
P D D n is a pseudocompact non-countably compact (and hence non-normal)
dense subspace of D .
Proof. We will need the zero element u 2 D defined by u./ D 0 for all < .
For any A   let A 2 D be the characteristic function of A, i.e., A ./ D 1 for
every 2 A and A ./ D 0 whenever A. Let 1 D fx 2 D W jx 1 .0/j  !g.
It is easy to see that 1 covers all countable faces of D , so it is pseudocompact by
Fact 2 of S.433. Furthermore, 1  P is a dense subspace of D , so P is dense in
D and pseudocompact by Fact 18 of S.351.
To see that P is not countably compact choose a disjoint family fAn W n 2 !g
of subsets of  such that jAn j D  and let xn D An for any n 2 !. The set
fxn W n 2 !g  P is closed and discrete in P because the sequence fxn W n 2 !g
converges to u P . Therefore P is not countably compact and hence not normal
by TFS-137 which shows that Fact 1 is proved.
Returning to our solution apply Fact 1 to take a pseudocompact non-normal
dense subspace X  D!1 . It follows from Fact 2 of S.309 that X D D!1 . Apply
SFFS-303 and SFFS-306 to see that the space D!1 is strongly zero-dimensional and
hence dim.D!1 / D 0. As a consequence, dim X D dim X D dim.D!1 / D 0 (see
Problem 147); however, X is not strongly zero-dimensional because it is not normal.
V.149. Prove that dim X D 0 implies that X is zero-dimensional. Give an example
of a zero-dimensional space Y such that dim Y > 0.
Solution. If dim X D 0 then dim X D dim X D 0 (see Problem 147); the space
X being compact and hence normal, we can apply Problem 148 to see that X is
strongly zero-dimensional and hence zero-dimensional by SFFS-309. Therefore X
is also zero-dimensional by SFFS-301. To give the required example observe that it
follows from SFFS-309 that there exists a normal zero-dimensional space Y which
is not strongly zero-dimensional; it follows from Problem 148 that dim Y > 0.

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

V.150 (The countable sum theorem for normal spaces). Given n 2 !, suppose
that a normal space X has a countable closed cover F such that dim F  n for
every F 2 F. Prove that dim X  n.
Solution. Take an enumeration fFi W i 2 Ng of the family F and fix an open cover
U D fU1 ; : : : ; Um g of the space X . Let Uk0 D Uk for every k  m; then U0 D
fU10 ; : : : ; Um0 g is an open cover of X . Suppose that l 2 ! and we have constructed
open covers U0 ; : : : ; Ul of the space X with the following properties:
(1) Ui D fU1i ; : : : ; Umi g for every i  l;
(2) UkiC1  Uki for any i < l and k  m;
(3) if i 2 f1; : : : ; lg then the order of the family fU1i \ Fi ; : : : ; Umi \ Fi g does not
exceed n C 1.
Apply Problem 143 to find an open shrinking fV1 ; : : : ; Vm g of the family Ul such
that V k  Ukl for every k  m. The family V D fV1 \ FlC1 ; : : : ; Vm \ FlC1 g is an
open cover of the space FlC1 , so there exists an open shrinking W D fW1 ; : : : ; Wm g
(in the space FlC1 ) of the cover V such that ord.W/  n C 1 (see Problem 145).
It is easy to check that UklC1 D .Vk nFlC1 / [ Wk is an open subset of X for
each k  m and UlC1 D fU1lC1 ; : : : ; UmlC1 g is a cover of X such that the properties
(1)(3) hold for all i  l C 1. Therefore our inductive procedure can be continued
to construct a sequence fUi W i 2 !g of open covers of X such that the conditions
(1)(3) are satisfied for all i 2 !.
T
T
It follows from (2) that the set Hk D i2! Uki D i2! Uki is closed in X and
Hk  Uk for every k  m. An easy consequence of (3) is that the order of the
family H D fH1 ; : : : ; Hm g does not exceed n C 1.
Given any point x 2 X and i 2 ! there is ki  m such that x 2 Ukii , so we can
choose k  m and an infinite A  ! such that ki D k for all i 2 A. This, together
with the property (2), implies that x 2 Uki for all i 2 !, i.e., x 2 Hk . Thus H is a
closed shrinking of the cover U of order at most n C 1; applying Problem 145 we
conclude that dim X  n.
V.151 (General countable sum theorem). Given n 2 !, suppose that we have a
closed countable cover F of a Tychonoff space X such that
(i) every F 2 F is C  -embedded in X ;
(ii) dim F  n for each F 2 F.
Prove that dim X  n; give
S an example of a Tychonoff non-normal space Y such
that dim Y > 0 and Y D fYi W i 2 !g, where Yi is closed in Y and dim Yi D 0
for every i 2 !.
Solution. For any F 2 F let H.F / D clX .F /; since H.F / is homeomorphic to
F (see Fact 2 ofS
S.451), we have dim.H.F // D dim F  n (see Problem 147).
The space Z D fH.F / W F 2 Fg is  -compact and hence normal while the
family H D fH.F / W F 2 Fg is a countable closed cover of Z and dim H  n for
every H 2 H. Therefore we can apply Problem 150 to see that dim Z  n; since
X  Z  X , we conclude that dim X D dim Z  n (see Problem 147).

2 Solutions of problems 001500

185

Finally,Srecall that it was proved in SFFS-312 that there exists a space Y such
that Y D fYi W i 2 !g and every Yi is closed in Y and strongly zero-dimensional
while Y is not zero-dimensional and hence dim Y > 0 (see Problem 149). It follows
from Problem 148 that dim Yi D 0 for each i 2 !, so Y is our promised example.
V.152. Give an example of a compact (and hence normal) space X such that
dim X D 0 while dim Y > 0 for some Y  X .
Solution. There exists a zero-dimensional space Y such that dim Y > 0 (see
Problem 149). By SFFS-303, we can assume that Y  D for some cardinal .
If X D D then X is compact and dim X D 0 (see SFFS-303, Problem 148 and
SFFS-306), so X is as promised.
V.153. Give an example of a Tychonoff space X such that dim X D 0 and there
exists a closed set Y  X with dim Y > 0.
Solution. Fix a zero-dimensional space Y such that dim Y > 0 (see Problem 149).
By SFFS-303 and SFFS-306 we can assume that Y  D for some uncountable
cardinal . Let D fx 2 D W jx 1 .1/j  !g and take a set A   such that jAj D
jnAj D . Define a point u 2 DnA by letting u./ D 1 for every 2 nA. It is
straightforward that the set H D fug  DA is homeomorphic to D and H  D n.
Therefore we can assume that Y  H .
The set is dense in D and covers all countable faces of D , so D D
(see Fact 2 of S.433 and Fact 2 of S.309). If X D [ Y then  X  ,
so X D D D by Fact 1 of S.393. Therefore dim X D dim.D / D 0 (see
Problem 147); the set H being closed in D , the equality Y D H \ X shows that
Y is closed in X . Thus X is a space with dim X D 0 such that dim Y > 0 for some
closed subspace Y  X .
V.154. Let X be a normal space with dim X  n. Given a subspace Y  X,
suppose that, for every open U  Y , there exists an F -set P such that
Y  P  U . Prove that dim Y  n.
Solution. Fix an open cover U D fU1 ; : : : ; Uk g of the space Y and choose, for
every i 2 f1; : : : ; kg a set Vi 2 .X / such that Vi \ Y D Ui . Then Y is contained
in the set V D V1 [ : : : [ Vk , so we can find an F -set P in the space X such that
Y P V.
S
The space P is normal by Fact 1 of S.289. Besides, P D i2! Pi where every
Pi is closed in X and hence dim Pi  n (see Problem 146); therefore dim P  n
by Problem 150. Apply Problem 143 to find a closed shrinking fF1 ; : : : ; Fk g of the
open cover fV1 \ P; : : : ; Vk \ P g of the space P . There exist functionally open sets
W1 ; : : : ; Wk in the space P such that Fi  Wi  Vi \ P for every i  k (see Fact 6
of V.100).
The functionally open cover fW1 ; : : : ; Wk g of the space P has a functionally
open shrinking O D fO1 ; : : : ; Ok g such that ord.O/  n C 1 (see Problem 144). It
is evident that fO1 \ Y; : : : ; Ok \ Y g is a functionally open refinement of U of order
at most n C 1, so dim Y  n.

186

2 Solutions of problems 001500

V.155. Prove that, for any perfectly normal space X , we have dim Y  dim X for
any Y  X . In particular, dim Y  dim X for any subspace Y of a metrizable
space X .
Solution. If dim X D 1 then there is nothing to prove, so assume that n 2 ! and
dim X D n. If Y  X then any U 2 .Y; X / is an F -subset of X because X is
perfect. Therefore Problem 154 is applicable to conclude that dim Y  n D dim X .
V.156. Given n 2 ! and a Tychonoff space X , prove that dim X  n if and only
if, for any family f.A0 ; B0 /; : : : ; .An ; Bn /g of n C 1 pairs of disjoint functionally
closed sets, it is possible to choose, for each i  n, a functionally closed partition
Ci between Ai and Bi in such a way that L0 \ : : : \ Ln D ;.
Solution. Say that a space Z has .n C 1/-partition property if, for any family
f.P0 ; Q0 /; : : : ; .Pn ; Qn /g of pairs of disjoint functionally
T closed subsets of Z there
exist functionally closed sets R0 ; : : : ; Rn such that in Ri D ; while Ri is a
partition between Pi and Qi for every i  n. We must prove that dim X  n if and
only if our space X has .n C 1/-partition property.
Fact 1. Given a space Z and a natural number m we have dim Z  m if and only if
any functionally open cover U D fU0 ; : : : ; UmC1
Tg of the space Z has a functionally
open shrinking V D fV0 ; : : : ; VmC1 g such that imC1 Vi D ;.
Proof. If dim Z  m and U D fU0 ; : : : ; UmC1 g is a functionally open cover of Z
then it has a functionally open shrinking
T V D fV0 ; : : : ; VmC1 g with ord.V/  m C 1
(see Problem 144). It is evident that imC1 Vi D ;, so we proved necessity.
To establish sufficiency assume that every functionally open cover of Z of
cardinality m C 2 has a functionally open shrinking with empty intersection and
take an arbitrary functionally open cover O D fO0 ; : : : ; Ok g of the space Z.
Given a functionallyTopen cover W D fW0 ; : : : ; Wk g of Z a set B  f0; : : : ; kg
is W-irregular if i2B Wi ; but there exists
T a functionally open shrinking
W 0 D fW00 ; : : : ; Wk0 g of the family W such that i2B Wi0 D ;. Let r0 be the number
of O-irregular subsets. Proceeding inductively, assume that p  0 and we have a
sequence O0 ; : : : ; Op of functionally open covers of the space Z with the following
properties:
(1) O0 D O and OiC1 is a shrinking of Oi for all i < p;
(2) if ri is the number of Oi -irregular sets then riC1 < ri for all i < p.
If rp > 0 then take an Op -irregular set B andTa functionally open shrinking
OpC1 D fO00 ; : : : ; Ok0 g of the cover Op such that i2B Oi0 D ;. It is evident that
B is not OpC1 -irregular set and any OpC1 -irregular set is also Op -irregular. This
shows that the number rpC1 of OpC1 -irregular sets is strictly less than rp , so our
inductive procedure can be continued as long as rp > 0. Since there are only finitely
many O0 -irregular sets, at some step we will obtain a functionally open shrinking
V D fV0 ; : : : ; Vk g of the family O for which there are no V-irregular sets. In other
words, the family V is a swelling of any of its functionally open shrinkings.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

187

If ord.V/  mC1 then we already have the needed refinement of the family O. If
not, assume
without loss of generality that V0 \ : : : \ VmC1 ; and consider the set
S
G D fVi W mC1  i  kg. By our assumption about Z there exists a functionally
open shrinking H D fH0 ; : : : ; HmC1 g of the cover fV0 ; : : : ; Vm ; Gg such that
T
H D ;. Then the family H0 D fH0 ; : : : ; Hm ; HmC1 \ VmC1 ; : : : ; HmC1 \ Vk g
0
is a functionally open shrinking of V; since V is a swelling
T of H , we must have
H0 \ : : : \ Hm \ .HmC1 \ VmC1 / ; which contradicts H D ;.
Thus any finite functionally open cover of Z has a functionally open shrinking
of order at most m C 1, so dim Z  m; this settles sufficiency and shows that Fact 1
is proved.
Fact 2. Given a space Z suppose that C  Z is a functionally closed set such that
ZnC D U [ V where U; V 2 .Z/ and U \ V D ;. Then both sets U and V are
functionally open.
Proof. Fix a function f 2 C.Z/ such that C D f 1 .0/ and define a function g W
Z ! R as follows: g.x/ D f .x/ for any x 2 U and g.x/ D 0 whenever x 2 ZnU .
If f0 D gj.U [ C / and f1 D Gj.V [ C / then f0 and f1 are continuous because
f0 D f j.U [C / and f1 is identically zero on V [C . Since dom.f0 /\dom.f1 / D C
and f0 jC D f1 jC , we can apply Fact 2 of T.354 to see that g is continuous. Since
U D Zng 1 .0/, the set U is functionally open in Z. An analogous reasoning shows
that the set V is also functionally open, so Fact 2 is proved.
Fact 3. For any space Z if A and B are functionally closed disjoint subsets of Z
then there exists a functionally closed partition C between the sets A and B.
Proof. By Fact 1 of V.140 there exist disjoint functionally open sets U and V such
that A  U and B  V ; it is evident that the set C D X n.U [ V / is as promised,
so Fact 3 is proved.
Returning to our solution assume that X has .n C 1/-partition property and take
a functionally open cover U D fU0 ; : : : ; UnC1 g of the space X . Fix a functionally
closed shrinking F D fF0 ; : : : ; FnC1 g of the cover U (see Problem 142). There
exists a family fC0 ; : : : ; Cn g of functionally closed sets T
such that Ci is a partition
between the sets Fi and X nUi for every i  n and in Ci D ;. For every
i  n take disjoint sets Vi 2 .Fi ; X / and Wi 2 .X nUi ; X / such that
X n.Vi [ WiS
/ D Ci . The sets Wi and Vi are functionally open for every i  n (see
Fact 2) and Sin .Wi [ Vi / D X .
If W D in Wi then V D fV0 ; : : : ; Vn ; UnC1 S
\ W g is a functionally open
shrinking of U . Indeed, if x V0 [ : : : [ Vn then x in Fi , so x 2 FnC1 because
F is T
a cover of X ; besides, x 2 W and hence x 2 W \ FnC1  W \ UnC1 . Now, if
x 2 V then x 2 W and hence x 2 Wi for some iT n; since also x 2 Vi , we have
Vi \ Wi ; which is a contradiction. Therefore V D ; and hence dim X  n
by Fact 1; this settles sufficiency.
Now assume that dim X  n and take a family
f.A0 ; B0 /; : : : ; .An ; Bn /g of pairs
S
of disjoint functionally closed sets. If B D in Bi then B \ A0 \ : : : \ An D ;,
so the sets O0 D X nA0 ; : : : ; On D X nAn ; OnC1 D X nB constitute a functionally

188

2 Solutions of problems 001500

0
open cover of X . Choose a functionally
shrinking O0 D fO00 ; : : : ; OnC1
g of
T open
0
the cover O D fO0 ; : : : ; OnC1 g with O D ; (see Fact 1) and take a functionally
closed shrinking fP0 ; : : : ; PnC1 g of the family O (see Problem 142). Letting Ui D
X nPi for all i  n C 1 we obtain a functionally open
T cover U D fU0 ; : : : ; UnC1 g of
the space X such that Ai  Ui for all i  n and U D ;; let Vi D Ui nBi for each
i  n.
It is easy to check that V D fV0 ; : : : ; Vn ; UnC1 g is a functionally open cover of X ;
take a functionally closed shrinking F D fF0 ; : : : ; FnC1 g of the cover V. For every
i  n consider the functionally closed sets A0i D Ai [Fi and Bi0 D Bi [.FnC1 nUi /;
it is easy
that Ai  A0i ; Bi  Bi0 andTA0i \ Bi0 D ;. Given
a point x 2 X , if
S to check
T
0
x in Ai then x 2 FnC1 ; it follows from U D ; that
.
U
S in i / \ FnC1 D ;,
so x 2 FnC1 nUi  Bi0 for some i  n. This proves that in .A0i [ Bi0 / D X . Fix
a functionally closed partition Ci between the sets A0i and Bi0 (see Fact T
3); then Ci
is also
a
partition
between
the
sets
A
and
B
for
every
i

n.
Besides,
i
i
in Ci 
S
X n in .A0i [ Bi0 / D ;. Therefore X has .n C 1/-partition property, i.e., we have
established necessity and hence our solution is complete.

V.157. Given a natural n  0 and a normal space X , prove that dim X  n if and
only if, for any family f.A0 ; B0 /; : : : ; .An ; Bn /g of n C 1 pairs of disjoint closed sets,
it is possible to choose, for each i  n, a partition Ci between Ai and Bi in such a
way that L0 \ : : : \ Ln D ;.
Solution. Say that a space Z has .n C 1/-partition property if, for any family
f.P0 ; Q0 /; : : : ; .Pn ; Qn /g of
T pairs of disjoint closed subsets of Z there exist closed
sets R0 ; : : : ; Rn such that in Ri D ; while Ri is a partition between Pi and Qi
for every i  n. We must prove that dim X  n if and only if our space X has
.n C 1/-partition property.
Fact 1. Given a normal space Z and a natural number m we have dim Z  m if and
only if any open cover U D fUT
0 ; : : : ; UmC1 g of the space Z has an open shrinking
V D fV0 ; : : : ; VmC1 g such that imC1 Vi D ;.
Proof. If dim Z  m and U D fU0 ; : : : ; UmC1 g is an open cover of Z then it has an
open shrinking
T V D fV0 ; : : : ; VmC1 g with ord.V/  m C 1 (see Problem 145). It is
evident that imC1 Vi D ;, so we proved necessity.
To establish sufficiency assume that every open cover of Z of cardinality m C 2
has an open shrinking with empty intersection and take an arbitrary open cover
O D fO0 ; : : : ; Ok g of the space Z. Given an open cover
T W D fW0 ; : : : ; Wk g of Z,
but there exists
a set B  f0; : : : ; kg will be called W-irregular if i2B Wi ; T
an open shrinking W 0 D fW00 ; : : : ; Wk0 g of the family W such that i2B Wi0 D ;.
Let r0 be the number of O-irregular subsets. Proceeding inductively, assume that
p  0 and we have a sequence O0 ; : : : ; Op of open covers of the space Z with the
following properties:
(1) O0 D O and OiC1 is a shrinking of Oi for all i < p;
(2) if ri is the number of Oi -irregular sets then riC1 < ri for all i < p.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

189

If rp > 0 then we can find an Op -irregular set B  T


f0; : : : ; kg and an open
shrinking OpC1 D fO00 ; : : : ; Ok0 g of the cover Op such that i2B Oi0 D ;. It is clear
that B is not OpC1 -irregular set and any OpC1 -irregular set is also Op -irregular.
This shows that the number rpC1 of OpC1 -irregular sets is strictly less than rp ,
so our inductive procedure can be continued as long as rp > 0. Since there are
only finitely many O0 -irregular sets, at some step we will obtain an open shrinking
V D fV0 ; : : : ; Vk g of the family O for which there are no V-irregular sets. In other
words, the family V is a swelling of any of its open shrinkings.
If ord.V/  m C 1 then we already have the needed refinement of the family O.
If not, assume
S without loss of generality that V0 \ : : : \ VmC1 ; and consider the
set G D fVi W m C 1  i  kg. By our assumption about Z there exists
T an open
shrinking H D fH0 ; : : : ; HmC1 g of the cover fV0 ; : : : ; Vm ; Gg such that H D ;.
The family H0 D fH0 ; : : : ; Hm ; HmC1 \VmC1 ; : : : ; HmC1 \Vk g is an open shrinking
of V; since V is a swelling
of H0 , we have H0 \ : : : \ Hm \ .HmC1 \ VmC1 / ;
T
which contradicts H D ;.
Thus any finite open cover of Z has an open shrinking of order at most m C 1,
so dim Z  m; this settles sufficiency and shows that Fact 1 is proved.
Fact 2. For any normal space Z if A and B are closed disjoint subsets of Z then
there exists a closed partition C between the sets A and B.
Proof. By normality of Z there exist disjoint open sets U and V such that A  U
and B  V ; it is evident that the set C D X n.U [ V / is as promised, so Fact 2 is
proved.
Returning to our solution assume that X has .n C 1/-partition property and
take an open cover U D fU0 ; : : : ; UnC1 g of the space X . Fix a closed shrinking
F D fF0 ; : : : ; FnC1 g of the cover U (see Problem 143). There exists a family
fC0 ; : : : ; Cn g of closed
T sets such that Ci is a partition between the sets Fi and X nUi
for every i  n and in Ci D ;. For every i  n take disjoint
sets Vi 2 .Fi ; X /
S
and Wi 2 .X
nU
;
X
/
such
that
X
n.V
[
W
/
D
C
;
then
.W
i
i
i
i [ Vi / D X .
in
S i
If W D in Wi then V D fV0 ; : :S
: ; Vn ; UnC1 \ W g is an open shrinking of U .
Indeed, if x V0 [ : : : [ Vn then x in Fi , so x 2 FnC1 because F is aTcover of
X ; besides, x 2 W and hence x 2 W \ FnC1  W \ UnC1 . Now, if x 2 V then
x 2 W and hence x 2 Wi for some iT n; since also x 2 Vi , we have Vi \ Wi ;
which is a contradiction. Therefore V D ; and hence dim X  n by Fact 1; this
settles sufficiency.
Now assume that dim X  nS
and take a family f.A0 ; B0 /; : : : ; .An ; Bn /g of pairs
of disjoint closed sets. If B D in Bi then B \ A0 \ : : : \ An D ;, so the sets
O0 D X nA0 ; : : : ; On D X nAn ; OnC1 D X nB constitute an open cover of X .
0
0
0
Choose
T an0 open shrinking O D fO0 ; : : : ; OnC1 g of the cover O D fO0 ; : : : ; OnC1 g
with O D ; (see Fact 1) and take a closed shrinking fP0 ; : : : ; PnC1 g of the
family O (see Problem 143). Letting Ui D X nPi for all i  n C 1 we obtain an
open
T cover U D fU0 ; : : : ; UnC1 g of the space X such that Ai  Ui for all i  n and
U D ;; let Vi D Ui nBi for each i  n.

190

2 Solutions of problems 001500

It is easy to check that V D fV0 ; : : : ; Vn ; UnC1 g is an open cover of X ; take a


closed shrinking F D fF0 ; : : : ; FnC1 g of the cover V. For every i  n consider
the closed sets A0i D Ai [ Fi and Bi0 D Bi [ .FnC1 nUi /; it is easy
that
S to check
0
Ai  A0i ; Bi  Bi0 andTA0i \Bi0 D ;. Given
a
point
x
2
X
,
if
x

A
then
x
2
in i
T
FnC1 ; it follows from U D ; thatS. in Ui / \ FnC1 D ;, so x 2 FnC1 nUi  Bi0
for some i  n. This proves that in .A0i [ Bi0 / D X . Fix a closed partition Ci
between the sets A0i and Bi0 (see FactT2); then Ci is also
S a partition between the sets
Ai and Bi for every i  n. Besides, in Ci  X n in .A0i [ Bi0 / D ;. Therefore
X has .n C 1/-partition property, i.e., we have established necessity and hence our
solution is complete.
V.158. Let X be a normal space. Prove that dim X  n if and only if, for any closed
F  X and any continuous map f W F ! S n , there exists a continuous map g W
X ! S n such that gjF D f . Here S n D f.x0 ; : : : ; xn / 2 RnC1 W x02 C: : :Cxn2 D 1g
is the n-dimensional sphere with the topology inherited from RnC1 .
Solution. Given m 2 ! say that a space Z has .m C 1/-partition property if, for
any family f.P0 ; Q0 /; : : : ; .Pm ; Qm /g T
of pairs of disjoint closed subsets of Z there
exist closed sets R0 ; : : : ; Rm such that im Ri D ; while Ri is a partition between
Pi and Qi for every i  m. A space Z will be called an S m -extensor if, for every
closed F  Z and any continuous map f W F ! S m there exists a continuous
map g W Z ! S m such that gjF D f . The set Bm D fx 2 ImC1 W jx.i /j D 1 for
some i  mg is the boundary of the .m C 1/-dimensional cube ImC1 . Let Pim D
fx 2 ImC1 W x.i / D 1g and Qim D fx 2 ImC1 W x.i / D 1g be the respective
faces of ImC1 for every i  m. We must prove that, for a normal space X , we have
dim X  n if and only if X is an S n -extensor.
Fact 1. For any m 2 !, a normal space Z is an S m -extensor if and only if Z is an
S m -extensor.
Proof. Suppose first that Z is an S m -extensor and fix a closed set K  Z. If
f W K ! S m is a continuous map then there exists a set O 2 .K; Z/ and a
continuous map f0 W O ! S m such that f0 jK D f (see Fact 1 of V.093). The
space Z being normal we can find an open subset W of the space Z for which
K  W  W  O (the bar denotes the closure in Z).
The set F D W \ Z is closed in Z and the map f1 D f0 jF W F ! S m is
continuous; the space Z being an S m -extensor, we can choose g0 2 C.Z; S m / such
that g0 jF D f1 . Since the space S m is compact, there exists a continuous map
g W Z ! S m for which gjZ D g0 .
The functions g1 D gjW and h D f0 jW are continuous; besides, the set F is
dense in W and g1 jF D g0 jF D f1 D f0 jF D hjF . An immediate consequence
is that g1 D h; recalling that K  W , we conclude that gjK D g1 jK D hjK D f ,
so g is a continuous extension of f and hence Z is an S m -extensor; this proves
necessity.
Now, if Z is an S m -extensor then fix a closed set F in the space Z and a
continuous function f W F ! S m . The set F is canonically homeomorphic to
F (see Fact 2 of S.451), so there exists a continuous map f0 W F ! S m such

2 Solutions of problems 001500

191

that f0 jF D f . The space Z being an S m -extensor, there is a continuous map


g0 W Z ! S m with g0 jF D f0 . Therefore g D g0 jZ W Z ! S m is a continuous
map such that gjF D f ; this settles sufficiency and shows that Fact 1 is proved.
Fact 2. Given a continuous map f W Y ! Z suppose that A; B  Y and a set
C 0  Z is a partition between f .A/ and f .B/. Then C D f 1 .C 0 / is a partition
between A and B.
Proof. There exist disjoint sets U 0 2 .f .A/; Y / and V 0 2 .f .B/; Y / such that
Y n.U 0 [ V 0 / D C 0 . If U D f 1 .U 0 / and V D f 1 .V 0 / then the sets U and V
are disjoint while U 2 .A; X /; V 2 .B; X / and C D X n.U [ V /, so C is a
partition between A and B, i.e., Fact 2 is proved.
Returning to our solution suppose that dim X  n; then dim X  n by
Problem 147, so the space X has the .n C 1/-partition property (see Problem 157).
This makes it possible to apply Fact 7 of V.100 to see that X is an S n -extensor, so
X is also an S n -extensor by Fact 1. This proves necessity.
Now assume that X is an S n -extensor and fix a family f.A0 ; B0 /; : : : ; .An ; Bn /g
of pairs of disjoint closed subsets of X . Using normality of X it is easy to find a
continuous function 'i W X ! I such that 'i .Ai /  f1g and 'i .Bi /  f1g for
all i  n. The diagonal product ' D in 'i W X ! InC1 is continuous while
n
'.Ai /  Pin and
S '.Bi /  Qi for each i1 n.
Therefore in .Ai [ Bi /  F D ' .Bn /. The space Bn being homeomorphic
to S n (see Fact 1 of V.094) there exists a continuous map h W X ! Bn such
that hjF D 'jF . The set Ci0 D fx 2 InC1 W x.i / D 0g is, evidently, a partition
between the sets Pin and Qin , so Ci0 is also a partition between '.Ai / D h.Ai /
and '.Bi / D h.Bi /; by Fact 1, the setTCi D h1 .Ci0 / is a partition between the
sets Ai and Bi for all i  n. If x 2 in CT
i then h.x/.i / D 0 for all i  n;
this contradiction with h.x/ 2 Bn shows that in Ci D ; and hence we proved
that X has .n C 1/-partition property. This, together with Problem 157, shows that
dim X  n, so we established sufficiency and hence our solution is complete.
V.159. Prove that dim.In / D dim.Rn / D dim.S n / D n for any n 2 N. Here
S n D f.x0 ; : : : ; xn / 2 RnC1 W x02 C : : : C xn2 D 1g is the n-dimensional sphere with
the topology inherited from RnC1 .
Solution. Given m 2 ! say that a space Z has .mC1/-partition property if, for any
family f.P0 ; Q0 /; : : : ; .Pm ; Qm /g T
of pairs of disjoint closed subsets of Z there exist
closed sets R0 ; : : : ; Rm such that im Ri D ; while Ri is a partition between Pi
and Qi for every i  m. The set Bm D fx 2 ImC1 W jx.i /j D 1 for some i  mg is
the boundary of the .m C 1/-dimensional cube ImC1 .
Observe first that the set G D fx 2 InC1 W x.n/ D 1g is a subspace of Bn
homeomorphic to In , so In embeds in Bn ; the spaces S n and Bn are homeomorphic
by Fact 1 of V.094, so In embeds in S n and hence dim.In /  dim.S n / (see
Problem 155).

192

2 Solutions of problems 001500

The space .1; 1/n  In is homeomorphic to Rn , so Rn embeds in In and


therefore dim.Rn /  dim.In /. It follows from In  Rn that dim.In /  dim.Rn /, so
dim.In / D dim.Rn /  dim.S n /.
There exist zero-dimensional spaces A0 ; : : : ; An such that S n D A0 [ : : : [ An
(see Fact 8 of V.100), so the space S n has .n C 1/-partition property by Fact 4
of V.100. Now apply Problem 157 to see that dim.S n /  n. It was proved in
Problem 094 that the space In does not have n-partition property; this, together
with Problem 157, implies that dim.In / > n  1. Therefore n  1 < dim.In / D
dim.Rn /  dim.S n /  n which shows that dim.In / D dim.Rn / D dim.S n / D n.
V.160. Given n 2 N prove that, for any set X  Rn , we have dim X D n if and
only if the interior of X in Rn is nonempty.
Solution. For any number m 2 N and x; y 2 Rm such that x D .x1 ; : : : ; xm / and
y D .y1 ; : : : ; ym /, let x y D .x
q1 y1 ; : : : ; xm ym / and .x; y/ D x1 y1 C : : : C

2 and tx D .tx ; : : : ; tx / for any


xm ym ; as usual, we let jxjm D x12 C : : : C xm
1
m
m
t 2 R. Denote by 0m the point of R whose all coordinates are equal to zero. We
use the symbol P to denote the set of irrational numbers. If L is a linear space then
0L is the zero vector of L.

Fact 1. Suppose that A; B  R are countable dense subsets and f W A ! B


is a bijection such that a < b implies f .a/ < f .b/. Then there exists a unique
homeomorphism h W R ! R such that hjA D f and x < y implies h.x/ < h.y/.
Proof. If h0 ; h1 2 C.R/ and h0 jA D f D h1 jA then h0 D h1 by Fact 0 of S.351;
this proves that the promised homeomorphism is unique (if it exists).
To establish existence, for any x 2 R let h.x/ D supff .a/ W a 2 A and a < xg.
Observe first that h.x/ is well defined for if q > x and q 2 A then f .q/ is an upper
bound for the set ff .a/ W a 2 A; a < xg. It is immediate from the definitions that
h.a/  f .a/ for any a 2 A. If h.a/ < f .a/ then, by density of B D f .A/ there
is a0 2 A such that h.a/ < f .a0 / < f .a/; then a0 < a and therefore f .a0 /  h.a/
which is a contradiction. Thus h.a/ D f .a/ for every a 2 A. If x; y 2 R and x < y
then take a; b 2 A such that x < a < b < y. Then h.x/  f .a/ < f .b/  h.y/,
so we proved that
(1) hjA D f and h.x/ < h.y/ whenever x < y and, in particular, h is injective.
Now, take any point t 2 R and consider the set P D fb 2 B W b < t g. Since
f is a bijection, there is a 2 A for which f .a/ > t ; then x < a for any x 2
f 1 .P /. Therefore the point y D sup.f 1 .P // is well defined; if x < y and
x 2 A then there is z 2 f 1 .P / with x < z, so f .x/ < f .z/ < t which shows that
f .x/ < t and therefore h.y/  t . If h.y/ < t then there is c 2 A such that h.y/ <
f .c/ < t . Thus c 2 f 1 .P / and hence c  sup.f 1 .P // D y, so f .c/  h.y/,
a contradiction. This proves that h.y/ D t and hence h W R ! R is a bijection. It
follows from (1) that h..a; b// D .h.a/; h.b// and h1 ..a; b// D .h1 .a/; h1 .b//
for any a; b 2 R with a < b. Therefore h is a homeomorphism, so Fact 1 is proved.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

193

Fact 2. If k 2 N then any linear subspace of Rk is closed in Rk ; besides, if L  Rk


is a linear subspace and Int.L/ ; then L D Rk .
Proof. If L is a linear subspace of Rk then there are linearly independent vectors
w1 ; : : : ; wl 2 Rk such that L is the linear hull of fw1 ; : : : ; wl g. There exist vectors
fwlC1 ; : : : ; wk g such that W D fw1 ; : : : ; wk g is a linear basis in Rk (see Fact 1 of
S.489). For any i D 1; : : : ; k, let ei D .e1i ; : : : ; eki / 2 Rk be the point for which
eii D 1 and eji D 0 whenever i j . Take a set faji W i; j 2 f1; : : : ; kgg  R
such that ei D a1i w1 C : : : C aki wk for every i  k. It is straightforward that
P
i
L D fx D .x1 ; : : : ; xk / 2 Rk W kiD1 xi am
D 0 for all m D l C 1; : : : ; kg, so L is
closed being a finite intersection of inverse images of zero under linear (and hence
continuous) functions on Rk .
Now suppose that p 2 L belongs to the interior of L in Rk and let '.x/ D x  p
for all x 2 Rk . It is clear that ' W Rk ! Rk is a homeomorphism such that '.L/ 
L and '.p/ D 0k . Therefore 0k also belongs to the interior of L and hence there is
" > 0 such that B D fx 2 Rk W jxjk < "g  L. Thus 2" ei 2 B  L for every i  k;
the family f 2" ei W i  kg  L being a basis in Rk , we have L D Rk , so Fact 2 is
proved.
Fact 3. Suppose that m  2 is a natural number and L is an m-dimensional linear
space.
S If Lk is an .m  1/-dimensional linear subspace of L for any k 2 ! then
Ln k2! Lk ;.
Proof. Fix a linear basis fe1 ; : : : ; em g in the space L. If x D .x1 ; : : : ; xm / 2 Rm
let '.x/ D x1 e1 C : : : C xm em ; then the map ' W Rm ! L is an isomorphism, so
Mk D ' 1 .Lk / is an .m  1/-dimensional linear subspace of Rm for every k 2 !.
m
Every set Mk is nowhere dense in Rm by
the Baire
S Fact 2; since the space R hasS
k
property, we can find a point y 2 R n i2! Mi . Then x D '.y/ 2 Ln k2! Lk ,
so Fact 3 is proved.
Fact 4. Suppose that m  2 is a natural number and L is an m-dimensional linear
space. If P  Lnf0L g is a countable set then there exists an .m  1/-dimensional
linear subspace M  L such that M \ P D ;.
Proof. Fix a linear basis fe1 ; : : : ; em g in the space L. If x D .x1 ; : : : ; xm / 2 Rm
let '.x/ D x1 e1 C : : : C xm em ; then the map ' W Rm ! L is an isomorphism, so
Q D ' 1 .P / is a countable subset of Rm . The set M c
D fx 2 Rm W .x; c/ D 0g
m
is a proper linear subspace of Rm , so it is closed and nowhere
S dense in R for any
m
c 2 Q (see Fact 2). By Fact 3 there is a vector x 2 R n fM c
W c 2 Qg; then
R D M x
is an .m  1/-dimensional linear subspace of Rm with R \ Q D ;.
Therefore M D '.R/ is an .m  1/-dimensional linear subspace of L such that
M \ P D ;, so Fact 4 is proved.
Fact 5. Suppose that m 2 N and L is an m-dimensional linear space. Then, for any
countable P  Lnf0L g there exists a linear basis E D fe1 ; : : : ; em g in the space L
such that for every p 2 P all coordinates of p with respect to E are nonzero, i.e.,
there are p1 ; : : : ; pm 2 Rnf0g such that p D p1 e1 C : : : C pm em .

194

2 Solutions of problems 001500

Proof. If m D 1 then any basis will do so assume that m > 1. Apply Fact 4 to
find an .m  1/-dimensional linear subspace M  L such that M \ P D ;;
let E 0 D fe1 ; : : : ; em1 g be a linear basis in M . Denote by Hi .p/ the linear hull
of the set .E 0 nfei g/ [ fpg; then Hi .p/ is an .m  1/-dimensional linear subspace
of L for any i S
 m  1 and p 2 P . Apply Fact 3 to see that there exists a point
em 2 Ln.M [ fHi .p/ W i  m  1; p 2 P g/.
It is evident that E D fe1 ; : : : ; em g is a linear basis in L. Take any p 2 P ; then
p D p1 e1 C : : : C pm em for some p1 ; : : : ; pm 2 R. If pj D 0 then 1  j  m  1
because p does not belong to M . Therefore em D p1m .p1 e1 C : : : C pm1 em1  p/
belongs to the linear hull of the set .E 0 nfej g/ [ fpg which is a contradiction with
the choice of em . Therefore pi 0 for any i  m, i.e., the basis E is as promised,
so Fact 5 is proved.
Fact 6. Given m 2 N suppose that L is an m-dimensional linear space and P  L
is a countable set. Then there exists a linear basis E D fe1 ; : : : ; em g in the space L
such that P is in general position with
P respect to E, i.e.,
P for any distinct p; q 2 P
if p1 ; q1 ; : : : ; pm ; qm 2 R and p D im pi ei ; q D im qi ei then pi qi for
all i  m.
Proof. The set A D fp  q W p; q 2 P and p qg  Lnf0L g is countable,
so we can apply Fact 5 to find a linear basis E D fe1 ; : : : ; em g in L such that all
coordinates with respect to E of every element of A are distinct from zero. It is clear
that E is as promised, so Fact 6 is proved.
Fact 7. If n 2 N and P  Rn is a countable set then there is homeomorphism
' W Rn ! Rn such that '.P / is in general position, i.e., for any distinct p; q 2 '.P /
if p D .p1 ; : : : ; pn / and q D .q1 ; : : : ; qn / then pi qi for all i  n.
Proof. By Fact 6, there is a linear basis E D fw1 ; : : : ; wn g in the space Rn such that
P is in general position with respect to E. Let fe1 ; : : : ; en g be the standard linear
basis of Rn , i.e., ei D .e1i ; : : : ; eni / while eii D 1 and eji D 0 whenever i and j are
distinct elements of f1; : : : ; ng.
Choose a set faji W i; j 2 f1; : : : ; ngg  R such that ei D a1i w1 C : : : C ani wn
for every i  n. For each point x D .x1 ; : : : ; xn / 2 Rn let '.x/ D .y1 ; : : : ; yn /
where yj D x1 aj1 C : : : C xn ajn for all j  n. The map ' W Rn ! Rn is a linear
homeomorphism and the coordinates of every '.p/ coincide with the coordinates
of p with respect to E. Therefore '.P / is as promised, so Fact 7 is proved.
Fact 8. For any n 2 N, if A and B are countable dense subspaces of Rn then there
exists a homeomorphism h W Rn ! Rn such that h.A/ D B.
Proof. By Fact 7, there is no loss of generality to assume that both A and B are in
general position; let fak W k 2 !g and fbk W k 2 !g be some faithful enumerations of
A and B respectively. We will choose inductively new faithful enumerations fck D
.c1k ; : : : ; cnk / W k 2 !g and fdk D .d1k ; : : : ; dnk / W k 2 !g of the sets A and B
respectively in such a way that

2 Solutions of problems 001500

195

(2) fa0 ; : : : ; ak g  fc0 ; : : : ; c2k g and fb0 ; : : : ; bk g  fd0 ; : : : ; d2k g for any k 2 !;
(3) .cik  cil /.dik  dil / > 0 for any distinct k; l 2 ! and i  n.
To start off, let c0 D a0 and d0 D b0 and suppose that we have chosen points
fc0 ; : : : ; c2m g  A and fd0 ; : : : ; d2m g  B, so that the property (2) is fulfilled for
all k  m and the property (3) holds for all distinct k; l  2m.
Take the minimal j 2 N for which aj fc0 ; : : : ; c2m g and let c2mC1 D aj . For
every i  n the set Oi D ft 2 R W .ci2mC1  cik /.t  dik / > 0 for all k  2mg is a
nonempty open interval of R, so O D O1  : : :  On is a nonempty open subset of
Rn which shows that we can choose a point d2mC1 2 .Bnfd0 ; : : : ; d2m g/ \ O.
Take the minimal l 2 N for which bl fd0 ; : : : ; d2mC1 g and let d2mC2 D bl .
The set Ui D ft 2 R W .t  cik /.di2mC2  dik / > 0 for all k  2m C 1g is a
nonempty open interval of R, so U D U1  : : :  Un is a nonempty open subset of
Rn ; choose a point c2mC2 2 Anfa0 ; : : : ; a2mC1 g/ \ U . It is straightforward that the
condition (2) is fulfilled for k  m C 1 and (3) holds for all distinct k; l  2m C 2,
so our inductive procedure can be continued to construct sequences fck W k 2 !g
and fdk W k 2 !g with the properties (2) and (3). It follows from (2) and (3) that
these sequences constitute a faithful enumeration of the sets A and B respectively.
Let Ci D fcik W k 2 !g and Di D fdik W k 2 !g; letting fi .cik / D dik for any
k 2 ! we obtain a bijection fi W Ci ! Di for every i  n. An easy consequence of
(3) is that t < s implies fi .t / < fi .s/ for any i  n and t; s 2 Ci . Therefore Fact 1
is applicable to find a homeomorphism hi W R ! R such that hi is strictly increasing
and hi jCi D fi for all i  n. The diagonal product h D in hi W Rn ! Rn is a
homeomorphism and it is immediate that h.A/ D B, so Fact 8 is proved.
Fact 9. The set Z.k; m/ D fx D .x1 ; : : : ; xm / 2 Rm W jfi  m W xi 2 Pgj D kg is
zero-dimensional for all m 2 N and k 2 f0; : : : ; mg.
Proof. Let H.r1 ; : : : ; rmk ; i1 ; : : : ; imk / D f.x1 ; : : : ; xm / 2 Z.k; m/ W xij D rj
for all j  m  kg for any r1 ; : : : ; rmk 2 Q and distinct i1 ; : : : ; imk 2 f1; : : : ; mg.
Every set H.r1 ; : : : ; rmk ; i1 ; : : : ; imk / is zero-dimensional being homeomorphic
to the space Pk . Besides, the family H D fH.r1 ; : : : ; rmk ; i1 ; : : : ; imk / W ri 2 Q
for each
S i  mk and i1 ; : : : ; imk are distinct elements of f1; : : : ; mgg is countable
and H D Z.k; m/.
Now, if H D H.r1 ; : : : ; rmk ; i1 ; : : : ; imk / is any element of H then the set
F D fx 2 Rm W xij D rj for all j  m  kg is closed in Rm ; it is easy to see that
F \ Z.k; m/ D H and hence every H 2 H is closed in Z.k; m/. Finally apply
SFFS-311 and SFFS-306 to conclude that Z.k; m/ is zero-dimensional. Fact 9 is
proved.
Returning to our solution assume that the interior of X is nonempty; then there
is a point a 2 X and " > 0 such that the ball G D fx 2 Rn W jx  ajn < "g is
contained in X . The ball G is homeomorphic to the set G0 D fx 2 Rn W jxjn < "g.
"
n
n
If '.x/ D 2n
x for any x 2 Rn then
p map ' W R ! R is"a homeomorphism;
p
n
given any x 2 I we have jxjn  n and hence j'.x/jn  2n n D 2p" n < "
which shows that '.In /  G0 and hence dim G0  dim.In / D n (see Problem 155
and Problem 159). Since G0  Rn , we have dim G0  dim.Rn / D n, so dim G0 D

196

2 Solutions of problems 001500

dim G D n. It follows from G  X  Rn that we can apply Problem 155 again to


conclude that n D dim G  dim X  dim.Rn / D n and hence dim X D n. This
proves sufficiency.
For necessity observe first that Rn nQn D Z.1; n/ [ : : : [ Z.n; n/, so Fact 9
together with Fact 4 of V.100 imply that P D Rn nQn has the n-partition property
and hence dim P  n  1 by Problem 157. If X  Rn and Int.X / D ; then
Rn nX is dense in Rn ; choose a countable dense set B  Rn nX . Then B is dense
in Rn and X  Rn nB. Apply Fact 8 to find a homeomorphism h W Rn ! Rn
such that h.B/ D Qn . Then hj.Rn nB/ is a homeomorphism between Rn nB and P ;
as a consequence, dim.Rn nB/ D dim P  n  1. Finally, apply Problem 155 to
conclude that dim X  dim.Rn nB/  n  1; this settles necessity and completes
our solution.
V.161. Prove that, for any Tychonoff space X and n 2 !, we have dim X  n if and
only if, for any second countable space Y and any continuous f W X ! Y , there
exists a second countable space M and continuous maps g W X ! M; h W M ! Y
such that dim M  n and f D h g.
Solution. Given
S a space Z, a set U  Z and a family A of subsets of Z let
St.U; A/ D fA 2 A W A \ U ;g be the star of the set U with respect to
A. As usual, we write St.z; A/ instead of St.fzg; A/.
Fact 1. Given m 2 ! suppose that K is a compact space with dim K  m and
N is a second countable space. Then, for any continuous map p W K ! N there
exists a second countable space L such that dim L  m and there are continuous
maps q W K ! L and r W L ! N for which r q D p.
Proof. Fix a countable base B in the space N ; let BK D fp 1 .B/ W B 2 Bg and
denote by V0 the family of all finite covers of K with the elements of BK . For every
finite S  V0 apply TFS-230 to find a finite open cover V of the space K such
that V is a star refinement of every U 2 S. Since dim K  m, we can find a finite
open refinement VS of the cover V such that ord.VS /  m C 1. It is evident that the
family V1 D fVS W S is a finite subfamily of V0 g is countable.
Proceeding by induction assume that k 2 N and we have constructed a sequence
V0 ; : : : ; Vk of countable families of finite open covers of K such that
(1) if i 2 f1; : : : ; kg then ord.V/  m C 1 for every V 2S
Vi ;
j 1
(2) for any j 2 f1; : : : ; kg and any finite family S  iD0 Vi there is V 2 Vj
which is a star refinement of every U 2 S.
S
For every finite S  fVi W i 2 f0; : : : ; kgg apply TFS-230 to find a finite
cover V of the space K such that V is a star refinement of every U 2 S. Since
dim K  m, we can find a finite open refinement VS of the cover V such that
ord.V
S S /  m C 1. It is evident that the family VkC1 D fVS W S is a finite subfamily
of kiD0 Vi g is countable and the conditions (1)(2) are satisfied for the sequence
fV0 ; : : : ; VkC1 g. Therefore our inductive procedure can be continued to construct
a sequence
fVi W i 2 !g such that (1) and (2) are satisfied for all k 2 !; let
S
V D fVi W i 2 Ng.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

197

Given a point x 2 K let x


D fy 2 K W for every V 2 V there is V 2 V such
that fx; yg  V g; we will call the set x
the equivalence class of x. It is clear that
(3) for any x; y 2 K we have x 2 x
and x 2 y
if and only if y 2 x
.
It turns out that we also have transitivity for the equivalence classes, i.e.,
(4) for any x; y; z 2 K if y 2 x
and z 2 y
then z 2 x
.
Take any family V 2 V; it follows from the property (2) that there exists
W 2 V such that W is a star refinement of V. There exist W0 ; W1 2 W such
that fx; yg  W0 and fy; zg  W1 . There is V 2 V such that St.W0 ; W/  V ;
it is clear that fx; y; zg  W0 [ W1  St.W0 ; W/, so fx; zg  V and hence
z 2 x
, i.e., (4) is proved.
An immediate consequence of (4) is that
(5) for any x; y 2 K if y 2 x
then x
D y
; if y x
then
S x
\ y
D ;.
Let L D fx
W x 2 Kg; we will need the set O.P / D P for any P  L. If
q.x/ D x
for any x 2 K then it follows from the property (5) that the map
q W X ! L is well defined. Consider the family L D fU  L W O.U / 2
.K/g; it is evident that ; 2 L and L 2 L . If U; V 2 L then it follows from
(5) that O.U
/ D O.U / \ O.V / 2 .K/, so U \ V 2 L . Now,
S \ VS
S if U  L
then O. U / D fO.U / W U 2 U g 2 .K/ which shows that U 2 L and
hence L is a topology on L; from now on we will identify L with the space
.L; L /.
Observe that q 1 .U / D O.U / for any U  L, so the map q is quotient; since
q.K/ D
TL, the space L is compact.
T Our next step is to show that
(6) x
D fSt.x; V/ W V 2 Vg D fSt.x; W/ W W 2 Vg and, in particular, the
set x
is closed in K for any x 2 K.
T
Fix a point x 2 K and observe that the equality x
D fSt.x; V/ W V 2 Vg is
immediate from the definition. Now, if V 2 V then there is W 2 V which is a
star refinement of V. If W 2 W then, for any H 2 W we have H \ W ; if
and only if H \W ;; this implies that St.W; W/ D St.W ; W/. There exists
VW 2 V with St.W; W/  VW , so St.W ; W/
S  VW . The families V and W
being finite, we conclude that St.x; W/  fVW WT
x 2 W 2 Wg  St.x; V/.
The
cover
V
2
V
was
chosen
arbitrarily
so
x


fSt.x; W/ W W 2 Vg 
T
fSt.x; V/ W V 2 Vg D x
and hence (6) is proved.
We will also need the following property of our covers.
(7) For any x 2 K and US2 .x
; K/ there exists a cover V 2 V and V 2 .K/
such that x
 V  fy
W y 2 V g  St.V; V/  U . T
It follows from (6) that there are W1 ; : : : ; Wk such that ik St.x; Wi / 
U (see Fact 1 of S.326). Apply (2) to take a cover W 2 V which is a star
refinement of every Wi ; there exists V 2 V such that V is a star refinement
of W. Then St.x; W/  U ; let V D St.x; V/ and take any set H 2 V with
x 2 H . There exists WH 2 W such that St.H;
S V/  WH ; it follows from
that
W

St.x;
W/,
so
St.V;
V/

fSt.H; V/ W x 2 H 2 Vg 
x
2
W
H
H
S
fWH W x 2 H 2 Vg  St.x; W/  U .

198

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

2 Solutions of problems 001500

The inclusion x
 V D St.x; V/ is an immediate consequence of (6); the
second inclusion in (7) is evident and the third one follows from the fact that
y
 St.y; V/  St.V; V/ for any y 2 V , so (7) is proved.
For any U 2 .K/ let U  D fa 2 L W a  U g. Given any z 2 O.U  / there is
x 2 K such that z D x
.
S It follows from (7) that there exists a set V 2 .K/
such that x
 V and ft
W t 2 V g  U . Thus y 2 O.U  / for any y 2 V
which shows that every point of O.U  / is contained in O.U  / together with
some open neighborhood and hence
the set q 1 .U  / D O.U  / is open in K and hence U  is open in L for any
U 2 .K/.
If a and b are distinct points of the space L then there are x; y 2 K such that
a D x
; b D y
and x
\ y
D ;. By normality of K there exist disjoint
sets U 2 .x
; K/ and V 2 .y
; K/. It is clear that a 2 U  ; b 2 V  and
U  \ V  D ;. This proves, together with (8) and TFS-124, that
the space L is Hausdorff and hence Tychonoff.
Fix an arbitrary point x 2 X and take any z f .x/. It is easy to see that the
family B 0 D fB 2 B W jB \ ff .x/;S
zgj  1g is a cover of the space N , so there
is a finite C  B 0 such that K D ff 1 .B/ W B 2 Cg. There exists V 2 V
which is a star refinement of the cover C 0 D ff 1 .B/ W B 2 Cg. In particular,
x
 St.x; V/  f 1 .B/ for some B 2 C. Then f .x/ 2 B, so z B which,
together with f .x
/  B shows that z f .x
/. The point z f .x/ was
chosen arbitrarily and hence we proved that
f .x
/ D ff .x/g for any x 2 X .
Now, given any a 2 L take x 2 X with x
D a and let r.a/ D f .x/. The
property (10) shows that the map r W L ! N is well defined and r q D f .
The map q is quotient and r q D f is continuous, so we can apply Fact 1 of
T.268 to see that the map r is also continuous.
Now take a family V 2 V and choose W 2 V such that W is a star refinement
of V. Given a point a 2 L there is x 2 K with a D x
; take W 2 W with
x 2 W . Since there is V 2 V for which St.W; W/  V , it follows from (6)
that x
 St.x; W/  St.W; W/  V and hence a D x
2 V  . This proves
that
the family V  D fV  W V 2 Vg is an open cover of L for any V 2 V.
Now take a 2 L and H 2 .a; L/. The set U D q 1 .H / is open in K; pick a
point x 2 X with a D x
. Then x
 U , so we can apply (6) to find V 2 V
with St.x; V/  U . It follows from (11) that there is V 2 V such that a 2 V 
and hence x
 V ; since x 2 V , the inclusion V  St.x; V/  U shows that
V   U  D H and therefore a 2 V   H . As a consequence,
the family fV  W V 2 V 2 Vg is a base of L and hence L is second countable.
To finally prove that dim L  n fix a finite open cover H of the space L. Then
G D fq 1 .H / W H 2 Hg is an open cover of K, so we can apply (7) to find,
for every x 2 K, a set Vx 2 .x; K/ such that St.Vx ; Vx /  q 1 .Hx / for
some Hx 2 H and Vx 2 V.
S
There is a finite set A  K such that fVx W x 2 Ag D K; apply (2) to find
a cover V 2 V which is a star refinement of Vx for every x 2 A. To show

2 Solutions of problems 001500

199

that V refines G take any V 2 V. If V D ; then there is nothing to prove;


otherwise, there is x 2 A such that Vx \ V ;. Choose W 2 Vx such that
St.V; V/  W . Then W \ Vx ; and therefore W  St.Vx ; Vx /  q 1 .Hx /.
As a consequence, V  St.V; V/  W  q 1 .Hx /, so V refines G. Thus V  is
a refinement of H; it easily follows from ord.V/  nC1 that ord.V  /  nC1
as well so any finite open cover of L has an open refinement of order at most
nC1. Applying Problem 145 we conclude that dim L  n, so Fact 1 is proved.
Returning to our solution assume that dim X  n and take a continuous map
f W X ! Y for some second countable space Y . We can consider that Y  K for
some metrizable compact space K, so there is a continuous map f0 W X ! K such
that f0 jX D f . Since dim.X / D dim X  n (see Problem 147), we can apply
Fact 1 to find a second countable space Z and continuous maps g0 W X ! Z and
h0 W Z ! K such that dim Z  n and h0 g0 D f0 . Let M D g0 .X /; h D h0 jM
and g D g0 jX . The space M is second countable and dim M  dim Z  n (see
Problem 155); besides, g W X ! M; h W M ! Y and h g D f , so we proved
necessity.
Finally, assume that, for any second countable space Y , if f W X ! Y is a
continuous map then there exists a second countable space M and continuous maps
g W X ! M; h W M ! Y such that dim M  n and h g D f . Given
a functionally open cover U D fU0 ; : : : ; Uk g of the space X take a continuous
function fi W X ! R such that X nUi D fi1 .0/ for each i  k. The diagonal
product f D ik fi W X ! RkC1 is continuous; let Y D f .X / and consider
the natural projection i W RkC1 ! R of the space RkC1 onto its i -th factor for all
i  k. If Vi D i1 .Rnf0g/ \ Y then Vi is an open subset of Y and f 1 .Vi / D Ui
for every i  k.
By our assumption there is a second countable space M and continuous maps
g W X ! M; h W M ! Y such that dim M  n and h g D f . The family
V D fh1 .Vi / W i  kg is a functionally open cover of M , so it has a functionally
open refinement W with ord.W/  n C 1. It is straightforward that the family U 0 D
fg 1 .W / W W 2 Wg is a functionally open refinement of U and ord.U 0 /  n C 1.
Thus dim X  n, i.e., we proved sufficiency and hence our solution is complete.
V.162. Prove that, for any n 2 !, there exists a compact second countable space
Un such that dim Un  n and any second countable X with dim X  n can be
embedded in Un .
P
Solution. The space S n D fx D .x0 ; : : : ; xn / 2 RnC1 W niD0 xi2 D 1g is the usual
n-dimensional sphere with the topology inherited from RnC1 . Let A D fY W Y 
I! and dim Y  ng; choose a family fYt W t 2 T g of spaces with the following
properties:
(1) w.Yt /  ! and dim Yt  n for every t 2 T ;
(2) a homeomorphism et W Yt ! At 2 A is fixed for every t 2 T ;
(3) for any A 2 A there is t 2 T such that A D At .
L
In the space G D fYt W t 2 T g we identify every Yt with the respective clopen
subset of G. It is an easy exercise to see that G is a normal space. If F  G is

200

2 Solutions of problems 001500

closed and f W F ! S n is a continuous map then Ft D F \ Yt is closed in Yt ,


so there exists a continuous map gt W Yt ! S n such that gt jFt D f jFt for every
t 2 T (see Problem 158). Given any x 2 G there is a unique t 2 T with x 2 Yt ; let
g.x/ D gt .x/. It is straightforward that g W G ! S n is continuous and gjF D f ,
so dim G  n by Problem 158.
For every x 2 G there is a unique t 2 T with x 2 Yt ; let e.x/ D et .x/. It is
easy to check that the map e W G ! I! is continuous and ejYt D et for each t 2 T .
Take a continuous map p W G ! I! such that pjG D e; since dim.G/  n (see
Problem 147), we can apply Problem 161 to find a second countable space M such
that dim M  n and there exist continuous maps q W G ! M and r W M ! I!
with r q D p.
The space Un D q.G/ is compact; it follows from Un  M that Un is second
countable and dim Un  dim M  n (see Problem 155). If X is a second countable
compact space with dim X  n then we can consider that X  I! and hence
X 2 A; consequently, there is t 2 T such that X D At . The map pjYt D ejYt D et
is a homeomorphism of Yt onto At D X . If qt D qjYt and rt D rjq.Yt / then
et D rt qt . The map et being a homeomorphism, it is an easy exercise that both
maps rt and qt are condensations so they are homeomorphisms by Fact 2 of S.337.
Thus the space X D et .Yt / D rt .qt .Yt // is homeomorphic to the subspace qt .Yt /
of the space Un , so every second countable space X with dim X  n embeds in Un .
V.163. Suppose that X is a second countable space, Y  X and dim Y  n. Prove
that there exists a G -set Y 0 of the space X such that Y  Y 0 and dim Y 0  n.
Solution. If n D 1 then we can take Y 0 D X , so assume that n 2 !. We
can consider that X  K for some metrizable compact space K. It follows from
Problem 162 that there exists a compact metrizable space M such that dim M  n
and Y embeds in M , so fix a subspace Z  M and a homeomorphism h W Z ! Y .
Apply Fact 2 of T.333 to find a G -subset Z 0  M and a G -subset H  K such
that Z  Z 0 ; Y  H and there exists a homeomorphism g W Z 0 ! H with gjZ D
h. We have dim Z 0  dim M  n (see Problem 155), so dim H  n. It is clear that
Y 0 D H \ X is a G -subset of X such that Y  Y 0 and dim Y 0  dim H  n.
V.164. Given n 2 ! and a second countable Tychonoff space X prove that
dim X  n if and only there exist X0 ; : : : ; Xn  X such that X D X0 [ : : : [ Xn
and dim Xi  0 for each i  n.
Solution. Given spaces Y and Z we say that a map f W Y ! Z is an embedding if
f W Y ! f .Y / is a homeomorphism. If .Z; d / is a metric space and A  exp.Z/
then mesh.A/ D supfdiamd .A/ W A 2 Ag and ord.x; A/ D jfA 2 A W x 2 Agj for
any x 2 Z; if T  Z then AjT D fA \ T W A 2 Ag. Given sets A; B  Z let
d.A; B/ D inffd.a; b/ W a 2 A; b 2 Bg.
Fact 1. Suppose that M is a second countable space and F; G  M are closed and
disjoint. Then
(i) there exists a metrizable compact space K and an embedding e W M ! K such
that clK .e.F // \ clK .e.G// D ;;

2 Solutions of problems 001500

201

(ii) if, additionally, dim M  m for some m 2 ! then there exists a compact
metrizable space K and an embedding e W M ! K such that dim K  m and
clK .e.F // \ clK .e.G// D ;.
Proof. (i) By normality of M we can find a continuous function f W M ! 0; 1

such that f .F /  f0g and f .G/  f1g. There exists a metrizable compact
space K 0 such that M embeds in K 0 ; fix an embedding h W M ! K 0 . It is
easy to check that e D h f W M ! K 0  0; 1
is still an embedding; let
M 0 D e.M / and K D M 0 .
If  W K ! 0; 1
is the restriction of the natural projection of K 0  0; 1
onto
its factor 0; 1
, then .e.F // D f .F /  f0g and .e.G// D f .G/  f1g.
Therefore clK .e.F // \ clK .e.G//  clK . 1 .0// \ clK . 1 .1// D ;, so e is
the promised embedding of M .
(ii) If, additionally, we have dim M  m then apply (i) to find a metrizable
compact space K 0 for which there exists an embedding h W M ! K 0 such
that clK 0 .h.F // \ clK 0 .h.G// D ;. Take a continuous function g W M ! K 0
such that gjM D h; since dim.M / D dim M  m (see Problem 147),
we can apply Problem 161 to find a metrizable compact space K for which
dim K  m and there exist continuous maps p W M ! K and q W K ! K 0
such that g D q p.
If e D pjM and r D qjp.M / then e W M ! K and r W p.M / ! K 0 are
continuous maps such that r e D h. It is an easy exercise to prove, using Fact 2
of S.337, that both maps e and r are embeddings. It follows from q.e.F // D
h.F / and q.e.G// D h.G/ that clK .e.F // \ clK .e.G//  q 1 .clK 0 .h.F // \
q 1 .clK 0 .h.G// D ;. This, together with dim K  m, shows that we settled
(ii) and hence Fact 1 is proved.
Fact 2. If m 2 ! and .K; d / is a metric compact space then dim K  m if and only
if there is a sequence fUk W k 2 !g of finite covers of K such that ord.Uk /  m C 1
for any k 2 ! and the sequence fmesh.Uk / W k 2 !g converges to zero.
Proof. Suppose first that dim K  m and fix an arbitrary k 2 !. Since the family
B D fBd .x; 2k1 / W x 2 Kg is an open cover of the space K, we can find a finite
subcover V D fV1 ; : : : ; Vl g of the cover B; then mesh.V/  2k . Since dim K  m,
there exists a refinement Uk of the cover V such that ord.Uk /  m C 1. After
constructing Uk for every k 2 ! we obtain the promised sequence fUk W k 2 !g.
Now assume that we have a sequence fUk W k 2 !g of finite open covers of K
such that mesh.Uk / ! 0 and ord.Uk /  m C 1 for every k 2 !. If V is an open
finite cover of K then we can apply TFS-244 to find a number > 0 such that
every subset of K of diameter less than is contained in an element of V. There
exists k 2 ! with mesh.Uk / < and hence the diameter of every U 2 Uk is less
than ; this implies that every element of Uk is contained in an element of V, i.e.,
Uk is a finite open refinement of V of order  m C 1. Therefore dim K  m (see
Problem 145), i.e., we settled sufficiency and hence Fact 2 is proved.

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

Fact 3. Given m 2 ! and a second countable space Z with dim Z  m, for any
closed disjoint sets A; B  Z there exists a partition C between the sets A and B
such that dim C  m  1.
Proof. Apply Fact 2 to find a compact space K such that dim K  m and there is an
embedding e W Z ! K with clK .e.A// \ clK .e.B// D ;. To simplify the notation
we identify Z and e.Z/; then Z  K and A \ B D ; (the bar denotes the closure
in K). Fix a metric d which generates the topology of K.
Proceeding inductively, let F0 D A; G0 D B and assume that k 2 ! and we have
a family fF0 ; G0 ; : : : ; Fk ; Gk g of closed subsets of K with the following properties:
(1) Fi  Int.FiC1 / and Gi  Int.GiC1 / for all i < k;
(2) Fi \ Gi D ; for every i  k;
S
(3) if Ci D Kn.Fi [Gi / then there is a finite Ui  .K/ such that Ci  Ui while
ord.x; Ui /  m for any x 2 Ci and mesh.Ui /  2i for every i 2 f1; : : : ; kg.
It follows from compactness of K that D d.Fk ; Gk / > 0; it is easy to construct
a finite open cover V of the space K such that mesh.V/  nnf 2 ; 2k1 g. By
dim K  m there is a finite refinement H of the cover V such that ord.H/  m C 1;
the union of the families W0 D fU 2 H W U \ FkSD ;g and W1 DSfU 2 H W
U \ F ;g is equal to H, so the open sets W0 D W0 and W1 D W1 cover
the space K.
Since the closure of any element of H cannot intersect both Fk and Gk , the set
GkC1 D KnW1 is closed and Gk  GkC1 . Besides, Gk  KnW1  GkC1 , so
Gk  Int.GkC1 /. The set FkC1 D KnW0 is also closed and Fk  KnW0  FkC1 ,
so Fk  Int.FkC1 /. It follows from W0 [ W1 D K that the sets FkC1 and GkC1 are
disjoint, so the properties (1) and (2) hold if k is replaced with k C 1.
Now, if CkC1 D Kn.FkC1 [ GkC1 / D W0 \ W1 , so both families W0 and W1
cover CkC1 . As a consequence, the family UkC1 D W0 covers the set CkC1 and it
follows from W0 \W1 D ; that ord.x; UkC1 / < mC1 for every x 2 CkC1 because,
from at most .m C 1/-many elements of V that contain x, at least one element of W1
was removed. Thus the condition (3) is also satisfied for all i 2 f1; : : : ; k C 1g and
hence our inductive procedure can be continued to construct families fFi W i 2 !g
and fGi W i 2 !g such that the conditions (1)(3)
are satisfied for
S
S every k 2 !.
It follows from (1) and (2) that OF D i2! Fi and OG D i<! Gi are disjoint
open sets such that A  OF and B  OG . If C 0 D Kn.OF [ OG / then C 0 is a
0
partition between
T the sets A and B in K. The family Vk D Uk jC is a finite open
0
cover of C D fCi W i 2 Ng and the property (3) implies that ord.Vk /  m for
each k 2 N; it is evident that the sequence fmesh.Vk / W k 2 Ng converges to zero,
so we can apply Fact 2 to conclude that dim.C 0 /  m  1. The set C D C 0 \ Z is a
partition between A and B in Z and dim C  dim.C 0 /  m  1 (see Problem 155),
so Fact 3 is proved.
Returning to our solution assume that X D X0 [ : : : [ Xn and dim Xi D 0 for
all i  n. Then every Xi is zero-dimensional by Problem 149, so we can apply
Fact 4 of V.400 to see that X has .n C 1/-partition property. This, together with
Problem 157 implies that dim X  n, so we proved sufficiency.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

203

We will prove necessity by induction on n. If n D 0 then X is zero-dimensional


by Problem 149, so X0 D X gives the desired decomposition of X into the union
of zero-dimensional subspaces. Now assume that n 2 !; dim X  n and we have
proved that every second countable space of dimension m < n is the union of at
most .m C 1/-many zero-dimensional subspaces.
Let Bd.A/ D AnA for any A  X and call a set U 2 .X / adequate if we have
the inequality dim.Bd.U //  n  1. It turns out that
(4) the adequate sets form a base in X .
Indeed, fix a point x 2 X and W 2 .x; X /. By Fact 3 there exist disjoint open
sets U and V such that x 2 U; X nW  V and dim.X n.U [ V //  n  1. Observe
that U \ V D ; and hence Bd.U /  C D X n.U [ V /; an immediate consequence
is that dim.Bd.U //  dim C  n  1 (see Problem 155), i.e., the set U is adequate.
Since also x 2 U  W , the property (4) is proved.
Next apply Claim of S.088 to conclude that there exists a countable base B in the
space X such that every set B 2 B is adequate. The family C D fBd.B/ WS
B 2 Bg
is countable while every C 2 C is closed and dim C  n  1. Let F D C and
apply Problem 150 to convince ourselves that dim F  n  1.
Let X0 D X nF ; the family B0 D BjX0 is a base in X0 . It is easy to see that
B \X0 D B \X0 for every B 2 B, so all elements of B0 are clopen in X0 and hence
X0 is zero-dimensional. By the induction hypothesis, there are zero-dimensional
spaces X1 ; : : : ; Xn such that F D X1 [ : : : [ Xn . Thus X D X0 [ : : : [ Xn is
the promised decomposition of X , so we accomplished our inductive step proving
necessity for all n 2 ! and hence our solution is complete.
V.165. Let S D fXt ; st W t; s 2 T g be an inverse
Q system of Hausdorff topological
spaces. Prove that the set lim S is closed in fXt W t 2 T g. Therefore the limit of

an inverse system of Hausdorff compact spaces is a Hausdorff compact space.
Q
Solution. Let X D t2T Xt ; observe first that the Hausdorff property is preserved
by products and subspaces, so the space Y D lim S is Hausdorff. To prove that Y


is closed in X take any point x 2 X nY . Since x is not a thread, there are s; t 2 T


such that s < t and st .x.t // x.s/. Take disjoint sets U; V 2 .Xs / such that
st .x.t // 2 U and x.s/ 2 V . By continuity of st there is a set W 2 .x.t /; Xt / for
which st .W /  U . The set G D fy 2 X W y.t / 2 W and y.s/ 2 V g is open in X .
If y 2 G then y.t / 2 W and hence st .y.t // 2 U , which, together with y.s/ 2 V
shows that st .y.t // y.s/. Thus every point x 2 X nY has an open neighborhood
G  X nY , so X nY is open in X and hence Y is a closed subset of X . If every Xt
is compact then X is also compact, so Y has to be compact as well.
V.166. Suppose that S D fXt ; st W t; s 2 T g is an inverse system in which Xt is a
nonempty compact Hausdorff space for each t . Prove that lim S ;.

Q
Solution. The space X D t2T Xt is compact. For any t 2 T consider the set
At D fs 2 T W s  t g and say that a point x 2 X is a thread on At if vu .x.u// D
x.v/ for any u; v 2 At with v  u. Denote by Ft the set of all threads on At for
each t 2 T .

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

Fix t 2 T and take any point x 2 X nFt . Since x is not a thread on At , there
are u; v 2 At such that v < u and vu .x.u// x.v/. Take disjoint sets U; V 2
.Xv / such that vu .x.u// 2 U and x.v/ 2 V . By continuity of vu there is a set
W 2 .x.u/; Xu / for which vu .W /  U . The set G D fy 2 X W y.u/ 2 W and
y.v/ 2 V g is open in X . If y 2 G then y.u/ 2 W and hence vu .y.u// 2 U , which,
together with y.v/ 2 V shows that vu .y.u// y.v/. Thus every point x 2 X nFt
has an open neighborhood G  X nFt , so Ft is a closed subset of X .
Given t 2 T fix a point xs 2 Xs for any s At ; take a point y 2 Xt and let
xs D st .y/ for any s 2 At . Letting x.s/ D xs for any s 2 T we obtain a point
x 2 X and it follows from the definition of projections of an inverse system that
vu .x.u// D vu .ut .y// D vt .y/ D x.v/ for any u; v 2 At with v  u, so x 2 Ft .
This proves that
(1) the set Ft is nonempty and closed in X for any t 2 T .
If t1 ; : : : ; tn 2 T then there exists s 2 T such that ti Ts for each i  n. It is
straightforward that Fs  Fti for every i  n, so Fs  in Fti and therefore
T
(2)
F 0 ; for any finite family F 0  F D fFt W t 2 T g.
The properties (1) and (2) show
T that F is a centered family of closed
T subsets of
a compact space X . Therefore F ;; it is an easy exercise that F D lim S,


so lim S ;.


V.167. Let S D fXt ; st W t; s 2 T g be an inverse system. Suppose that, for a space
Y , a continuous map ft W Y ! Xt is given for every t 2 T and, besides, st ft D fs
for any s; t 2 T with s  t . Prove that the diagonal product f D t2T ft maps Y
continuously into lim S.

Q
Solution. Let X D t2T Xt ; recall that the diagonal product f W Y ! X is
defined by letting f .y/.t / D ft .y/ for any y 2 Y and t 2 T . If pt W X ! Xt is the
natural projection then pt f D ft for any t 2 T , so f is continuous by TFS-102.
To see that f .Y /  lim S fix a point y 2 Y . For any s; t 2 T with s  t we


have st .f .y/.t // D st .ft .y// D fs .y/ D f .y/.s/, so the point f .y/ is a thread
and hence f .y/ 2 lim S. Thus f is a continuous map from Y to lim S.


V.168. Let X be a topological space. Suppose that, for a nonempty directed set T ,
a subspace Xt  X is given for each t 2 T in such a way that Xt  Xs whenever
s  t . Given s; t 2 T with s  t , let st .x/ D x for each x 2 Xt . Prove that
the inverse systemTS D fXt ; st W t; s 2 T g is well defined and the limit of S is
homeomorphic to fXt W t 2 T g.
Solution. It is evident that every map st is continuous and tt D idXt . Given s 
t  u we have st .tu .x// D st .x/ D x D su .x/ for any x 2 Xu , so the inverse
system S is well
Q defined.
LetTP D t2T Xt and denote the limit of S by L; let ht .x/ D x for any x 2
Y D fXt W t 2 T g and t 2 T . Then ht W Y ! Xt is a continuous map and it is
straightforward that st ht D hs for any s; t 2 T with s  t . Consequently, the
diagonal product h D t2T ht maps Y continuously into L (see Problem 167).

2 Solutions of problems 001500

205

If x; y are distinct points of Y then ht .x/ D x y D ht .y/ for any t 2 T ,


so h.x/ h.y/ and hence h is an injection. Given a 2 L take any s; t 2 T and
choose u 2 T such that s  u and t  u. Then a.u/ D tu .a.u// D a.t / and
a.u/ D su .a.u// D a.s/ which shows that a.s/ D a.t /, i.e., there is x 2 X such
that a.t / D x for all t 2 T . Since a.t / 2 Xt , we must have x 2 Xt for all t 2 T and
hence x 2 Y . It is immediate that h.x/ D a, so h W Y ! L is an onto map whence
h is a condensation.
Finally, fix an index s 2 T and let ps W P ! Xs be the natural projection. The
map p D ps jL W L ! Xs is continuous. We already saw that, for every a 2 L, we
have a.s/ D a.t / 2 Xt for any t 2 T , so p.a/ D a.s/ 2 Y . Therefore p maps
continuously the space L in Y ; it is easy to see that p is the
T inverse of h, so h is a
homeomorphism between the spaces L D lim S and Y D t2T Xt .


V.169. Give an example of an inverse sequence S D fXn ; mn W n; m 2 !g such


that every Xn is a nonempty second countable Tychonoff space while lim S D ;.


Solution. The space Xn D .n; C1/  R is second countable, Tychonoff and


nonempty for any n 2 !. Given m; n 2 ! with m  n let mn .x/ D x for every
x 2 Xn ; this defines a continuous map mn W Xn ! Xm . Since Xn  Xm whenever
m  n, we can apply Problem 168 to see that the inverseTsequence S D fXn ; mn W
n; m 2 !g is well defined and lim S is homeomorphic to n2! Xn D ;, so the limit

of S is empty.
V.170. Given an inverse system S D fXt ; st W t; s 2 T g of topological spaces,
prove that the family B D ft1 .U / W t 2 T; U 2 .Xt /g is a base of the space
L Dlim S. Here t W L ! Xt is the limit projection for every t 2 T .


Solution.
Q It is evident that all elements of the family B are open in L. For the space
X D t2T Xt let pt W X ! Xt be the natural projection for every t 2 T . If x 2 L
and G 2 .x; L/ then there is U 2 .X / such that U \ L D G. By definition of the
product
T topology there exist t1 ; : : : ; tn 2 T and Ui 2 .Xti / for all i  n such that
x 2 in pt1
.Ui /  U .
i
The set T being directed we can find an index t 2 T such that ti  t for all
i  n. It follows from x 2 L that tti .x.t // D x.ti / 2 Ui , so we canTfind a set
Wi 2 .x.t /; Xt / such that tti .Wi /  Ui for every i  n. The set W D in Wi is
an open neighborhood of x.t / in Xt and tti .W /  Ui for each i  n.
The set O D t1 .W / D pt1 .W / \ L is an element of B and x 2 O. If
y 2 O then y.t / 2 W and y 2 L, so y.ti / D tti .y.t // 2 Ui for all i  n. As a
T
consequence, y 2 in pt1
.Ui / \ L  U \ L D G and therefore O  G. We
i
proved that, for any x 2 L and G 2 .x; L/ there is O 2 B such that x 2 O  G,
so B is a base in L.
V.171. Suppose that S D fXt ; st W t; s 2 T g is an inverse system of topological
spaces. Prove that, for any closed set F  lim S, the subspace F is the limit of the


inverse system SF D ft .F /; st jt .F / W t; s 2 T g. Here t W lim S ! Xt is the



limit projection for every t 2 T .

206

2 Solutions of problems 001500

Solution. Let L D lim S; if t 2 T and x 2 t .F / then there is y 2 F with




t .y/ D y.t / D x. For any s  t we have st .x/ D st .y.t // D y.s/ D s .y/ 2
s .F /, so st .t .F //  s .F / and hence the inverse system SF is well defined.
If LF D lim SF then every element of LF has to be a thread of S, so LF  L.


Given a point x 2 F we have t .x/ 2 t .F / for any t 2 T , so x is also a thread of


the inverse system SF and therefore x 2 LF ; this proves that F  LF .
Finally, take any point x 2 LnF ; the set F being closed in L we can apply
Problem 170 to find t 2 T and U 2 .Xt / such that x 2 t1 .U /  LnF . This
implies that U \ t .F / D ; and hence t .x/ t .F / which shows that x LF ;
therefore F D LF D lim SF .


V.172. Given an inverse system S D fXt ; st W t; s 2 T g and a cofinal set T 0  T ,


prove that the limit of the inverse system S 0 D fXt ; st W t; s 2 T 0 g is homeomorphic
to lim S.

Q
Q
Solution. Let X D t2T Xt and X 0 D t2T 0 Xt ; denote the limit of S by L and
the limit of S 0 by L0 . We will also need the natural projections pt W X ! Xt and
qs W X 0 ! Xs for any t 2 T and s 2 T 0 .
For any t 2 T 0 let w.t / D t ; if t 2 T nT 0 then fix an index w.t / 2 T 0 such that
t  w.t /. Given a point x 2 X let .x/ D xjT 0 ; the resulting map  W X ! X 0 is
continuous. It is evident that .x/ is a thread of S 0 if x is a thread of S, so .L/ 
L0 . If x and y are distinct points of L then there is t 2 T such that x.t / y.t /.
w.t/
w.t/
If x.w.t // D y.w.t // then x.t / D t .x.w.t /// D t .y.w.t /// D y.t /; this
contradiction shows that x.w.t // y.w.t // and hence .x/ .y/. Thus the map
h D jL W L ! L0 is injective.
w.t/
Take any point y 2 L0 and let '.y/.t / D t .y.w.t /// for any t 2 T . This
0
gives us a map ' W L ! X such that .'.y// D y for any y 2 L0 . It turns out
that '.L0 /  L; to see it take any y 2 L0 , let x D '.y/ and fix s; t 2 T with
s  t . There exists v 2 T 0 such that w.s/  v and w.t /  v. Since y is a thread of
v
v
S 0 , we have y.w.t // D w.t/
.y.v// and y.w.s// D w.s/
.y.v// which shows that
w.t/

st .x.t // D st .t

v
.w.t/
.y.v//// D sv .y.v//, which together with the equalities

v
x.s/ D sw.s/ .y.w.s/// D sw.s/ .w.s/
.y.v/// D sv .y.v//

shows that st .x.t // D x.s/ and hence x 2 L.


Thus we can consider that ' W L0 ! L; since '.h.x// D x for any x 2 L and
h.'.y// D y for every y 2 L0 , the maps h and ' are mutually inverse bijections.
We already saw that h is continuous; fix t 2 T and take any y 2 L0 . The equality
w.t/
w.t/
'.y/.t / D t .y.w.t /// implies that .pt '/.y/ D .t qw.t/ /.y/ for any
w.t/
y 2 L0 , i.e., the map pt ' D t qw.t/ is continuous for any t 2 T , so ' is
continuous by TFS-102. Therefore h W L ! L0 is a homeomorphism.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

207

V.173. Suppose that an inverse system S D fXt ; st W t; s 2 T g consists of compact


Hausdorff spaces Xt and all projections st are onto. Prove that all limit projections
t are also surjective maps.
Q
Solution. The space X D t2T Xt is compact; fix t 2 T and a point z 2 Xt . For
any s 2 T consider the set As D fu 2 T W u  sg and say that a point x 2 X is
a z-thread on As if x.t / D z and vu .x.u// D x.v/ for any u; v 2 As with v  u.
Denote by Fs the set of all z-threads on As for each s 2 T .
Fix an index s 2 T and take any point x 2 X nFs . If x.t / z then the set
G D fy 2 X W y.t / zg is open in X and x 2 G  X nFs . If x.t / D z
then there are u; v 2 As such that v < u and vu .x.u// x.v/. Take disjoint sets
U; V 2 .Xv / such that vu .x.u// 2 U and x.v/ 2 V . By continuity of vu there is a
set W 2 .x.u/; Xu / for which vu .W /  U . The set G D fy 2 X W y.u/ 2 W and
y.v/ 2 V g is open in X . If y 2 G then y.u/ 2 W and hence vu .y.u// 2 U , which,
together with y.v/ 2 V shows that vu .y.u// y.v/. Thus every point x 2 X nFs
has an open neighborhood G  X nFs , so Fs is a closed subset of X .
Given s 2 T choose s 0 2 T such that t  s 0 and s  s 0 . Fix a point xu 2 Xu
0
for any u As 0 ; since the map ts is surjective, there exists y 2 Xs 0 such that
0
0
ts .y/ D z. Let xu D us .y/ for any u 2 As 0 . Letting x.u/ D xu for any u 2 T we
0
obtain a point x 2 X such that x.t / D ts .y/ D z; it follows from the definition of
0
0
projections of an inverse system that vu .x.u// D vu .us .y// D vs .y/ D x.v/ for
any u; v 2 As 0 with v  u, so x 2 Fs 0 . Since also Fs 0  Fs , we proved that x 2 Fs
and therefore
(1) the set Fs is nonempty and closed in X for any s 2 T .
If s1 ; : : : ; sn 2 T then there exists s 2 T such that si Ts for each i  n. It is
straightforward
that Fs  Fsi for every i  n, so Fs  in Fsi and hence
T 0
(2)
F ; for any finite family F 0  F D fFs W s 2 T g.
The properties (1) andT(2) show that F is a centered
T family of closed subsets of a
compact space X . Thus F ;; take a point x 2 F. It is an easy exercise that
x 2 L D lim S and t .x/ D x.t / D z; the point z 2 Xt was chosen arbitrarily, so


t .L/ D Xt , i.e., the map t is surjective for any t 2 T .


V.174. Suppose that n 2 ! and S D fXt ; st W t; s 2 T g is an inverse system in
which all spaces Xt are compact and Hausdorff. Knowing also that dim Xt  n for
each t 2 T prove that dim.lim S/  n.


Solution. The space L D lim S is compact (see Problem 165) and hence normal;

let t W L ! Xt be the limit projection for any t 2 T . Take a finite open cover U of
the space L; it follows from Problem 170 that, for every x 2 L there exists t .x/ 2 T
1
and Ux 2 .Xt.x/ / such that x 2 Vx D t.x/
.Ux / and the set Vx is contained in some
element of U .
S
Take a finite set A  L for which L D fVx W x 2 Ag; the set T being
directed there exists t 2 T such that t .x/  t for any x 2 A. If x 2 A then the
t
set Ox D .t.x/
/1 .Ux / is open in Xt . It follows from the definition of the limit of

208

2 Solutions of problems 001500

t
an inverse system that t.x/
t D t.x/ and hence t1 .Ox / D Vx for all x 2 A.
S
S 1
Therefore L D ft .Ox / W x 2 Ag and hence t .L/  fOx W x 2 Ag.
The set t .L/ being closed in Xt , we have dim.t .L//  dim Xt  n (see
Problem 146), so there is a finite closed refinement F of the cover fOx \ t .L/ W
x 2 Ag of the space t .L/ such that ord.F/  n C 1. It is straightforward that
ft1 .F / W F 2 Fg is a finite closed refinement of U of order  n C 1, so we can
apply Problem 145 to conclude that dim L  n.

V.175. Suppose that n 2 ! and S D fXl ; ml W l; m 2 !g is an inverse sequence


in which every Xl is a Lindelf -space. Knowing additionally that dim Xl  n for
every l 2 ! prove that dim.lim S/  n.


Solution. The space L D lim S is Lindelf being closed in a Lindelf space



Q
m2! Xm (see Problem 165 and SFFS-256); let Kl D Xl for every l 2 !. For
l
any m; l 2 ! with m  l there exists a continuous map qm
W Kl ! Km such that
m
m
l
l
l
qm jXl D m . If k  m  l then .qk qm /jXl D k ml D kl D qkl jXl ;
l
since Xl is dense in Kl , we conclude that qkm qm
D qkl by Fact 0 of S.351.
l
Thus K D fKl ; qm ; m; l 2 !g is an inverse system of compact spaces with
dim Kl D dim Xl  n for any l 2 ! (see Problem 147). If K D lim K then

dim K  n by Problem 174.
Every thread of S is also a thread of K, so L  K. Take any U 2 .L; K/ and fix
a set Vx 2 .x; K/ such that V x  U for everySx 2 L. The space L being Lindelf
there is a countable
A  L for which L  fVx W x 2 Ag. As a consequence,
S
L  H D fV x W x 2 Ag  U which shows that H is an F -subset of K
such that L  H  U . This makes it possible to apply Problem 154 to convince
ourselves that dim L  n.
V.176. Prove that if X is second countable and A  Cp .X / is countable then there
exists a countable QS-algebra E  Cp .X / such that A  E.
Solution. Fix a countable base B in the space X and consider the family
P D f.U; V / W U; V 2 B and U  V gI
for every P D .U; V / 2 P choose a function fP 2 Cp .X / such that fP .U /  f1g
and fP .X nV /  f0g. It is evident that the set B D A [ ffP W P 2 Pg is countable,
so C D ff1 : : : fn W n 2 N; fi 2 B for all i  ng is also countable and hence
the set E D fp1 g1 C : : : C pm gm W m 2 N; pi 2 Q and gi 2 C for all i  mg
is countable as well. It is straightforward that f; g 2 E and q 2 Q imply that
f C g 2 E; f g 2 E and qf 2 E. Given a point x 2 X and a closed set F  X
with x F there exists V 2 B such that x 2 V  X nF . Pick U 2 B for which
x 2 U  U  V ; then P D .U; V / 2 P and hence f D fP 2 E. Then f .x/ D 1
and f .F /  f0g, so E is a countable QS-algebra in Cp .X / such that A  E.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

209

V.177. Let K D fx0 ; : : : ; xn g  X be a finite subset of a space X . Suppose that


U 2 .K; X / and q0 ; : : : ; qn 2 Q. Prove that, for any QS-algebra E on a space X ,
there is f 2 E such that f .X nU /  f0g and f .xi / D qi for each i  n.
Solution. The set Fi D .X nU / [ .Knfxi g/ is closed in X and xi Fi , so there
exists fi 2 E such that fi .xi / D 1 and fi .Fi /  f0g for each i  n. It is immediate
that the function f D q0 f0 C : : : C qn fn 2 E is as promised.
V.178. Given second countable Tychonoff spaces X and Y , suppose that some QSalgebras E.X / and E.Y / are chosen in Cp .X / and Cp .Y / respectively. Prove that,
if E.X / is uniformly homeomorphic to E.Y / then X is representable as a countable
union of closed subspaces each one of which embeds in Y .
Solution. Given a set A the family Fin.A/ consists of all finite subsets of A; for
each n 2 ! let A
n D fB 2 Fin.A/ W jBj D ng. If f is a function then dom.f / is
its domain; for any space Z the function 0Z 2 Cp .Z/ is defined by 0Z .z/ D 0 for
all z 2 Z.
Choose a uniformly continuous isomorphism T W E.X / ! E.Y /; it is evident
that 0X 2 E.X / and 0Y 2 E.Y /, so there is no loss of generality to assume that
T .0X / D 0Y . For every x 2 X let ax .f / D f .x/ for all f 2 E.X /; if y 2 Y
then by .f / D f .y/ for all f 2 E.Y /. For any K 2 Fin.X / and " > 0 the set
OX .K; "/ D ff 2 E.X / W f .K/  ."; "/g is an open neighborhood of 0X and
the family fOX .K; "/ W K 2 Fin.X / and " > 0g is a local base of the space E.X /
at the point 0X .
Fact 1. If x 2 X then ax W E.X / ! R is a uniformly continuous unbounded
map; therefore the map x D ax T 1 W E.Y / ! R is uniformly continuous and
unbounded. Analogously, by W E.Y / ! R is a uniformly continuous unbounded
map and hence the map y D by T W E.X / ! R is also uniformly continuous
and unbounded for every y 2 Y .
Proof. If we let '.x/.f / D f .x/ for any f 2 Cp .X / then ' W Cp .X / ! R is linear
and continuous; an evident consequence is that ' is uniformly continuous. Therefore
ax D 'jE.X / is uniformly continuous. Analogously, the map by W E.Y / ! R
is uniformly continuous. It follows from Problem 177 that, for any n 2 ! there
is a function f 2 E.X / such that f .x/ D n. This implies ax .f / D n, so
ax is unbounded and hence x is also uniformly continuous and unbounded. The
analogous statement being also true for y , Fact 1 is proved.
Fact 2. Given a point y 2 Y and a finite subset K of the space X let
u.y; K/ D supfjy .f /  y .g/j W f; g 2 E.X / and jf .x/  g.x/j
< 1 for every x 2 Kg:
Then the family E.y/ D fK 2 Fin.X / W u.y; K/ < 1g is nonempty. Analogously,
let v.x; L/ D supfjx .f /  x .g/j W f; g 2 E.Y / and jf .y/  g.y/j < 1 for all
y 2 Lg for any x 2 X and finite L  Y . Then the family D.x/ D fL 2 Fin.Y / W
v.x; L/ < 1g is nonempty.

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

Proof. It follows from uniform continuity of y that there is a finite set K  X


and " > 0 such that f  g 2 OX .K; "/ implies jy .f /  y .g/j < 1. Fix n 2
N with n" > 1 and take any f; g 2 E.X / such that jf .x/  g.x/j < 1 for all
x 2 K. The function hi D f C ni .g  f / belongs to E.X / for every i  n and
it is straightforward that jhiC1 .x/  hi .x/j < n1 < " for all x 2 K and hence
jy .hiC1 / P
 y .hi /j < 1 for all i < n. Now, h0 D f and hn D g, so jy .g/ 
y .f /j  i<n jy .hiC1 /  y .hi /j < n which shows that u.y; K/  n and hence
K 2 E.y/. An analogous reasoning shows that D.x/ ;, so Fact 2 is proved.
Fact 3. For any point y 2 Y the empty set does not belong to E.y/; besides, if
K0 ; K1 2 E.y/ then u.y; K0 \ K1 /  u.y; K0 / C u.y; K1 / and hence K0 \ K1 2
E.y/. Analogously, if x 2 X then all elements of D.x/ are nonempty and L0 \L1 2
D.x/ whenever L0 ; L1 2 D.x/; besides, v.x; L0 \ L1 /  v.x; L0 / C v.x; L1 /.
Proof. Observe that OX .;; 1/ D E.X /; since y is unbounded on E.X / by Fact 1,
the set fjy .f /j D jy .f /  y .0X /j W f 2 E.X /g is unbounded so u.y; ;/ D 1
and hence ; E.y/. Now, if K0 ; K1 2 E.y/ then let K D K0 \ K1 and consider
any f; g 2 E.X / such that jf .x/  g.x/j < 1 for all x 2 K.
The set Ix D .f .x/  1; f .x/ C 1/ \ .g.x/  1; g.x/ C 1/ is open and nonempty,
so we can choose a rational number qx 2 Ix for any x 2 K. For every x 2 K0 nK
choose a rational number qx 2 .f .x/  1; f .x/ C 1/; if x 2 K1 nK then we can
pick qx 2 .g.x/  1; g.x/ C 1/ \ Q. Apply Problem 177 to construct a function
h 2 E.X / for which h.x/ D qx for every x 2 K0 [ K1 ; it is immediate that f  h 2
OX .K0 ; 1/ and h  g 2 OX .K1 ; 1/. Therefore jy .f /  y .h/j  u.y; K0 / and
jy .h/  y .g/j  u.y; K1 / whence jy .f /  y .g/j  u.y; K0 / C u.y; K1 /. This
shows that u.y; K/  u.y; K0 / C u.y; K1 /, so we proved all statements formulated
for E.y/. An analogous reasoning settles the case of D.x/, so Fact 3 is proved.
Fact 4. For any y 2 Y there exists a unique minimal element K.y/ in the family
E.y/ with respect to inclusion; let u.y/ D u.y; K.y//. Analogously, there is a
unique minimal element L.x/ in the family D.x/; let v.x/ D v.x; L.x// for each
x 2 X.
Proof. The elements of E.y/ are finite, so there exists a minimal element K 2 E.y/;
if K0 is another minimal element of E.y/ then K \ K0 is strictly smaller than K;
since K \ K0 2 E.y/ by Fact 3, we have a contradiction with minimality of K.
Therefore there is a unique minimal element of E.y/; the same argument proves the
relevant fact for D.x/, so Fact 4 is proved.
Fact 5. For any p; q 2 N let Y.p; q/ D fy 2 Y W there exists K 2 E.y/ such that
jKj  q and u.y; K/  pg; we will also need the set
X.p; q/ D fx 2 X W there is L 2 D.x/ such that jLj  q and v.x; L/  pg:
Given p 2 N consider the sets M.p; 1/ D Y.p; 1/ and N.p; 1/ D X.p; 1/;
for every natural q > 1 let M.p;S
q/ D Y.p; q/nY.2p; q  1/ andSN.p; q/ D
X.p; q/nX.2p; q  1/. If M.p/ D fM.p; q/ W q 2 Ng and N.p/ D fN.p; q/ W
q 2 Ng then

2 Solutions of problems 001500

211

(i) for any


Sy 2 Y and p 2 N such that u.y/  p we have y 2 M.p/; in particular,
Y D fM.p/ W p 2 Ng.
(ii) For any
Sx 2 X and p 2 N such that v.x/  p we have y 2 N.p/; in particular,
X D fN.p/ W p 2 Ng.
(iii) If we have p 2 N and distinct q0 ; q1 2 N then M.p; q0 / \ M.p; q1 / D ; and
N.p; q0 / \ N.p; q1 / D ;.
Proof. If q D jK.y/j then u.y/ D u.y; K.y//  p, so y 2 Y.p; q/. The set
K.y/ being minimal in E.y/, the point y does not belong to Y.2p; q  1/, so y 2
M.p; q/  M.p/; this proves (i). An identical argument shows that (ii) is also true.
Now assume that p 2 N and take distinct q0 ; q1 2 N; there is no loss of generality
to assume that q0 < q1 and hence q0  q1 1. It follows from the relevant definitions
that M.p; q0 /  Y.p; q0 /  Y.p; q1  1/  Y.2p; q1  1/  Y nM.p; q1 / and
therefore M.p; q0 / \ M.p; q1 / D ;. Analogously, N.p; q0 / \ N.p; q1 / D ;, so we
settled (iii) and hence Fact 5 is proved.
Fact 6. Suppose that p 2 N and y 2 M.p/; denote by q.p/ the unique natural
number such that y 2 M.p; q.p//. Then there exists a unique set Kp .y/  X such
that jKp .y/j D q.p/ and u.y; Kp .y//  p. Analogously, for any x 2 L.p/ there is
a unique set Lp .x/  Y for which jLp .x/j D q and v.x; Lp .x//  p (here q 2 N
is the unique number for which x 2 L.p; q/).
Proof. Observe that q.p/ is unique because the family fM.p; q/ W q 2 Ng is disjoint
by Fact 5. Let q D q.p/; by the definition of Y.p; q/ there exists a set K  X such
that jKj  q and a.y; K/  p. It follows from y Y.2p; q  1/  Y.p; q  1/ that
jKj D q. Now, if K 0 K; a.y; K 0 /  p and jK 0 j D q then K 00 D K \ K 0 has at
most .q1/-many elements and a.y; K 00 /  2p (see Fact 3) which is a contradiction
with y Y.2p; q  1/. This proves uniqueness of the set Kp .y/ D K. The proof of
existence and uniqueness of the set Lp .x/ is analogous, so Fact 6 is proved.
Fact 7. Given p 2 N assume that fyn W n 2 !g  Y is a sequence which converges
to a point y 2 M.p/; if Qn  X is a finite set such that u.yn ; Qn /  p for every
n 2 ! then for every U 2 .X / with U \ Kp .y/ ; there exists m 2 ! such that
U \ Qn ; for all n  m. Analogously, if fxn W n 2 !g  Y is a sequence which
converges to a point x 2 N.p/ and Rn  X is a finite set such that u.yn ; Rn /  p
for all n 2 ! then for every V 2 .Y / with V \ Lp .x/ ; there exists m 2 !
such that V \ Rn ; for all n  m.
Proof. If the set A D fn 2 ! W Qn \ U D ;g is infinite then we can pass to the
subsequence fyn W n 2 Ag to see that we can assume, without loss of generality, that
Qn \ U D ; for all n 2 !. Fix q 2 N such that y 2 M.p; q/; then jKp .y/j D q.
If K D Kp .y/nU then jKj < q, so there exist functions f; g 2 E.X / such that
jf .x/  g.x/j < 1 for all x 2 K while jy .f /  y .g/j > 2p. Using Problem 177
it is easy to find a function h 2 E.X / such that hj.X nU / D f j.X nU / and jh.x/ 
g.x/j < 1 for all x 2 U \ Kp .y/. Then jh.x/  g.x/j < 1 for all x 2 Kp .y/, so
jy .h/  y .g/j  p. An immediate consequence is that jy .h/  y .f /j > p.

212

2 Solutions of problems 001500

On the other hand, it follows from hjQn D f jQn that


. / jyn .h/  yn .f /j  p for all n 2 !.
The function T .h/ is continuous on Y , so the sequence fT .h/.yn / W n 2 !g
converges to T .h/.y/ D y .h/. Since yn .h/ D T .h/.yn / for every n 2 !, the
sequence fyn .h/ W n 2 !g converges to y .h/. Analogously, yn .f / ! y .f /,
so we can apply . / to conclude that jy .h/  y .f /j  p; this contradiction
demonstrates that only finitely many elements of the sequence fQn W n 2 !g miss
the set U . An analogous reasoning shows that only finitely many elements of the
sequence fRn W n 2 !g miss the set V , so Fact 7 is proved.
Fact 8. For any p; q 2 N the map Kp W M.p; q/ ! X
q is lower semicontinuous.
Analogously, the map Lp W N.p; q/ ! Y
q is lower semicontinuous.
Proof. Fix any U 2 .X /; if the set V D fy 2 M.p; q/ W Kp .y/ \ U ;g is
not open in M.p; q/ then there is a sequence fyn W n 2 !g  M.p; q/nV which
converges to some y 2 V . Since Kp .yn / \ U D ; and u.yn ; Kp .yn //  p for every
n 2 !, we obtained a contradiction with Fact 7. Therefore the map Kp is lower
semicontinuous. An analogous reasoning shows that Lp is lower semicontinuous as
well, so Fact 8 is proved.
Fact 9. The set Y.p; q/ is closed in Y and the set X.p; q/ is closed in X for any
p; q 2 N.
Proof. Suppose that yn 2 Y.p; q/ for all n 2 ! and yn ! y. We will pass several
times to a subsequence of the sequence S D fyn W n 2 !g; since our aim is to prove
that y 2 Y.p; q/, at each step we will identify the obtained subsequence with S
considering that all elements of S have the property we have found in a subsequence.
Fix a set Qn  X such that jQn j  q and u.yn ; Qn /  p for every n 2 !. Passing
to a subsequence of S if necessary, we can assume that jQn j D k  q for all n 2 !.
Next, use Fact 2 of U.337 to choose an infinite A  ! for which there is a
set D D fd1 ; : : : ; dr g  X such that Qn \ Qm D D for distinct n; m 2 A
(observe that it is possible that r D 0 in which case D D ;). According to
the above mentioned politics we can consider that, for any i 2 !, we have
i
Qi D fd1 ; : : : ; dr ; a1i ; : : : ; akr
g and the family fQi nD W i 2 !g is disjoint.
An evident property of metric spaces is that any sequence contains either a
convergent subsequence or an infinite closed discrete subspace. This makes it
possible to pass to a subsequence of S once more to guarantee that, for any
j 2 f1; : : : ; k  rg, the sequence Sj D faji W i 2 !g is either convergent
or constitutes a closed discrete subspace of X . If Sj is convergent then denote
by xj its limit. Renumbering every Qi if necessary we can assume that Qi D
i
i
i
fd1 ; : : : ; dr ; a1i ; : : : ; ali ; alC1
; : : : ; akr
g while the set A D falCj
W i 2 !; 1 
j  k  r  lg is closed and discrete in X and the sequence Sj converges to xj for
any j 2 f1; : : : ; lg.
Consider the set Q D fd1 ; : : : ; dr ; x1 ; : : : ; xl g; since jQj  q, it suffices to show
that u.y; Q/  p. To do this, fix f0 ; g0 2 E.X / such that jf0 .x/  g0 .x/j < 1 for

2 Solutions of problems 001500

213

every x 2 Q. Given an arbitrary " > 0 there exists a finite set E  Q and 2 .0; 1/
such that f  g 2 OX .E; / implies jy .f /  y .g/j < ". The set A being closed
and discrete in X we can find U 2 .E; X / such that U \ A is a finite set.
Apply Problem 177 to find h 2 E.X / such that h.E/  f1g and h.X nU /  f0g;
consider the functions f1 D hf0 and g1 D hg0 . It follows from f0 jE D f1 jE and
g0 jE D g1 jE that
. / jy .f0 /  y .f1 /j < " and jy .g0 /  y .g1 /j < ".
We also have f1 jQ D f0 jQ and g1 jQ D g0 jQ, so jf1 .x/  g1 .x/j < 1 for every
x 2 Q. Therefore W D fx 2 X W jf1 .x/  g1 .x/j < 1g is an open neighborhood of
the set Q and so is the set W 0 D W \ U . There is m 2 ! such that, for all i  m,
we have aji 2 W 0 for all j 2 f1; : : : ; lg and aji U for all j 2 fl C 1; : : : ; k  rg.
As a consequence, for each i  m we have jf1 .x/  g1 .x/j < 1 for every point
i
i
x 2 D [fa1i ; : : : ; ali g; besides, f1 .x/ D g1 .x/ D 0 whenever x 2 falC1
; : : : ; akr
g,
so jf1 .x/  g1 .x/j < 1 for all x 2 Qi .
By the choice of the sets Qi , we have jyi .f1 /  yi .g1 /j  p for all i  m.
We already saw that yi .f1 / ! y .f1 / and yi .g1 / ! y .g1 / as i ! 1. Passing
to the limit in the last inequality, we conclude that jy .f1 /  y .g1 /j  p. This,
together with . /, implies that jy .f0 /  y .g0 /j  p C 2". The number " > 0
was taken arbitrarily so jy .f0 /  y .g0 /j  p and hence y 2 Y.p; q/, i.e., we
established that the set Y.p; q/ is closed in X . An analogous reasoning shows that
X.p; q/ is closed in Y , so Fact 9 is proved.
Returning to our solution call a set A  Y adequate if it is closed in Y and
embeds in X ; the set A is called  -adequate if it is representable as the countable
union of adequate sets. Given any p; q 2 N, say that a set A  Y is .p; q/-small
if A  M.p; q/ and there exist continuous maps f1 ; : : : ; fq W A ! X such that
Kp .y/ D ff1 .y/; : : : ; fq .y/g for all y 2 A. Analogously, a set B  X will be
called .p; q/-small if B  N.p; q/ and there are continuous maps g1 ; : : : ; gq W
B ! Y such that Lp .x/ D fg1 .x/; : : : ; gq .x/g for all x 2 B.
Given p; q 2 N, we can apply Fact 2 of V.080 together with Fact 8 to see that
there
S exists a family fUn W n 2 !g of open subsets of M.p; q/ such that M.p; q/ D
n2! Un and every Un is .p; q/-small. By Fact 9 each M.p; q/ is an F -set in Y , so
there
S exists a family fFn .p; q/ W n 2 !g of closed subsets of Y such that M.p; q/ D
n2! Fn .p; q/ and every Fn .p; q/ is .p; q/-small. The family F D fFn .p; q/ W
n 2 !; p; q 2 Ng is a countable closed cover of Y such that every F 2 F is
.p; q/-small for some p; q 2 N; let SY .F / D ff1 ; : : : ; fq g be the respective set
of continuous functions from F to X . Analogously, there exists a countable closed
cover G of the space X such that every G 2 G is .p; q/-small for some p; q 2 N;
denote by SX .G/ the set fg1 ; : : : ; gq g which witnesses that G is .p; q/-small. Next,
observe that
S
(1) y 2 fL.x/ W x 2 K.y/g for any y 2 Y .
S
Let A D fL.x/ W x 2 K.y/g and assume that y A. Choose a number n 2 N
such that v.x/ < n for all x 2 K.y/ and apply Problem 177 to choose a function

214

2 Solutions of problems 001500

f 2 E.Y / such that f .y/ > nu.y/ and f .A/  f0g. It follows from f jL.x/ D
0Y jL.x/ that jx .f /  x .0Y /j D jx .f /j  v.x/ < n for any x 2 K.y/. If
g D T 1 .f / then jg.x/j D jx .f /j < n for every x 2 K.y/.
Consider the function hi D ni g for all i D 0; : : : ; n. Given any natural number
i < n we have jhiC1 .x/  hi .x/j D n1 jg.x/j < 1 for all points x 2 K.y/; therefore
jy .hiC1 /  y .hi /j  u.y/. Now, it follows from the equalities h0 D 0X and
P
hn D g that jy .g/j D jy .g/  y .0X /j  n1
iD0 jy .hiC1 /  y .hi /j  nu.y/.
Recalling that y .g/ D T .g/.y/ D f .y/ we conclude that jf .y/j  nu.y/; this
contradiction with our
Schoice of f shows that (1) is proved.
S
The sets SX D fSX .B/ W B 2 Gg and SY D fSY .A/ W A 2 Fg are
countable; our next step is to prove that
(2) the set Q.f; g/ D fy 2 dom.f / W f .y/ 2 dom.g/ and g.f .y// D yg is
adequate for any f 2 SY and g 2 SX .
Suppose that a sequence fyn W n 2 !g  Q.f; g/ converges to a point y 2 Y .
The set dom.f / being closed in Y , we have y 2 dom.f /; by continuity of f , the
sequence ff .yn / W n 2 !g  dom.g/ converges to the point f .y/. The set dom.g/
is closed in X , so f .y/ 2 dom.g/; the map g being continuous, the sequence
fg.f .yn // W n 2 !g D fyn W n 2 !g converges to g.f .y// whence y D g.f .y//
which proves that the set Q D Q.f; g/ is closed in Y . Note that g is the inverse of
f on the set f .Q/, so f jQ W Q ! f .Q/ is a homeomorphism and hence Q is,
indeed, an adequate subset of Y , i.e., (2) is proved.
The family F 0 D fF \ Q.f; g/ W F 2 F; f 2 SY and g 2 SX g consists of
countably many adequate sets (see (2)). Fix a point y 2 Y and take F 2 F such
that y 2 F ; the set F is .p; q/-small for some p; q 2 N, so SY .F / D ff1 ; : : : ; fq g
for some continuous functions f1 ; : : : ; fq from F to X .
The set K.y/ being the minimal element of the family E.y/, we have the
inclusion K.y/  Kp .y/ D ff1 .y/; : : : ; fq .y/g, so it follows from (1) that there is
i  q for which y 2 L.fi .y//. The family G being a cover of X we can pick G 2 G
with x D fi .y/ 2 G. By our choice of G, there are r; s 2 N such that G  N.r; s/
and SX .G/ D fg1 ; : : : ; gs g. The set L.x/ being the minimal element of D.x/, we
have L.x/  Lr .x/ D fg1 .x/; : : : ; gs .x/g. Thus y D gj .x/ D gj .fi .y// for some
j  s and therefore y 2 S
F \Q.fi ; gj / 2 F 0 . The point y 2 Y was taken arbitrarily,
so we proved that Y D F 0 is  -adequate; analogously, X is  -adequate, so our
solution is complete.
V.179. Given second countable Tychonoff spaces X and Y , suppose that some QSalgebras E.X / and E.Y / are chosen in Cp .X / and Cp .Y / respectively. Prove that,
if E.X / is uniformly homeomorphic to E.Y / then dim X D dim Y .
Solution. Let m D dim Y and apply Problem
178 to find a family F D fFn W
S
n 2 !g of closed subsets of X such that F D X and every Fn embeds in Y . If
m D 1 then dim X  m, so assume that m 2 !. It follows from Problem 155 that
dim Fn  m for all n 2 !. The space X being normal we can apply Problem 150
to see that dim X  m which proves that dim X  dim Y . Since the spaces X
and Y are in a symmetric situation, we also have dim Y  dim X and hence
dim X D dim Y .

2 Solutions of problems 001500

215

V.180. Suppose that X and Y are Tychonoff spaces such that Cp .X / is uniformly
homeomorphic to Cp .Y /. Prove that dim X D dim Y .
Solution. Given a space Z and P  Cp .Z/ let ePZ .z/.f / D f .z/ for any z 2 Z
and f 2 P . Then ZP
D fePZ .z/ W z 2 Zg  Cp .P / and ePZ W Z ! ZP
is a
Z
continuous map by TFS-166. If P  Q  Cp .Z/ then Q;P
W ZQ
! ZP
is
Z
Z
Z
the restriction map; it is evident that eP D Q;P eQ . Recall that if ' W Z ! T
is a continuous onto map then the dual map '  W Cp .T / ! Cp .Z/ is defined by
'  .f / D f ' for any f 2 Cp .T /.
If Z is a space and P  Cp .Z/ then .ePZ / W Cp .ZP
/ ! Cp .Z/ is an
embedding (see TFS-163) such that P  C Z; P
D .ePZ / .Cp .ZP
// (see
Fact 5 of U.086). Let dPZ W C Z; P
! Cp .ZP
/ be the inverse of .ePZ / , i.e.,
dPZ .f / D .ePZ /
1 .f / for every f 2 C Z; P
.
Fact 1. Given spaces Z and T suppose that ' W Z ! T is a continuous onto map
and A  Cp .T /. If and A0 D '  .A/ and  D '  jA W A ! A0 then eAT ' D   eAZ0 .
Proof. If z 2 Z then let y D '.z/ and observe that eAT .y/ is an element of Cp .A/
such that eAT .y/.f / D f .y/ for any f 2 Cp .T /. Now, it follows from the equalities
  .eAZ0 .z//.f / D .eAZ0 .z/ '  /.f / D .f '/.z/ D f .y/ D eAT .y/.f / that the
functions eAT .'.z// and   .eAZ0 .z// coincide for every z 2 Z, i.e.,   eAZ0 D eAT ',
so Fact 1 is proved.
Fact 2. Suppose that Z is a space, M is a second countable space and we have a
continuous onto map ' W Z ! M . Then there exists a countable P  Cp .Z/ and a
homeomorphism u W M 0 D ePZ .Z/ ! M such that u ePZ D '.
Proof. Let A  Cp .M / be a countable QS -algebra (which exists by Problem 176).
Then A separates the points from the closed sets of the space M , so the reflection
map eAM W M ! M0 D eAM .M / is a homeomorphism by TFS-166.
The set P D '  .A/  Cp .Z/ is countable; let  D '  jA W A ! P . The
dual map   W Cp .P / ! Cp .A/ is a homeomorphism and   .ePZ .z// D eAM .'.z//
for any z 2 Z by Fact 1. Therefore ..eAM /1 .  jM 0 // ePZ D ' and hence
u D .eAM /1 .  jM 0 / is the promised homeomorphism, i.e., Fact 2 is proved.
Fact 3. Given a space Z and a countable P  Cp .Z/ let M0 D ePZ .Z/. Suppose
that M is a second countable space and we have continuous onto maps ' W Z ! M
and r W M ! M0 such that r ' D ePZ . Then there is a countable set Q  Cp .Z/
Z
such that P  Q and M1 D eQ
.Z/ is homeomorphic to M .
Proof. Let  W Cp .M0 / ! Cp .Z/ be the dual map of ePZ , i.e., .f / D f ePZ
for any f 2 Cp .M0 /. It was proved in Fact 5 of U.086 that P  .Cp .M0 //; the
set P 0 D f1 .g/ W g 2 P g is countable and hence P 00 D r  .P 0 /  Cp .M /
is countable as well, so there is a countable QS -algebra A  Cp .M / such that
P 00  A (see Problem 176). The set Q D '  .A/  Cp .Z/ is countable; besides,
eAM W M ! eAM .M /  Cp .A/ is a homeomorphism and it follows from Fact 1 that
Z
eAM ' D   eQ
where  D '  jA.

216

2 Solutions of problems 001500

Z
Thus, for the space M1 D eQ
.Z/ the map u D .eAM /1   W M1 ! M is a
homeomorphism. To see that P  Q fix any f 2 P and let g D 1 .f /; h D
r  .g/. Then v D '  .h/ 2 Q; to see that f D v take any point z 2 Z. Then
f .z/ D g.ePZ .z//. On the other hand, it follows from h D g r and v D h ' that
v D g .r '/ D g ePZ , so v.z/ D g.ePZ .z// D f .z/. Thus f D v 2 Q, so Q  P
and hence Fact 3 is proved.

Fact 4. Suppose that Z is a space and we have a sequence fAn W n 2 !g of


subsets of Cp .Z/ such that, for every n 2 ! there is a QS -algebra Qn inS
the space
Cp .ZAn
/ such that An  Qn0 D .eAZn / .Qn /  AnC1 . Then, for A D n2! An ,
the set dAZ .A/ is a QS -algebra in Cp .ZA
/.
Proof. The maps .eAZ / and dAZ are easily seen to preserve products and linear
combinations, i.e., dAZ .u v/ D dAZ .u/ dAZ .v/ and dAZ .uCv/ D dAZ .u/CdAZ .v/
for any u; v 2 A and ; 2 R. Of course, analogous equalities hold for .eAZ / which
easily implies that f g 2 Qn0 and pf C qg 2 Qn0 for any f; g 2 Qn0 and p; q 2 Q.
If f; g 2 dAZ .A/ then f D dAZ .f0 / and g D dAZ .g0 / for some f0 ; g0 2 A.
There is n 2 ! for which f0 ; g0 2 An and hence h D f0 g0 2 Qn0  AnC1  A;
analogously, h0 D f0 Cg0 2 A. Consequently, dAZ .h/ D dAZ .f0 / dAZ .g0 / D f g 2
dAZ .A/ and dAZ .h0 / D dAZ .f0 / C dAZ .g0 / D f C g 2 dAZ .A/. Furthermore, for any
q 2 Q the function qf0 also belongs to Qn0  A, so dAZ .qf0 / D qdAZ .f0 / D qf 2
dAZ .A/.
Finally take a closed subset F  ZA
and a point y0 2 ZA
nF . There exist
f1 ; : : : ; fk 2 A and " > 0 such that the set O D fy 2 ZA
W jy.fi /  y0 .fi /j < "
for all i  kg is disjoint from F . Choose n 2 ! with ff1 ; : : : ; fk g  An . If z0 D
y0 jAn then O 0 D fz 2 ZAn
W jz.fi /  z0 .fi /j < " for all i  kg is an open
Z
subset of ZAn
such that A;A
.O/  O 0 and z0 2 O 0 . It is easy to see that the
n
Z
0
set F D A;An .F / is disjoint from O 0 , so there is a function g 2 Qn such that
Z
then f .y0 / D 1 and f .F /  f0g.
g.z0 / D 1 and g.F 0 /  f0g. If f D g A;A
n
Z
Z
eAZ / D g eAZn belongs to Qn0
Now the function h D f eA D g .A;A
n
Z
Z
and hence h 2 A. Therefore f D dA .h/ 2 dA .A/, so dAZ .A/ is a QS -algebra and
hence Fact 4 is proved.
Fact 5. Given a space Z suppose that a set Ai  Cp .Z/ is countable,
Ai  AiC1
S
and dim.ZAi
/  n for all i 2 !. Then, for the set A D i2! Ai , we have
dim.ZA
/  n.
Proof. The family fZAi
; AZj ;Ai W i < j < !g is an inverse system; denote by
Z
L its limit. If ri D A;A
then AZj ;Ai rj D ri for any i; j 2 ! with i < j , so
i
the diagonal product r of the family fri W i 2 !g maps ZA
continuously into
L by Problem 167. If y0 ; y1 2 ZA
and y0 y1 then there is f 2 A such that
y0 .f / y1 .f /; since f 2 Ai for some i 2 !, we have ri .y0 / ri .y1 / and hence
r.y0 / r.y1 /, i.e., r W ZA
! L is an injection.
Let T D r.ZA
/ and fix a point t0 2 T ; there is a unique point y0 2 ZA

such that r.y0 / D t0 . To see that the map r 1 is continuous at the point t0 take any

2 Solutions of problems 001500

217

set U 2 .y0 ; ZA
/. There are f1 ; : : : ; fk 2 A and " > 0 such that O D fy 2
ZA
W jy.fi /  y0 .fi /j < " for all i  kg  U . There exists m 2 ! for which
ff1 ; : : : ; fk g  Am . The set W D ft 2 T W jt .m/.fi /t0 .m/.fi /j < " for all i  kg
is an open neighborhood of t0 in T . If t 2 W and y D r 1 .t / then yjAm D t .m/
and y0 jAm D t0 .m/ which shows that jy.fi /y0 .fi /j D jt .m/.fi /t0 .m/.fi /j < "
for every i  k. As a consequence, y D r 1 .t / 2 O; the point y 2 W was chosen
arbitrarily, so we proved that r 1 .W /  O  U .
Thus the map r 1 is continuous at every point of T , so r W ZA
! T is a
homeomorphism, i.e., ZA
embeds in L. Finally apply Problem 175 to see that
dim L  n and hence dim.ZA
/ D dim T  dim L  n by Problem 155, so Fact 5
is proved.
Returning to our solution let u W Cp .X / ! Cp .Y / be a uniform homeomorphism. The equality dim X D dim Y will be established if we prove that
dim X  dim Y and dim Y  dim X . The spaces X and Y are in a symmetric
situation, so it suffices to show that dim Y  dim X . If dim X D 1 then there is
nothing to prove, so assume that dim X D n 2 !.
Suppose that M is a second countable space and r W Y ! M is a continuous
map; if M 0 D r.M / then r W Y ! M 0 is surjective. Apply Fact 2 to find a countable
A0  Cp .Y / and a homeomorphism h W Y A0
! M 0 such that h eAY 0 D r.
The space Y A0
being second countable, there is a countable QS -algebra Q0 
Cp .Y A0
/ with dAY0 .A0 /  Q0 ; then the set Q00 D .eAY 0 / .Q0 / is countable and
contains A0 .
The set P D u1 .Q00 /  Cp .X / is countable and the map ePX W X ! X P

is continuous, so there exists a second countable space Z such that dim Z  n


and there are maps  W X ! Z and  W Z ! X P
such that   D ePX (see
Problem 161). Passing, if necessary, to Z 0 D .Z/ and applying Problem 155
we can assume, without loss of generality, that .X / D Z. By Fact 3 there
exists a countable set B0  P such that X B0
is homeomorphic to Z and hence
dim X B0
 n.
Proceeding by induction assume that m 2 ! and we have constructed countable
sets A0 ; : : : ; Am and B0 ; : : : ; Bm with the following properties:
Ai  AiC1 and Bi  BiC1 for any i < m;
u1 .Ai /  Bi for each i  m and u.Bi /  AiC1 for every i < m;
dim.X Bi
/  n for any i  m;
there is a QS -algebra Qi  Cp .Y Ai
/ such that Ai  Qi0 D .eAY i / .Qi / and
u1 .Qi0 /  Bi for all i  m;
(5) there is a QS -algebra Ri  Cp .Y Bi
/ such that Bi  Ri0 D .eBXi / .Ri / and
u.Ri0 /  AiC1 for all i < m.

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

Apply Problem 176 to find a countable QS -algebra Ri  Cp .X Bi


/ with
dBXi .Bi /  Ri . Then Bi  Ri0 D .eBXi / .Ri / and the set AiC1 D u.Ri0 /  Ai
is countable, so there exists a countable QS -algebra QiC1  Cp .Y AiC1
/ such
0
D .eAY i C1 / .QiC1 / and the set
that dAYi C1 .AiC1 /  QiC1 . Then AiC1  QiC1
0
0
1
P D u .QiC1 /  Ri is countable, so there exists a second countable space Z

218

2 Solutions of problems 001500

such that dim Z  n and there are maps  W X ! Z and  W Z ! X P


such that
  D ePX (see Problem 161). Passing, if necessary, to Z 0 D .Z/ and applying
Problem 155 we can assume, without loss of generality, that .X / D Z. By Fact 3
there exists a countable set BmC1  P such that X BmC1
is homeomorphic to Z
and hence dim X BmC1
 n.
Now that we have the sets AmC1 and BmC1 is straightforward that the properties
(1)(5) are fulfilled if we substitute m by m C 1, so our inductive procedure
can be continued to construct sequences fAi W i 2 !g and fBi W Si 2 !g for
which S
the conditions (1)(5) are satisfied for all m 2 !. If A D i2! Ai and
B D i2! Bi then it follows from (1) and (2) that u.B/ D A, so A and B are
uniformly homeomorphic. The properties (4) and (5), together with Fact 4 imply
that the set A0 D dAY .A/ is a QS -algebra in Cp .Y A
/ and B 0 D dBX .B/ is a
QS -algebra in Cp .X B
/. The maps .eBX / and dAY are linear, so they are uniform
homeomorphisms; an immediate consequence is that v D dAY u .eBX / W B 0 ! A0
is a uniform homeomorphism. We have dim.X B
/  n by the property (3) and
Fact 5. Now apply Problem 179 to conclude that dim.Y A
/ D dim.X B
/  n.
Y
Finally, for the map g D h A;A
, we have g eAY D r, so we can apply
0
Problem 161 again to see that dim Y  n D dim X . Since X and Y are in a
symmetric situation, we also have dim X  dim Y , so dim X D dim Y and hence
our solution is complete.
V.181. Let X be a zero-dimensional compact space. Prove that Y is also a zerou
dimensional compact space whenever Y  X .
Solution. It follows from Problem 138 that Y is compact. Apply SFFS-306 to
see that the space X is strongly zero-dimensional and hence dim X D 0 by
Problem 148. Therefore dim Y D dim X D 0 by Problem 180, so we can apply
Problem 149 to conclude that the space Y is zero-dimensional.
u

V.182. Suppose that X is a zero-dimensional Lindelf space and Y  X . Prove that


Y is also zero-dimensional.
Solution. Apply SFFS-306 to see that the space X is strongly zero-dimensional and
hence dim X D 0 by Problem 148. Therefore dim Y D dim X D 0 by Problem 180,
so we can apply Problem 149 to conclude that the space Y is also zero-dimensional.
V.183. Given a countable ordinal   1, prove that a metrizable space X is an
absolute Borel set of multiplicative class  (i.e., X 2 M ) if and only if there exists
a completely metrizable space Z such that X is homeomorphic to some Y 2 0 .Z/.
Solution. Apply TFS-237 to find a complete metric space Z such that X is
homeomorphic to a subspace Y  Z. If X 2 M then Y 2 0 .Z/; this proves
necessity.
Assume that X is homeomorphic to a subspace Y of a complete metric space
Z such that Y 2 0 .Z/ and take an arbitrary metrizable space T which contains
a homeomorphic copy X 0 of the space X . It follows from TFS-237 that we can
assume, without loss of generality, that T  M for some complete metric space M .

2 Solutions of problems 001500

219

Fix a homeomorphism h W Y ! X 0 and apply Fact 2 of T.333 to find G -sets P


and Q in the spaces Z and M respectively such that Y  P; X 0  Q and there
exists a homeomorphism f W P ! Q with f jY D h. It follows from Y 2 0 .Z/
that Y D Y \ P 2 0 .P / and hence X 0 2 0 .Q/. By Fact 1 of T.319 there exists
a set R 2 0 .M / such that R \ Q D X 0 ; it follows from   1 and Q 2 10 .M /
that Q 2 0 .M / (see Fact 1 of T.331), so X 0 2 0 .M /. Finally apply Fact 1 of
T.319 to conclude that X 0 D X 0 \ T 2 0 .T /; this settles sufficiency.
V.184. Given a countable ordinal   2, prove that a metrizable space X is an
absolute Borel set of additive class  (i.e., X 2 A ) if and only if there exists a
completely metrizable space Z such that X is homeomorphic to some Y 2 0 .Z/.
Solution. Apply TFS-237 to find a complete metric space Z such that X is
homeomorphic to a subspace Y  Z. If X 2 A then Y 2 0 .Z/; this proves
necessity.
Now assume that the space X is homeomorphic to a subspace Y of a complete
metric space Z such that Y 2 0 .Z/ and take an arbitrary metrizable space T
which contains a homeomorphic copy X 0 of the space X . It follows from TFS-237
that we can assume, without loss of generality, that T  M for some complete
metric space M .
Fix a homeomorphism h W Y ! X 0 and apply Fact 2 of T.333 to find G -sets P
and Q in the spaces Z and M respectively such that Y  P; X 0  Q and there
exists a homeomorphism f W P ! Q with f jY D h. It follows from Y 2 0 .Z/
that Y D Y \ P 2 0 .P / and hence X 0 2 0 .Q/. By Fact 1 of T.319 there exists
a set R 2 0 .M / such that R \ Q D X 0 ; it follows from   2 and Q 2 10 .M /
that Q 2 0 .M / (see Fact 1 of T.331), so X 0 2 0 .M / by Fact 1 of T.341.
Finally apply Fact 1 of T.319 to conclude that X 0 D X 0 \ T 2 0 .T /; this settles
sufficiency.
V.185. Suppose that n 2 N and a space Xi is metrizable for every i  n. Prove
that, for any countable ordinal   2,
(i) if Xi 2 A for all i  n then X1  : : :  Xn 2 A ;
(ii) if Xi 2 M for all i  n then X1  : : :  Xn 2 M .
Solution. The following fact is crucial for this solution.
Fact 1. Given 2 !1 and m 2 N suppose that we have
; Ym and sets
Qspaces Y1 ; : : : Q
Pi 2 0 .Yi /; Qi 2 0 .Yi / for every i  m. If Y D in Yi ; P D in Pi and
Q
Q D in Qi then P 2 0 .Y / and Q 2 0 .Y /.
Proof. If D 0 then Pi is open in Yi and Qi is closed in Yi for each i  m, so
P is open and Q is closed in Y . Proceeding by induction assume that  1 is a
countable ordinal and we proved our Fact for all < .
Let i W Y ! Yi be the natural projection for each i  m. If Pi 2 0 .Yi / then
there exist families fFki W k 2 !g and fki W k 2 !g  such that Fki 2 0i .Yi /
k

220

2 Solutions of problems 001500

S
for every k 2 ! and Pi D k2! Fki for all i  m. For any k1 ; : : : ; km 2 ! if
.k1 ; : : : ; km / D maxfki i W i  mg then the set F .k1 ; : : : ; km / D Fk11  : : :  Fkmm
0
belongs to .k
.Y / by the induction hypothesis and Fact 1 of T.331. It is
1 ;:::;km /
S
straightforward that P D fF .k1 ; : : : ; km / W ki 2 ! for all i  mg; since also
.k1 ; : : : ; km / < for any k1 ; : : : ; km 2 !, we conclude that P 2 0 .Y /.
Now, if Qi 2 0 .Yi / then Yi nQi 2 0 .Yi / and hence i1 .Yi nQi / belongs
S
to 0 .Y / for all i  m (see Fact 1 of T.318). Since Y nQ D fi1 .Yi nQi / W
i  mg, we can apply Fact 1 of T.341 to see that Y nQ 2 0 .Y / and hence Q 2
0 .Y /. Thus our statement is verified for D , so our inductive procedure can be
continued to guarantee that it holds for all < !1 , i.e., Fact 1 is proved.
Returning to our solution take a completely metrizable space Mi such
Q that Xi is
homeomorphic to some Yi  Mi for all i  n (see TFS-237); let Y D in Yi and
Q
M D in Mi . If Xi 2 A then Yi 2 0 .Mi / for every i  n, so Y 2 0 .M /
by Fact 1. The space X D X1  : : :  Xn is homeomorphic to Y , so we can apply
Problem 184 to see that X 2 A . Finally, if Xi 2 M then Yi 2 0 .Mi / for every
i  n, so Y 2 0 .M / by Fact 1. The space X being homeomorphic to Y we can
apply Problem 183 to see that X 2 M .
V.186. Given ordinals ; S
2 !1 such that  2 and < suppose that X is a
metrizable space and X D fXn W n 2 !g where Xn 2 0 .X / \ M for every
n 2 !. Prove that X 2 M .
Solution. Take a complete metric space M such that X  M (see TFS-237). It
follows from Fact 1 of T.319 that there exists Yn 2 0 .M / such that Yn \ X D Xn
S
for any n 2 !; thus the set Y D n2! Yn 2 0 .M /  0 .M / (see Fact 1 of
T.331) belongs to the class 0 .M /. Now, Xn 2 M implies that Xn 2 0 .M / and
0
therefore Yn nXn 2 0 .M / for every n 2 !. The class
S .M / being  -additive (see
Fact 1 of T.341), we convince ourselves that Z D n2! .Yn nXn / also belongs to the
class 0 .M /. Consequently, X D Y nZ 2 0 .M /, so we can apply Problem 183
to conclude that X 2 M .
V.187. Prove that a metrizable space X is a Borel set of absolute additive class
  2 (i.e.,SX 2 A ) if and only if there exists a sequence fn W n 2 !g   such
that X D fXn W n 2 !g and Xn 2 Mn for every n 2 !.
Solution. Suppose that X 2 A and fix a complete metric space M such that X 
M (see TFS-237). We have X 2 0 .M /, so there exist sequences fn W n 2 !g  
S
and fXn W n 2 !g such that X D n2! Xn and Xn 2 0n .M / for all n 2 !. Let
n D n if n  1 and n D 1 if n D 0; it is clear that fn W n 2 !g   and,
besides, n  n , so Xn 2 0n .M / for every n 2 !. Apply Problem 183 to see that
Xn 2 Mn for each n 2 !; this settles necessity.
Now assume that there exist sequences fn W S
n 2 !g   and fXn W n 2 !g
such that Xn 2 Mn for every n 2 ! and X D n2! Xn . If X is a subspace of a

2 Solutions of problems 001500

221

metric space M then Xn  M and hence Xn 2 0n .M / for all n 2 !. Therefore


X 2 0 .M / and hence X is a Borel set of absolute additive class , i.e., we proved
sufficiency.
V.188. Given a countable ordinal   2, let M be the class of absolute Borel sets
of multiplicative class . Prove that the following conditions are equivalent for any
metrizable X :
(i) the space X belongs to M ;
(ii) there is a complete sequence fUn W n 2 !g of  -discrete covers of X such that,
for any n 2 !, there is n <  with Un  0n .X /;
(iii) there is a complete sequence fVn W n 2 !gSof  -discrete covers of X such that,
for any n 2 !, there is n <  with Vn  f0 .X / W < n g.
Solution. Recall that a sequence fWn W n 2 !g of covers of a space Z is called
complete
F \ Un ; for all n 2 ! we
T if, for any filter F on the set Z such thatT
have fF W F 2 Fg ;; the points of the set fF W F 2 Fg are called the
cluster points of F. Given a metric space .M; d /, a family U of subsets of M is
called uniformly discrete if there exists " > 0 such that the ball Bd .x; "/ D fy 2
M W d.x; y/ < "g meets at most one element of U for every x 2 X ; the family U
is  -uniformly discrete if it is a countable union of uniformly discrete families. For
any nonempty set A  M let diamd .A/ D supfd.x; y/ W x; y 2 Ag.
VnGiven a space Z and families A1 ; : : : ; An of subsets of Z we will need the family
iD1 Ai D A1 ^ : : : ^ An D fA1 \ : : : \ An W Ai 2 Ai for all i  ng. For any
A  exp.Z/ let AjY D fA \ Y W A 2 Ag.
Fact 1. Given a collectionwise normal space Z and 2 !1 suppose that fPt W t 2
T g is a discrete family
of subsets of Z. If Pt 2 0 .Z/ (Pt 2 0 .Z/) for each
S
t 2 T then P D t2T Pt 2 0 .Z/ (or P 2 0 .Z/ respectively).
Proof. If D 0 then every Pt is open (closed) in Z, so P is open in Z (or closed in
Z respectively, because the union of a discrete family of closed sets is closed); this
proves our statement for D 0.
Proceeding inductively, assume that > 0 and our statement is proved for all
< . If fPt W t 2 T g  0 .Z/ then, for each t 2 T , there are sequences fn .t / W
S
n 2 !g  and fPtn W n 2 !g such that Pt D n2! Ptn and Ptn 2 0n .t/ .Z/ for
every n 2 !. For every < and n 2 ! let T n D ft 2 T W n .t /  g.
Take any n 2 !; the family fPtn W t 2 T n g  0 .Z/ isSdiscrete, so we can
apply the induction hypothesis to conclude that the set Q n D t2T n Ptn belongs to

< g is countable,
0 .Z/ for each ordinal < . The family Q D fQ n W n 2 !; S
every element of Q belongs to a multiplicative class < , so Q 2 0 .Z/. It
S
is easy to see that P D Q, so P 2 .Z/, i.e., we completed the induction step
for the additive class .
Now, if fPt W t 2 T g  0 .Z/ then choose a discrete family fOt W t 2 T g such
that Pt  Ot for every t 2 T . Each set Ot nPt belongs to the family 0 .Z/, so we
S
can use what we proved for the additive class to see that W D fOt nPt W t 2 T g

222

2 Solutions of problems 001500

S
is an element of 0 .Z/. The set O D t2T Ot being open, the closed set F D
ZnO belongs to 0 .Z/ (recall that > 0); as a consequence, ZnP D W [ F 2
0 .Z/ which shows that P 2 0 .Z/ and completes our induction step. Thus our
statement is true for every < !1 , i.e., Fact 1 is proved.
Fact 2. Assume that  2 is a countable ordinal,U  0 .M / is a  -discrete cover
of a metric space .M; d / and r > 0. Then there is a  -uniformly discrete refinement
V  0 .M / of the family U such that diamd .V / < r for any V 2 V.
S
Proof. By our assumption, U D n2! Un and every Un is discrete, so we can choose
an open cover Gn of the space M such that every set G 2 Gn meets at most one
element of Un and diamd .G/ < r. Fix n 2 ! and applySFact 1 of T.373 to find an
open refinement Wn of the cover Gn such that Wn D i2! Win and every Win is
uniformly discrete. Let V.n; i / D Win ^ Un for all n; i 2 !.
Fix any n; i 2 ! and take " > 0 such that Bd .x; "/ meets at most one element
of Win for any x 2 X . Suppose that we have distinct V0 ; V1 2 V.n; i / such that
Bd .x; "/ \ Vj ; for j D 0; 1. Take W0 ; W1 2 Win and U0 ; U1 2 Un such that
Vj D Wj \ Uj and hence Bd .x; "/ \ .Wj \ Uj / ; if j 2 f0; 1g. It follows from
Bd .x; "/\W0 ; Bd .x; "/\W1 that W0 D W1 and hence U0 U1 ; thus the set
W0 2 Win meets both sets U0 and U1 . There is G 2 Gn with W0  G; an immediate
consequence is that G also meets both sets U0 and U1 which contradicts the choice
of the family Gn . This proves thatSthe family V.n; i / is uniformly discrete for any
n; i 2 !. Thus the family V D fV.n; i / W n; i 2 !g is a  -uniformly discrete
refinement of U such that diamd .V / < r for every V 2 V, so Fact 2 is proved.
Returning to our solution observe that
(1) if fUn W n 2 !g is a complete sequence of covers of a space Z and Vn is a
refinement of Un for every n 2 ! then the sequence fVn W n 2 !g is also
complete.
Apply TFS-237 to find a complete metric space .M; d / such that X  M ; we
will prove by transfinite induction that (i)H)(ii) for every   1. If  D 1 then

X 2 10 .M /, i.e., X is a G -subset of M , so X is Cech-complete


(see TFS-260 and
TFS-269) and hence X has a complete sequence fUn0 W n 2 !g of open covers by
TFS-268. Since X is metrizable, we can choose a  -discrete open refinement Un of
the cover Un0 for every n 2 !. Then Un  00 .X / for every n 2 ! and the sequence
fUn W n 2 !g is complete by (1), so we proved (i)H)(ii) for  D 1.
Now assume that > 1 is a countable ordinal and we proved (i)H)(ii) for all
 < . If X 2 M ; then X 2 0 .M /, so M nX 2 0 .M / and hence there are
sequences fn W n 2 !g  and fHn W n 2 !g
S such that 1  n  nC1 and
Hn 2 0n .M / for every n 2 ! while M nX D n2! Hn . The set Dn D M nHn
T
belongs to the class 0n .M / for each n 2 ! and X D n2! Dn .
For each n 2 ! fix sequences fin W i 2 S
!g  n and fDin W i 2 S
!g such that
n
0
Di 2 n .M / for every i 2 ! and Dn D i2! Din ; if Ein D Din n j <i Djn for
i

2 Solutions of problems 001500

223

S
all i 2 ! then the family fEin W i 2 !g is disjoint, Dn D i2! Ein and it follows
from Fact 1 of T.341 and Fact 1 of T.331 that every set Ein belongs to the family
0n .M / \ 0n .M /.
Apply Problem 183 to see that Ein 2 Mn ; by the induction hypothesis, for every
set Ein we can find a complete sequence fC.n; i; k/ W k 2 !; k  ng of  -discrete
covers of the space Ein such that C.n; i; k/  0n .Ein / for every k  n (observe
that the induction hypothesis could be used to guarantee that every family C.n; i; k/
is in the class 0k .Ein / for some k < n but we wont need that). Applying
Fact 1 of T.341 and Fact 1 of T.319 we conclude that C.n; i; k/  0n .M / for
all n; i; k 2 !; k  n. It follows from (1) and Fact 2 that we can additionally
assume, without loss of generality, that every C.n; i; k/ is  -uniformly discrete in
Ein and diamd .U /  2k for every U 2 C.n; i; k/; then every C.n; k; i / is also
 -uniformly discrete in M by Fact 2 of T.373.
For every p 2 ! consider the family Up D fF W T
F ; while there exist
p
sets U0 ; : : : ; Up and i0 ; : : : ; ip 2 ! such that F D . nD0 Un / \ X and Un 2
C.n; in ; p/ for all n  pg. It follows from 0  : : :  p that Up  0p .X / for
every p 2 ! (see Fact 1 of T.331 and Fact 1 of T.341). Fact 3 of T.373 implies that
the family E.i0 ; : : : ; ip / D C.0; i0 ; p/ ^ : : : ^ C.p;
S ip ; p/ is  -uniformly discrete for
any i0 ; : : : ; ip 2 !. Therefore the family E D fE.i0 ; : : : ; ip / W i0 ; : : : ; ip 2 !g is
also  -uniformly discrete. As a consequence, Up  EjX is  -uniformly discrete for
every p 2 !, so all is left is to prove that the sequence fUp W p 2 !g is complete
in X .
Assume that F is a filter in X such that F \ Up ; and hence we can pick a
set Up 2 Up \ F for each p 2 !. The sequence fdiamd .Up / W p 2 !g converges to
zero, so we have the following property:
(2) the filter F can have at most one cluster point in M .
Tp
By the choice of Up , we have Up D . nD0 Upn /\X where Upn 2 C.n; i.n; p/; p/
for every p 2 !. Given any n 2 ! and p; q  n it follows from Up \ Uq ; that
Upn \ Uqn ;; the family fEin W i 2 !g being disjoint we must have i.n; p/ D
i.n; q/; thus the number in D i.n; p/ does not depend on p.
Let Fn D FjEinn for every n 2 !; it follows from Up  Upn that Fn is a filter
on Einn and Upn 2 Fn \ C.n; in ; p/ for each p  n. The sequence fC.n; in ; p/ W
n  p < !g being complete in Einn , the filter Fn has a cluster point an 2 Einn . It
is clear that every an is also a cluster point of F, so we can apply the property (2)
to convince
ourselves that
T
T there is a 2 M such that an D a for all n 2 !. Now,
a 2 fEinn W n 2 !g  n2! Dn D X , so a is a cluster point of F in X . This shows
that the sequence fUp W p 2 !g is complete and hence we proved that (i)H)(ii).
Assume, toward proving (ii)H)(i), that S D fUn W n 2 !g is a complete
sequence given in (ii); we are still considering that X is a subspace of a complete
metric space .M; d /. Applying Fact 2 we can assume, without
S loss of generality,
that diamd .U /  2n for all n 2 ! and U 2 Un while Un D i2! Uin where every
Uin is uniformly discrete. For each n 2 ! and U 2 Un we can apply Fact 1 of T.319
to find a set E.U /  clM .U / such that E.U / \ X D U and E.U / 2 0n .M /.

224

2 Solutions of problems 001500

Every family Uin is uniformly discrete in M (see Fact 2 of T.373); it is easy to


see that the collection fclM .U / W U 2 Uin g is also uniformly discrete in M , so the
family Vin D fE.U / W U 2 Uin g  0n .M /  0 .M / is uniformly discrete in M
as well. If m 2 ! and we are given arbitrary k0 : : : ; km 2 ! let
Q.k0 ; : : : ; km / D fQ 2 Vk00 ^ : : : ^ Vkmm W Q \ X D ;g:
It follows from Fact 3 of T.373
that Q.k0 ; : : : ; km / is uniformly discrete and hence
S
the set Q.k0 ; : : : ; km / D Q.k0 ; : : : ; km / belongs to 0 .M / (see Fact 1) for any
S
k0 : : : ; km 2 !. Consequently, the set Q D fQ.k0 ; : : : ; km / W k0 ; : : : ; km 2 !g
also belongs to 0 .M / whence R D M nQ belongs to 0 .M / and X  R. The
set R has the following important property:
T
(3) for
T any number n 2 ! if Ui 2 Ui for all i  n then in Ui ; if and only if
. in E.Ui // \ R ;.
S n
Vi belongs to 0n .M /;
Apply Fact 1 again to see that every set Vin D
S
therefore the set Vn D i2! Vin belongs to 0n .M / for each n 2 !. This implies
T
that the set V D n2! Vn  X belongs to 0 .M /. Therefore the set X 0 D V \ R
belongs to 0 .M / and X  X 0 .
Fix any x 2 X 0 ; there is a sequence
T fUn W n 2 !g such that Un 2 Un and x 2
E.Un / for every
n
2
!.
Since
x
2
.
in E.Ui // \ R, we can apply (3) to convince
T
ourselves that in Ui ; for every n 2 !, so the family U D fUn W n 2 !g is
centered; let F be a filter which contains U . The sequence S being complete, the
filter F has a cluster point a 2 X . Since theTsequence fdiamd .clM .Ui // W i 2 !g
converges to zero, it follows from fx; ag  fclM .Un / W n 2 !g that x D a and
hence x 2 X . Therefore X 0  X , i.e., X D X 0 is an element of 0 .M /, so we can
apply Problem 183 to conclude that X 2 M ; this proves that (ii)H)(i).
Now, if (ii) holds and fUn W n 2 !g is the respective complete sequence of covers
of X then, for every
T .U / D fOn .U / W n 2 !g
S n 2 ! and U 2 Un pickSa sequence
0
such that
U
D
O
.U
/
and
O
.U
/
2
f
.X
/
W
< n g for each n 2 !. If
n

n2! n
S
Vn D fT .U / W U 2 Un g then Vn is a  -discrete refinement of UnS
for every n 2 !,
so the sequence fVn W n 2 !g is complete by (1). Since also Vn  f0 .X / W <
n g for all n 2 !, we settled (ii)H)(iii).
Finally, if (iii) holds then take the respective complete sequence fVn W n 2 !g
of  -discrete covers of X and let Un D Vn for every n 2 !. By Fact 1 of T.331
we have Un  0n .X / for each n 2 !; this shows that (iii)H)(ii) and makes our
solution complete.
V.189. Given a countable ordinal   2 prove that the following conditions are
equivalent for any second countable X :
(i) the space X belongs to M ;
(ii) there is a complete sequence fUn W n 2 !g of countable covers of X such that,
for any n 2 !, there is n <  with Un  0n .X /;

2 Solutions of problems 001500

225

(iii) there is a complete sequence fVn W n 2 !gSof countable covers of X such that,
for any n 2 !, there is n <  with Vn  f0 .X / W < n g.
Solution. If X 2 M then it follows from Problem 188 that X has a complete
sequence fUn W n 2 !g of  -discrete covers such that, for every n 2 !, we have
Un  0n .X / for some n < . The space X being second countable, every Un is
countable; this proves that (i)H)(ii).
Now, if X has a complete sequence fUn W n 2 !g of countable covers as in
(ii) then every Un is  -discrete, so we can apply Problem 188 to see that there is
a complete sequence fVn W n 2 !g of  -discrete
covers of X such that, for every
S
n 2 ! there exists n <  for which Vn  f0 .X / W < n g. Since X is second
countable, every Vn is countable, so we settled (ii)H)(iii).
Finally, if fVn W n 2 !g is a complete sequence of countable covers as in (iii)
then each Vn is  -discrete, so we can apply Problem 188 once more to conclude that
X 2 M and hence (iii)H)(i).
V.190. Prove that any analytic space has a complete sequence of countable covers.
Show that in metrizable spaces the converse is also true, i.e., a metrizable space X
is analytic if and only if there exists a complete sequence of countable covers of X .
Solution. Suppose that a space X is analytic and fix a continuous onto map ' W
! ! ! X . For any x 2 X choose a point yx 2 ' 1 .x/ and let Y D fyx W x 2 X g.
Then 'jY W Y ! X is a bijection. Given n 2 ! and k0 ; : : : ; kn 2 ! the set
O.k0 ; : : : ; kn / D ff 2 ! ! W f .i / D ki for all i  ng is open in ! ! , so the family
Un D fO.k0 ; : : : ; kn / W ki 2 ! for all i  ng is an open disjoint cover of ! ! .
The family Vn D fU \ Y W U 2 Un g is a cover of the space Y , so the family
Wn D f'.V / W V 2 Vn g is a cover of X for every n 2 !. To show that the
sequence S D fWn W n 2 !g is complete in X take a filter F on the set X such that
F \ Wn ; and hence there is Vn 2 Vn such that '.Vn / 2 F; pick a set Un 2 Un
with Un \ Y D Vn for each n 2 !.
Since 'jY W Y ! X is a bijection and f'.Vn / W n 2 !g  F is centered, the
family fVn W n 2 !g is centered too; fix a point fn 2 V0 \ : : : \ Vn  U0 \ : : : \ Un
for each n 2 !. By the definition of the family Un there are k0n ; : : : ; knn 2 ! such
that Un D O.k0n ; : : : ; knn / for every n 2 !. Take any m; n; i 2 ! with i  m  n.
It follows from ffm ; fn g  Um and fn 2 Un that kim D fm .i / D fn .i / D kin and
hence kin D kim , i.e., the number kin D ki does not depend on n.
Let f .i / D ki for every i 2 !; then f 2 ! ! . Fix any element F 2 F; if
x D '.f / F then use continuity of ' to find a set W 2 .f; ! ! / such that
'.W / \ F D ;. The family fUn W n 2 !g is easily seen to be a local base at f ,
so there is n 2 ! with Un  W . Then '.Vn /  '.Un /  '.W / and therefore
'.Vn / \ F D ;. This contradiction with f'.V
T n /; F g  F shows that x 2 F ; the
set F 2 F was chosen arbitrarily, so x 2 fF W F 2 Fg. Consequently, S is a
complete sequence in X .
Now assume that X is metrizable and S D fUn W n 2 !g is a complete sequence
of countable covers of X . If w.X / > ! then there exists a closed discrete D  X
with jDj D !1 . Since U0 is countable, we can choose U0 2 U0 such that D0 D

226

2 Solutions of problems 001500

U0 \ D is uncountable. Suppose that n 2 ! andTwe have chosen Ui 2 Ui for all


i  n in such a way that the set Di D D \ . j i Uj / is uncountable for any
i  n. The set Dn is uncountable while the family UnC1 is countable, so there is
UnC1 2 UnC1 such that set DnC1 D Dn \ UnC1 is uncountable.
Thus, our inductive procedure shows that
T we can choose a sequence fUi W i 2 !g
such that Ui 2 Ui and the set Di D D \ . j i Uj / is uncountable for every i 2 !.
This makes it possible to pick a point di 2 Di for each i 2 !, so that di dj
whenever i j . The family D D ffdi W i  ng W n 2 !g is a filterbase in X ;
let F be any filter containing D. By our choice of the set fdi W i 2 !g we have
fdi W i  ng  Un and hence
2 !. The sequence S being
T Un 2 F for every n T
complete there is a point x 2 fF W F 2 Fg, soT
x 2 D because all elements of
D  F are closed in X . This contradiction with D D ; shows that X is second
countable. The following property is evident.
(1) if Un0 is a refinement of Un for every n 2 ! then the sequence S 0 D fUn0 W n 2 !g
is also complete.
We will pass several times from the sequence S to a sequence S 0 as in (1); to
simplify the notation, we will then consider that S 0 D S and hence the sequence S
has the properties we found in S 0 .
Fix a metric  on the set X which generates .X / and let Vn be a countable
subcover of the cover fB .x; 2n1 / W x 2 X g for any n 2 !. Given any n 2 !
the cover Un0 D fU \ V W U 2 Un and V 2 Vn g is a countable refinement of Un
and diam .U /  2n for any U 2 Un0 . According to the policy described above, we
consider that diam .U /  2n for every U 2 Un and n 2 !. Since there is nothing
to prove in the case of an empty X (and neither is it interesting to decide whether the
empty space is analytic or not), we consider that X ;, so we can throw away all
empty elements of every Un obtaining its refinement with only nonempty elements.
Therefore we consider that U ; for any U 2 Un .
Take an enumeration fO.i / W i 2 !g of the family U0 (with possible repetitions)
and let O0 D fO.i / W i 2 !g. Proceeding inductively, assume that n 2 ! and we
have families O0 ; : : : ; On with the following properties:
(2) Oi is a refinement of Ui and no element of Oi is empty for all i  n;
(3) Oi D fO.k0 ; : : : ;S
ki / W kj 2 ! for all j  i g for each i  n;
(4) O.k0 ; : : : ; ki / D fO.k0 ; : : : ; ki ; kiC1 / W kiC1 2 !g for all k0 ; : : : ; ki 2 ! and
i < n;
Given any U D O.k0 ; : : : ; kn / 2 On the family W D fU \ V W V 2 UnC1 g
covers U which is nonempty so we can assume that every W 2 W is nonempty;
take an enumeration fWi W i 2 !g of the family W (with possible repetitions). Let
O.k0 ; : : : ; kn ; knC1 / D WknC1 for every knC1 2 !.
This gives us a family OnC1 D fO.k0 ; : : : ; knC1 / W ki 2 ! for all i  n C 1g
and it is straightforward that the properties (2)(4) still hold if we substitute n by
n C 1. Thus our inductive procedure provides a sequence S0 D fOn W n 2 !g of
covers of X for which the conditions (2)(4) are satisfied for all n 2 !; applying

2 Solutions of problems 001500

227

(1) once more we conclude that S0 is a complete sequence. It follows from (2) and
our choice of the sequence S that
(5) if n 2 ! then diam .O/  2n for any O 2 On .
Given any element f 2 ! ! let Un D O.f .0/; : : : ; f .n//; it follows from the
property (4) that UnC1  Un for every n 2 !. This gives us a decreasing sequence
T D fUn W n 2 !g of nonempty sets such that Un 2 On for all n 2 !. Since T is
a filterbase, we can find a filter F  TT. Then Un 2 F \ O
Tn for every n 2 !; the
sequence S0 being complete, we have fU n W n 2 !g  fF W F 2 Fg ;. It
follows from (5) that the sequence fdiam .Un / W n 2 !g converges to zero, so there
T
is x 2 X such that fU n W n 2 !g D fxg; let '.f / D x. This gives us a map
' W !! ! X .
Fix a point f 2 ! ! and an open
Tneighborhood U of the point x D '.f / in X ; by
our choice of ', we have fxg D fU n W n 2 !g where Un D O.f .0/; : : : ; f .n//
for all n 2 !. It follows from the property (5) that diam .Un / ! 0, so there is
n 2 ! such that U n  U . If g 2 V D fh 2 ! ! W h.i / D f .i / for all i  ng
then '.g/ 2 O.g.0/; : : : ; g.n// D U n  U . This proves that '.V /  U and hence
V 2 .f; ! ! / witnesses continuity of ' at the point f ; thus the map ' is continuous.
Finally, take any x 2 X ; the property (4) shows that there exists a sequence
fki W i 2 !g  ! such that x 2 Un T
D O.k0 ; : : :T
; kn / for any n 2 !.
S If f .i / D ki
for all i 2 ! then f 2 ! ! and x 2 T
U

U
.
The
set
n
n
n2!
n2!
n2! U n being
a singleton by (5) we conclude that n2! U n D fxg and hence '.f / D x; this
shows that X is analytic being a continuous image of ! ! . Thus we have proved the
converse for the class of metric spaces, i.e., our solution is complete.
V.191. For any metrizable space X and n 2 N define a map e W X n ! X
n by
e..x1 ; : : : ; xn // D fx1 ; : : : ; xn g for every .x1 ; : : : ; xn / 2 X n . Prove that there exists
an F -set G in the space X n such that e.G/ D X
n and the map ejG W G ! X
n
is a bijection.
Solution. Let T D f.x1 ; : : : ; xn / 2 X n W xi xj whenever i j g. Given any
bijection  W f1; : : : ; ng ! f1; : : : ; ng let h ..x1 ; : : : ; xn // D .x.1/ ; : : : ; x.n/ / for
any .x1 ; : : : ; xn / 2 T . It is evident that h W T ! T is a homeomorphism. Denote
by Sn the set of all bijections  W f1; : : : ; ng ! f1; : : : ; ng. Call a set Y  T
adequate if ejY is injective.
For any a D .a1 ; : : : ; an / 2 T choose disjoint sets O1 ; : : : ; On 2 .X / such that
ai 2 Oi for every i  n. It is easy to see that the set O D O1  : : :  On  T is
adequate, open and a 2 O; this shows that T has a cover which consists of open
adequate sets. The space T is metrizable and hence paracompact so we can choose
an open locally finite cover U DSfU W < g of the space T such
Sthat U is
adequate for all < . Let V D fh .V / W  2 Sn g and G D U n. fV W <
g/ for every < . The family fG W < g is disjoint and locally finite. Since
S in
the space T every open set is F , every G is an F -subset of T ; let G D fG W
< g. It is an easy exercise that the union of a locally finite family of F -sets is
an F -set, so G is an F -subset of T ; the set T being open in X n , we conclude that
G is also an F -set in X n .

228

2 Solutions of problems 001500

Take any set y D fx1 ; : : : ; xn g 2 X


n ; the point x D .x1 ; : : : ; xn / is an element
of T , so e 1 .y/ D fh .x/ W  2 Sn g. Take the minimal ordinal <  such that
U \ e 1 .y/ ; and fix  2 Sn with h .x/ 2 U . If h .x/ 2 V for some <
then there is  2 Sn and z 2 U for which h .z/ D h .x/. It is straightforward that
1
z D h1
 .h .x// D h1 .x/ 2 e .y/ \ U which is a contradiction. Therefore
a D h .x/ 2 G and hence e.a/ D y. The point y 2 X
n was chosen arbitrarily
so we proved that e.G/ D X
n .
Finally take distinct points a and b in the set G and fix ; 2  with a 2 G
and b 2 G ; we can assume, without loss of generality, that  . If <
then b V and hence b e 1 .a/ which shows that e.a/ e.b/. If D then
e.a/ e.b/ because G is an adequate set. Thus G is an F -subset of X n such that
e.G/ D X
n and ejG W G ! X
n is a bijection.
V.192. Given a metrizable space X and n 2 N consider the set X
n together with
its Vietoris topology. ProveSthat there exists a family fYm W m 2 !g of closed subsets
of X
n such that X
n D fYm W m 2 !g and every Ym is homeomorphic to some
closed subspace of X n .
Solution. For any space Z denote by K.Z/ the family of all compact subsets of
Z and let VZ be the Vietoris topology on K.Z/. For each U 2 .Z/ consider the
families OZ U
D fK 2 K.Z/ W K \ U ;g and OZ hU i D fK 2 K.Z/ W K 
U g. If S0 .Z/ D fOZ U
W U 2 .Z/g and S1 .Z/ D fOZ hU i W U 2 .Z/g then the
family S.Z/ D S0 .Z/ [ S1 .Z/ is a subbase of the space .K.Z/; VZ /.
Fact 1. For any space Z if T  Z then VT D fV \ K.T / W V 2 VZ g and hence
.K.T /; VT / is a subspace of .K.Z/; VZ /.
Proof. Since K.T /  K.Z/, we must only check that VT is induced by VZ on
K.T /. It is easy to verify that
(1) OZ U
\ K.T / D OT U 0
and OZ hU i \ K.T / D OT hU 0 i for any U 2 .Z/
and U 0 2 .T / such that U 0 D U \ T .
An immediate consequence of (1) is that G \ K.T / 2 S.T / for any G 2 S.Z/.
If G 0 2 S0 .T / then take U 0 2 .T / such that G 0 D OT U 0
and choose U 2 .Z/
with U \T D U 0 . It follows from (1) that G 0 D OZ U
\K.T /. If G 0 2 S1 .T / then
there exists U 0 2 .T / such that G 0 D OT hU 0 i; pick U 2 .Z/ with U \ T D U 0
and apply (1) to convince ourselves that OZ hU i\K.Z/ D OT hU 0 i. This proves that
S.T / D fS \ K.T / W S 2 S.Z/g. Recalling that S.Z/ is a subbase of .K.Z/; VZ /
and S.T / is a subbase of .K.T /; VT / and representing the respective open sets as
unions of finite intersections of the elements of their corresponding subbases, we
conclude that VT D fV \ K.T / W V 2 VZ g, i.e., Fact 1 is proved.
Fact 2. For any space Z the space .K.Z/; VZ / is Tychonoff.
Proof. The family F of all closed subsets of Z coincides with K.Z/, so we can
apply Fact 1 of T.372 to conclude that .K.Z/; VZ / is a compact Hausdorff (and
hence Tychonoff) space. It follows from Fact 1 that .K.Z/; VZ / is a subspace of
.K.Z/; VZ /, so .K.Z/; VZ / is a Tychonoff space, i.e., Fact 2 is proved.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

229

Fact 3. Suppose that n 2 N and f W Z ! T is an open map such that jf 1 .t /j D n


for any t 2 T . Then
(a) f is perfect;
(b) f is a local homeomorphism, i.e., for any z 2 Z there is W 2 .z; Z/ such that
f jW W W ! f .W / is a homeomorphism.
Proof. Recall that we consider that all open maps are surjective. The inverse images
of all points of T are finite and hence compact so, to prove (a), it suffices to show
that f is a closed map. Given t 2 T and U 2 .f 1 .t /; Z/, we have f 1 .t / D
fz1 ; : : : ; zn g, so we can choose disjoint open sets U1 ; : : : ; Un such that U 0 D U1 [
: : : [ Un  U and zi 2 Ui for all i  n. The set V D f .U1 / \ : : : \ f .Un / is an
open neighborhood of the point t .
For any a 2 V and i  n there is bi 2 Ui with f .bi / D a; an immediate
consequence is that B D fb1 ; : : : ; bn g  f 1 .a/. Since the set f 1 .a/ has exactly
n elements, we conclude that f 1 .a/ D B  U 0  U . The point a 2 V was
chosen arbitrarily, so we proved that f 1 .V /  U 0  U and hence the map f is
closed by Fact 2 of S.271; this settles (a).
Fix any point z 2 Z and let t D f .z/; then f 1 .t / D fz; z1 ; : : : ; zn1 g, so we
can choose disjoint sets U; U1 ; : : : ; Un1 2 .Z/ such that z 2 U and zi 2 Ui for
all i  n  1. Then V D f .U / \ f .U1 / \ : : : \ f .Un1 / 2 .t; T / and hence
W D U \ f 1 .V / is an open neighborhood of the point z.
If a 2 W then, for any i  n  1 there is ai 2 Ui such that f .ai / D f .a/, so
A D fa; a1 ; : : : ; an1 g  f 1 .f .a//. Recalling that jf 1 .f .a//j D n we conclude
that A D f 1 .f .a// and hence f 1 .f .a// \ W D fag for any a 2 W . This shows
that f jW W W ! f .W / is an injection; since f jW is an open map, we conclude
that f jW is a homeomorphism so we established (b), i.e., Fact 3 is proved.
Fact 4. Given a space Z and n 2 N let Zn
D f.z1 ; : : : ; zn / 2 Z n W zi zj
whenever i j g. For any z D .z1 ; : : : ; zn / 2 Zn
let '.z/ D fz1 ; : : : ; zn g. Then
the map ' W Zn
! Z
n is open if Z
n is considered with it Vietoris topology.
Proof. It is evident that ' is surjective. If y D fz1 ; : : : ; zn g 2 Z
n and Ui 2 .zi ; Z/
for all i  n then consider the set U1 ; : : : ; Un
D fa 2 Z
n W a \ Ui ; for all
i  n and a  U1 [ : : : [ Un g. It is straightforward that the family
Cy D fU1 ; : : : ; Un
W Ui 2 .zi ; Z/ for all i  n and Ui \Uj D ; whenever i j g
is a local base of the space Z
n at the point y.
For any point z D .z1 ; : : : ; zn / 2 Zn
the family Bz D fU1  : : :  Un W zi 2 Ui
for all i  n and Ui \ Uj D ; whenever i j g is easily seen to be a local base
of Zn
at the point z. It is an easy exercise that '.U1  : : :  Un / D U1 ; : : : ; Un
if
the family fU1 ; : : : ; Un g is disjoint. An immediate consequence is that, for the point
y D '.z/ we have Cy D f'.G/ W G 2 Bz g, so we can apply Fact 2 of S.491 to
conclude that ' is an open continuous map. Fact 4 is proved.

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

Returning to our solution consider the map ' W X n


! X
n defined by the
formula '.x/ D fx1 ; : : : ; xn g for any x D .x1 ; : : : ; xn / 2 X n
. Apply Fact 4 to see
that ' is open; since also j' 1 .a/j D n for any a 2 X
n , we can apply Fact 3 to
convince ourselves that ' is also a closed map.
Apply Problem 191 to find a family fFm W m 2 !g of closed
S subsets of the space
X n
such that the restriction of the map ' to the set F D m2! Fn is injective and
'.F / D X
n . For every m 2 ! the set Ym D '.Fm / is closed in X
n ; the map
'jFm W F
Sm ! Ym being closed and injective, it has to be a homeomorphism, so
X
n D m2! Ym is the promised representation of X
n and hence our solution is
complete.
V.193. Suppose that there exists a uniformly continuous surjection of Cp .X / onto
Cp .Y /. Prove that if X is pseudocompact then Y is also pseudocompact. Deduce
from this fact that if X is a metrizable compact space and there exists a uniformly
continuous surjection of Cp .X / onto Cp .Y / then Y is also compact. Give an
example of a (non-metrizable!) compact space X such that there is a non-compact
space Y and a uniformly continuous surjection of Cp .X / onto Cp .Y /.
Solution. Recall that a uniform space .Z; U / is called  -totally bounded if there
exists a family
S fZn W n 2 !g of totally bounded uniform subspaces of .Z; U / such
that Z D n2! Zn .
Suppose that ' W Cp .X / ! Cp .Y / is a uniformly continuous surjection. If X
is pseudocompact then Cp .X / is  -totally bounded by Problem 136; fix a family
fC
S n W n 2 !g of totally bounded uniform subspaces of Cp .X / such that Cp .X / D
n2! Cn . By Fact 1 of V.136, the uniform space Dn D '.Cn / is
Stotally bounded
for every n 2 !. The map ' being surjective, we have Cp .Y / D n2! Dn , i.e., the
uniform space Cp .Y / is  -totally bounded, so Y is pseudocompact by Problem 136.
If X is compact and metrizable then Y is pseudocompact by what we proved
before. Besides, nw.Cp .X // D nw.X / D w.X /  !; since network weight is not
raised even by continuous maps, we have nw.Cp .Y // D ! and hence nw.Y / D !.
Therefore Y is compact (and metrizable).
Finally consider the compact space X D !1 C 1 and let Y D !1  X . Then the
restriction map  W Cp .X / ! Cp .Y / is continuous and linear, so  is uniformly
continuous. If follows from TFS-314 that every bounded continuous function on Y
can be continuously extended to X ; since the space Y is countably compact, this
implies .Cp .X // D Cp .Y /. Therefore Y is a non-compact space such that Cp .Y /
is a linear (and hence uniform) continuous image of Cp .X / for a compact space X .
V.194. Assume that X and Y are metrizable spaces and there exists either a
uniformly continuous surjection of Cp .X / onto Cp .Y / or a uniformly continuous
surjection of Cp .X / onto Cp .Y /. Prove
S that there exists a family fYn W n 2 !g of
closed subspaces of Y such that Y D n2! Yn and each Yn can be perfectly mapped
onto a closed subspace of X
kn (with the Vietoris topology) for some kn 2 N.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

231

Solution. Given a set A the family Fin.A/ consists of all finite subsets of A; for
each n 2 ! let A
n D fB 2 Fin.A/ W jBj D ng. For any space Z the function
0Z 2 Cp .Z/ is defined by 0Z .z/ D 0 for all z 2 Z. For each n 2 N the space Z
n
is assumed to carry the Vietoris topology.
Suppose that either T W Cp .X / ! Cp .Y / or T W Cp .X / ! Cp .Y / and T is
a uniformly continuous surjection. Our proof will be valid for both cases, so let us
denote by E.X / and E.Y / the respective domain and range of T . Since 0X 2 E.X /
and 0Y 2 E.Y /, there is no loss of generality to assume that T .0X / D 0Y . For every
y 2 Y let by .f / D f .y/ for all f 2 E.Y /. For any K 2 Fin.X / and " > 0 the set
OX .K; "/ D ff 2 E.X / W f .K/  ."; "/g is an open neighborhood of 0X and
the family fOX .K; "/ W K 2 Fin.X / and " > 0g is a local base of the space E.X /
at the point 0X .
It follows from Fact 1 of V.178 that
(1) by W E.Y / ! R is a uniformly continuous unbounded map and hence the map
y D by T is also uniformly continuous and unbounded for every y 2 Y .
Fact 1. Given a point y 2 Y and a finite subset K of the space X let
u.y; K/ D supfjy .f /  y .g/j W f; g 2 E.X / and jf .x/  g.x/j < 1 for every x 2 Kg:

Then the family E.y/ D fK 2 Fin.X / W u.y; K/ < 1g is nonempty.


Proof. It follows from uniform continuity of y that there is a finite set K  X
and " > 0 such that f  g 2 OX .K; "/ implies jy .f /  y .g/j < 1. Fix n 2
N with n" > 1 and take any f; g 2 E.X / such that jf .x/  g.x/j < 1 for all
x 2 K. The function hi D f C ni .g  f / belongs to E.X / for every i  n and
it is straightforward that jhiC1 .x/  hi .x/j < n1 < " for all x 2 K and hence
 y .hi /j < 1 for all i < n. Now, h0 D f and hn D g, so jy .g/ 
jy .hiC1 / P
y .f /j  i<n jy .hiC1 /  y .hi /j < n which shows that u.y; K/  n and hence
K 2 E.y/, i.e., Fact 1 is proved.
Fact 2. For any point y 2 Y the empty set does not belong to E.y/; besides, if
K0 ; K1 2 E.y/ then u.y; K0 \ K1 /  u.y; K0 / C u.y; K1 / and hence K0 \ K1 2
E.y/.
Proof. Observe that OX .;; 1/ D E.X /; since y is unbounded on E.X / by (1), the
set fjy .f /j D jy .f /  y .0X /j W f 2 E.X /g is unbounded so u.y; ;/ D 1 and
hence ; E.y/. Now, if K0 ; K1 2 E.y/ then let K D K0 \ K1 and consider any
f; g 2 E.X / such that jf .x/  g.x/j < 1 for all x 2 K.
The set Ix D .f .x/1; f .x/C1/\.g.x/1; g.x/C1/ is open and nonempty, so
choose qx 2 Ix for any x 2 K. For every x 2 K0 nK take qx 2 .f .x/1; f .x/C1/;
if x 2 K1 nK then pick qx 2 .g.x/  1; g.x/ C 1/. It is easy to find a function
h 2 E.X / for which h.x/ D qx for every x 2 K0 [ K1 ; it is immediate that f  h 2
OX .K0 ; 1/ and h  g 2 OX .K1 ; 1/. Therefore jy .f /  y .h/j  u.y; K0 / and
jy .h/  y .g/j  u.y; K1 / whence jy .f /  y .g/j  u.y; K0 / C u.y; K1 /. This
shows that u.y; K/  u.y; K0 / C u.y; K1 /, so we proved all statements formulated
for E.y/ and hence Fact 2 is proved.

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

Fact 3. For any y 2 Y there exists a unique minimal element K.y/ in the family
E.y/ with respect to inclusion; let u.y/ D u.y; K.y//.
Proof. The elements of E.y/ are finite, so there exists a minimal element K 2 E.y/;
if K0 is another minimal element of E.y/ then K \ K0 is strictly smaller than K;
since K \ K0 2 E.y/ by Fact 2, we have a contradiction with minimality of K.
Therefore there is a unique minimal element of E.y/, so Fact 3 is proved.
Fact 4. For any p; q 2 N let Y.p; q/ D fy 2 Y W there exists K 2 E.y/ such that
jKj  q and u.y; K/  pg. Given p 2 N consider the set M.p; 1/ DSY.p; 1/; for
every natural q > 1 let M.p; q/ D Y.p; q/nY.2p; q  1/. If M.p/ D fM.p; q/ W
q 2 Ng then
(i) for any
Sy 2 Y and p 2 N such that u.y/  p we have y 2 M.p/; in particular,
Y D fM.p/ W p 2 Ng.
(ii) If we have p 2 N and distinct q0 ; q1 2 N then M.p; q0 / \ M.p; q1 / D ;.
Proof. If q D jK.y/j then u.y/ D u.y; K.y//  p, so y 2 Y.p; q/. The set
K.y/ being minimal in E.y/, the point y does not belong to Y.2p; q  1/, so y 2
M.p; q/  M.p/; this proves (i).
Now assume that p 2 N and take distinct q0 ; q1 2 N; there is no loss of generality
to assume that q0 < q1 and hence q0  q1 1. It follows from the relevant definitions
that M.p; q0 /  Y.p; q0 /  Y.p; q1  1/  Y.2p; q1  1/  Y nM.p; q1 / and
therefore M.p; q0 / \ M.p; q1 / D ;, so we settled (ii) and hence Fact 4 is proved.
Fact 5. Suppose that p 2 N and y 2 M.p/; denote by q.p/ the unique natural
number such that y 2 M.p; q.p//. Then there exists a unique set Kp .y/  X such
that jKp .y/j D q.p/ and u.y; Kp .y//  p.
Proof. Observe that q.p/ is unique because the family fM.p; q/ W q 2 Ng is disjoint
by Fact 4. Let q D q.p/; by the definition of Y.p; q/ there exists a set K  X such
that jKj  q and a.y; K/  p. It follows from y Y.2p; q  1/  Y.p; q  1/ that
jKj D q. Now, if K 0 K; a.y; K 0 /  p and jK 0 j D q then K 00 D K \ K 0 has at
most .q1/-many elements and a.y; K 00 /  2p (see Fact 2) which is a contradiction
with y Y.2p; q  1/. This establishes uniqueness of the set Kp .y/ D K, so Fact 5
is proved.
Fact 6. Given p 2 N assume that fyn W n 2 !g  Y is a sequence which converges
to a point y 2 M.p/; if Qn  X is a finite set such that u.yn ; Qn /  p for every
n 2 ! then for every U 2 .X / with U \ Kp .y/ ; there exists m 2 ! such that
U \ Qn ; for all n  m.
Proof. If the set A D fn 2 ! W Qn \ U D ;g is infinite then we can pass to the
subsequence fyn W n 2 Ag to see that we can assume, without loss of generality, that
Qn \ U D ; for all n 2 !. Fix q 2 N such that y 2 M.p; q/; then jKp .y/j D q.
If K D Kp .y/nU then jKj < q, so there exist functions f; g 2 E.X / such that
jf .x/  g.x/j < 1 for all x 2 K while jy .f /  y .g/j > 2p. Take a function

2 Solutions of problems 001500

233

h 2 E.X / such that hj.X nU / D f j.X nU / and jh.x/  g.x/j < 1 for all x 2
U \ Kp .y/. Then jh.x/  g.x/j < 1 for all x 2 Kp .y/, so jy .h/  y .g/j  p.
An immediate consequence is that jy .h/  y .f /j > p.
On the other hand, it follows from hjQn D f jQn that
. / jyn .h/  yn .f /j  p for all n 2 !.
The function T .h/ is continuous on Y , so the sequence fT .h/.yn / W n 2 !g
converges to T .h/.y/ D y .h/. Since yn .h/ D T .h/.yn / for every n 2 !, the
sequence fyn .h/ W n 2 !g converges to y .h/. Analogously, yn .f / ! y .f /,
so we can apply . / to conclude that jy .h/  y .f /j  p; this contradiction
demonstrates that only finitely many elements of the sequence fQn W n 2 !g miss
the set U , so Fact 6 is proved.
Fact 7. The set Y.p; q/ is closed in Y for any p; q 2 N.
Proof. Suppose that yn 2 Y.p; q/ for all n 2 ! and yn ! y. We will pass several
times to a subsequence of the sequence S D fyn W n 2 !g; since our aim is to prove
that y 2 Y.p; q/, at each step we will identify the obtained subsequence with S
considering that all elements of S have the property we have found in a subsequence.
Fix a set Qn  X such that jQn j  q and u.yn ; Qn /  p for every n 2 !. Passing
to a subsequence of S if necessary, we can assume that jQn j D k  q for all n 2 !.
Next, use Fact 2 of U.337 to choose an infinite A  ! for which there is a
set D D fd1 ; : : : ; dr g  X such that Qn \ Qm D D for distinct n; m 2 A
(observe that it is possible that r D 0 in which case D D ;). According to
the above mentioned politics we can consider that, for any i 2 !, we have
i
Qi D fd1 ; : : : ; dr ; a1i ; : : : ; akr
g and the family fQi nD W i 2 !g is disjoint.
An evident property of metric spaces is that any sequence contains either a
convergent subsequence or an infinite closed discrete subspace. This makes it
possible to pass to a subsequence of S once more to guarantee that, for any
j 2 f1; : : : ; k  rg, the sequence Sj D faji W i 2 !g is either convergent
or constitutes a closed discrete subspace of X . If Sj is convergent then denote
by xj its limit. Renumbering every Qi if necessary we can assume that Qi D
i
i
i
fd1 ; : : : ; dr ; a1i ; : : : ; ali ; alC1
; : : : ; akr
g while the set A D falCj
W i 2 !; 1 
j  k  r  lg is closed and discrete in X and the sequence Sj converges to xj for
any j 2 f1; : : : ; lg.
Consider the set Q D fd1 ; : : : ; dr ; x1 ; : : : ; xl g; since jQj  q, it suffices to show
that u.y; Q/  p. To do this, fix f0 ; g0 2 E.X / such that jf0 .x/  g0 .x/j < 1 for
every x 2 Q. Given an arbitrary " > 0 there exists a finite set E  Q and 2 .0; 1/
such that f  g 2 OX .E; / implies jy .f /  y .g/j < ". The set A being closed
and discrete in X we can find U 2 .E; X / such that U \ A is a finite set.
Choose h 2 E.X / such that h.E/  f1g and h.X nU /  f0g; consider the
functions f1 D hf0 and g1 D hg0 . It follows from f0 jE D f1 jE and g0 jE D g1 jE
that
. / jy .f0 /  y .f1 /j < " and jy .g0 /  y .g1 /j < ".

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

We also have f1 jQ D f0 jQ and g1 jQ D g0 jQ, so jf1 .x/  g1 .x/j < 1 for every
x 2 Q. Therefore W D fx 2 X W jf1 .x/  g1 .x/j < 1g is an open neighborhood of
the set Q and so is the set W 0 D W \ U . There is m 2 ! such that, for all i  m,
we have aji 2 W 0 for all j 2 f1; : : : ; lg and aji U for all j 2 fl C 1; : : : ; k  rg.
As a consequence, for each i  m we have jf1 .x/  g1 .x/j < 1 for every point
i
i
x 2 D [fa1i ; : : : ; ali g; besides, f1 .x/ D g1 .x/ D 0 whenever x 2 falC1
; : : : ; akr
g,
so jf1 .x/  g1 .x/j < 1 for all x 2 Qi .
By the choice of the sets Qi , we have jyi .f1 /  yi .g1 /j  p for all i  m.
We already saw that yi .f1 / ! y .f1 / and yi .g1 / ! y .g1 / as i ! 1. Passing
to the limit in the last inequality, we conclude that jy .f1 /  y .g1 /j  p. This,
together with . /, implies that jy .f0 /  y .g0 /j  p C 2". The number " > 0
was taken arbitrarily so jy .f0 /  y .g0 /j  p and hence y 2 Y.p; q/, i.e., we
established that the set Y.p; q/ is closed in X , so Fact 7 is proved.
Fact 8. The map Kp W M.p; q/ ! X
q is continuous for any p; q 2 N.
q
Proof. Given a set U 2 .X / consider the families I.U
S / D fK 2 X
W K  U g
q
and J.U / D fK 2 X
W K \ U ;g. Then S D fI.U / [ J.U / W U 2 .X /g
is a subbase of X
q , so it suffices to show that .Kp /1 .W / is open in M.p; q/ for
any W 2 S.
Fix and open set U  X , let W D I.U / and assume that G D .Kp /1 .W / is
not open in M.p; q/. Then there is a sequence fyn W n 2 !g  M.p; q/nG which
converges to a point y 2 G. Let Kp .y/ D fx1 ; : : : ; xq g and choose disjoint sets
U1 ; : : : ; Uq 2 .X / such that xi 2 Ui for all i  q and U 0 D U1 [ : : : [ Uq  U .
We have jKp .yn /j D q and u.yn ; Kp .yn //  p for each n 2 ! (see Fact 5).
For every i  q it follows from Kp .y/ \ Ui ; that we can apply Fact 6 to find
mi 2 ! such that Ui \ Kp .yn / ; for all n  mi . If m D m1 C : : : C mq then, for
any n  m the set Kp .yn / meets Ui for all i  q. This, together with jKp .yn /j D q
implies that Kp .yn /  U 0  U for all n  m, i.e., yn 2 G which is a contradiction.
Thus .Kp /1 .I.U // is open in M.p; q/ for every U 2 .X /.
Now assume that U 2 .X / and W D J.U / while G D .Kp /1 .W / is not
open in M.p; q/. Then there is a sequence fyn W n 2 !g  M.p; q/nG which
converges to a point y 2 G; let Kp .y/ D fx1 ; : : : ; xq g. We have jKp .yn /j D q
and u.yn ; Kp .yn //  p for each n 2 ! (see Fact 5); it follows from y 2 G that
Kp .y/ \ U ;, so Fact 6 can be applied to see that there is m 2 ! such that
Kp .yn / \ U ; and hence yn 2 G for all n  m; this contradiction shows that
.Kp /1 .J.U // is open in M.p; q/ for all U 2 .X /, i.e., the map Kp W M.p; q/ !
X
q is continuous and hence Fact 8 is proved.

Fact 9. Given metrizable spaces Z and T and a continuous map f W Z ! T the


following conditions are equivalent:
(a) f is an almost perfect map, i.e., f .F / is closed in T for any closed F  Z and
f 1 .t / is compact for any t 2 T (recall that an almost perfect continuous map
is perfect if and only if it is surjective);
(b) a sequence S D fzn W n 2 !g  Z has a convergent subsequence if and only if
the sequence S 0 D ff .zn / W n 2 !g  T has a convergent subsequence.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

235

Proof. If fznk W k 2 !g is a convergent subsequence of S then ff .znk / W k 2 !g is


a convergent subsequence of S 0 by continuity of f , so (a)H)(b) (observe that we
dont need the map f to be almost perfect to obtain this implication).
Now assume that (b) holds and fix t 2 T . If f 1 .t / is not compact then there
is an infinite set D  f 1 .t / which is closed and discrete in Z; let fdn W n 2 !g
be a faithful enumeration of D. Since f .dn / D t for every n 2 !, the sequence
ff .dn / W n 2 !g is convergent while the sequence fdn W n 2 !g has no convergent
subsequences. The obtained contradiction shows that f 1 .t / is compact for any
t 2 T.
To see that f is closed take a closed subset F  Z and assume that G D f .F /
is not closed in T . Then there is a sequence ftn W n 2 !g  G which converges to a
point t 2 T nG. Pick zn 2 F with f .zn / D tn for each n 2 !. Since the property (b)
holds, there exists a subsequence fznk W k 2 !g of the sequence fzn W n 2 !g which
converges to a point z. The set F being closed in Z we have z 2 F . By continuity
of f the sequence ff .znk / W k 2 !g D ftnk W k 2 !g converges to f .z/ 2 G.
However, ftnk W k 2 !g has to converge to t f .z/ being a subsequence of the
sequence ftn W n 2 !g. This contradiction demonstrates that f .F / is closed in T for
any closed F  Z, so Fact 9 is proved.
Fact 10. Suppose that F is a closed subset of Y such that F  M.p; q/ for some
p; q 2 N. Then the map Kp W F ! X
q is almost perfect.
Proof. Fix a sequence S D fyn W n 2 !g  F ; if S has a convergent subsequence,
then the sequence S 0 D fKp .yn / W n 2 !g also has a convergent subsequence by
continuity of Kp (see Fact 8).
Now assume that S 0 has a convergent subsequence and S does not. Passing
to the relevant subsequence of S we can assume, without loss of generality, that
S 0 converges to a point K D fx1 ; : : : ; xq g 2 X
q while S has no convergent
subsequences and hence the set S is closed and discrete in F ; therefore S is also
closed and discrete in Y . There is no loss of generality to assume that yn ym if
n m.
Let A be an uncountable almost disjoint family of infinite subsets of ! (see TFS141). The space Y being metrizable, the set S is C -embedded in Y , so we can
choose, for any A 2 A, a function gA 2 E.Y / such that gA .yn / D p C 1 for all
n 2 A and gA .yn / D 0 whenever n 2 !nA. Fix a function fA 2 E.X / such that
T .fA / D gA for every A 2 A.
Let rA D .fA .x1 /; : : : ; fA .xq // 2 Rq for every A 2 A. The family A being
uncountable the set frA W A 2 Ag cannot be discrete of cardinality jAj, so there
are distinct A; B 2 A such that the distance in Rq between the points rA and rB is
strictly less than 1 and hence jfA .xi /  fB .xi /j < 1 for all i  q.
By continuity of fA  fB , the set W D fx 2 X W jfA .x/  fB .x/j < 1g is
an open neighborhood of xi for every i  q, so we can choose a disjoint family
fO1 ; : : : ; Oq g  .X / such that xi 2 Oi  W for all i  q. The sequence S 0 being
convergent to K there is m 2 ! such that Kp .yn / \ Oi ; for all i  q and

236

2 Solutions of problems 001500

S
n  m; recalling that jKp .yn /j D q, we conclude that Kp .yn /  iq Oi  W
whence jfA .x/  fB .x/j < 1 for all x 2 Kp .yn / and n  m.
As a consequence, jgA .yn /  gB .yn /j D jyn .fA /  yn .fB /j  p which shows
that fyn W n  mg  A \ B because jgA .yn /  gB .yn /j D p C 1 for all numbers
n 2 .AnB/ [ .BnA/. This contradiction with jA \ Bj < ! shows that S have
a convergent subsequence and hence we can apply Fact 9 to conclude that Kp is
almost perfect map, i.e., Fact 10 is proved.
Returning to our solution observe that it follows from Fact 7 that
S M.p; q/ is
an F -subset of Y for all p; q 2 N. Apply Fact 4 to see that Y D fM.p; q/ W
p; q 2SNg, so we can find a family fYn W n 2 !g of closed subsets of Y such that
Y D n2! Yn and every Yn is contained in some M.p; q/.
Fix n 2 ! and p; q 2 N such that Yn  M.p; q/; the map Kp W Yn ! X
q is
almost perfect by Fact 10 and, in particular, the set Fn D Kp .Yn / is closed in X
q .
If kn D q then Kp W Yn ! Fn is a perfect map of Yn onto a closed subspace Fn of
the space X
kn , so our solution is complete.
V.195. Let P be a class of metrizable spaces with the following properties:
(1) P contains all complete metrizable spaces;
(2) P is invariant under finite products andSclosed subspaces;
(3) if M is a metrizable space with M D fMn W n 2 !g, where Mn is closed in
M and Mn 2 P for each n 2 !, then M 2 P.
Suppose that X 2 P and Y is a metrizable space. Prove that, if there exists a
uniformly continuous surjection of Cp .X / onto Cp .Y / (or Cp .X / onto Cp .Y /),
then Y 2 P.
Solution. Fix a number n 2 N and consider the space X
n to carry the Vietoris
topology.SThere exists a family fFm W m 2 !g of closed subsets of X
n such that
X
n D m2! Fm and every Fm is homeomorphic to a closed subspace of X n (see
Problem 192).
It follows from X 2 P that every closed subspace of X n belongs to P, so each
Fm belongs to P and hence X
n 2 P for every n 2 N.
Apply Problem
194 to find a family fYn W n 2 !g of closed subspaces of Y such
S
that Y D n2! Yn and, for every n 2 !, there exist kn 2 N and a perfect map
fn W Yn ! Fn for some closed Fn  X
kn ; we can consider that Yn  Mn for some
complete metric space Mn (see TFS-237).
Given any n 2 ! the graph G D f.y; fn .y// W y 2 Yn g is closed in Yn  Fn and
homeomorphic to Yn (see Fact 4 of S.390). It turns out that G is closed in Mn  Fn ;
to prove this assume toward a contradiction that a point .x; y/ 2 .Mn  Fn /nG
belongs to the closure of G. Since G is closed in Yn  Fn , the point .x; y/ cannot
belong to Yn  Fn , so x Yn . There exists a set fxm W m 2 !g  Yn such that
the sequence f.xm ; fn .xm // W m 2 !g converges to .x; y/. Thus xm ! x Yn ,
so the set D D fxm W m 2 !g is closed and discrete in Yn . Since the sequence D

2 Solutions of problems 001500

237

converges to a point outside of D, the set D cannot be finite, so we can pass to a


subsequence to see that we can assume, without loss of generality, that xm xk
whenever m k.
Given any z 2 Fn the set fn1 .z/ is compact, so jD \ fn1 .z/j < !; an immediate
consequence is that the set f .D/ is infinite. By continuity of the projection onto Fn ,
the sequence S D ffn .xm / W m 2 !g must converge to y. The set S being infinite,
it is a nontrivial convergent sequence. However, S D fn .D/ must be closed and
discrete in Fn because the map fn is closed; this contradiction shows that G is
closed in Mn  Fn . Observe that Mn 2 P and Fn 2 P, so G 2 P and hence
Yn 2 P for any n 2 !. Recalling that countable unions of closed subsets preserve
the property P we conclude that Y 2 P.
V.196. Let P be a class of second countable spaces such that
(1) every compact metrizable space belongs to P;
(2) P is invariant under finite products and closed S
subspaces;
(3) if M is a second countable space with M D fMn W n 2 !g, where Mn is
closed in M and Mn 2 P for each n 2 !, then M 2 P.
Suppose that X 2 P and Y is a metrizable space. Prove that, if there exists a
uniformly continuous surjection of Cp .X / onto Cp .Y / (or Cp .X / onto Cp .Y /),
then Y 2 P.
Solution. Fix a number n 2 N and consider the space X
n to carry the Vietoris
topology.SThere exists a family fFm W m 2 !g of closed subsets of X
n such that
X
n D m2! Fm and every Fm is homeomorphic to a closed subspace of X n (see
Problem 192). It follows from X 2 P that every closed subspace of X n belongs to
P, so each Fm belongs to P and hence X
n 2 P for every n 2 N.
If there exists a (uniformly) continuous surjection T W Cp .X / ! Cp .Y / then
nw.Cp .Y //  nw.Cp .X // D nw.X / D !, so nw.Y / D nw.Cp .Y // D ! and
hence Y is second countable. If there is a continuous surjection T W Cp .X / !
Cp .Y / then nw.Cp .Y //  nw.Cp .X //  nw.X / D !. Since Cp .Y; .0; 1// 
Cp .Y / is homeomorphic to Cp .Y / we conclude that nw.Cp .Y //  nw.Cp .Y // D
!, so nw.Y / D nw.Cp .Y // D ! and hence Y is second countable. Thus Y is
second countable in all possible cases.
Apply Problem
194 to find a family fYn W n 2 !g of closed subspaces of Y such
S
that Y D n2! Yn and, for every n 2 !, there exist kn 2 N and a perfect map
fn W Yn ! Fn for some closed Fn  X
kn ; we can consider that Yn  Mn for some
compact metric space Mn (see TFS-209).
Given any n 2 ! the graph G D f.y; fn .y// W y 2 Yn g is closed in Yn  Fn and
homeomorphic to Yn (see Fact 4 of S.390). It turns out that G is closed in Mn  Fn ;
to prove this assume toward a contradiction that a point .x; y/ 2 .Mn  Fn /nG
belongs to the closure of G. Since G is closed in Yn  Fn , the point .x; y/ cannot
belong to Yn  Fn , so x Yn . There exists a set fxm W m 2 !g  Yn such that
the sequence f.xm ; fn .xm // W m 2 !g converges to .x; y/. Thus xm ! x Yn ,
so the set D D fxm W m 2 !g is closed and discrete in Yn . Since the sequence D

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

converges to a point outside of D, the set D cannot be finite, so we can pass to a


subsequence to see that we can assume, without loss of generality, that xm xk
whenever m k.
Given any z 2 Fn the set fn1 .z/ is compact, so jD \ fn1 .z/j < !; an immediate
consequence is that the set f .D/ is infinite. By continuity of the projection onto Fn ,
the sequence S D ffn .xm / W m 2 !g must converge to y. The set S being infinite,
it is a nontrivial convergent sequence. However, S D fn .D/ must be closed and
discrete in Fn because the map fn is closed; this contradiction shows that G is
closed in Mn  Fn . Observe that Mn 2 P and Fn 2 P, so G 2 P and hence Yn 2 P
for any n 2 !. Recalling that countable unions (of closed subsets) preserve the
property P we conclude that Y 2 P.
V.197. Given a countable ordinal , let M be the class of absolute Borel sets of
multiplicative class . Suppose that X is a metrizable space such that X 2 M
for some  2. Let Y be a metrizable space such that Cp .Y / (or Cp .Y /) is a
uniformly continuous image of Cp .X / (or Cp .X / respectively). Prove that Y 2
u

M . In particular, if X  Y then X belongs to M if and only if so does Y .


Solution. If M is completely metrizable then M is closed in M , so M 2 0 .M /
which shows that we can apply Problem 183 to conclude that M 2 M ; this proves
that the class M contains all completely metrizable spaces.
Suppose that Z 2 M and F is a closed subset of Z. There exists a complete
metric space M such that Z is homeomorphic to some Z 0 2 0 .M / (see
Problem 183). Then F is homeomorphic to some closed subspace F 0 of the space Z 0
and therefore we can find a closed subset P of the space M such that P \ Z 0 D F 0 .
Since P 2 0 .M /, we can apply Fact 1 of T.341 to see that F 0 2 0 .M / and hence
F 2 M by Problem 183. Thus the class M is invariant under closed subspaces;
by Problem 185, it is also invariant under finite products.S
Now suppose that M is a metrizable space, M D n2! Mn while every Mn
is closed in M and belongs to M . If D 1 < then Mn 2 0 .M / for every
n 2 !, so we can apply Problem 186 to see that M 2 M . Therefore the class M
satisfies all conditions we need to apply Problem 195 and conclude that if X belongs
to M and there exists a uniformly continuous surjection ' W Cp .X / ! Cp .Y / or
a uniformly continuous surjection  W Cp .X / ! Cp .Y / then Y 2 M .
V.198. Given a countable ordinal , let A be the class of absolute Borel sets of
additive class . Suppose that X is a metrizable space such that X 2 A for some
 2. Let Y be a metrizable space such that Cp .Y / (or Cp .Y /) is a uniformly
continuous image of Cp .X / (or Cp .X / respectively). Prove that Y 2 A . In
u

particular, if X  Y then X belongs to A if and only if so does Y .


Solution. If M is completely metrizable then M is closed in M , so M 2 0 .M /
which shows that we can apply Problem 184 to conclude that M 2 A ; this proves
that the class A contains all completely metrizable spaces.
Suppose that Z 2 A and F is a closed subset of Z. There exists a complete
metric space M such that Z is homeomorphic to some Z 0 2 0 .M / (see
Problem 184). Then F is homeomorphic to some closed subspace F 0 of the space Z 0

2 Solutions of problems 001500

239

and therefore we can find a closed subset P of the space M such that P \ Z 0 D F 0 .
Since P 2 0 .M /, we can apply Fact 1 of T.341 to see that F 0 2 0 .M / and hence
F 2 A by Problem 184. Thus the class A is invariant under closed subspaces; by
Problem 185, it is also invariant under finite products.
S
Now suppose that M is a metrizable space and M D n2! Mn while every
Mn is closed in M and belongs to the class A . If e W M ! N is an arbitrary
embedding of M in a metrizable space N thenS
e.Mn / 2 0 .N / for every n 2 !, so
it follows from Fact 1 of T.341 that e.M / D n2! e.Mn / 2 0 .N /. This implies
that M 2 A and therefore the class A satisfies all conditions we need to apply
Problem 195 and conclude that if X belongs to A and there exists a uniformly
continuous surjection ' W Cp .X / ! Cp .Y / or a uniformly continuous surjection
 W Cp .X / ! Cp .Y / then Y 2 A .
V.199. Prove that every nonempty countable compact space X is homeomorphic to
the space C 1 D f W  g for some countable ordinal . Here, as usual, the
set C 1 is considered with the topology generated by the well-ordering on C 1.
Solution. The expression Y 'L
Z says that the spaces Y and Z are homeomorphic.
In every discrete union Z D
fZt W t 2 T g we identify every set Zt with the
respective clopen subspace of Z. If and are ordinals such that < then
.; / D f W <  < g is the usual interval of ordinals. Given two linearly
ordered spaces L and M we say that they are canonically homeomorphic if there
exists a homeomorphism f W L ! M which is also an order isomorphism between
L and M .
If K ; is a countable compact space then K is scattered (see SFFS-133);
therefore the set I.K/ D fx 2 K W x is an isolated point of Kg is nonempty.
Let K0
D K; proceeding inductively assume that < !1 and we have a family
fK
W < g of closed subspaces of K with the following properties:
(1) K C 1
D K
nI.K
/ whenever 0T
 < C 1 < ;
(2) if < is a limit ordinal then K
D fK
W  < g.
T
If is a limit ordinal, let K
D fK
W < g. If D C 1 then
let K
D K
nI.K
/. It is clear that the properties (1)(2) still hold for the
family fK
W  g, so our inductive procedure can be carried out for all < !1 .
Observe that if K
; then I.K
/ ; and hence the set K C 1
is strictly
smaller than K
. Since K is countable, there is < !1 for which K
D ;; let
be the minimal such . Observe that every K
is compact, so it follows from (2)
that is always a non-limit ordinal; let  be the predecessor of . The ordinal  is
called the dispersion index of K and we will denote it by d i.K/; it is evident that
K
is a nonempty finite set.
Fact 1. For any ordinals and there exists an ordinal number  > such that
. C 1/n. C 1/ is canonically homeomorphic to C 1 and hence  C 1 ' . C
1/ . C 1/.
Proof. Let  0 D . C 1/ C . C 1/; it follows from the definition of the sum
of ordinals that the set B D  0 n. C 1/ is canonically homeomorphic to C 1.

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2 Solutions of problems 001500

Furthermore, C 1 D f 2  0 W  < C 1g and B D f 2  0 W  > g, so


C 1 and B are clopen disjoint subspaces of the ordinal  0 which shows that  0 is
homeomorphic to . C 1/ B ' . C 1/ . C 1/. The set B being isomorphic
to C 1 it has a maximal element  ; it is evident that  is also the maximal element
of  0 , so  0 D  C 1 and hence Fact 1 is proved.
Fact 2. If a compact space Xi is homeomorphic to an ordinal i C 1 < !1 for all
i D 0; : : : ; n then there exists an ordinal < !1 such that X D X0 : : : Xn is
homeomorphic to C 1.
Proof. Proceeding by induction observe that our statement is trivially true for
n D 0. Assume that it is true for n  k 2 ! and consider countable compact
spaces X0 ; : : : ; Xk ; XkC1 such that Xi is homeomorphic to some ordinal i C 1 for
every i  k C 1. By the induction hypothesis the space Y D X0 : : : Xk is
homeomorphic to an ordinal C 1 < !1 . Apply Fact 1 to find an ordinal (which
is, evidently, countable) such that C1 is homeomorphic to . C1/.kC1 C1/ '
Y XkC1 ' X . Therefore the space X is homeomorphic to C 1 which shows
that we completed the inductive step and hence our statement is true for all n 2 !,
i.e., Fact 2 is proved.
Fact 3. If a nonempty compact space Xi is homeomorphic to a countable ordinal
i C 1 for all i 2 ! then there L
exists an ordinal < !1 such that the one-point
compactification X of the space i2! Xi is homeomorphic to C 1.
Proof. Using Fact 1 it easy to construct by induction a sequence fi W i 2 !g of
countable ordinals with the following properties:
(3) i < iC1 for every i 2 !;
(4) 0 D 0 and BiC1 D .iC1 C 1/n.i C 1/ is homeomorphic to iC1 C 1 for all
i 2 !.
Let D supfi W i 2 !g; it follows from .i ; iC1 C 1/ \ D Bi that Bi is an
open subset of for all i 2 N. If B0 D 0 C 1 then the family fBi W i 2 !g is a
disjoint open cover of , so every Bi is a clopen subset of . RecallingL
that Bi ' Xi
for each i 2 ! we convince ourselves that is homeomorphic to i2! Xi . The
compact space C 1 is obtained from
L by adding one point; therefore C 1 is the
one-point compactification of '
i2! Xi . Thus C 1 is homeomorphic to X
and hence Fact 3 is proved.
Returning to our solution call a space X adequate if it is homeomorphic to C 1
for some countable ordinal . We will prove that every countable compact space
X is adequate by induction on the dispersion index of X . If d i.X / D 0 then X is
finite, so X is homeomorphic to the ordinal C 1 for D jX j  1. Now assume
that  D d i.X / > 0 and we proved that every nonempty compact countable space
Y is adequate whenever d i.Y / < .
Let fa1 ; : : : ; ak g be a faithful enumeration of the set X 
; the space X being
zero-dimensional, it is easy to find disjoint clopen subsets O1 ; : : : ; Ok of the space
X such that ai 2 Oi for all i  k and O1 [ : : : [ Ok D X . It is immediate that X

2 Solutions of problems 001500

241

is homeomorphic to O1 : : : Ok , so it suffices to prove that every Oi is adequate


(see Fact 2). It is straightforward that Oi 
D X 
\ Oi , so Oi 
D fai g for
every i  k. Therefore we can assume, without loss of generality, that X D O1 and
hence X 
D fag for some a 2 X .
Observe that the point a is not isolated in X because  > 0, so we can construct
a family fUn W n 2 !g of clopen neighborhoods of the point a such that U0 D X ,
a 2 UnC1  Un and Kn D Un nUnC1 ; for all n 2 !. It follows from the
inclusion Kn 
 X 
\ Kn D ; that d i.Kn / <  and hence we can apply the
induction hypothesis to see that Kn is adequate for every n 2 !. Every Kn is clopen
in X and hence in X nfag; since fKn W nL2 !g is a disjoint cover of X nfag, we
conclude that X nfag is homeomorphic to n2! L
Kn . Therefore X is homeomorphic
to the one-point compactification of the space n2! Kn , so we can apply Fact 3
to convince ourselves that X is adequate. This completes our inductive proof and
shows that every countable compact space is homeomorphic to C1 for a countable
ordinal .
u

V.200. Let X and Y be infinite countable compact spaces. Prove that X  Y , i.e.,
the spaces Cp .X / and Cp .Y / are uniformly homeomorphic.
Solution. The expression X ' Y says that the spaces X and Y are homeomorphic;
the function 0X is defined on X by letting 0X .x/ D 0 for any x 2 X . If x; y 2 R2
then x; y
D f.1  t /x C ty W t 2 0; 1
g is the segment in R2 that connects the
points x and y whereas for any > 0 we let B D f.x0 ; x1 / 2 R2 W x02 C x12 < 2 g.
Given ordinals ; with  we will need the intervals ;
D f W    g
and ; / D f W   < g. Recall that if we are given a nonempty set A then
 .A/ D fx 2 RA W jfa 2 A W jx.a/j  "gj < ! for any " > 0g.
We will often use norms on different spaces using the same symbol jj jj. This
wont lead to a confusion because we never use distinct norms on the same space.
If K is a compact space then jjf jj D maxfjf .x/j W x 2 Kg for any f 2 Cp .K/.
Given a nonempty set A let jjxjj D maxfjx.a/j W a 2 Ag for any x 2  .A/. For
any n 2 N and x D .x0 ; : : : ; xn1 / 2 Rn let jjxjj D maxfjxi j W i < ng. Now,
if we have norms on spaces M and L then jj.p; q/jj D maxfjjpjj; jjqjjg for any
.p; q/ 2 M  L.
Fact 1. If K is a countably infinite compact space then for any point a K the
space K fag is homeomorphic to K.
Proof. By Problem 199 there exists a countable ordinal such that K ' 0;
, so
there is no loss of generality to assume that K D 0;
; the space K being infinite
we have  ! and hence 0; !
is a clopen subspace of K. Thus K ' 0; !

.Kn0; !
/. The space 0; !
is a convergent sequence with its limit, so 0; !
fag
is homeomorphic to 0; !
. Thus K fag ' .0; !
fag/ .Kn0; !
/ ' 0; !

.Kn0; !
/ ' K, so Fact 1 is proved.
Fact 2. For any " > 0 there exist functions u" W R2 ! R and v" W R2 ! R with the
following properties:

242

2 Solutions of problems 001500

(a) there exists a constant C."/ > 0 such that ju" .x/  u" .y/j  C."/jjx  yjj and
jv" .x/  v" .y/j  C."/jjx  yjj for any x; y 2 R2 ;
(b) if h.x0 ; x1 / D .x0 ; u" .x0 ; x1 // for any .x0 ; x1 / 2 R2 then h W R2 ! R2 is a
uniform homeomorphism;
(c) if g.x0 ; x1 / D .x0 ; v" .x0 ; x1 // for any .x0 ; x1 / 2 R2 then g W R2 ! R2 is a
uniform homeomorphism which is the inverse of h;
(d) u" .t; t / D 0 for any t 2 R;
(e) .1 C "/1 jj.x0 ; x1 /jj  jjh.x0 ; x1 /jj  jj.x0 ; x1 /jj for any .x0 ; x1 / 2 R2 .
Proof. For any .x0 ; x1 / 2 R2 let

u" .x0 ; x1 / D

<x1 ;

if .x1 C x0 /.x1  .1 C "/x0 /  0;

 x0 /;

:.1 C 1 /.x  x /;
1
0
"
1
.x
2 1

if jx1 j  jx0 j;
if .x1  x0 /.x1  .1 C "/x0 /  0:

Observe that u" is a union of three continuous functions defined on closed


subspaces of R2 . It is easy to check that any pair of these functions coincide on
the intersections of their domains, so u" is continuous (see Fact 2 of T.354).
Now, if
8

if .x1 C x0 /.x1  .1 C "/x0 /  0;


x1 ;
<
v" .x0 ; x1 / D 2x1 C x0 ;
if .x1 C x0 /x1  0;

: " x C x ; if x .x  .1 C "/x /  0
1C" 1

for any .x0 ; x1 / 2 R2 then the same reasoning as in the case of u" shows that the
function v" W R2 ! R is continuous. It is also straightforward that the functions h
and g defined in (b) and (c) are mutually inverse, so h is a homeomorphism. The
property (d) is evident from the definition of u" .
If u" .x0 ; x1 / D x1 or u" .x0 ; x1 / D 12 .x1  x0 / then it is evident that we have the
inequality ju" .x0 ; x1 /j  jj.x0 ; x1 /jj.
To prove the same when u" .x0 ; x1 / D .1 C 1" /.x1  x0 / assume that x1  x0 ;
then 0  x0  x1  .1 C "/x0 and therefore .1 C "/.x1  x0 /  "x1 which implies
that ju" .x0 ; x1 /j D 1C"
.x1  x0 /  x1 D jj.x0 ; x1 /jj. Now if x1  x0 is the case,
"
then .1 C "/x0  x1  x0  0 and hence .1 C "/.x1  x0 /  "x1 ; an immediate
consequence is that ju" .x0 ; x1 /j D 1C"
.x0  x1 /  x1 D jj.x0 ; x1 /jj. This proves
"
that
(1) ju" .x0 ; x1 /j  jj.x0 ; x1 /jj and hence jjh.x0 ; x1 /jj  jj.x0 ; x1 /jj for any point
.x0 ; x1 / 2 R2 .
To prove the second inequality in (e) we will establish that
(2) jv" .x0 ; x1 /j  .1 C "/jj.x0 ; x1 /jj for any .x0 ; x1 / 2 R2 .
If .x0 C x1 /.x1  .1 C "/x0 /  0 then jv" .x0 ; x1 /j D jx1 j D jj.x0 ; x1 /jj, so we
have jv" .x0 ; x1 /j  .1 C "/jj.x0 ; x1 /jj.

2 Solutions of problems 001500

243

Next assume that x1 C x0  0 and x1  0. Then jj.x0 ; x1 /jj D x0 and


v" .x0 ; x1 / D 2x1 C x0  x0  .1 C "/x0 . Besides, 2x1 C x0  x0  x0 .1 C "/
which shows that .1 C "/x0  v" .x0 ; x1 /  .1 C "/x0 and hence (2) holds in this
case.
If x1 C x0  0 and x1  0 then jj.x0 ; x1 /jj D jx0 j D x0 , so we obtain the
inequality 2x1 C x0  x0  .1 C "/.x0 /. On the other hand,
2x1 C x0  x0  .1 C "/x0 D .1 C "/jx0 jI
this demonstrates that .1 C "/jx0 j  v" .x0 ; x1 /  .1 C "/jx0 j, so we proved (2)
for the case when v" .x0 ; x1 / D 2x1 C x0 .
"
Next assume that 0  x1  .1 C "/x0 ; in this case 1C"
x1  "x0 and therefore
"
jv" .x0 ; x1 /j D 1C" x1 C x0  .1 C "/x0  .1 C "/jj.x0 ; x1 /jj. Now, if .1 C "/x0 
"
"
x1  0 then 1C"
x1  "x0 and hence 1C"
x1 C x0  .1 C "/x0 , so we convince
"
ourselves that jv" .x0 ; x1 /j D . 1C" x1 C x0 /  .1 C "/x0  .1 C "/jj.x0 ; x1 /jj,
i.e., (2) is proved.
It follows from (2) that jjg.y/jj  .1 C "/jj.y/jj for any y 2 R2 . In particular,
jjh.g.x0 ; x1 //jj  .1 C "/jjh.x0 ; x1 /jj; recalling that h is the inverse of g we
conclude that jj.x0 ; x1 /jj  .1 C "/jjh.x0 ; x1 /jj for any .x0 ; x1 / 2 R2 . This, together
with (1) shows that (e) is proved.
Given a set P  R2 say that a function ' W P ! R is Lipschitz with constant
C > 0 if we have j'.x/  '.y/j  C jjx  yjj for any x; y 2 P .
Let A0 D f.x0 ; x1 / 2 R2 W .x1 C x0 /.x1  .1 C "/x0 /  0g. Given two points
x; y 2 A0 ; x D .x0 ; x1 /; y D .y0 ; y1 / we have ju" .x/  u" .y/j D jx1  y1 j 
jjx  yjj, so u" is Lipschitz with constant C0 D 1 on A0 . Let B0 D f.x0 ; x1 / 2 R2 W
jx1 j  jx0 jg; if x; y 2 B0 then ju" .x/u" .y/j D 12 j.x1 y1 /.x0 y0 /j  jjx yjj,
so the function u" is also Lipschitz on B0 with constant C1 D 1. If
x; y 2 D0 D f.x0 ; x1 / 2 R2 W .x1  x0 /.x1  .1 C "/x0 /  0g
then
1
1
ju" .x/  u" .y/j D .1 C /j.x1  y1 /  .x0  y0 /j  2.1 C /jjx  yjj
"
"
so the function u" is Lipschitz on D0 with constant C2 D 2 C 2" . Since
C0 D C1  C2 , the function u" is Lipschitz with constant C2 on each one of the
sets A0 ; B0 and D0 .
Now take two arbitrary points x; y 2 R2 ; x D .x0 ; x1 /; y D .y0 ; y1 /. We have
A0 [B0 [D0 D R2 and the boundaries of the sets A0 ; B0 and D0 are contained in the
straight lines l1 ; l2 ; l3 given respectively by the equations x1 D .1 C "/x0 ; x1 D x0
and x1 D x0 . The intersection of the segment x; y
with the lines l1 ; l2 and l3
gives at most three points on x; y
, so we can choose t1 ; t2 ; t3 2 0; 1
such that
t1 < t2 < t3 and if ai D .1  ti /x C ti y for all i 2 f1; 2; 3g then every interval
x; a1
; a1 ; a2
; a2 ; a3
and a3 ; y
is contained in one of the sets A0 ; B0 ; D0 .

244

2 Solutions of problems 001500

Letting a0 D x and a4 D y we obtain the inequality


ju" .x/  u" .y/j 

3
X

ju" .aiC1 /  u" .ai /j  C2

iD0

3
X

jjaiC1  ai jj  4C2 jjx  yjj;

iD0

which proves that u" is Lipschitz with constant C D 4C2 on R2 . An analogous


reasoning shows that v" is also Lipschitz with some constant C 0 on R2 . Letting
C."/ D maxfC; C 0 g we conclude that both functions u" and v" are Lipschitz on R2
with constant C."/, so (a) is proved.
To finally establish (b) and (c) it is sufficient to prove that both functions g
and h are uniformly continuous. We will do this simultaneously; let ' be one of
the functions u" ; v" , so it suffices to show that the function defined by the formula
2
f .x0 ; x1 / D .x0 ; '.x0 ; x1 // for any .x0 ; xq
1 / 2 R , is uniformly continuous.
For any x D .x0 ; x1 / 2 R2 let jxj2 D

x02 C x12 and fix a set O 2 ..0; 0/; R2 /;


there exists > 0 such that B  O. If  D p
then B is also an open
2
1C.C."//

neighborhood of the point .0; 0/.


Given any points x; y 2 R2 ; x D .x0 ; x1 /; y D .y0 ; y1 / suppose that x  y 2
B . Then jjx  yjj <  and hencepj'.x/  '.y/j  C."/jjx  yjj which implies
the inequality jf .x/  f .y/j2  .x0  p
y0 /2 C .C."//2 jjx  yjj2 . Observe that
2
2
.x0 y0 /  jjxyjj , so jf .x/f .y/j2  1 C .C."//2 jjxyjj < which shows
that f .x/  f .y/ 2 B  O and hence the function f is uniformly continuous.
Thus g and h are both uniform homeomorphisms, i.e., we verified (b) and (c), so
Fact 2 is proved.
Fact 3. Given a compact space K and a 2 K let I.a/ D ff 2 Cp .K/ W f .a/ D 0g.
For any " > 0 define a map '" W Cp .K/ ! I.a/ by the formula '" .f /.x/ D
u" .f .a/; f .x// for all x 2 K (see Fact 2). If h" .f / D .f .a/; '" .f // for every
function f 2 Cp .K/ then the map h" W Cp .K/ ! R  I.a/ is a uniform
homeomorphism such that .1 C "/1 jjf jj  jjh" .f /jj  jjf jj for all f 2 Cp .K/.
Proof. The function '" .f / is continuous being the composition of continuous
functions; observe also that '" .f /.a/ D u" .f .a/; f .a// D 0 for any f 2 Cp .K/,
so '" indeed, maps Cp .K/ in I.a/. For any x 2 K the map f ! '" .f /.x/ D
u" .f .a/; f .x// is continuous being the composition of continuous maps, so '" is
continuous by TFS-102; therefore h" is also a continuous map.
For any point .t; f / 2 R  I.a/ let " .t; f /.x/ D v" .t; f .x// for any x 2 K.
Then the map " W R  I.a/ ! Cp .K/ is continuous: this is proved in the same
way as for h" . It follows from (b) and (c) of Fact 2 that
(3) u" .x0 ; v" .x0 ; x1 // D x1 and v" .x0 ; u" .x0 ; x1 // D x1 for any .x0 ; x1 / 2 R2 .
Fix .t; g/ 2 R  I.a/ and let f D " .t; g/. Observe first that
f .a/ D v" .t; g.a// D v" .t; 0/ D v" .t; u" .t; t // D t
(we used (3) and (d) of Fact 2). For every x 2 K we have '" .f /.x/ D u" .t; f .x//.
Recalling that f .x/ D v" .t; g.x// and applying (3) again we convince ourselves

2 Solutions of problems 001500

245

that '" .f /.x/ D g.x/ and hence '" .f / D g. Thus h" .f / D .t; g/ which shows
that the map h" is surjective and h" " is the identity on R  I.a/.
Now if f 2 Cp .K/ and g D '" .f / then " .f .a/; g/.x/ D v" .f .a/; g.x//;
recalling that g.x/ D u" .f .a/; f .x// we can apply (3) once more to see that we
have the equality " .f .a/; g/.x/ D f .x/ for every x 2 K, i.e., " .f .a/; g/ D f .
This proves that h" and " are mutually inverse homeomorphisms.
Once more fix any function f 2 Cp .K/; then h" .f / D .f .a/; '" .f // and,
evidently, jf .a/j  jjf jj. Besides, it follows from (e) of Fact 2 that we have the
inequalities
(4) .1 C "/1 jj.f .a/; f .x//jj  jj.f .a/; u" .f .a/; f .x//jj  jj.f .a/; f .x//jj for
any point x 2 K.
An immediate consequence of (4) is that .1 C "/1 jjf jj  jjh" .f /jj  jjf jj for
any f 2 Cp .K/.
Given a finite set P  K and > 0 let P;
D ff 2 Cp .K/ W jf .x/j <
for any x 2 P g and hP; i D P;
\ I.a/. All possible sets P;
(or hP; i
respectively) constitute a local base of Cp .K/ (of I.a/ respectively) at the point 0K .
To show that the map h" is uniformly continuous take any open neighborhood W of
the point .0; 0K / in the space R  I.a/. Choose > 0 and a finite set P  K such
that .; /  hP; i  W .

If 0 D nnf; C."/
g and P 0 D P [fag then U D P 0 ; 0
is an open neighborhood
of the point 0K in Cp .K/; take any functions f; g 2 Cp .K/ such that f  g 2 U
and let h" .f / D .t; f0 /; h" .g/ D .s; g0 /. Then t D f .a/ and s D g.a/, so
jt  sj D jf .a/  g.a/j < . Given any x 2 P we have f0 .x/ D u" .t; f .x// and
g0 .x/ D u" .s; g.x//; as a consequence,
jf0 .x/  g0 .x/j  C."/jj.t  s; f .x/  g.x//jj < C."/ 0 D
(here we applied the property (a) of Fact 2), so f0  g0 2 hP; i and therefore
h" .f /  h" .g/ 2 .; /  hP; i  W . This proves that the map h" is uniformly
continuous.
Finally, take any open neighborhood W of the point 0K in the space Cp .K/;

g then
choose > 0 and a finite set P  K such that P;
 W . If 0 D nnf; C."/
0
0 0
U D hP; i is an open neighborhood of the point 0K in I.a/, so V D . ; /  U
is an open neighborhood of .0; 0K / is R  I.a/; take any points .t; f /; .s; g/ 2
R  I.a/ such that .t; f /  .s; g/ 2 V and let " .t; f / D f0 ; " .s; g/ D g0 .
Given any x 2 P we have f0 .x/ D v" .t; f .x// and g0 .x/ D v" .s; g.x//; as a
consequence, jf0 .x/g0 .x/j  C."/jj.t s; f .x/g.x//jj < C."/ 0 D (here we
applied the property (a) of Fact 2), so f0 g0 2 P;
and therefore " .f /" .g/ 2
P;
 W . This demonstrates that the map " is also uniformly continuous and
shows that Fact 3 is proved.
Returning to our solution observe that any countably infinite compact space is
homeomorphic to a space 0;
for some countable infinite ordinal (see Problem 199). Therefore it suffices to prove that Cp .0;
/ is uniformly homeomorphic

246

2 Solutions of problems 001500

to  .!/ for any countable infinite ordinal . To avoid confusion, from now on any
ordinal is considered to be a point only; if we want to see it as a set then we write
0; /. Evidently, 0;
is the set given by C 1. Applying transfinite induction we
will prove that, for any countable ordinal  ! and any " > 0,
(5) there exists is a uniform homeomorphism ' W Cp .0;
/ !  .0; !// such
that .1 C "/1 jjf jj  jj'.f /jj  jjf jj for every f 2 Cp .0;
/.
To establish (5) we will often use the following assertion; its proof is straightforward and can be left to the reader.
(6) for any .t; x/ 2 R   .0; !// let e.t; x/.0/ D t and e.t; x/.n C 1/ D
x.n/ for every n < !. Then e W R   .0; !// !  .0; !// is a
uniform homeomorphism such that jje.t; x/jj D jj.t; x/jj for any .t; x/ 2
R   .0; !//.
Our first step is to prove (5) for D !; let I D ff 2 Cp .0; !
/ W f .!/ D 0g.
The restriction map  W I ! Cp .0; !// is continuous and .I / D  .0; !//,
so we can and will consider that  W I !  .0; !//. Then  is a uniform
homeomorphism such that jj.f /jj D jjf jj for any f 2 I . Apply Fact 3 to see
that there exists a uniform homeomorphism '0 W Cp .0; !
/ ! R  I such that
.1 C "/1 jjf jj  jj'0 .f /jj  jjf jj for any f 2 Cp .0; !
/.
Let 0 .t; f / D .t; .f // for every .t; f / 2 R  I . Then 0 W R  I ! R 
 .0; !// is a uniform homeomorphism such that jj0 .z/jj D jjzjj for any z 2
R  I . It follows from (6) that ' D e 0 '0 W Cp .0; !
/ !  .0; !// is a
uniform homeomorphism. Given f 2 Cp .0; !
/ the equality jje.0 .'0 .f ///jj D
jj0 .'0 .f //jj D jj'0 .f /jj shows that .1 C "/1 jjf jj  jj'.f /jj  jjf jj for any
f 2 Cp .0; !
/, i.e., (5) is proved for D !.
Now assume that < !1 and (5) is proved for all < . If D 0 C 1 then
the space 0;
D 0; 0
[ fg is obtained from 0; 0
by adding an isolated point,
so 0;
' 0; 0
by Fact 1; the property (5) being true for 0; 0
by the induction
hypothesis, it is also true for 0;
.
If is a limit ordinal then choose a sequence fi W i < !g  0; / such that
i < iC1 for each i < ! and supfi W i < !g D ; let H0 D 0; 0
and
HiC1 D i C 1; iC1
for allS
i < !. It is easy to find a disjoint family fSi W i < !g
of subsets of 0; !/ such that i<! Si D 0; !/ and there exists a bijection between
Hi and Si (we wont need this bijection but we must assure that Hi and Si are
always of the same cardinality) for every i < !.
For any i < ! and f 2  .Si / let jjf jji D maxff .n/ W n 2 Si g. Observe that
 .Si / D RSi if Si is finite. Every space Hi is compact and countable so there is
i < such that Hi ' 0; i
(see Problem 199). Choose a positive number such
that .1 C /2 > .1 C "/1 ; by the induction hypothesis, if Hi is infinite, then there
exists a uniform homeomorphism 'i W Cp .Hi / !  .Si / such that
(7) .1 C /1 jjf jj  jj'i .f /jji  jjf jj for every f 2 Cp .Hi /.
If Hi is finite then the uniform homeomorphism 'i can even be chosen in such a
way that jj'i .f /jji D jjf jj for every f 2 Cp .Hi / D RHi , so (7) still holds for 'i .

2 Solutions of problems 001500

247

If we have a function fi 2 RSi for every i < ! then there is a unique S


f 2 R0;!/
such that f jSi D fi for all i < !; this function f will be referred to as i<! fi .
Let I D ff 2 Cp .0;
/ W f ./ D 0g; then i W I !
SCp .Hi / is the restriction
map for every i < !. For every f 2 I let .f / D i<! 'i .i .f //; then  W
I ! R0;!/ is a well-defined map. The sets Hi are eventually contained in any
given neighborhood of , so it follows from f ./ D 0 that jji .f /jj ! 0 for
every f 2 I ; it follows from (7) that jj'i .i .f //jji ! 0, so  actually maps I in
 .0; !//. Let us show that  W I !  .0; !//
S is a uniform homeomorphism.
If f; g 2 I and f g then it follows from i<! Hi D 0; / that f jHi gjHi
for some i < !. Then 'i .i .f // 'i .i .g// and hence .f / .g/, i.e.,  is
injective. Given any x 2  .0; !// let hi D xjSi ; then hi 2  .Si /, so we can
find fi 2 Cp .Hi / such that 'i .fi / D hi for each i < !. It follows from (7) that
jjfi jj  .1 C /jjhi jji for all i < !, so it follows from jjhi jji ! 0 that jjfi jj ! 0. If
we let f ./ D 0 and f jHi D fi for all i < ! then it is straightforward that f 2 I
and .f / D x; this proves that  is a bijection.
To see that  is uniformly continuous let 0 be the zero point of  .0; !// and
fix a set O 2 .0;  .0; !///. There are r > 0 and m < ! such the set O 0 D
fx 2  .0; !// W jx.i /j < r for all i  mg is contained in O. Take k < ! for
which A D f0; : : : ; mg  S0 [ : : : [ Sk . For any i  k, by uniform continuity
of 'i there is a finite set Bi  Hi and si > 0 such that if f; g 2 Cp .Hi / and
jf ./  g./j < si for all 2 Bi then
S j'i .f /.l/  'i .g/.l/j < r for all l 2 A \ Si .
Let s D nnfsi W i  kg and B D fBi W i  kg. It is immediate that if f; g 2 I
and jf ./  g./j < s for all 2 B then j.f /.i /  .g/.i /j < r for all i  m
and hence .f /  .g/ 2 O 0  O. In other words, the open set U D ff 2 I W
jf ./j < s for all 2 Bg witnesses that  is uniformly continuous.
To establish that 1 is uniformly continuous take an open neighborhood O
of the zero function of I . Pick s > 0 and a finite set B  0; / such that the
set O 0 D ff 2 I W jf ./j < s for every 2 Bg is contained in O. There is
m < ! such that B  H0 [ : : : [ Hm . For any i  k, by uniform continuity
of 'i1 there exists a finite set Ai  Si and ri > 0 such that if f; g 2  .Si /
 'i1 .g/./j < r for
and jf .l/  g.l/j < ri for all l 2 Ai then j'i1 .f /./ S
all 2 B \ Hi . Let r D nnfri W i  mg and A D fAi W i  mg. It is
immediate that if f; g 2  .0; !// and jf .l/  g.l/j < s for all l 2 A then
j1 .f /./1 .g/./j < s for all 2 B and hence 1 .f /1 .g/ 2 O 0  O.
In other words, the open set U D fx 2  .0; !// W jx.l/j < r for all l 2 Ag
witnesses that 1 is uniformly continuous.
Given f 2 I and i < ! we have jji .f /jj  jjf jj and hence jj'i .i .f //jji 
jjf jj by (7). An immediate consequence is that jj.f /jj  jjf jj. The family fHi W
i 2 !g covers 0; /, so there exists m < ! such that jjf jj D jjm .f /jj. Apply
(7) once more to see that jj'm .m .f //jjm  .1 C /1 jjm .f /jj D .1 C /1 jjf jj.
Thus jj.f /jj  jj'm .m .f //jjm  .1 C /1 jjf jj, so we proved that
(8) .1 C /1 jjf jj  jj.f /jj  jjf jj for every f 2 I .
Apply Fact 3 to find a uniform homeomorphism  W Cp .0;
/ ! RI such that
.1C/1 jjf jj  jj.f /jj  jjf jj for every f 2 Cp .0;
/. For every .t; f / 2 RI

248

2 Solutions of problems 001500

let .t; f / D .t; .f //. The reader who understood this proof up to the present
point, will have no difficulty to check, using (8), that  W R  I ! R   .0; !//
is a uniform homeomorphism such that .1 C /1 jjzjj  jj.z/jj  jjzjj for every
z 2 RI . It follows from (6) that the map ' D e  W Cp .0;
/ !  .0; !// is
a uniform homeomorphism such that .1 C /2 jjf jj  jj'.f /jj  jjf jj. Recalling
that .1 C "/1 < .1 C /2 we conclude that .1 C "/1 jjf jj  jj'.f /jj  jjf jj for
any f 2 Cp .0;
/. Thus we checked (5) for all  , so our inductive procedure
guarantees that (5) holds for all infinite ordinals < !1 .
This implies that, for any infinite ordinals ; < !1 the spaces Cp .0;
/ and
Cp .0;
/ are uniformly homeomorphic; we already saw that this is the same as
saying that Cp .X / and Cp .Y / are uniformly homeomorphic for any countably
infinite compact spaces X and Y , so our solution is complete.
V.201. Prove that the topology of any linear topological T0 -space is Tychonoff.
Solution. Fix a linear topological T0 -space L. Given any a 2 L define a map 'a W
L ! L by the formula 'a .x/ D x C a for any x 2 L. The operations in L being
continuous, the map 'a is continuous for any a 2 L. Since 'a is the inverse of
'a , every 'a is a homeomorphism. If i.x/ D x for every x 2 L then the map
i W L ! L is also a homeomorphism inverse to itself.
Now take any point a 2 Lnf0g; there exists an open set U  L such that P D
U \ fa; 0g is a singleton. If P D fag then U is a neighborhood of a missing
0. If P D f0g then let V D U \ i.U /; since i.0/ D 0, the set V is an open
neighborhood of 0. Therefore W D 'a .V / is an open neighborhood of a. If 0 2 W
then there is x 2 V with x C a D 0, i.e., x D a 2 V . However, i.V / D V , so
a D i.a/ 2 V  U which is a contradiction. Thus W is an open neighborhood of
a which does not contain 0.
We proved that every a 2 Lnf0g has a neighborhood which misses 0, so the set
f0g is closed in L. For any x 2 L the homeomorphism 'x maps f0g onto fxg, so
fxg is closed in L and hence L is a T1 -space.
For any U 2 .0; L/ let U
D f.x; y/ 2 L  L W x  y 2 U g and consider
the family B D fU
W U 2 .0; L/g. It follows from 0 C 0 D 0 and continuity of
addition in L that
(1) for any U 2 .0; L/ there exists V 2 .0; L/ such that V C V  U .
Call a set U 2 .0; L/ symmetric if U D i.U / D U . It is easy to check that
the set U \ .U / is symmetric for any U 2 .0; L/, so we have
(2) for any U 2 .0; L/ there exists a symmetric set V 2 .0; L/ with V  U .
For any A; B  L  L we will need the sets A1 D f.x; y/ W .y; x/ 2 Ag and
A B D f.x; y/ W there is z 2 L such that .x; z/ 2 B and .z; y/ 2 Ag; besides, we
let A.x/ D fy 2 L W .x; y/ 2 Ag for any x 2 L.
If x and y are distinct points of L then z D x  y 0, so U DTLnfzg is
an open neighborhood of 0 such that .x;
B. It is
Ty/ U
and hence .x;
Ty/
evident that D f.x; x/ W x 2 Lg 
B, so we proved that B D . Given
any U 2 .0; L/ use (2) to find a symmetric V 2 .0; L/ with V  U . Then

2 Solutions of problems 001500

249

V
1 D V
D V
 U
, so we proved that for any B 2 B there is C 2 B such
that C 1  B. Given U0 ; U1 2 .0; L/ if U D U0 \ U1 then U
 U0
\ U1

which shows that, for any A; B 2 B there exists C 2 B such that C  A \ B.


Now, if U 2 .0; L/ then apply (1) and (2) to find a set V 2 .0; L/ such that
V C V  U . If .x; y/ 2 V
V
then there is z 2 L such that x  z 2 V and
z  y 2 V which shows that x  y 2 V C V  U , so V
V
 U
. An immediate
consequence is that, for any B 2 B there exists C 2 B such that C C  B. We
finally checked that all conditions of Problem 101 are satisfied for the family B, so
there exists a unique uniformity U on the set L such that B is a base of U ; let be
the topology generated by the uniformity U .
Fix a set U 2 .L/ and a point x 2 U . The set U 0 D x C U D 'x .U / is an
open neighborhood of 0, so we can apply (2) to find a symmetric V 2 .0; L/ such
that V  U 0 . It is clear that x 2 x C V  U ; if y 2 V
.x/ then x  y 2 V , so
y  x 2 V because the set V is symmetric. This shows that y 2 x C V  U , so we
proved that V
.x/  U , i.e., for any x 2 U there exists B 2 B (and hence B 2 U )
with B.x/  U . Therefore the set U belongs to , i.e., .L/  .
Now take any set U 2 and x 2 U . There exists A 2 U such that A.x/  U ;
the family B being a base of U we can find V 2 .0; L/ such that V
 A. Apply
(2) to find a symmetric W 2 .0; L/ for which W  V . If y 2 x C W then
y D x C w for some w 2 W . The set W being symmetric we have w 2 W and
hence x  y D w 2 W , i.e., y 2 W
.x/  V .x/  U . Thus 'x .W / D x C W 
W
.x/  U which shows that, for every point x 2 U , there is G 2 .x; L/ with
G  U . Therefore U 2 .L/; this proves that  .L/ and hence .L/ D ,
i.e., the topology of L is generated by the uniformity U , so .L/ is Tychonoff by
Problem 110.
V.202. Let L be a linear topological Tychonoff space. Prove that, for any local base
B of the space L at 0, the following properties hold:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

for any U; V 2 B, there is W 2 B such


T that W  U \ V ;
every B 2 B is an absorbing set and B D f0g;
for any U 2 B, there exists V 2 B such that V C V  U ;
for any U 2 B and x 2 U , there exists V 2 B such that x C V  U ;
for any U 2 B and " > 0 there is V 2 B such that V  U for any
2 ."; "/.

Prove that, if L is a linear space without topology and B is a family of subsets of


L which has the properties (1)(5) then there exists a unique Tychonoff topology
on L such that .L; / is a linear topological space and B is a local base of at 0.
Solution. Suppose that L is a linear topological space and .L/ is Tychonoff. The
property (1) holds because, for any U; V 2 B the set U \ VTis a neighborhood of 0,
so there is W 2 B with W  U \ V . It is clear that 0 2 B; if x 2 Lnf0g then
Lnfxg is anTopen neighborhood ofT0, so there is U 2 B such that U  Lnf