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# SOLUTIONS TO

CHAPTER TEST

1. MOTION
1. (a)
2. (c)
3. Speed is constant.
4. (a) When the velocity changes by equal amount in equal interval of time.
(b) When the velocity changes by unequal amount in equal interval of time.
5.

Speed

Velocity

1. Distance covered per unit
1. Displacement covered per unit time.
time.

2. Speed has only magnitude,
2. It is a vector quanity.
i.e., Scalar

3. Speed is always positive
3. It may be positive or negative.
6.

7.

8.
Same as Ans.7
9.

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## 2. FORCE AND LAWS OF MOTION

1.
(c)
2. (c)
3. Third law of motion
4. Due to inertia of rest.
5. Dust particles continue to remain at rest due to inertia while carpet comes in a state of motion.
6. It carries a high forward momentum. In accordance with the law of conservation of momentum,
the hosepipe experiences an equal momentum in backward direction. Thus, the hose tends to
recoil backward.
7. F = ?, a = 16 m/s2, m = 250 g
F = m a
=

16 = 4 N.

## 8. m = 1500 kg, a = 1.7 m/s2, F = ?

F = m a = 1500 (1.7) = 2550 N.
9. (a) Both vehicles experience same force of impact, due to action-reaction forces.
(b) Mass of truck is more, hence change in momentum of truck is more than change in
momentum of car.
(c) Acceleration of car will have a greater magnitude because mass is less.

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3. GRAVITATION
1. (b)

2.
(a)

3.
The earth is attracted towards the moon, and is moving towards the moon. Since the mass
of earth is nearly 81 times of moon, the motion of earth in th towards moon as compared
to motion of moon towards earth. So, the motion of earth is not commonly observed.

## 4. It explained several phenomena such as:

(a) The force which binds us to the earth. (b) Motion of moon around the earth.
(c) Motion of planets around the sun.
(d) Occurrence of sea-tides due to attraction of moon and of sun.
5. The acceleration produced in a body on account of force of gravity is known as acceleration
due to gravity. It is denoted by g.
u = 0, h = 19.6 m, a = + g = 9.8 m/s2, v = ?

6.

v2 u2 = 2gh.
v2 0 = 2 9.8 19.6

v =

= 19.6 m/s.

7. Take a sheet of paper and a stone. Drop them simultaneously from the first floor of a building.
We observe that paper reaches the ground little later than the stone. This is due to air resistance.
The air offers resistance due to friction to the motion of falling objects. The resistance offered by
air to the paper is more than the resistance offered to the stone. If this experiment is performed
in vacuum, they will fall at the same rate.
8. ME = 6 1024 kg, Ms = 2 1030 kg, d = 1.5 1011m

F=

F = 3.56 1022 N.

9. (a) The force of gravitation between two bodies is directly proportional to the product of their
masses and universly proportional to the square of the distance between them.
(b)

F =

F =

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## 4. MATTER IN OUR SURROUNDINGS

1. (d)
2. (a)
3. (b)
4. Sublimation
5. (a) gas
(b) solid
6. Because the molecules are tightly-packed like a lattice, the intermolecular space between
the molecules is very less, and there is a strong electrostatic force of attraction between the
molecules.
7. Acetone is a volatile liquid. It quickly vaporises as it is exposed to air. We know that evaporation
is always followed by cooling. Hence, our palm feel cold.
8. We should wear light-coloured cotton clothes, since cotton in a good absorber of water, and
light-coloured clothes reflect heat.
9. The latent heat is used up to overcome the forces of attraction between the particles of a
substance during the change of state and it does not increase the kinetic energy of the substance.
10. Aim: To show diffusion becomes faster with increase in temperature.

Method:
1. Take a 100 ml beaker A and add 50 ml of cold water.
2. Take a 100 ml beaker B and add 50 ml of hot water.
3. Add equivalent amount of copper sulphate crystals to each beaker respectively and observe.

Observation:
(a) Copper sulphate crystals slowly dissolve and the solution turns blue in beaker B as
compared to beaker A.
(b) The rate of diffusion is faster in beaker B due to increased temperature of water and also
increased kinetic energy.
Result: The rate of diffusion is faster due to increase in temperature.

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1. (b)

2. (b) 3. (c)

## 4. (a) Melting of wax (b) Glowing of an electric bulb.

5. They exhibit Tyndall effect.
6.

Homogeneous mixtures

Heterogeneous mixtures

## (a) They have uniform composition

(a) They do not have uniform composition
throughout its mass. throughout its mass.
(b) There is no visible boundary
(b) There are visible boundaries of
between the components. separation between its various constituents.
(c) They are also known as solution.
(c) They are not called solutions.
e.g. milk, petrol. e.g., soap solution, muddy water.
7. Air is considered as a mixture not a compound because:
(a) It has variable composition.
(b) The components of air retain their properties.
(c) Components cannot be separated by chemical method, only by physical means, i.e.,
fractional distillation.
(d) No definite boiling point.
(e) No loss or gain in energy when oxygen and nitrogen are mixed.
8. A chemical compound always contains the same elements combined together in the same fixed
ratio by mass. For example, pure water obtained from any source, be it from river, well, ponds,
it always contain the same elements.hydrogen and oxygen combined together in the same
fixed ratio by mass. Thus, if 9 g of water is decomposed, 1g of hydrogen and 8 g of oxygen is
obtained.
9.
Mass of sugar (solute) = 30 g, Mass of water (solvent) = 370 g.

Mass of solution = 370 + 30 = 400 g

Concentration =

100 =

100 = 7.5%.

10. The two components of the given mixture are kerosene oil and water
which can be separated by using separating funnel.
(a) Take a mixture of kerosene and water in a separating funnel.
(b) Allow them to settle down. Oil forms an upper layer.
(c) Open the stopcock and collect water into another beaker.
(d) Stop the stopcock till all the water gets collected in another beaker.
(e) Oil remains behind in the separating funnel.

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## 6. THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE

1. (b)

2. (c)

3. (b)

4. Cell wall is made up of cellulose but cell membrane is made up of proteins and lipids.
5. Ribosomes.
6. Deoxyribonucleic acid.
7. (a) The contents of the cell will shrink. (b) Exosmosis.
8. Camillo Golgi.
Functions:
1. It stores and modifies the products in vesicles.
2. It helps in packaging and dispatching of materials to the parts of the cell.
9. (b) Nucleus has chromatin material made up of DNA. DNA passes on features of the cell to
the daughter cells with the help of its functional units called genes. It also controls the
division of cell. It controls various chemical activities of the cell.
10.

Prokaryotic

Eukaryotic

## 1. Nuclear region is not well-defined 1. Nuclear region is well-defined and

and is known as nucleoid. surrounded by nuclear membrane.
2. It has single chromosome.
2. It has more than one chromosome.

3. Membrane bounded organelles are 3. Membrane bounded organelles are present.
absent
11.

(a) Mitochondrion (b) Lysosome
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(c)

Plant cell

## 1. It is bounded by cell wall and

cell membrane.
2. It has plastids which provide
colour (green or other).

Animal cell

## 1. It is bounded by only cell membrane.

2. It does not have plastids.
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7. TISSUES
1. (d)
2. (b)
3. (d)
5. Located at the base of the leaves or internodes.
6. Simple tissue is made up of only one type of cells but complex tissue is made up of two or
more types of cells.
7. (a) So as to prevent wear and tear.
(b) To help in exchange of gases and carry on transpiration.
8. (a) Aerenchyma
(b) Collenchyma.
9. The plant wilted as xylem tissue got blocked and leaves could not receive water.
10. (a) Striated muscle fibres
(b) Unstriated muscle fibres

Striated muscle fibres are long, cylindrical, unbranched and multinucleate whereas
unstriated muscle fibres are long, spindle-shaped, unbranched and uninucleate.

## 11. (a) In brain, spinal cord and nerves.

(b) Neuron/nerve cell.
(c)

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1. (c)

2. (d)

## 3. Barseem, Sudan grass.

4. To provide green manure, the plants like sun hemp or guar are grown in the field and then
mixed into the soil by ploughing them. These green plants mix in the soil and provide green
manure.
5. Crop rotation.
The crops selected for crop rotation should have different nutrient requirements.
6. The two groups of cattle feed are:
(a) Roughage. It is largely fibre, low in nutrients and provide bulk to the food.
(b) Concentrate. It is low in fibre and contains proteins, minerals, etc.
7. (a) Composite fish culture system.
(b) Catlas as surface feeders, Rohus to feed in the middle zone and Mrigals and common carps
as bottom feeders.
(c) The main advantage is that all the food available in pond, is consumed without any
competition. It also increases the fish yield from the pond.
8. (a) Biotic and abiotic factors. Biotic factors are insects, rodents, fungi, mites and bacteria
whereas abiotic factors are inappropriate moisture and temperature at the place of storage.
(b) The grains affected by above factors show following features:

## (ii) Loss in weight

(iii) Discolouration

## (iv) Poor germinability.

9. (a) Weeds
(b) (i) They compete for food, space and light with crop plants.
(c) They can be removed by:

## (ii) By spraying weedicides.

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SOLUTIONS TO

PRACTICE PAPERS

PRACTICE PAPER-1
1. Solid 2. a = 9.8 m/s2
3. Mitochondria.
4. The cells shrink due to loss of water by the cells.
5. (a) Adipose tissue. (b) Squamous epithelial tissue.
6. The carpet is initially in a state of rest. On beating with a stick, the carpet comes in a state of
motion. But dust present in it tends to remain in rest due to inertia of rest and hence, comes
out of the carpet.
7.
Manure are better than fertilizers in following ways:
(i) Manures add organic matter to the soil so as to increase its water holding capacity.
(ii) Manures do not change the chemical nature of the soil.
(iii) Manures are obtained from natural materials so are inexpensive.
8. (a) The farming practice which involves minimum or no use of chemicals as fertilizers,
pesticides etc., but maximum use of organic manures and biowastes.
(b) (i) Farm wastes and culture of blue-green algae
(ii) Neem leaves and turmeric
9. (a) During summer, water kept in an earthen pot continues to evaporate through fine holes
of it. Since evaporation causes cooling, water kept in an earthen pot becomes cool during
summer.
(b) Sponge contains tiny pores in which air/water seeps in. When it is compressed, the air
squeezes out.
(c) At 273 K, ice can absorb more amount of heat than water due to latent heat of fusion. Hence,
ice at 273 K can cause more cooling.
10. (a) Chromatography.
(b) By using separating funnel.
(c) Acetone and water.
11.

Example: bacterium.

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12. Lysosomes
They are capable of breaking down all organic material and keep the cell clear by digesting
worn out cell organelles.
They are membrane bound sacs filled with powerful digestive enzymes.
When the cell is worn out and needs to be destroyed, the lysosomes burst and the enzymes
digest the cell.
13. Unstriated muscle fibre.

14. (a) Engine of a moving train applies brakes so as to stop the train.
(b) Acceleration of a freely falling body.
(c) Acceleration of a flying bird.
15. Take a spherical rubber ball and apply force on both sides by pressing with your hands. The
ball becomes elongated. It shows that shape of ball has changed due to external force.

16.

m1 = 3 kg,

## a = 6 m/s2 m2 = 4 kg, a2 = 4 m/s2

F1 = m1 a1

F2 = m2 a2

= 3 6 = 18 N = 4 4 = 16 N

F1 > F2.

17. The force of gravitation between two bodies is directly proportional to the product of their
masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

i.e.,

## 18. Take a long hollow glass tube A, at least 1 m in length

and 4.5 cm in diameter. The tube has adjustable covers
on both sides. P is an arrangement to let a feather and
a gold coin fall.
Initially, using a vacuum pump air, from inside the
tube is sucked out and then the tube is closed so that
it becomes air tight. Push the platform P suddenly
outward, so that feather as well as gold coin both start
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falling vertically downward under gravity. Careful observations showed that both the objects
reach the bottom of the tube at the same instant. It proves that motion of all freely falling bodies
are exactly identical.
19. (a) Mixed cropping is growing of two or more crops simultaneously on the same piece of land,
e.g., wheat + gram, wheat + mustard. Intercropping is growing of two or more crops in the
same field in a definite pattern, i.e., alternating rows of crop plants, e.g., soyabean + maize.
(b) Crop rotation is growing of two different crops in a piece of land in a preplanned
succession, e.g., growing of a cereal crop and a legume crop alternating with each other.
Advantages: (i) It helps in making up the deficiency of nutrients.
(ii) More than two crops can be grown in a year with good harvest.
20. By distillation.
(a) Take the miscible mixture of acetone and water in a distillation flask.
(b) Fit it with a thermometer.
(c) Arrange the apparatus.
(d) Heat the mixture gently noticing the temperature in the thermometer.

Observation
Acetone having low boiling point vapourises first. It condenses in the condenser and is collected
(e) Water is left behind in the distillation flask.

21. (a) Sponge contains tiny pores in which air/water seeps in. When it is compressed, the air
squeezes out.
(b) Because the heat energy supplied is used in changing the state (melting and boiling) by
overcoming the forces of attraction between the particles. This energy is hidden and is
known as latent heat. Hence temperature remains constant during change of state.
(c) Vaporisation is a surface phenomenon and can occur even below boiling point. Whereas
boiling is a bulk phenomenon in which the particles have to gain enough kinetic energy to
get converted into gaseous state.
22. (a) Momentum of a body is defined as the pradduct of its mass and velocity.
(b) Its unis is kg m/s.
Initial momentum = mv = 50 4 = 200 kg m/s
Final momentum = mv = 50 8 = 400 kg m/s

23. (i) Uniform accelerated motion
(ii) Acceleration of the object

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## (iii) Distance travelled by the object.

(iv) Distance = area of rt. triangle ODC =

bh=

(15) 30 = 225 m.

24. (a) Blood is a fluid (liquid) that flows throughout the body and thus connects the different
parts of body. So, blood is called connective tissue.
(b) Blood transports, nutrients, hormones and vitamins.
(c) By donating blood one can save the life of a needy person/patient.
25. (a)
26. (c)
27. (c)
28. (b) 29. (b)
30. (a)
31. Because FeS is a compound and has lost the properties of its component.
32. To avoid any loss of heat due to convection.
33. Blue-black colouration.
34. The blue colour of the solution turns green due to the formation of FeSO4 and reddish brown
copper metal gets deposited.
Fe + CuSO4
FeSO4 + Cu
(blue)
(green)
35. The magnitude of force required to move a block lying on a horizontal table mainly depends
on two factors(i) mass and size of the wooden block and (ii) surface of block and table in
contact. So frictional force between block and table would be different in the experimental
set-ups of each student.
36. (i) The cell body has single nucleus
(ii) The cell body gives one or many small braches called dendrites.
(iii) The cell body has a single long axon. It may have a myelin sheath or may not have in some.
(iv) It is the longest cell present in body.
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PRACTICE PAPER-2
1. Solid
2. 0 (zero)
3. Movement of water from its higher concentration to its lower concentration through a
semipermeable membrane is called osmosis.
4. By Tyndall effect, when a beam of light is passed through the colloidal solution kept in dark,
the path of light becomes visible.
5. It has many layers of cells. It protects the inner tissues from infections and damage.
6. The force of gravitation between two bodies is directly proportional to the product of their
masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

i.e.,

7. (a) Cell wall is made up of cellulose but cell membrane is made up of proteins and lipids.
Cell wall gives fixed shape to the plant cell but cell membrane controls entry and exit of
substances.
(b) Amoeba takes in food by endocytosis.
8. Duration of light period and dark period, it affects growth of plants and flowering.
9. (a) Solid

(b) Solid

(c) Gas

## 10. Homogeneous Mixture Heterogeneous Mixture

1. Uniform composition throughout its Does not have a uniform composition
mass throughout its mass
2. No visible boundaries of separation Visible boundaries of separation
between the constituents between the constituents
(i) Homogeneous

(ii) Heterogeneous

(iii) Homogeneous

(iv) Homogeneous

## 11. Three types of plastids are:

1. Chloroplasts. They contain chlorophyll, so they are the site of photosynthesis.
2. Chromoplasts. They contain other coloured pigments, so they provide different colours
to flowers and fruits.
3. Leucoplasts. They are colourless and store oil, starch and other food materials.

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12.

13. (a) In this system, a combination of five or six fish species are reared in a single fish pond. They
are selected on the basis of their feeding habit.
(b) Advantage. They consume all the food available in the pond so fish yield increases.
Drawback. Most of fish species breed during monsoon so fish seed is mixed up.
14.

15. It is based on third law of motion. As the water comes out of the nozzle of the sprinkler, an
equal and opposite reaction force comes into play. So, the sprinkler starts rotating.
16. We know, g =

or

or Density (D)

M =
=

D =

## Final momentum p2 = mv = 100 8 = 800 kg m/s

Force exerted =

F=
18. Buoyant force = weight of the liquid displaced

= density of water volume of water displaced g
= 1000
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19. Crop varieties are improved by hybridisation. It means crossing two different varieties/
species/genera to obtain desirable varieties.

Three factors: 1. To increase the overall yield per acre of the crop.

2. To improve quality of the crop, e.g., protein quality in pulses, oil quality in
oil seeds.

3. To shorten the maturity duration of the crop.
20. (a) Government should regulate production and supply of such medicines. There should be
a proper law for sale and purchase of such medicines.
(b) Mass of glucose (solute)
= 40 g
Mass of water and alcohol (solvent) = 400 40 = 360 g
40
Concentration
=
100 = 11.11%
360
21. Napthalene is insoluble in water but soluble in ether (organic solvent). Ammonium chloride
is soluble in water. It decomposes on heating to drayness.

F = mg

; mg =

or g =

## (b) gE = g, gM = g/6; F = mgE = 15gE newton

Now, mass lifted by the same force on the moon
m =

= 90 kg.

23. The sum of momentum of the two objects before collision in equal to the sum of momentum
of the collision. Provided there is no external unbalanced force acting on them.

m1v1 = m2v2

When a person falls on the hard floor, he is brought to rest in a very short interval of time so
greater force comes into play.
When he falls on a heap of sand, he is brought to rest in a longer time, so lesser force is comes into play.
24. All cells vary in their shape, size and activities and have three major functional regions, viz.,
plasma membrane, nucleus and cytoplasm.

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Plasma Membrane or Cell Membrane: This is the outermost covering of the cell that separates
the contents of the cell from its external environment. Plasma membrane is a living, thin,
delicate, elastic, selectively permeable membrane made up of proteins and lipids and is present
in both plant and animal cells.
Functions of Plasma Membrane:
(i) It gives definite shape to the cell.
(ii) It separates the contents of a cell from its surrounding medium.
(iii) It provides mechanical barrier for the protection of the internal contents of the cell.
(iv) It is selectively permeable membrane.
(v) It regulates the movement of ions in and out of the cell.

Nucleus: Robert Brown in 1831 discovered the nucleus in the cell. Nucleus is the largest cell
structure. It is a spherical or oval prominent structure usually located in the centre of the cell.
Nucleus has the following important parts:
(i) Nuclear membrane: It is a double layered membrane, which separates nucleus from the
cytoplasm. It has pores called nuclear pores which allow the transfer of material from
inside the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
(ii) Nucleoplasm: It is a homogeneous and granular dense fluid present inside the nucleus,
in which chromatin and nucleolus are suspended.
(iii) Chromatic material: It consists of long, coiled network of thread-like structures. The
chromatin material is made up of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) which is responsible for
storing and transmitting the hereditary information from one generation to the other. It
condenses into compact rod-like bodies called chromosomes at the time of cell division.
(iv) Nucleolus: It is more or less round structure found inside the nucleus. The nucleolus contains
RNA (ribonucleic acid) and proteins. RNA is helpful in protein synthesis in the cytoplasm.
Functions of Nucleus:
(i) The nucleus controls all metabolic activities
of the cell.
(ii) It regulates the cell cycle.
(iii) It is concerned with the transmission
of hereditary traits from the parent to
offspring.
Cytoplasm: It is the fluid content of the cell which
occurs between the plasma membrane and the
nuclear envelope. It contains various cell organelles
which perform different functions of the cell.
Functions of Cytoplasm:
(i) Cytoplasm helps in exchange of materials between cell organelles.
(ii) It acts as a store of vital chemicals such as amino acids, glucose, vitamins, ions, etc.
(iii) It is the site of certain metabolic pathways such as glycolysis. Synthesis of fatty acids,
nucleotides and some amino acids also take place in the cytoplasm.
25. (c)

29. (c)

30. (b)

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28. (c)

19

## 31. It becomes black and finally forms a compound iron sulphide.

32. Zinc rod dissolves and blue colour of CuSO4 disappears gradually.
33. The starch is coverted into sugar in old stock of potato. As starch is tasteless and sugar is
sweet in taste, potato tastes sweet.
34. (a)

(b)

## Test tube A Salt solution True solution.

Test tube B Starch solution Colloidal solution
Test tube C sand in water Suspension
Solution in test tube C can undergo filtration.

## 35. Following precautions should be taken:

1. The pulley should be made smooth with oiling.
2. The horizontal surface should be cleaned.
3. The pan and the spring balance should not touch the wall or any surface.
4. Weight in the pan should be increased.
Epidermia
36.
Sclerenchyma

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Parenchyma
Pith
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PRACTICE PAPER-3
1. Evaporation. 2. Uniform motion. 3. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
4. (a) Fusion
(b) Sublimation.
5. Lysosomes contain powerful digestive enzymes which can break down all organic materials.
When a cell is damaged, the lysosomes burst and these enzymes digest the contents of its own
cell. So, they are called suicidal bags.
6.
Steel, since it has greater density and greatest mass, therefore, it has highest inertia.
7. (a) In bones. Bone cells are embedded in a hard matrix having compounds of calcium and
phosphorus.
In cartilage. The cells are embedded in the solid matrix made up of proteins and sugars.
(b) Xylem tissue has dead cells and transports water. Phloem tissue has living cells and
transports food.
(c) Blood is red due to the presence of red blood cells. Lymph is a pale fluid as it does not
have red blood cells.
8. (a) High honey collection capacity
(b) Do not sting
(c) Stay in a beehive for long periods
(d) Breed quite well
Italian bees have all the above features.
9. (a) Spreading of virus on sneezing.
(b) Spreading of smell of cake being baked in the house.
(c) Aquatic animals using oxygen dissolved in water.
10. (a) Separating funnel, e.g., kerosene and water.
(b) Sublimation, e.g., camphor and salt.
11.

Parenchyma Collenchyma

Sclerenchyma

## Thickness They have thin cell They have cell wall

They have very thick
of the wall made up of thickened only in the cell wall due to
wall cellulose. corners. deposition of lignin.
Function They help in manu- They provide
They provide
facturing and storing mechanical support as mechanical support to
food. well as manufacture hard and strong parts
food. of plant.

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12.

Eukaryotic cell

Prokaryotic cell

Nuclear region is well-defined
Nuclear region is not well defined and
and is surrounded by nuclear membrane. is not surrounded by nuclear membrane.

It has more than one chromosome.
It has single chromosome.

## Membrane-bound organelles are present. Membrane-bound organelles are absent.

13. (a) Composite fish culture system is a method of intensive fish farming. In this system a
combination of five or six fish species is used in a single fish pond.
(b) In this system such fish are cultured that do not compete for food among them, e.g. catla,
rohus, mrigals, etc.
(c) Advantages: (1) A large variety of fish can be cultured in a single fish pond.

(2) All the food available is consumed by the fish from the pond
without any competition.
Disadvantage: (1) The fish seeds get mixed because all the fish breed in the same season.
14. The distance travelled in first 8 second, x1 = 0 +

(5)(8)2 = 160 m.

At this point, v = u + at
= 0 + 5 8 = 40 m/s
Distance covered in last 4 seconds x2 = (40 4) = 160 m.

Total distance (x) = x1 + x2
= 160 + 160 = 320 m.
15. From graph, u = 80 m/s, v = 0, t = 8 s
(i) Acceleration (a) =

= 10 m/s2

(10) = .5 N.

## 16. Total momentum before firing = 0

= 0.02 kg 100 + 1.5 v
= 2 + 1.5v m/s

Total momentum after firing = total momentum before firing.
2 + 1.5 v = 0
or v =
Negative sign indicates that the direction of recoil of pistol in opposite to that of bullet.
17. (a) At the equator
(b) No, though the moving object comes back to its initial position, the distance travelled is
not zero.
18. (a) g =
where M = mass of the earth,
R = radius of the earth.

(b) The blanket is initially in a state of rest. On heating with a stick, the blanket comes in a state
of motion. But dust present in it tends to remain in rest due to inertia of rest and hence,
comes out of the blanket.

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## 19. (a) Storage grains get damaged due to following factors:

(i) Biotic factorsinsects, fungi, rodents, mites, birds and bacteria.
(ii) Abiotic factorsinappropriate moisture and temperature in the place of storage, etc.
(b) Preventive measures before storing grains are as follows:
(i) Drying the grains.
(ii) Proper cleanliness and hygiene of the container and storage place.
(iii) Prophylatic treatment.
(iv) Improved storage structure.
(c) Government agencies lack responsibility/accountability and concern for poor or needy people.
20. (a) Iron filings are separated by using a bar magnet.
(b) Ammonium chloride is separated by the process of sublimation.
(c) Sand is separated from sodium chloride by the process of filtration.
21. (a) Acetone is volatile and vapourises quickly.
(b) Cotton clothes should be worn in summer because cotton is a good absorber of water and
evaporates quickly leaving us cool.
(c) The particles are held together by a strong force of attraction.
22. h1 =

h2 =

23. (a)

as u= 0

v = 12 m/s, t = 2 s, v = 18 m/s, t = 4 s

v
= u + at

After 4 s,

6 = 2a

or

a = 3 m/s2

or

12 = u + 2a ...(1)
18 = u + 4a ...(2)

12 = u + 6
u = 6 m/s.

(b) Forces which balance one another and the net force acting on the object is zero. Consider a
wooden block A placed on a horizontal table surface. Let us apply forces F1 and F2 on the block
in mutually opposite directions, so that the block does not move from its rest position. Hence,
the net effect of F1 and F2 taken together is zero. Thus, F1 and F2 are balancing each other.
24. (a)

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23

(b) Differences:

Prokaryotic cell

Eukaryotic cell

(i) Size of the cell is generally
(i) Size of the cell is generally large
small (1-10 m). (50-100 m).

(ii) Nuclear regionis poorly defined (ii) Nuclear region is well-defined and
due to absence of nuclear surrounded by a nuclear membrane.
membrane and known as
nucleoid.
25. (a)

29. (b)

30. (a)

## 31. Carbon disulphide

32. The entire heat energy supplied is used to change the state of the substance.
33. To make water solution of arhar dal, add few drops of con HCl. As a result of this, pink or dark
magenta colouration appears.
34. An insoluble substance formed in the solution is called a precipitate. When the product formed
is not soluble, it is clearly visible.
35. (a) We use massless string and smooth pulley to get accurate measure of the force required
to move the block.
(b) If the string used in the experiment is not massless, the reading of the spring balance will
be more than the actual force required to move the block.
36.

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PRACTICE PAPER-4
1. Air, oil, sugar
increasing order.
2. They help in storing and packaging of various cellular sections.
3. It will go to a maxium height h.
4. (a) Iodine
(b) Graphite.

## (ii) Help in manufacturing fats or lipids.

6. The total quantity of motion contained in an object is called its momentum. Mathematically,
it is momentum (P) = mass (m) velocity (v)

F

ma.

a=
7. For making green manure, some plants like sun hemp or guar are grown and then mixed in the
soil by ploughing on them. These leguminous plants form green manure.
8. (a) The tiny pores are stomata.
(b) They perform two functions:

## (ii) Transpiration, i.e., loss of water in the form of vapours.

9. The temperature of both boiling water and steam is 100C, but steam has more energy because
of latent heat of vaporisation.
10. Both fog and smoke have gas as the dispersion medium. The only difference is that the
dispersed phase in fog is liquid and in smokes, it is a solid.

11.

12. The nucleus is bounded by a double and porous nuclear membrane. The pores allow transfer
of materials from inside the nucleus to its outside. Nucleus contains a network of thread-like
structures called chromatin which is made up of DNA. Chromatin changes into a fixed number

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25

of chromosomes during cell division. Nucleus contains nucleolus made up of RNA. It also
contains nucleoplasm.

13. Insect pests may attack crop plants in following three ways:
(a) They cut the root, stem and leaf.
(b) They suck the cell sap from various parts of the plant.
(c) They bore into stem and fruit.
14. (a) Since velocity is not changing, acceleration is equal to zero.
(b) Velocity = 20 m/s.
(c) Distance s = ut = 20 15 = 300 m.
15. (a) The rate of change of momentum of an object is proportional to the applied unbalanced
force in the direction of the force.
(b) m = 800 kg, u = 20 m/s, v = 0, s = 8 m
2
2 2
a = v u = 0 (20)
28
2s
= 400 = 25 m/s2
16

F = ma = 800 25 = 20000 N

16. Both stones will take the same time to reach the ground because the two stones fall from the
same height.
17. u = 0, t = 4 s, g = 10 m/s2, h = ?

s = ut +

gt 2

h=

18. (a) t =

= 3 seconds, g = 10 m/s2, v = 0, u = ?

v = u + gt
or 0 = u + (10) 3
0 = u 30
u = 30 m/s

(b)

26

S = ut +

gt2
S C I E N C E

I X

= 30 3 +

(10) 32

= 90 45

S = 45 m

(c) Position after 4 seconds:
In 3 seconds ball reaches the maximum height and then starts falling downwards. So after
4 seconds means 1 second after when ball starts falling downwards.
Hence

u = v = 0, g = 10 m/s2, t = 1 second

S = ut +

gt2
10 12

= 0 1 +
= 0 +

10 1

= 5 m
The position of ball = 45 5 = 40 m high from the throwing point.
19. (a) Weeds are the unwanted plants that grow along with the crop plants.
(b) Parthenium, Amaranthus
(c) They absorb nutrients and water from the soil and reduce the yield of the crop.
(d) (i) By manually uprooting them
(ii) By using weedicides
20. Mass of solute (sodium sulphate) = x g
Mass % = 20%
Given, Mass of water = 100 g

Mass of solution = 100 + x g

% of sodium sulphate =
or

100 = 20

or

= 20

x = 25

21. (a) Because the particles absorb heat energy from the surroundings leaving the surrounding
cool. Hence, evaporation is always followed by cooling.
(b) (i) Chemical change

## (ii) Physical change

(iii) Change.

22. F m1 m2
F
This hypothesis is not correct. The two bricks like a single body, fall with the same speed to
reach the ground at the same time in case of free fall. This is because acceleration due to gravity
is independent of the mass of the following body.
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27

## 23. (a) Given v = 0, a = 4 m/s2, t = 3 seconds, u = ?

v = u + at

o = u + ( 4 3)

u = 12 m/s
Intitial speed of the car = 12 m/s = 43.2 km/h
1
(b)
s = ut + at2
2
1
= 12 3 + 4 (3)2
2
= 36 18

s = 18 m
The old man is 20 m away from the car, when brake is applied. The car travels a distance
18 m before coming to rest. Hence the driver would succeed to save the old man.
(c) Concern for others safety/lives.
24. (a)

(b) Differences:

Parenchyma

Collenchyma

## (i) Living cells, isodiametric in shape

(i) Living cells, cells with thick
corners.
(ii) Cell walls are thin and made up
(ii) Cell walls are thickened at
of cellulose. corners with extra deposition of
cellulose and pectin.
25. (b)

## 26. (a) 27. (d) 28. (b)

29. (c)

30. (a)

31. Yes, it follows a straight line variation since Q = mst with m and s being constants.
32. Zinc is more reactive than hydrogen whereas copper is less reactive. A more reactive metal
can displace a less reactive metal from its salt solution whereas a less reactive metal cannot
displace a more reactive metal from its salt solution.
33. Hydrochloric acid.
34. Sand By filtration
Ammonium chloride By sublimation
Iron filings By a magnet.

28

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## 35. (a) The tension in the connecting string increases.

(b) As smaller the steps in which the weights are increased in pan, the observation and the
measure of the force is accurate.
36. Location: These cells are found in stems, leaves, roots, fruits and other soft tissues.

Functions: It helps in photosynthesis, stores food, etc.

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PRACTICE PAPER-5
1. Sublimation.
2. Uniform acceleration.
3. Ribosomes.
4. (a) Sublimation

(b) Freezing

## 5. Genes are located on the chromosomes. They help in inheritance of characters.

6. To increase the area (A) and decrease the pressure (P), due to weight (F) of the train moving
the rail (P =

## ). This prevents the train sinking into ground.

7. Macronutrients are required in large quantity for growth and development of the plant, e.g.,
nitrogen, from soil, oxygen from water.
8. The solution that has lower concentration of solute, then the cell is hypotonic. The contents
of the cell will swell up when the cell is placed in hypotonic solution. More water molecules
move in by osmosis.
9.
Conditions that increase the rate of evaporation are:
(a) An increase in surface area by spreading the shirt.
(b) An increase in temperature by putting the shirt under the sun.
(c) An increase of wind speed by spreading it under the fan.
10. (a) Acetone and water by distillation.
(b) Chromatography (dyes present in ink).
11. The constituents of phloem tissue are:
(a) Sieve tubes
(b) Companion cells
(c) Phloem parenchyma
(d) Phloem fibres.
Its function is translocation of food.
12. Indian breed. Aseel
Foreign breed. Leghorn
Two reasons for variety improvement of poultry are:
(a) To increase the number and quality of chicks.
(b) To obtain dwarf broiler parent for commercial chick production.
13. (a) Squamous epithelium. It has thin and flat cells with nucleus in the centre.
(b) Cuboidal epithelium. It has cube-like cells and nucleus lies in the centre.
(c) Columnar epithelium. It has tall column-like cells with nucleus towards the base.

30

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a=

F=ma

m=

= 0.5

= 1.2 kg.

## 15. u = 40 km/h, v = 50 km/h a = ?, t = 2 minutes (10.00 a.m to 10.02 a.m)

a =
=
=

= .023 m/s2.

16.
u = 29.4 m/s, h = ?, t = 1 s

v2 u2 = 2 as

0 (29.4)2 = 2 (9.8) s
s =

= 45.1 m.

(a) s = ut +

gt2

s = 29. 4 1 +

10 1

or = 29.4 + 5
s = 34.4 m.
gt2

(b)

s = ut +

s = 29. 4 2 +

10 (2)2

= 58.8 + 5 4
= 58.8 + 20 = 78.8 m.
17. (i) B has greater inertia.
(ii) Momentum of ball A, pA = m.(2v) = 2mv
Momentum of ball B, pB = (2m).v = 2mv
Hence pA = pB
(iii) Force needed to stop ball A,
m (2v 0)

FA =
t
Force needed to stop ball B

P R A C T I C E

FB =

2m (v 0)
t

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31

2mv
t
=
2mv
t

FA: FB

= 1:1

18. According to Newtons second law of motion, the rate of change of momentum of an object is
directly proportional to the applied unbalanced force on it and is in the direction of force.
i.e., F

F ma .

## 19. (a) Weeds harm the crop plants:

(i) They compete for food, space and light thus affect the growth of the plant.

## (ii) They reduce the yield of the crop.

(iii) They sometimes act as hosts for disease causing organisms and spread diseases.

## (iii) Summer ploughing and crop rotation.

20. (a) Milk solution is a colloid and would show Tyndall effect.
(b) Salt solution is a true solution and would not scatter light.
(c) Detergent solution, sulphur solution.
21. (a) (i) Tyndall effect
(ii) Diffusion
(b) (i) Sugar crystals are separated by the method of crystallisation.
(ii) Compound iron sulphide is formed.
(iii) Volatility since perfume is volatile.
22. The time taken by the ball A to reach the ground is given by s = ut +
or 44.1 =

gt2

(9.8) t2

or t2 =

= 3 s.

Suppose the ball B was thrown with initial speed u. It was thrown 2 s after A was dropped and
it reached the ground together with A. So, the total time for which it has fallen is (3 2 = 1 sec).

32

s = ut +

gt2

S C I E N C E

I X

(9.8) (1)2

44.1 = u 1 +

44.1 = u + 4.9

or

u = 44.1 4.9

u = 39.2 m/s.

## Speed of the bus = 60 km/h

Time = 6 minutes =

= 0.1 h

= 60 0.1 = 6 km
(b)

Distance = 10 km

Speed = 50 km/h

Time =

hours

## om stop BFrom Stop B to Stop C :

Distance = 6 km

Time = 6 minutes =
From Stop C to Stop D:

Distance = 12 km

hours

Time =
Average speed =

or

40 =

or

40 =

## Speed of the bus between stops C and D = 30 km/h

x = 30 km/h

(c) The passenger shows concern for the safety of himself and others, and adherence to the rule
of law.
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24. Muscle present in heart is cardiac muscles and that present in limbs is voluntary or striated
muscles.
Differences:

Striated mucles

Cardiac mucles

## (ii) Its ends are flat and zig-zag.

Sarcoplasm

Light bands
Nucleus

Dark bands
Myofibrils

Plasma membrane

Connective
tissue cell
Intercalated disc

Muscle fibres
Striated muscle

Cardiac muscle

30. (b)

## 31. Copper sulphate crystal contains five molecules of water of crystalization.

32. A colloidal solution can be tested by passing a beam of light through it. The colloidal solution
scatters the beam of light and makes its path visible.
33. The result will be negative.
34. (a) As soon as the mixture of iron filings and sulphur is heated, it becomes black and a hard
mass is formed. A new compound is formed which is iron sulphide.
(b) It can be separated by chemical reaction.
35. The reading of spring balance will be zero. When the block is just about to move, the force by
which spring is pulled is equal to the frictional force between block and the surface on which
it is placed. So spring balance shows zero reading.
36.

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