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120 tayangan67 halamanCBSE INTERNATIONAL BOOK

Oct 07, 2016

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CBSE INTERNATIONAL BOOK

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120 tayangan

CBSE INTERNATIONAL BOOK

© All Rights Reserved

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CLASS IX

LINES, ANGLES

AND

TRIANGLES

(ELECTIVE)

(ELECTIVE )

UNIT-4

Preface

The Curriculum initiated by Central Board of Secondary Education -International (CBSE-i) is

a progressive step in making the educational content and methodology more sensitive and

responsive to the global needs. It signifies the emergence of a fresh thought process in

imparting a curriculum which would restore the independence of the learner to pursue the

learning process in harmony with the existing personal, social and cultural ethos.

The Central Board of Secondary Education, with about 11000 schools affiliated to it and with

over 130 schools situated in more than 20 countries has been catering to the academic needs of

the learners worldwide. The Board has always been conscious of the varying needs of the

learners in countries abroad and has been working towards contextualizing certain elements

of the learning process to the physical, geographical, social and cultural environment in which

they are engaged. The International Curriculum being designed by CBSE-i , has been

visualized and developed with these requirements in view.

The nucleus of the entire process of constructing the curricular structure is the learner. The

objective of the curriculum is to nurture the independence of the learner, given the fact that

every learner is unique. The learner has to understand, appreciate, protect and build on

values, beliefs and traditional wisdom, making necessary modifications, improvisations and

additions wherever and whenever necessary.

The recent scientific and technological advances have thrown open the gateways of

knowledge at an astonishing pace. The speed and methods of assimilating knowledge have

put forth many challenges to the educators, forcing them to rethink their approaches for

knowledge processing by their learners. In this context, it has become imperative for them to

incorporate those skills which will enable the young learners to become 'life long learners'. The

ability to stay current, to upgrade skills with emerging technologies, to understand the

nuances involved in change management and the relevant life skills have to be a part of the

learning domains of the global learners. The CBSE-i curriculum has taken cognizance of these

requirements.

The CBSE-i aims to carry forward the basic strength of the Indian system of education. While

promoting critical and creative thinking skills, effective communication skills, interpersonal

and collaborative skills along with information and media skills. There is an inbuilt flexibility

as it provides a foundation and an extension curriculum in all subject areas to cater to the

different pace of learners.

The CBSE-i plans to introduce the curriculum in a phased manner at different levels in schools

affiliated to CBSE at the international level and subsequently, if desirable, to introduce it to

other affiliated schools who are able to meet the requirements of this curriculum. The focus is

to ensure that the learner is stress-free and yet stays committed to active learning. The learner

would be evaluated on a continuous and comprehensive basis consequent to the mutual

interactions between the teacher and the learner and the learner. There are some nonevaluative components in the curriculum which would be commented upon by the teachers

and the school. The objective of this part or the core of the curriculum is to scaffold the learning

experiences and to relate tacit knowledge with formal knowledge. This would involve transdisciplinary linkages that would form the core of the learning process. Perspectives, SEWA

(Social Empowerment through Work and Action), Life Skills and Research would be the

constituents of this 'Core'. The Core skills are the most significant aspects of a learner's holistic

growth and his/her learning curve.

The international curriculum has been designed keeping in view the foundations of the

National Curricular Framework (NCF 2005) and the experience gathered by the Board over

the last seven decades in imparting effective learning to millions of learners, many of whom

are now global citizens.

The Board does not interpret this development as an alternative to other curricula existing at

the international level, but as an exercise in providing the much needed Indian leadership for

global education at the school level. The international curriculum would evolve on its ownbuilding on learning experiences inside the classroom over a period of time. The Board while

addressing the issues of empowerment with the help of the schools administering this system

strongly recommends that practicing teachers become skillful learners on their own and also

transfer their learning experiences to their peers through the interactive platforms to be

provided by the Board.

I profusely thank Shri G. Balasubramanian, former Director (Academics),CBSE, Ms. Abha

Adams and her team and Dr. Sadhana Parashar, Head (Innovations and Research) CBSE

alongwith other Education Officers involved in the development and implementation of this

material.

The CBSE-i website being launched will enable all stakeholders involved in this initiative to

participate through the discussion forums provided on the portal. Any further suggestions for

modifying or improving any part of this document are welcome.

Vineet Joshi

Chairman

CBSE

Acknowledgements

Advisory

Shri Vineet Joshi, Chairman & Secretary, CBSE

Smt. Chitralekha Gurumurthy, Director (Academics),CBSE

Dr. Sadhana Parashar, Head (Innovations & Research),CBSE

Conceptual Framework

Shri G. Balasubramanian, Former Director (Academics), CBSE

Ms. Abha Adams, Consultant, Step-by-Step School, Noida

Dr. Sadhana Parashar, Head (Innovations & Research),CBSE

Ideators

Dr. Indu Khetrapal

Dr. N. K. Sehgal

Mathematics :

Science :

Ms. S. Anjum

Ms. Nita Rastogi

Ms. Pooja Sareen

History :

English :

Mrs. M. Bose

Ms. A. Venkatachalam

Ms. P. Rajeshwary

Mrs. Neelima Sharma

Ms. Neha Sharma

Geography :

Poltical Science :

Ms Sharmila Bakshi

Ms. Srilekha

Ms. Bhagirathi

Economics :

Ms. Mridula Pant

Sh. Pankaj Bhanwani

Ms. Savinder Kaur Rooprai

Ms. Nandita Pal

Ms. Deepti Verma

Ms. Seema Choudhary

Ms. Monika Thakur

Mr. Bijo Thomas

Ms Ruba Chakravarty

Ms. Guneet Ohri

Mrs. N Vidya

Co-ordinators :

Mrs. Sugandh Sharma, Education Officer (Com.)

Dr. Srijata Das, Education Officer (Science & Maths)

Sh. R. P. Sharma, Consultant

Shri Al Hilal Ahmed, Asstt. Education Officer

CONTENT

Page

Preface

Acknowledgment

1.

Syllabus

2.

Scope document

3.

Lesson Template

4.

14

(

Warm Up (W1)

15

(

Warm Up (W2)

16

(

Pre Content (P1)

17

(

Pre Content (P2)

20

(

Pre Content (P3)

21

(

Pre Content (P4)

22

(

Content Task (C1)

23

(

Content Task (C2)

25

(

Content Task (C3)

32

(

Content Task (C4)

39

(

Content Task (C5)

42

(

47

(

48

Post Content

(

51

Assessment Rubric

(

58

Revision of Basic

Geometrical Concepts

points; intersecting and non intersecting lines, concurrent

lines, Angle: right angle, acute angle, obtuse angle, straight

angle, reflex angle, supplementary angles, complementary

angles; Parallel lines, perpendicular lines, transversal ;

Triangle: scalene, isosceles, equilateral, acute angled, obtuse

angled, right angled; Median, altitude, bisector of an angle,

perpendicular bisector of a line segment

angles; Linear pair axiom; Parallel lines and transversal:

exterior angles, interior angles, corresponding angles,

alternate interior angles, interior angles on the same side of

transversal; corresponding angle axiom and converse, proof

of theorems :

a)

equal.

b)

(i)

transversal are supplementary and converse.

ELECTIVE

c)

d)

e)

triangle is equal to the sum of interior opposite angles.

Triangles

Congruence of triangles

Properties of triangle

a)

the other triangle, then the two triangles are

congruent.(SSS criteria)

b)

equal to two sides and the included angle of the other

triangle, then the two triangles are congruent.(SAS

criteria)

c)

two angles and the corresponding side of the other

triangle, then the two triangles are congruent.(ASA

criteria)

d)

triangle are equal to the hypotenuse and one side of the

other triangle, then the two triangles are

congruent.(RHS criteria) and converse;

Inequalities in triangle

a)

its converse.

b)

a)

b)

c)

third side.

ELECTIVE

Concepts :

1.

2.

Concurrent lines

3.

Congruence in Triangles

4.

Inequality in triangles

5.

Learning Objectives :

F

Review

and recall the basic concepts and properties of point, line, plane, collinear

and non collinear points, parallel lines, intersecting lines, perpendicular lines,

concurrent lines , angle, various type of angles, linear pair axiom, triangles, median,

altitude, angle bisector, perpendicular bisector

F

Develop

intersect two parallel lines.

F

Prove analytically the following :

a)

b)

angles are equal and its converse.

c)

(i)

(ii) The interior angles on the same side of the transversal are supplementary

and converse.

d)

u

To explore, prove and apply triangles properties :

ELECTIVE

i)

ii)

sum of interior opposite angles

e)

Angle opposite to equal sides of a triangle are equal and its converse.

u

To investigate, prove and apply criteria of congruence :

a)

If three sides of one triangle are equal to three sides of the other triangle, then

the two triangles are congruent.(SSS congruence criterion)

b)

If two sides and the included angle of one triangle are equal to two sides and the

included angle of the other triangle, then the two triangles are congruent.(SAS

congruence axiom)

c)

If two angles and the included side of one triangle are equal to the

corresponding two angles and the included side of the other triangle, then the

two triangles are congruent.(ASA congruence criterion)

d)

If two angles and any side of one triangle are equal to the corresponding two

angles and the side of the other triangle then the two triangles are congruent

(AAS Congruence criterion)

e)

If in two right triangles, hypotenuse and one side of a triangle are equal to the

hypotenuse and one side of the other triangle, then the two triangles are

congruent.(RHS congruence criterion)

u

To investigate, prove and apply triangle inequalities :

a)

b)

c)

Sum of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the third side.

F

Apply

systematic proofs with valid argument in support of each step.

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES :

1.

Investigate the sum of all interior angles of various polygons and to derive a

formula for the n sided polygon.

2.

Investigate the sum of all exterior angles of various polygons and to predict the sum

of all exterior angles of any n-sided polygon.

3.

quick revision of all basic concepts of geometry

ELECTIVE

4.

Describe the japenese fan using all geometrical properties of lines and angles.

1.

The words theorem and theatre both has come from the same Greek root to see. As a

theatre you see a performance. In a theorem you see that a statement is true.

2.

Write an essay on the topic, "It is impossible to imagine world without lines, angles

and triangles".

3.

A simple periscope uses two parallel mirrors placed at each end of a tube. One

mirror receives light from an object and reflects it to the other mirror. The second

mirror then reflects the light to the viewer's eye. Prepare a model of periscope and

explain the working of periscope.

ELECTIVE

4.

In about 275 B.C.E. Eratosthenes developed a method for approximating the size of

the earth. He observed that at noon on june 21 in Syene, Egypt, the sun was directly

overhead. He determined that at the same time 500 miles north in Alexendria, the

inclination of the sun's rays to the Vertical was approximately 7.2 degrees.

Assuming that the sun's rays hit the earth in parallel lines, how did he calculated the

circumference of the earth?

With the help of your friend staying in other city repeat Eratosthenes experiment

using local position of sun and calculate the circumference of earth. For reference

and help use the following sites

http://www.juliantrubin.com/bigten/eratosthenes.html

http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair

projects/project_ideas/Astro_p018.shtml

ELECTIVE

1.

transversal

2.

3.

Suggested Videos :

Name

Title/Link

Video Clip 4

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GK3h7LzqsUg&featu

re=player_embedded

Video Clip 5

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L1gYDZTLNN4&feat

ure=fvw

Video Clip 6

angleshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0lvT7eF3Zks&f

eature=fvw

Video Clip 7

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gAbtjsnh_uA

Video Clip 8

http://www.mathsisfun.com/geometry/parallellines.html

Video Clip 9

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XQUbFCAv_U4&feat

ure=related

Video Clip 10

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eQzKoeNahA&feature=channel

ELECTIVE

F

Students can then spend 15 minutes on playing with parallel lines using

http://www.shodor.org/interactivate/activities/Angles/

Video Clip 11

Types of triangles

Video Clip 12

Video Clip 13

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tqh7RGWd480

Video Clip 14

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s4KPzc6rSyE&featur

e=related

Video Clip 15

http://www.youtube.com/watch#!v=YS2K2SpvVIA&feat

ure=channel

Video Clip 16

b) angle sum property of triangle activity

(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vw-rOqDBAvs)

Video Clip 17

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TPL12Tk7L6U

Video Clip 18

Congruency of triangles

Video Clip 19

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NAhcmPS5k9g&feat

ure=fvw

Video Clip 20

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wvYaFaMAwcc&feat

ure=related

Why it is not always possible to draw a triangle with 3 sides?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mUasyhcnXAw

ELECTIVE

Lesson Template

Steps to be followed

Tool/activity used

Description

1.

Class discussion

followed by picture

worksheet

geometry picture worksheet W1 and W2

can be given. To describe a picture they

can use their knowledge of basic

geometrical terms.

Warm Up

Describe me W1

Pictures speak W2

1.

Pre-content

Discussion on

historical background

of Euclidean

Geometry P1

Creative writing P2

Solve the Crossword P3

Observe the figure

and answer P4

geometry with special focus on

contribution of Euclid, his axioms and

postulates will be given followed by

small task 'who am i?' to summarize it.

Allow the students to stretch their

imagination and write an interesting

paragraph using given words.

Worksheet P3 and P4 will help the

students to consolidate the knowledge

gained about Euclidean geometry

Content

Worksheets/activities

(hands on)/activities

(geo-gebra)/ videos

blended use of activity

worksheets/videos/hands on/projects.

Learning objectives

students to quickly review and to

strengthen their understanding of basic

concepts.

the basic concepts

and properties of

point, line, plane,

collinear and non

collinear points,

ELECTIVE

parallel lines,

intersecting lines,

perpendicular lines,

concurrent lines ,

angle, various type of

angles, linear pair

axiom, triangles,

median, altitude,

angle bisector,

perpendicular

bisector ,congruence

of various figures

with special reference

to triangles,

corresponding parts

of congruent triangle

(CPCT)etc

2.Develop the

understanding of

types of angles

generated when a

transversal intersect

two parallel lines.

Content Worksheet 2

exploration of properties of vertically

opposite angles.

Task2 and Task3 helps to develop the

concept of adjacent angles,

supplementary angles, complementary

angles, vertically opposite angles etc

when two lines intersect each other. Task

is diagnostic in nature.

intersect, the

vertically opposite

angles are equal

4.If a transversal

intersect two parallel

lines, then any pair of

corresponding angles

are equal and its

converse.

10

Content Worksheet 3

followed by geo-gebra

activity

problems based on mentioned learning

objective. Worksheet requires little

brainstorming and analysis of

information given in question and hence

ELECTIVE

5.If a transversal

intersects two parallel

lines, then

(i)Each pair of

alternate angles is

equal

make use of the information to solve the

problem.

CROSSWORD

on the same side of

the transversal are

supplementary, and

converse.

6.The sum of the

angles of a triangle is

180.

Content Worksheet 4

(using geogebra)

7.Exterior angle

formed by producing

the side of a triangle is

equal to the sum of

interior opposite

angles

8.If three sides of one

triangle are equal to

three sides of the

other triangle, then

the two triangles are

congruent.(SSS

criteria)

9.If two sides and the

included angle of one

triangle are equal to

two sides and the

ELECTIVE

let the students establish the mentioned

results.

The activities can be followed by writing

of logical proofs of these results.

Content Worksheet 5:

TASK1:

suggested videos as Task 1

Exploring congruent

triangles

Video Clip 17

students' understanding of these

criterion.

triangles

http://www.youtube

11

other triangle, then

the two triangles are

congruent.(SAS

criteria)

10. If two angles and

one side of one

triangle are equal to

two angles and the

corresponding side of

the other triangle,

then the two triangles

are congruent.(ASA

criteria)

11.If in two right

triangles, hypotenuse

and one side of a

triangle are equal to

the hypotenuse and

one side of the other

triangle, then the two

triangles are

congruent.(RHS

criteria)

.com/watch?v=TPL1

2Tk7L6U

Video Clip 20

Explore : Why SSA is

not a congruence

criteria?

http://www.youtube

.com/watch?v=wvYa

FaMAwcc&feature=r

elated (Students can

do it through Role

Play)

Video Clip 19

Watch this video- To

check whether the

given pairs of

triangles are

congruent or not.

http://www.youtube

.com/watch?v=NAhc

mPS5k9g&feature=fv

w

Congruence of

triangles Resource http://www.nios.ac.i

n/Secmathcour/eng/

ch-14.pdf

opposite to the longer

side is larger.

12

Content Worksheet 6

and investigatory

Task 1 & 2 to help the students to

ELECTIVE

opposite to the larger

angle is longer.

sides under which a triangle can be

drawn.

sides of a triangle is

greater than the third

side.

front of them based on the triangle

inequality.

Post-content

ELECTIVE

Post Content

Worksheet

problems based on all concepts learnt. It

can be used as assignment

so that

student can get the joy of handling the

problems. independently and can do self

assessment.

13

Warm up (W1)

ELECTIVE

15

Warm up (W2)

Have a discussion on appreciating geometry around, through pictures.

16

ELECTIVE

Historical Background: Introduction to Euclid's Geometry

F

Euclid

book, The Elements.

F

"Geometry"

word comes from two Greek words 'geo' meaning earth and

'metron' meaning to measure

F

The first known proof was given by a Greek Mathematician, Thales (A circle is

F

Euclid, a teacher of Mathematics at Alexandria in Egypt, collected all the known

F

Point, line, plane are undefined terms.

F

There are 23 definitions in Book 1 of Elements.

F

Facts without proof are called axioms.

F

Euclid's axioms

1.

Things which are equal to the same thing are equal to one another.

2.

3.

4.

Things which coincide with one another are equal to one another.

5.

6.

Things which are double of the same things are equal to one another.

7.

Things which are halves of the same things are equal to one another.

F

Conventions related to Geometry are termed as postulates

F

There are 5 Euclid's

ELECTIVE

Postulates

17

1.

A straight line may be drawn from any one point to any other point.

2.

3.

4.

5.

If a straight line falling on two straight lines makes the interior angles on

the same side of it taken together less than two right angles, then the two

straight lines, if produced indefinitely, meet on that side on which the

sum of two angles is less than two right angles.

F

Euclid deduced 465 propositions in a logical chain using his axioms, postulates,

F

Two versions of Euclid's 5th postulate

1.

For every line l and for every point P not lying on l, there exists a unique

line m passing through P and parallel to l

2.

1.

If A, B and C are three points on a line, and B lies between A and C, then prove

that AB + BC = AC.

Solution

C

B

Here AB + BC Coincides with AC.

So, AB +BC = AC

18

ELECTIVE

2.

Prove that an equilateral triangle can be constructed on any given line segment.

Solution

Euclid's 3rd Postulate: A circle can be drawn with any centre and any radius.

Draw AB

With A as centre and AB radius draw a circle.

With B as centre and BA radius draw a circle.

Two circles meet at C.

Join CA and CB

AB and AC are equal. (Why?) They are radii of same circle

AB and BC are equal. (Why?) They are radii of same circle

So, AB = BC = AC. Triangle ABC is equilateral

3.

Prove that two distinct lines cannot have more than one point in common.

Solution

Let two lines l and m intersects at two points say A and B.

Euclid's axiom: One line can pass through two distinct points.

So, our assumption is false.

Task 1 Who am I?

ELECTIVE

1.

opposite directions. I have no endpoints.

2.

3.

direction.

4.

5.

6.

7.

19

Task: Creative Writing

Use the words given in the collage and write a paragraph.

20

ELECTIVE

Solve the crosswords using hints given below

Across

2.

of.............angles is equal

5.

6.

When two lines intersects two pairs of .....................opposite angles are formed

9.

10.

11.

12.

When a transversal intersects two parallel lines then each pair of ............. angles

is equal

ELECTIVE

21

Down

1.

3.

4.

7.

8.

Pre Content (P4)

Observe the following diagram and answer the questions that follow :

1.

2.

3.

4.

In how many ways can you write the line segment marked 1?

5.

6.

7.

8.

22

ELECTIVE

Task 1 : Discussion

Title: Why point, line and plane are undefined terms?

Teacher may showcase the following mentioned videos and a discussion on the

mentioned topic may be initiated.

Video Clip 1 (Undefined Geometry terms)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GK3h7LzqsUg&feature=player_embedded

Video Clip 2 (Basic Geometry terms)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L1gYDZTLNN4&feature=fvw

Task 2 Multiple Choice Questions

Q1

Q2

Q3

ELECTIVE

(a)

Pythagoras

(b)

Gauss

(c)

Euclid

(d)

Aryabhatt

The facts which are without any proof and are related to geometry are known

as....

(a)

Theorem

(b)

Axiom

(c)

Results

(d)

Postulates

(a)

The Compounds

(b)

The Elements

(c)

The Mathematics

(d)

The Geometry

23

Q4

Q5

Q6

Q7

Q8

24

(a)

Line

(b)

Line Segment

(c)

Point

(d)

Surface

(a)

Point

(b)

Angle

(c)

Line

(d)

Surface

(a)

Infinite

(b)

(c)

(d)

Can't tell

(a)

Infinite

(b)

(c)

(d)

Can't tell

Which of the following is true if A, B and C are three points on a line and B lies

between A and C?

(a)

AB+BC=AC

(b)

AB=1/2 AC

(c)

BC=1/2 AC

(d)

AB-BC=AC

ELECTIVE

Q9

Q10

The statement "A circle can be drawn with any centre and any radius" is

(a)

False

(b)

True sometimes

(c)

Always true

(d)

Can't draw

Line segment" is

(a)

Sometimes True

(b)

False

(c)

Always true

(d)

Can't draw

Content Worksheet (C2)

Investigate, prove and apply "If two lines intersect, the vertically opposite angles are

equal"

To explore the properties of adjacent angles

Task 1 Self exploratory worksheet

Execution of task

students learn the results themselves. Followed by this

give, a worksheet to test the knowledge of students.

Follow up

exploring the concept.

(For exploring vertically opposite angles)

http://www.mathwarehouse.com/geometry/angle/in

teractive-vertical-angles.php

http://users.mct.open.ac.uk/hjh27/VOA.html

ELECTIVE

25

m

AED m

BEC m

AEC

BED Observations

Figure

58.27

121.73

121.73

58.27

66.94

113.06

E

66.94

113.06

76.14

103.86

E

103.86

76.14

26

ELECTIVE

92.32

E

87.68

E 87.68

92.32

90.77

89.23

E 89.23

90.77

Conclusion :

ELECTIVE

27

Find x

C

68

B x

E

E

C

81

B

D

A

Q1 Draw two lines AB and CD intersecting at O. Explore the following:

F

How many

angles.

How many

F

vertically opposite angle.

28

ELECTIVE

B

C

O

A

D

F

The sum of m

DOB and m

BOC

F

The sum of m

BOC and m

COA

F

The sum of m

COA and m

AOD

F

The sum of m

AOD and m

DOB

F

The relation between m

BOC and m

AOD

F

The relation between m

AOC and m

BOD

Q3 Can two vertically opposite angles be supplement to each other? Draw a diagram to

illustrate your answer. Find the condition when the sum of vertically opposite

angles is 180.

Q4 In the given figure

AOB = 90, find the value of

AOE,

EOD &

DOB.

ELECTIVE

29

F

Vertically opposite angles are congruent.

F

Adjacent angles are supplementary.

F

Adjacent angles form straight angles.

Q 6 (a) Differentiate between a pair of adjacent angles and a linear pair of angles.

(b) When a pair of adjacent angles forms a linear pair?

(c) Draw 4 linear pairs. Write the measures of adjacent angles in each case.

Q7 From the meaning of words linear and pair, define linear pair in your own words.

Justify with example.

Q8 In the given figure, AB and CD intersect at O. Find the value of x and the m

COB.

Q10 Find the measures of each of the two supplementary angles if the larger angle is 44

more than the smaller.

30

ELECTIVE

Task 3 Brainstorming

(A) Observe the given figure and comment on the following statements.

1.

2.

3.

4.

Can you find a pair of adjacent angles in the figure given above? If yes, name the pairs.

Can you find a pair of vertically opposite angles in the figure given above? Why? or why

not?

(B) Comment on the following statements.

F

Any two complementary angles are adjacent

F

Any two right angles are supplementary

F

If two

lines are perpendicular to each other, then all the pairs of vertically

opposite angles formed are supplementary

F

Any two supplementary angles are adjacent

F

If two angles are congruent, they are supplementary

F

Any two angles having a common vertex and a common arm are adjacent

ELECTIVE

31

Based on learning objective :

To develop the understanding of types of angles generated when a transversal intersect two

parallel lines

s)

If a transversal intersect two parallel lines, then any pair of corresponding angles are

equal and its converse.

t)

(iii) Each pair of alternate angles is equal

(iv) The interior angles on the same side of the transversal are supplementary and

converse.

Lines parallel to a given line are parallel to each other

Q1 In the given figure a//b and c//d.

i.

5.Justify your

answer.

ii.

iii. If

4= 110, then find all other angles

.What properties of parallel lines you have

used here?

a

1 2

5 6

3 4

7 8

9 10

13 14

11 12

15 16

and CF//EG.

Write the linear relationship between x

and y. Justify your answer

32

ELECTIVE

Q3 If the arms of one angle are respectively parallel to the arms of another angle, show

that the two angles are either equal or supplementary.

Q4 Find the value of x in the following figures.

ELECTIVE

33

BPQ and

DQP

respectively. Find

POQ.

B

O

.....16

Q7 If two straight lines are each perpendicular to a third straight line then they are

parallel to each other. Prove it.

34

ELECTIVE

ELB & angle

ELECTIVE

35

Use the words given in the collage and write a paragraph.

36

ELECTIVE

Aim : When a transversal intersects two parallel lines then

i)

ii)

Previous Knowledge Assumed

F

Basic knowledge of geometrical terms

F

Working on GeoGebra

Procedure

Each pair of alternate interior angles is equal

1.

2.

3.

mark points D, E, and F such that pairs of interior opposite

angles DCA & FAC and ECA & BAC are formed.

4.

and record their readings.

A

Observations

S.no.

DCA

FAC

ECA

BAC

1

2

3

ELECTIVE

37

Result

Teacher's Remark

Note : Similarly record the observations for (ii) and (iii) part.

38

ELECTIVE

Content Worksheet 4

Tool Used GeoGebra

Activity 1

Aim

To explore the sum of the interior angles of a triangle

Previous Knowledge Assumed

F

Basic knowledge of geometrical terms

F

Working on GeoGebra

Procedure

F

Select the polygon tool

F

Using angle measure tool

a

(by clicking on the vertices in order keeping the angle to be measured in the centre).

F

In the input box write sum =

+

+

, where

,

,

represent the degree measures of

ABC.

F

Select move tool

of interior angles as well as their sum.

F

Note down the observations.

F

Write the result.

Observations

S. No.

ELECTIVE

Sum

39

Result

Teacher's Remark

Activity 2

Aim

To explore the exterior angle property of a triangle

(If a side of a triangle is produced, the exterior angle so formed is equal to the sum of the

two interior opposite angles)

Previous Knowledge Assumed

F

Basic knowledge of geometrical terms

F

Working on GeoGebra

Procedure

40

1.

2.

BC.

3.

ELECTIVE

4.

of triangle ABC.

5.

6.

7.

Observation table

S. NO.

ACD

CAB +

ABC

BAE

CBA +

ACB

FBC

BAC +

ACB

Result

Teacher's Remark

ELECTIVE

41

Content Worksheet 5

u)

If three sides of one triangle are equal to three sides of the other triangle, then the

two triangles are congruent.(SSS congruence criteria)

v)

If two sides and the included angle of one triangle are equal to two sides and the

included angle of the other triangle, then the two triangles are congruent.(SAS

congruence axiom)

w)

If two angles and one side of one triangle are equal to two angles and the

corresponding side of the other triangle, then the two triangles are congruent.(ASA

congruence criteria)

x)

If in two right triangles, hypotenuse and one side of a triangle are equal to the

hypotenuse and one side of the other triangle, then the two triangles are

congruent.(RHS congruence criteria)

Task 1: Worksheet

Q1 From the figure given below, extract the proof "the sum of three interior angles of a

triangle is 1800. It is given that l//m.

(Hint: Use properties of parallel lines, angles on a straight line)

A

42

ELECTIVE

Q2 The angles of triangle are (x + 10), (2x - 30) and x. Find the value of x.

Q3 Find the value of parameter b in the given figures. Write the property used.

ELECTIVE

43

Q4 Find the value of x in the following figures. Write the property used.

44

ELECTIVE

A

40

60

x

C

Q6

Q5 If

1 = 53 ,

2 = 65 , and

3 = 43 , find the measures of

x and

y. Justify

your answers.

1

3

2

y

CAE = 20,

EAB=60,

DBA=50,

EBD=30

Find x.

E

D

ELECTIVE

45

CAE = 10,

EAB=70,

DBA=60,

EBD=20

Find the value of x.

E

D

Watch the Angle sum property of a triangle.

(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vw-rOqDBAvs)

Perform hands on activity.

(Attached Video Clip 16)

46

ELECTIVE

Content Worksheet 6

Task 1 : Exploring congruent triangles

Watch Videos

Video Clip 17

Straw Activity -Congruency in triangles

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TPL12Tk7L6U

Video Clip 20

Explore : Why SSA is not a congruence criteria?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wvYaFaMAwcc&feature=related (Students can

do it through Role Play)

Video Clip 19

Watch this video- To check whether the given pairs of triangles are congruent or not.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NAhcmPS5k9g&feature=fvw

Congruence of triangles Resource - http://www.nios.ac.in/Secmathcour/eng/ch14.pdf

Task 2 : Worksheet

Q1 When do you say that two geometrical figures are congruent? Justify your answer

by taking two geometrical shapes.

Q2 Every triangle is congruent to itself. Do you agree? Give reason.

Q3 If

ABC

DEF, then what do you say about the reverse of this statement?

Q4 If

ABC

DEF and

DEF

relation between triangles ABC and GHI?

Q5 Write the SAS criteria for congruence of triangles. Using this criteria show that the

angles opposite to equal sides of a triangle are equal.

Q6 Write the ASA criteria for congruence of triangles. Write the justification for AAS

criteria for congruence of triangles.

Q7 Write the SSS criteria of congruence of triangle.

Q8 Take a pair of equiangular triangles. Are these congruent? Justify your answer.

ELECTIVE

47

Q10 Justify the statement "Medians of an equilateral triangle are equal".

Q11 D and E are the points on the base BC of

ABC such that BD=CE, AD=AE and

ADE=

AED. Prove that

ABE

ACD.

Q12 Is

ABC

Content Worksheet 7

Based on learning Objectives :

F

In a triangle, angle opposite to the longer side is larger.

F

In a triangle, side opposite to the larger angle is longer.

F

Sum of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the third side.

Task 1 : Brainstorming

How many different triangles, with integral sides, can you make from a given perimeter?

Take straws of different lengths and try to figure out.

1cm

2cm

3cm

4cm

5cm

48

ELECTIVE

Perimeter of triangle

integral sides are possible?

of triangle

2

3

4

5

6

7

Task 2 : Investigate

Draw a triangle ABC. Measure A, B and C using a protractor. Measure the sides AB, BC

and CA using a ruler. Note down all your observations.

Compare the following :

a)

b)

Task 3 : Apply the knowledge gained in Task 2 to solve the following questions.

Q1 In

PQR,

P = 70 and

R = 30. Which side of this triangle is the longest?

Give reason for your answer.

Q2 AD is a median of the triangle ABC. Is it true that AB + BC + CA > 2 AD? Justify your

answer.

Q3 M is a point on side BC of a triangle ABC such that AM is the bisector of

BAC. Is it

true to say that perimeter of the triangle is greater than 2 AM? Justify your answer.

Q4 Is it possible to construct a triangle with lengths of its sides as 9 cm, 7 cm and 17 cm?

Give reason for your answer.

Q5 Is it possible to construct a triangle with lengths of its sides as 8 cm, 7 cm and 4 cm?

Give reason for your answer.

Q6 S is any point in the interior of

PQR. Show that SQ + SR < PQ + PR.

ELECTIVE

49

Q7

Prove that sum of any two sides of a triangle is greater than twice the median with

respect to the third side.

Q9 Show that in a quadrilateral ABCD, AB + BC + CD + DA > AC + BD

Q10 In a triangle ABC, D is the mid-point of side AC such that BD = AC. Show that

Q11 Prove that if two sides of a triangle are unequal, then the longer side has the greater

angle opposite to it.

Q12 In a triangle, prove that the greater angle has the longer side opposite to it.

Q13 Prove that, of all the line segments that can be drawn to a given line, from a point not

lying on it, the perpendicular line segment is the shortest.

Q14 In a right angled triangle, prove that the hypotenuse is the longest side.

Q15 Show that the sum of three altitudes of a triangle is less than the sum of three sides of

a triangle.

50

ELECTIVE

Post Content

Q1 Find x and measures of all angles. Justify your answer.

Q2 The measure of an angle is one-fourth the measure of its complement. Find the

measure of the angle.

Q3 Find x and measures of all angles

ELECTIVE

51

Q4

Suppose

X and

Y are supplementary angles. If m

m

Y = 11x + 12, find the value of x, m

X, and m

Y.

X = x2 - 9x and

Q5 In order for ski jumpers to achieve the maximum distance on a jump, they need to

make the angle between their body and the form of their skis to get the proper

extension over the tips of their skis. If a ski jumper's body is aligned so that the angle

between the body and the front of the skis is 45, what will be the angle that the tail of

the skis forms with the body?

Q6 Side BC of

ABC is produced to a point D. The bisector of

A meets BC at L. Prove

that

ABC +

ACD = 2

ALC.

Q7

Given: k //l

Prove that

6+

7 = 180.

52

ELECTIVE

Q8 State which line segments (if any) are parallel? State the postulate or theorem that

justifies your answer.

Q9 Use the given information to name the line segments that must be parallel.

i.

1=

8

ii.

2=

7

iii.

5=

3

iv.

5=

4

v.

5+

6=

3+

4

(In case you do not find line segments parallel, justify why?)

ELECTIVE

53

Q10 In

PQR,

Q >

R and M is a point on QR such that PM is the bisector of

QPR. If

the perpendicular from P meets QR at N, then prove that

MPN = (

Q-

R)

Q11 If two parallel lines are intersected by a transversal, then prove that the bisectors of

any two alternate interior angles are parallel.

Q12 If the supplement of an angle is three times its complement, find the angle.

Q13 The side QR if

PQR has been produced to S. If

P:

Q:

R = 3: 2: 1 and RT

PR,

find

TRS.

Q14 Prove that the sum of interior angles of a hexagon is 720.

Q15 Prove that the bisectors of two adjacent supplementary angles include a right angle.

Q16 If a line is perpendicular to one of two given parallel lines, show that it is also

perpendicular to the other line.

Q17 In the given figure, AB & CD are parallel lines. GM & HL are bisectors of the

corresponding angles BGE & DHE respectively. Show that GM II HL.

54

ELECTIVE

Q18 The drawings below show angles formed by a soccer player and the goalposts. The

greater the angle, the better chance the player has of scoring a goal. For example, the

player has a better chance of scoring from Position A than from Position B.

Position A

Seven soccer players are practicing their kicks. They are lined up in a straight line in

front of the goalposts. Which player has the best (the greatest) kicking angle?

Now the players are lined up as shown. Which player has the best kicking angle?

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

ELECTIVE

55

Q19 In the figure below lines A'A" and C'C" are parallel. AB is the bisector of

CAA"

and BC is the bisector of

ACC". Show that

ABC = 90 .

Q20 In the figure below lines BC and DD' are parallel. The measure of

x is equal to 127

and the measure of

y is equal to 115 . Find all interior angles of triangle ADD'.

A

67

111

67

113

69

67

56

ELECTIVE

I

55

m

y

x

n

1

A

1

120

2

120

l

2

3

3

m

4 80 m

4 70

110

1

2

l

3

4 70

Q24 In the figure below, lines l and m are parallel, and AB = 5. What is the perpendicular

distance between lines l and m?

120

l

A

5

m

B

ELECTIVE

57

Parameter

4 3 2 1

basic terms

recognize the appropriate part based

on given information, can name

rightly the marked portion on given

figure.

correctly, cannot

recognize the

appropriate part based

on given information,

cannot name rightly the

marked portion on

given figure.

all properties

of all types of

angles

generated

when a

transversal

intersect two

parallel lines.

Cannot Identify

accurately the type of

angles generated

58

generated

(alternate/corresponding/vertically

opposite angles) when a transversal

cuts two or more parallel lines and

use their properties in finding

unknown angles.

can write the stepwise proof of all

related theorems supported by

correct reasons for each step.

(alternate/corresponding/vertically

opposite angles) when a

transversal cuts two or

more parallel lines and

use their properties in

finding unknown

angles. Cannot write the

stepwise proof of all

related theorems

supported by correct

reasons for each step.

ELECTIVE

Prove and

apply the

angle sum

property,

exterior angle

property of

triangle.

angle sum theorem and exterior

angle theorem and can use it to trace

the unknown angles in given

problem.

deductive proof for the

angle sum theorem and

exterior angle theorem

and cannot use it to

trace the unknown

angles in given problem.

Recognize the

congruence in

figures

especially in

triangles

without

measuring the

sides using

the

appropriate

criteria of

congruence.

congruence(SSS,SAS,ASA,RHS)for

the given figure, recognize the

corresponding parts(CPCT),Able to

write the logical proof for the given

problem.

exact criteria of

congruence(SSS,SAS,AS

A,RHS)for the given

figure, cannot recognize

the corresponding

parts(CPCT),not able to

write the logical proof

for the given problem.

Prove all

theorem s for

inequality in

triangles,

property of

equilateral

triangle and

isosceles

triangles

proof of mentioned theorems and the

proof of problems based on them by

identifying the given information

accurately.

systematic, logical proof

of mentioned theorems

and cannot prove the

problems based on

them.

ELECTIVE

59

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