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CBSE-i

CLASS IX

LINES, ANGLES
AND
TRIANGLES
(ELECTIVE)
(ELECTIVE )
UNIT-4

Shiksha Kendra, 2, Community Centre, Preet Vihar, Delhi-110 092 India

Preface
The Curriculum initiated by Central Board of Secondary Education -International (CBSE-i) is
a progressive step in making the educational content and methodology more sensitive and
responsive to the global needs. It signifies the emergence of a fresh thought process in
imparting a curriculum which would restore the independence of the learner to pursue the
learning process in harmony with the existing personal, social and cultural ethos.
The Central Board of Secondary Education, with about 11000 schools affiliated to it and with
over 130 schools situated in more than 20 countries has been catering to the academic needs of
the learners worldwide. The Board has always been conscious of the varying needs of the
learners in countries abroad and has been working towards contextualizing certain elements
of the learning process to the physical, geographical, social and cultural environment in which
they are engaged. The International Curriculum being designed by CBSE-i , has been
visualized and developed with these requirements in view.
The nucleus of the entire process of constructing the curricular structure is the learner. The
objective of the curriculum is to nurture the independence of the learner, given the fact that
every learner is unique. The learner has to understand, appreciate, protect and build on
values, beliefs and traditional wisdom, making necessary modifications, improvisations and
additions wherever and whenever necessary.
The recent scientific and technological advances have thrown open the gateways of
knowledge at an astonishing pace. The speed and methods of assimilating knowledge have
put forth many challenges to the educators, forcing them to rethink their approaches for
knowledge processing by their learners. In this context, it has become imperative for them to
incorporate those skills which will enable the young learners to become 'life long learners'. The
ability to stay current, to upgrade skills with emerging technologies, to understand the
nuances involved in change management and the relevant life skills have to be a part of the
learning domains of the global learners. The CBSE-i curriculum has taken cognizance of these
requirements.
The CBSE-i aims to carry forward the basic strength of the Indian system of education. While
promoting critical and creative thinking skills, effective communication skills, interpersonal
and collaborative skills along with information and media skills. There is an inbuilt flexibility
as it provides a foundation and an extension curriculum in all subject areas to cater to the
different pace of learners.

The CBSE-i plans to introduce the curriculum in a phased manner at different levels in schools
affiliated to CBSE at the international level and subsequently, if desirable, to introduce it to
other affiliated schools who are able to meet the requirements of this curriculum. The focus is
to ensure that the learner is stress-free and yet stays committed to active learning. The learner
would be evaluated on a continuous and comprehensive basis consequent to the mutual
interactions between the teacher and the learner and the learner. There are some nonevaluative components in the curriculum which would be commented upon by the teachers
and the school. The objective of this part or the core of the curriculum is to scaffold the learning
experiences and to relate tacit knowledge with formal knowledge. This would involve transdisciplinary linkages that would form the core of the learning process. Perspectives, SEWA
(Social Empowerment through Work and Action), Life Skills and Research would be the
constituents of this 'Core'. The Core skills are the most significant aspects of a learner's holistic
growth and his/her learning curve.
The international curriculum has been designed keeping in view the foundations of the
National Curricular Framework (NCF 2005) and the experience gathered by the Board over
the last seven decades in imparting effective learning to millions of learners, many of whom
are now global citizens.
The Board does not interpret this development as an alternative to other curricula existing at
the international level, but as an exercise in providing the much needed Indian leadership for
global education at the school level. The international curriculum would evolve on its ownbuilding on learning experiences inside the classroom over a period of time. The Board while
addressing the issues of empowerment with the help of the schools administering this system
strongly recommends that practicing teachers become skillful learners on their own and also
transfer their learning experiences to their peers through the interactive platforms to be
provided by the Board.
I profusely thank Shri G. Balasubramanian, former Director (Academics),CBSE, Ms. Abha
Adams and her team and Dr. Sadhana Parashar, Head (Innovations and Research) CBSE
alongwith other Education Officers involved in the development and implementation of this
material.
The CBSE-i website being launched will enable all stakeholders involved in this initiative to
participate through the discussion forums provided on the portal. Any further suggestions for
modifying or improving any part of this document are welcome.
Vineet Joshi
Chairman
CBSE

Acknowledgements
Advisory
Shri Vineet Joshi, Chairman & Secretary, CBSE
Smt. Chitralekha Gurumurthy, Director (Academics),CBSE
Dr. Sadhana Parashar, Head (Innovations & Research),CBSE

Conceptual Framework
Shri G. Balasubramanian, Former Director (Academics), CBSE
Ms. Abha Adams, Consultant, Step-by-Step School, Noida
Dr. Sadhana Parashar, Head (Innovations & Research),CBSE

Ideators
Dr. Indu Khetrapal

Ms. Rupa Chakravarty

Ms. Aditi Misra

Dr. N. K. Sehgal

Ms. Jaishree Srivastava

Ms. Seema Rawat

Ms. Anita Sharma

Dr. Anju Srivastava

Dr. Meena Dhami

Dr. Uma Chaudhary

Dr. Kamla Menon

Ms. Meenu Goswami

Ms. Anuradha Sen

Ms. Geeta Varshney

Dr. Rajesh Hassija

Ms. Urmila Chowdhary

Ms. Amita Mishra

Material Production Groups : Classes IX - X


Mathematics :

Science :

Dr. K.P. Chinda

Ms. Charu Maini

Mr. J.C. Nijhawan

Ms. S. Anjum

Ms. Rashmi Kathuria

Ms. Meenambika Menon

Ms. Reemu Verma

Ms. Novita Chopra


Ms. Nita Rastogi
Ms. Pooja Sareen

History :

English :

Ms. Jayshree Srivastava

Ms. Sarita Manuja

Mrs. M. Bose

Ms. Gayatri Khanna

Ms. A. Venkatachalam

Ms. Renu Anand

Ms. Smita Bhattacharya

Ms. P. Rajeshwary
Mrs. Neelima Sharma
Ms. Neha Sharma

Geography :

Poltical Science :

Ms. Deepa Kapoor

Ms Sharmila Bakshi

Ms. Bharti Dave

Ms. Srilekha

Ms. Bhagirathi

Ms. Archana Soni

Economics :
Ms. Mridula Pant
Sh. Pankaj Bhanwani

Material Production Groups : Classes I - V


Ms. Savinder Kaur Rooprai
Ms. Nandita Pal
Ms. Deepti Verma
Ms. Seema Choudhary
Ms. Monika Thakur
Mr. Bijo Thomas
Ms Ruba Chakravarty

Material Production Groups : Classes VI - VIII


Ms. Guneet Ohri

Dr. Kavita Khanna

Ms. Dipinder Kaur

Ms. Seema Kapoor

Ms. Sonia Jain

Ms. Priyanka Sen

Ms. Seema Rawat

Ms. Keya Gupta

Dr. Meena Dhami

Mr. Saroj Kumar

Mrs. N Vidya

Ms. Rashmi Ramsinghaney

Mrs. Mamta Goyal

Ms. Chhavi Raheja

Co-ordinators :
Mrs. Sugandh Sharma, Education Officer (Com.)
Dr. Srijata Das, Education Officer (Science & Maths)
Sh. R. P. Sharma, Consultant
Shri Al Hilal Ahmed, Asstt. Education Officer

CONTENT
Page
Preface
Acknowledgment
1.

Syllabus

2.

Scope document

3.

Lesson Template

4.

Teacher-Student Support Materials

14

(
Warm Up (W1)

15

(
Warm Up (W2)

16

(
Pre Content (P1)

17

(
Pre Content (P2)

20

(
Pre Content (P3)

21

(
Pre Content (P4)

22

(
Content Task (C1)

23

(
Content Task (C2)

25

(
Content Task (C3)

32

(
Content Task (C4)

39

(
Content Task (C5)

42

Content Task (C6)


(

47

Content Task (C7)


(

48

Post Content
(

51

Assessment Rubric
(

58

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Syllabus : Unit 4 : Lines, Angles and Triangles (Elective)


Revision of Basic
Geometrical Concepts

Point, Line, line segment, collinear points, non collinear


points; intersecting and non intersecting lines, concurrent
lines, Angle: right angle, acute angle, obtuse angle, straight
angle, reflex angle, supplementary angles, complementary
angles; Parallel lines, perpendicular lines, transversal ;
Triangle: scalene, isosceles, equilateral, acute angled, obtuse
angled, right angled; Median, altitude, bisector of an angle,
perpendicular bisector of a line segment

Lines and Angles

Pair of angles: adjacent angles, linear pair, vertically opposite


angles; Linear pair axiom; Parallel lines and transversal:
exterior angles, interior angles, corresponding angles,
alternate interior angles, interior angles on the same side of
transversal; corresponding angle axiom and converse, proof
of theorems :
a)

If two lines intersect, the vertically opposite angles are


equal.

b)

If a transversal intersects two parallel lines, then


(i)

Each pair of alternate angles is equal

(ii) The interior angles on the same side of the


transversal are supplementary and converse.

ELECTIVE

c)

Lines parallel to a given line are parallel to each other.

d)

The sum of the angles of a triangle is 1800.

e)

exterior angle formed by producing the side of a


triangle is equal to the sum of interior opposite angles.

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Triangles

Congruence criteria: SSS, SAS, ASA, RHS;

Congruence of triangles

Application and Proof of the theorems :

Properties of triangle

a)

If three sides of one triangle are equal to three sides of


the other triangle, then the two triangles are
congruent.(SSS criteria)

b)

If two sides and the included angle of one triangle are


equal to two sides and the included angle of the other
triangle, then the two triangles are congruent.(SAS
criteria)

c)

If two angles and one side of one triangle are equal to


two angles and the corresponding side of the other
triangle, then the two triangles are congruent.(ASA
criteria)

d)

If in two right triangles, hypotenuse and one side of a


triangle are equal to the hypotenuse and one side of the
other triangle, then the two triangles are
congruent.(RHS criteria) and converse;

Inequalities in triangle

Application and proof of the theorems :

a)

Angle opposite to equal sides of a triangle are equal and


its converse.

b)

All angles of an equilateral triangle are 60 degrees.

a)

In a triangle, angle opposite to the longer side is larger.

b)

In a triangle, side opposite to the larger angle is longer.

c)

Sum of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the


third side.

ELECTIVE

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Scope Document Geometry B (Elective)


Concepts :
1.

Parallel lines and Transversal

2.

Concurrent lines

3.

Congruence in Triangles

4.

Inequality in triangles

5.

Proofs of Geometrical theorems

Learning Objectives :
F
Review

and recall the basic concepts and properties of point, line, plane, collinear
and non collinear points, parallel lines, intersecting lines, perpendicular lines,
concurrent lines , angle, various type of angles, linear pair axiom, triangles, median,
altitude, angle bisector, perpendicular bisector

F
Develop

the understanding of types of angles generated when a transversal


intersect two parallel lines.

F
Prove analytically the following :

a)

If two lines intersect, the vertically opposite angles are equal.

b)

If a transversal intersect two parallel lines, then any pair of corresponding


angles are equal and its converse.

c)

If a transversal intersects two parallel lines, then


(i)

Each pair of alternate angles is equal

(ii) The interior angles on the same side of the transversal are supplementary
and converse.
d)

Lines parallel to a given line are parallel to each other.

u
To explore, prove and apply triangles properties :

ELECTIVE

i)

The sum of the interior angles of a triangle is 180.

ii)

Exterior angle formed by producing the side of a triangle is equal to the


sum of interior opposite angles

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

e)

Angle opposite to equal sides of a triangle are equal and its converse.

u
To investigate, prove and apply criteria of congruence :

a)

If three sides of one triangle are equal to three sides of the other triangle, then
the two triangles are congruent.(SSS congruence criterion)

b)

If two sides and the included angle of one triangle are equal to two sides and the
included angle of the other triangle, then the two triangles are congruent.(SAS
congruence axiom)

c)

If two angles and the included side of one triangle are equal to the
corresponding two angles and the included side of the other triangle, then the
two triangles are congruent.(ASA congruence criterion)

d)

If two angles and any side of one triangle are equal to the corresponding two
angles and the side of the other triangle then the two triangles are congruent
(AAS Congruence criterion)

e)

If in two right triangles, hypotenuse and one side of a triangle are equal to the
hypotenuse and one side of the other triangle, then the two triangles are
congruent.(RHS congruence criterion)

u
To investigate, prove and apply triangle inequalities :

a)

In a triangle, angle opposite to the longer side is larger.

b)

In a triangle, side opposite to the larger angle is longer.

c)

Sum of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the third side.
F
Apply

the knowledge of above theorems in solving problems and write


systematic proofs with valid argument in support of each step.

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES :

1.

Investigate the sum of all interior angles of various polygons and to derive a
formula for the n sided polygon.

2.

Investigate the sum of all exterior angles of various polygons and to predict the sum
of all exterior angles of any n-sided polygon.

3.

http://www.aplusmath.com/cgi-bin/games/geomatho, interesting games for


quick revision of all basic concepts of geometry

ELECTIVE

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

4.

Describe the japenese fan using all geometrical properties of lines and angles.

Cross curricular links :


1.

The words theorem and theatre both has come from the same Greek root to see. As a
theatre you see a performance. In a theorem you see that a statement is true.

2.

Write an essay on the topic, "It is impossible to imagine world without lines, angles
and triangles".

3.

A simple periscope uses two parallel mirrors placed at each end of a tube. One
mirror receives light from an object and reflects it to the other mirror. The second
mirror then reflects the light to the viewer's eye. Prepare a model of periscope and
explain the working of periscope.

ELECTIVE

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

4.

In about 275 B.C.E. Eratosthenes developed a method for approximating the size of
the earth. He observed that at noon on june 21 in Syene, Egypt, the sun was directly
overhead. He determined that at the same time 500 miles north in Alexendria, the
inclination of the sun's rays to the Vertical was approximately 7.2 degrees.
Assuming that the sun's rays hit the earth in parallel lines, how did he calculated the
circumference of the earth?

With the help of your friend staying in other city repeat Eratosthenes experiment
using local position of sun and calculate the circumference of earth. For reference
and help use the following sites
http://www.juliantrubin.com/bigten/eratosthenes.html
http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair
projects/project_ideas/Astro_p018.shtml

ELECTIVE

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

ICT : Tool Used GeoGebra


1.

To explore properties of types of angles formed by a pair of parallel lines and a


transversal

2.

To explore properties of triangles (Angle sum and Exterior angle)

3.

To verify properties of inequalities in a triangle.

Suggested Videos :
Name

Title/Link

Video Clip 4

Undefined Geometry terms


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GK3h7LzqsUg&featu
re=player_embedded

Video Clip 5

Basic Geometry terms


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L1gYDZTLNN4&feat
ure=fvw

Video Clip 6

About vertically opposite


angleshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0lvT7eF3Zks&f
eature=fvw

Video Clip 7

Vertically opposite angles example


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gAbtjsnh_uA

Video Clip 8

Concept of parallel lines and angles can be explained using


http://www.mathsisfun.com/geometry/parallellines.html

Video Clip 9

Parallel lines Example problem 1 Video


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XQUbFCAv_U4&feat
ure=related

Video Clip 10

Parallel lines Example problem 2 Video


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eQzKoeNahA&feature=channel

ELECTIVE

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

F
Students can then spend 15 minutes on playing with parallel lines using

http://www.shodor.org/interactivate/activities/Angles/
Video Clip 11

Types of triangles

Video Clip 12

Angles and triangles

Video Clip 13

Isosceles triangle property example


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tqh7RGWd480

Video Clip 14

Exterior angle theorem example


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s4KPzc6rSyE&featur
e=related

Video Clip 15

Exterior angle theorem with examples


http://www.youtube.com/watch#!v=YS2K2SpvVIA&feat
ure=channel

Video Clip 16

a) a proof angle sum property of triangle


b) angle sum property of triangle activity
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vw-rOqDBAvs)

Video Clip 17

Congruency in triangles- Straw activity


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TPL12Tk7L6U

Video Clip 18

Congruency of triangles

Video Clip 19

Check the following pairs of triangles are congruent or not


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NAhcmPS5k9g&feat
ure=fvw

Video Clip 20

Why SSA is not a congruence criteria?


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wvYaFaMAwcc&feat
ure=related
Why it is not always possible to draw a triangle with 3 sides?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mUasyhcnXAw

ELECTIVE

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Lesson Template

Steps to be followed

Tool/activity used

Description

1.

Class discussion
followed by picture
worksheet

To gear up all students for study of


geometry picture worksheet W1 and W2
can be given. To describe a picture they
can use their knowledge of basic
geometrical terms.

Warm Up

Describe me W1
Pictures speak W2
1.

Pre-content

Discussion on
historical background
of Euclidean
Geometry P1
Creative writing P2
Solve the Crossword P3
Observe the figure
and answer P4

A brief account of developments in


geometry with special focus on
contribution of Euclid, his axioms and
postulates will be given followed by
small task 'who am i?' to summarize it.
Allow the students to stretch their
imagination and write an interesting
paragraph using given words.
Worksheet P3 and P4 will help the
students to consolidate the knowledge
gained about Euclidean geometry

Content

Worksheets/activities
(hands on)/activities
(geo-gebra)/ videos

Content would be covered through the


blended use of activity
worksheets/videos/hands on/projects.

Learning objectives

Content Worksheet 1C1

The activity sheet C1 will help the


students to quickly review and to
strengthen their understanding of basic
concepts.

1.Review and recall


the basic concepts
and properties of
point, line, plane,
collinear and non
collinear points,
ELECTIVE

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

parallel lines,
intersecting lines,
perpendicular lines,
concurrent lines ,
angle, various type of
angles, linear pair
axiom, triangles,
median, altitude,
angle bisector,
perpendicular
bisector ,congruence
of various figures
with special reference
to triangles,
corresponding parts
of congruent triangle
(CPCT)etc
2.Develop the
understanding of
types of angles
generated when a
transversal intersect
two parallel lines.

Content Worksheet 2

C 2 contains three tasks .Task 1 focus on


exploration of properties of vertically
opposite angles.
Task2 and Task3 helps to develop the
concept of adjacent angles,
supplementary angles, complementary
angles, vertically opposite angles etc
when two lines intersect each other. Task
is diagnostic in nature.

3.If two lines


intersect, the
vertically opposite
angles are equal
4.If a transversal
intersect two parallel
lines, then any pair of
corresponding angles
are equal and its
converse.
10

The activity sheet

Content Worksheet 3
followed by geo-gebra
activity

Content worksheet C3 contains the


problems based on mentioned learning
objective. Worksheet requires little
brainstorming and analysis of
information given in question and hence

ELECTIVE

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

5.If a transversal
intersects two parallel
lines, then
(i)Each pair of
alternate angles is
equal

aims to develop skills in students to


make use of the information to solve the
problem.
CROSSWORD

(ii)The interior angles


on the same side of
the transversal are
supplementary, and
converse.
6.The sum of the
angles of a triangle is
180.

Content Worksheet 4
(using geogebra)

7.Exterior angle
formed by producing
the side of a triangle is
equal to the sum of
interior opposite
angles
8.If three sides of one
triangle are equal to
three sides of the
other triangle, then
the two triangles are
congruent.(SSS
criteria)
9.If two sides and the
included angle of one
triangle are equal to
two sides and the

ELECTIVE

It contains two exploratory activities to


let the students establish the mentioned
results.
The activities can be followed by writing
of logical proofs of these results.

Content Worksheet 5:
TASK1:

The activity sheet C5 contains list of


suggested videos as Task 1

Exploring congruent
triangles

explaining congruence criteria.

Video Clip 17

Followed by task 2 to assess the


students' understanding of these
criterion.

Straw Activity Congruency in


triangles
http://www.youtube

11

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

included angle of the


other triangle, then
the two triangles are
congruent.(SAS
criteria)
10. If two angles and
one side of one
triangle are equal to
two angles and the
corresponding side of
the other triangle,
then the two triangles
are congruent.(ASA
criteria)
11.If in two right
triangles, hypotenuse
and one side of a
triangle are equal to
the hypotenuse and
one side of the other
triangle, then the two
triangles are
congruent.(RHS
criteria)

.com/watch?v=TPL1
2Tk7L6U

Video Clip 20
Explore : Why SSA is
not a congruence
criteria?
http://www.youtube
.com/watch?v=wvYa
FaMAwcc&feature=r
elated (Students can
do it through Role
Play)
Video Clip 19
Watch this video- To
check whether the
given pairs of
triangles are
congruent or not.
http://www.youtube
.com/watch?v=NAhc
mPS5k9g&feature=fv
w
Congruence of
triangles Resource http://www.nios.ac.i
n/Secmathcour/eng/
ch-14.pdf

12. In a triangle, angle


opposite to the longer
side is larger.

12

Content Worksheet 6

The worksheet contains the exploratory


and investigatory
Task 1 & 2 to help the students to

ELECTIVE

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

13. In a triangle, side


opposite to the larger
angle is longer.

understand the conditions on length of


sides under which a triangle can be
drawn.

14. Sum of any two


sides of a triangle is
greater than the third
side.

Task 3 posed challenging problems in


front of them based on the triangle
inequality.

Post-content

ELECTIVE

Post Content
Worksheet

This worksheet contains the application


problems based on all concepts learnt. It
can be used as assignment
so that
student can get the joy of handling the
problems. independently and can do self
assessment.

13

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Warm up (W1)

ELECTIVE

15

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Warm up (W2)
Have a discussion on appreciating geometry around, through pictures.

16

ELECTIVE

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Pre content (P1)


Historical Background: Introduction to Euclid's Geometry
F
Euclid

(325BC to 265 BC) is known as the Father of Geometry because of his


book, The Elements.

F
"Geometry"

word comes from two Greek words 'geo' meaning earth and
'metron' meaning to measure

F
The first known proof was given by a Greek Mathematician, Thales (A circle is

bisected by its diameter in two equal parts)


F
Euclid, a teacher of Mathematics at Alexandria in Egypt, collected all the known

work and wrote Elements having 13 chapters.


F
Point, line, plane are undefined terms.
F
There are 23 definitions in Book 1 of Elements.
F
Facts without proof are called axioms.
F
Euclid's axioms

1.

Things which are equal to the same thing are equal to one another.

2.

If equals are added to equals, the wholes are equal.

3.

If equals are subtracted from equals, the remainders are equal.

4.

Things which coincide with one another are equal to one another.

5.

The whole is greater than the part.

6.

Things which are double of the same things are equal to one another.

7.

Things which are halves of the same things are equal to one another.

F
Conventions related to Geometry are termed as postulates
F
There are 5 Euclid's

ELECTIVE

Postulates
17

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

1.

A straight line may be drawn from any one point to any other point.

2.

A terminated line can be produced indefinitely.

3.

A circle can be drawn with any centre and any radius.

4.

All right angles are equal to each other.

5.

If a straight line falling on two straight lines makes the interior angles on
the same side of it taken together less than two right angles, then the two
straight lines, if produced indefinitely, meet on that side on which the
sum of two angles is less than two right angles.

F
Euclid deduced 465 propositions in a logical chain using his axioms, postulates,

definitions and theorems


F
Two versions of Euclid's 5th postulate

1.

For every line l and for every point P not lying on l, there exists a unique
line m passing through P and parallel to l

2.

Two distinct intersecting lines cannot be parallel to the same line.

Some interesting examples :


1.

If A, B and C are three points on a line, and B lies between A and C, then prove
that AB + BC = AC.
Solution
C
B

Things which coincide with each other are equal.


Here AB + BC Coincides with AC.
So, AB +BC = AC

18

ELECTIVE

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

2.

Prove that an equilateral triangle can be constructed on any given line segment.
Solution
Euclid's 3rd Postulate: A circle can be drawn with any centre and any radius.
Draw AB
With A as centre and AB radius draw a circle.
With B as centre and BA radius draw a circle.
Two circles meet at C.
Join CA and CB
AB and AC are equal. (Why?) They are radii of same circle
AB and BC are equal. (Why?) They are radii of same circle
So, AB = BC = AC. Triangle ABC is equilateral

3.

Prove that two distinct lines cannot have more than one point in common.
Solution
Let two lines l and m intersects at two points say A and B.
Euclid's axiom: One line can pass through two distinct points.
So, our assumption is false.

Task 1 Who am I?

ELECTIVE

1.

I am a collection of points along a straight path that goes on and on in


opposite directions. I have no endpoints.

2.

I am a part of a line having two endpoints.

3.

I am a part of a line with one endpoint and goes on and on in one


direction.

4.

We are lines that never cross one another.

5.

I am formed when two rays begin from a common vertex.

6.

I am an angle whose measure is less than 90 degrees.

7.

I am an angle whose measure is equal to 180 degrees.

19

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Pre Content (P2)


Task: Creative Writing
Use the words given in the collage and write a paragraph.

20

ELECTIVE

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Pre Content Worksheet (P3)


Solve the crosswords using hints given below

Across
2.

When a transversal intersects a pair of parallel lines then each pair


of.............angles is equal

5.

The.........of three interior angles of a triangle is 180 degrees

6.

When two lines intersects two pairs of .....................opposite angles are formed

9.

Two adjacent angles has a ............... arm

10.

How many lines can be drawn passing through two points?

11.

How many lines can be drawn passing through one point?

12.

When a transversal intersects two parallel lines then each pair of ............. angles
is equal

ELECTIVE

21

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Down
1.

The sum of ............... angles is 180 degrees

3.

Angles opposite to equal sides of a triangle are.............

4.

Exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of two.............opposite angles

7.

The sum of two.................... angles is 90 degrees

8.

Parallel lines never..............


Pre Content (P4)
Observe the following diagram and answer the questions that follow :

1.

Write the line marked 1 in four different ways.

2.

Write the line segment marked 2 in two different ways.

3.

In how many ways can you write the line marked 3?

4.

In how many ways can you write the line segment marked 1?

5.

Name angle marked 1, 3 and 4 in as many ways as possible.

6.

Write the vertex of angle 4.

7.

Name the ray which begins with F and goes towards A.

8.

Name arms of angle 4 and angle 1.

22

ELECTIVE

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Content Worksheet (C1)


Task 1 : Discussion
Title: Why point, line and plane are undefined terms?
Teacher may showcase the following mentioned videos and a discussion on the
mentioned topic may be initiated.
Video Clip 1 (Undefined Geometry terms)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GK3h7LzqsUg&feature=player_embedded
Video Clip 2 (Basic Geometry terms)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L1gYDZTLNN4&feature=fvw
Task 2 Multiple Choice Questions
Q1

Q2

Q3

ELECTIVE

Who is the Father of Geometry?


(a)

Pythagoras

(b)

Gauss

(c)

Euclid

(d)

Aryabhatt

The facts which are without any proof and are related to geometry are known
as....
(a)

Theorem

(b)

Axiom

(c)

Results

(d)

Postulates

The famous book composed by Euclid is


(a)

The Compounds

(b)

The Elements

(c)

The Mathematics

(d)

The Geometry

23

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Q4

Q5

Q6

Q7

Q8

24

Which of the following has no part?


(a)

Line

(b)

Line Segment

(c)

Point

(d)

Surface

Which of the following is a defined term?


(a)

Point

(b)

Angle

(c)

Line

(d)

Surface

How many lines can pass through 2 points?


(a)

Infinite

(b)

(c)

(d)

Can't tell

How many lines can pass through 1 point?


(a)

Infinite

(b)

(c)

(d)

Can't tell

Which of the following is true if A, B and C are three points on a line and B lies
between A and C?
(a)

AB+BC=AC

(b)

AB=1/2 AC

(c)

BC=1/2 AC

(d)

AB-BC=AC

ELECTIVE

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Q9

Q10

The statement "A circle can be drawn with any centre and any radius" is
(a)

False

(b)

True sometimes

(c)

Always true

(d)

Can't draw

The statement "Equilateral triangle can be constructed on any given


Line segment" is
(a)

Sometimes True

(b)

False

(c)

Always true

(d)

Can't draw
Content Worksheet (C2)

Based on learning objective :


Investigate, prove and apply "If two lines intersect, the vertically opposite angles are
equal"
To explore the properties of adjacent angles
Task 1 Self exploratory worksheet
Execution of task

Prepare copies of given exploratory worksheet. Let


students learn the results themselves. Followed by this
give, a worksheet to test the knowledge of students.

Follow up

Teacher may provide following web links to students for


exploring the concept.
(For exploring vertically opposite angles)
http://www.mathwarehouse.com/geometry/angle/in
teractive-vertical-angles.php
http://users.mct.open.ac.uk/hjh27/VOA.html

ELECTIVE

25

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

m
AED m
BEC m
AEC
BED Observations

Figure

58.27

121.73

121.73

58.27

66.94

113.06
E
66.94

113.06

76.14
103.86

E
103.86

76.14

26

ELECTIVE

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

92.32
E

87.68

E 87.68

92.32

90.77
89.23

E 89.23

90.77

Conclusion :

ELECTIVE

27

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Find x

Justify your answer


C

68

B x
E

E
C

81
B

D
A

Task 2 : Do yourself (Lines and Angles)


Q1 Draw two lines AB and CD intersecting at O. Explore the following:
F
How many

pairs of adjacent angles are formed? Name the pairs of adjacent

angles.
How many
F

pairs of vertically opposite angles are formed? Name the pairs of


vertically opposite angle.

28

ELECTIVE

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Q2 Draw two lines AB and CD intersecting at O


B
C
O

A
D

Explore the following :


F
The sum of m
DOB and m
BOC
F
The sum of m
BOC and m
COA
F
The sum of m
COA and m
AOD
F
The sum of m
AOD and m
DOB
F
The relation between m
BOC and m
AOD
F
The relation between m
AOC and m
BOD

Q3 Can two vertically opposite angles be supplement to each other? Draw a diagram to
illustrate your answer. Find the condition when the sum of vertically opposite
angles is 180.
Q4 In the given figure
AOB = 90, find the value of
AOE,
EOD &
DOB.

ELECTIVE

29

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Q5 Verify the following by taking suitable examples.


F
Vertically opposite angles are congruent.
F
Adjacent angles are supplementary.
F
Adjacent angles form straight angles.

Q 6 (a) Differentiate between a pair of adjacent angles and a linear pair of angles.
(b) When a pair of adjacent angles forms a linear pair?
(c) Draw 4 linear pairs. Write the measures of adjacent angles in each case.
Q7 From the meaning of words linear and pair, define linear pair in your own words.
Justify with example.
Q8 In the given figure, AB and CD intersect at O. Find the value of x and the m
COB.

Q9 All pairs of supplementary angles are also linear pairs. Explain.


Q10 Find the measures of each of the two supplementary angles if the larger angle is 44
more than the smaller.

30

ELECTIVE

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Task 3 Brainstorming
(A) Observe the given figure and comment on the following statements.

1.

AOB a straight line.

2.

COD is a straight line.

3.

AOD and BOC form a pair of vertically opposite angles.

4.

The measure of BOD = 81.

Can you find a pair of adjacent angles in the figure given above? If yes, name the pairs.
Can you find a pair of vertically opposite angles in the figure given above? Why? or why
not?
(B) Comment on the following statements.
F
Any two complementary angles are adjacent
F
Any two right angles are supplementary
F
If two

lines are perpendicular to each other, then all the pairs of vertically
opposite angles formed are supplementary

F
Any two supplementary angles are adjacent
F
If two angles are congruent, they are supplementary
F
Any two angles having a common vertex and a common arm are adjacent

ELECTIVE

31

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Content Worksheet (C3)


Based on learning objective :
To develop the understanding of types of angles generated when a transversal intersect two
parallel lines
s)

If a transversal intersect two parallel lines, then any pair of corresponding angles are
equal and its converse.

t)

If a transversal intersects two parallel lines, then


(iii) Each pair of alternate angles is equal
(iv) The interior angles on the same side of the transversal are supplementary and
converse.
Lines parallel to a given line are parallel to each other

Task 1 Worksheet (Parallel lines and transversal)


Q1 In the given figure a//b and c//d.
i.

Name all angles equal to


5.Justify your
answer.

ii.

Name all angles forming a linear pair with

8. Justify your answer.

iii. If
4= 110, then find all other angles
.What properties of parallel lines you have
used here?

a
1 2
5 6

3 4
7 8

9 10
13 14

11 12
15 16

Q2 Solve for x and y. It is given that AB//CD


and CF//EG.
Write the linear relationship between x
and y. Justify your answer

32

ELECTIVE

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Q3 If the arms of one angle are respectively parallel to the arms of another angle, show
that the two angles are either equal or supplementary.
Q4 Find the value of x in the following figures.

ELECTIVE

33

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Q5 AB//CD & PQ is the transversal. PO & QO are the bisectors of


BPQ and
DQP
respectively. Find
POQ.

B
O

Q6 In the adjoining diagram AB||CD; PQ and RS are transversals. Find angles 1, 2,


.....16

Q7 If two straight lines are each perpendicular to a third straight line then they are
parallel to each other. Prove it.

34

ELECTIVE

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Q8 In the given figure, AB II CD, EF is transversal. Prove that angle


ELB & angle

DMF are supplementary angles.

Q9 In the given figure AB II CD, BC II DE prove that angle B = angle D.

Q10 In the figure, show that AB||EF

ELECTIVE

35

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Task2 Creative Writing


Use the words given in the collage and write a paragraph.

36

ELECTIVE

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Exploratory Task 3 : Tool Used- GeoGebra


Aim : When a transversal intersects two parallel lines then
i)

Each pair of alternate interior angles is equal

ii)

Each pair of corresponding angles is equal

iii) Interior angles on the same side of transversal are supplementary.


Previous Knowledge Assumed
F
Basic knowledge of geometrical terms
F
Working on GeoGebra

Procedure
Each pair of alternate interior angles is equal
1.

Select line through two point tool

and draw a line AB.

2.

Select parallel line tool

3.

Using new point tool


mark points D, E, and F such that pairs of interior opposite
angles DCA & FAC and ECA & BAC are formed.

4.

Using angle measure tool


and record their readings.

and draw a line parallel to AB.


A

measure the pair of interior opposite angles

Observations
S.no.

DCA

FAC

ECA

BAC

1
2
3

ELECTIVE

37

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Result

Teacher's Remark

Note : Similarly record the observations for (ii) and (iii) part.

38

ELECTIVE

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Content Worksheet 4

Exploratory task - Triangles


Tool Used GeoGebra
Activity 1
Aim
To explore the sum of the interior angles of a triangle
Previous Knowledge Assumed
F
Basic knowledge of geometrical terms
F
Working on GeoGebra

Procedure
F
Select the polygon tool
F
Using angle measure tool

and draw a triangle ABC.


a

, measure the three interior angles of the triangle ABC


(by clicking on the vertices in order keeping the angle to be measured in the centre).

F
In the input box write sum =
+
+
, where
,
,
represent the degree measures of

interior angles of the


ABC.
F
Select move tool

and move any of the vertices A, B or C and observe the readings


of interior angles as well as their sum.

F
Note down the observations.
F
Write the result.

Observations
S. No.

ELECTIVE

Sum

39

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Result

Teacher's Remark

Activity 2
Aim
To explore the exterior angle property of a triangle
(If a side of a triangle is produced, the exterior angle so formed is equal to the sum of the
two interior opposite angles)
Previous Knowledge Assumed
F
Basic knowledge of geometrical terms
F
Working on GeoGebra

Procedure

40

1.

Select the polygon tool

and make a triangle ABC.

2.

Using line through two point tool


BC.

3.

Similarly get extended lines for CA and AB.

, click on B and then C, to get extended line to

ELECTIVE

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

4.

Using angle measure tool


of triangle ABC.

get the measure of interior angles and exterior angles

5.

Fill the observation table.

6.

Repeat the activity for three sets, by moving blue points A, B or C.

7.

Write the final result.

Observation table
S. NO.

ACD

CAB +

ABC

BAE

CBA +

ACB

FBC

BAC +

ACB

Result

Teacher's Remark

ELECTIVE

41

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Content Worksheet 5

Based on learning objectives: To investigate, prove and apply


u)

If three sides of one triangle are equal to three sides of the other triangle, then the
two triangles are congruent.(SSS congruence criteria)

v)

If two sides and the included angle of one triangle are equal to two sides and the
included angle of the other triangle, then the two triangles are congruent.(SAS
congruence axiom)

w)

If two angles and one side of one triangle are equal to two angles and the
corresponding side of the other triangle, then the two triangles are congruent.(ASA
congruence criteria)

x)

If in two right triangles, hypotenuse and one side of a triangle are equal to the
hypotenuse and one side of the other triangle, then the two triangles are
congruent.(RHS congruence criteria)

Task 1: Worksheet
Q1 From the figure given below, extract the proof "the sum of three interior angles of a
triangle is 1800. It is given that l//m.
(Hint: Use properties of parallel lines, angles on a straight line)
A

42

ELECTIVE

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Q2 The angles of triangle are (x + 10), (2x - 30) and x. Find the value of x.
Q3 Find the value of parameter b in the given figures. Write the property used.

ELECTIVE

43

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Q4 Find the value of x in the following figures. Write the property used.

44

ELECTIVE

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Q5 Find the value of x in the given figure. Justify your answer.


A

40

60

x
C

Q6

Q5 If
1 = 53 ,
2 = 65 , and
3 = 43 , find the measures of
x and
y. Justify
your answers.
1

3
2
y

Q7 In the given figure,


CAE = 20,
EAB=60,
DBA=50,
EBD=30
Find x.

E
D

Write the steps involved.


ELECTIVE

45

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Q8 In the given figure


CAE = 10,
EAB=70,
DBA=60,
EBD=20
Find the value of x.

E
D

Task 2 Hands on Activity


Watch the Angle sum property of a triangle.
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vw-rOqDBAvs)
Perform hands on activity.
(Attached Video Clip 16)

46

ELECTIVE

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Content Worksheet 6
Task 1 : Exploring congruent triangles
Watch Videos
Video Clip 17
Straw Activity -Congruency in triangles
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TPL12Tk7L6U
Video Clip 20
Explore : Why SSA is not a congruence criteria?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wvYaFaMAwcc&feature=related (Students can
do it through Role Play)
Video Clip 19
Watch this video- To check whether the given pairs of triangles are congruent or not.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NAhcmPS5k9g&feature=fvw
Congruence of triangles Resource - http://www.nios.ac.in/Secmathcour/eng/ch14.pdf
Task 2 : Worksheet
Q1 When do you say that two geometrical figures are congruent? Justify your answer
by taking two geometrical shapes.
Q2 Every triangle is congruent to itself. Do you agree? Give reason.
Q3 If
ABC

DEF, then what do you say about the reverse of this statement?
Q4 If
ABC

DEF and
DEF

GHI then what do you say about the congruence


relation between triangles ABC and GHI?
Q5 Write the SAS criteria for congruence of triangles. Using this criteria show that the
angles opposite to equal sides of a triangle are equal.
Q6 Write the ASA criteria for congruence of triangles. Write the justification for AAS
criteria for congruence of triangles.
Q7 Write the SSS criteria of congruence of triangle.
Q8 Take a pair of equiangular triangles. Are these congruent? Justify your answer.

ELECTIVE

47

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Q9 Justify the statement "Each angle in an equilateral triangle measures 60 degrees".


Q10 Justify the statement "Medians of an equilateral triangle are equal".
Q11 D and E are the points on the base BC of
ABC such that BD=CE, AD=AE and

ADE=
AED. Prove that
ABE

ACD.
Q12 Is
ABC

DBC ? If so, name the postulate or theorem used.

Content Worksheet 7
Based on learning Objectives :
F
In a triangle, angle opposite to the longer side is larger.
F
In a triangle, side opposite to the larger angle is longer.
F
Sum of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the third side.
Task 1 : Brainstorming
How many different triangles, with integral sides, can you make from a given perimeter?
Take straws of different lengths and try to figure out.
1cm
2cm
3cm
4cm
5cm

48

ELECTIVE

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Perimeter of triangle

How many triangles of .


integral sides are possible?

Write the dimensions of sides


of triangle

2
3
4
5
6
7
Task 2 : Investigate
Draw a triangle ABC. Measure A, B and C using a protractor. Measure the sides AB, BC
and CA using a ruler. Note down all your observations.
Compare the following :
a)

Length of side opposite to the largest angle with other sides.

b)

Measure of angle opposite to longest side with other angles.

What specific do you notice? Is it true for all types of triangles?


Task 3 : Apply the knowledge gained in Task 2 to solve the following questions.
Q1 In
PQR,
P = 70 and
R = 30. Which side of this triangle is the longest?
Give reason for your answer.
Q2 AD is a median of the triangle ABC. Is it true that AB + BC + CA > 2 AD? Justify your
answer.
Q3 M is a point on side BC of a triangle ABC such that AM is the bisector of
BAC. Is it
true to say that perimeter of the triangle is greater than 2 AM? Justify your answer.
Q4 Is it possible to construct a triangle with lengths of its sides as 9 cm, 7 cm and 17 cm?
Give reason for your answer.
Q5 Is it possible to construct a triangle with lengths of its sides as 8 cm, 7 cm and 4 cm?
Give reason for your answer.
Q6 S is any point in the interior of
PQR. Show that SQ + SR < PQ + PR.

ELECTIVE

49

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Q7

Prove that sum of any two sides of a triangle is greater than twice the median with
respect to the third side.

Q8 Show that in a quadrilateral AB + BC + CD + DA < 2 (BD + AC)


Q9 Show that in a quadrilateral ABCD, AB + BC + CD + DA > AC + BD
Q10 In a triangle ABC, D is the mid-point of side AC such that BD = AC. Show that

ABC is a right angle.


Q11 Prove that if two sides of a triangle are unequal, then the longer side has the greater
angle opposite to it.
Q12 In a triangle, prove that the greater angle has the longer side opposite to it.
Q13 Prove that, of all the line segments that can be drawn to a given line, from a point not
lying on it, the perpendicular line segment is the shortest.
Q14 In a right angled triangle, prove that the hypotenuse is the longest side.
Q15 Show that the sum of three altitudes of a triangle is less than the sum of three sides of
a triangle.

50

ELECTIVE

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Post Content
Q1 Find x and measures of all angles. Justify your answer.

Q2 The measure of an angle is one-fourth the measure of its complement. Find the
measure of the angle.
Q3 Find x and measures of all angles

ELECTIVE

51

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Q4

Suppose
X and
Y are supplementary angles. If m
m
Y = 11x + 12, find the value of x, m
X, and m
Y.

X = x2 - 9x and

Q5 In order for ski jumpers to achieve the maximum distance on a jump, they need to
make the angle between their body and the form of their skis to get the proper
extension over the tips of their skis. If a ski jumper's body is aligned so that the angle
between the body and the front of the skis is 45, what will be the angle that the tail of
the skis forms with the body?

Q6 Side BC of
ABC is produced to a point D. The bisector of
A meets BC at L. Prove
that
ABC +
ACD = 2
ALC.

Q7

Given: k //l
Prove that
6+
7 = 180.
52

ELECTIVE

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Q8 State which line segments (if any) are parallel? State the postulate or theorem that
justifies your answer.

Q9 Use the given information to name the line segments that must be parallel.

i.

1=
8

ii.

2=
7

iii.
5=
3
iv.
5=
4
v.

5+
6=
3+
4

(In case you do not find line segments parallel, justify why?)

ELECTIVE

53

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Q10 In
PQR,
Q >
R and M is a point on QR such that PM is the bisector of
QPR. If
the perpendicular from P meets QR at N, then prove that

MPN = (
Q-
R)
Q11 If two parallel lines are intersected by a transversal, then prove that the bisectors of
any two alternate interior angles are parallel.
Q12 If the supplement of an angle is three times its complement, find the angle.
Q13 The side QR if
PQR has been produced to S. If
P:
Q:
R = 3: 2: 1 and RT
PR,
find
TRS.
Q14 Prove that the sum of interior angles of a hexagon is 720.
Q15 Prove that the bisectors of two adjacent supplementary angles include a right angle.
Q16 If a line is perpendicular to one of two given parallel lines, show that it is also
perpendicular to the other line.
Q17 In the given figure, AB & CD are parallel lines. GM & HL are bisectors of the
corresponding angles BGE & DHE respectively. Show that GM II HL.

54

ELECTIVE

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Q18 The drawings below show angles formed by a soccer player and the goalposts. The
greater the angle, the better chance the player has of scoring a goal. For example, the
player has a better chance of scoring from Position A than from Position B.

Position A

Seven soccer players are practicing their kicks. They are lined up in a straight line in
front of the goalposts. Which player has the best (the greatest) kicking angle?

Now the players are lined up as shown. Which player has the best kicking angle?

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

ELECTIVE

55

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Q19 In the figure below lines A'A" and C'C" are parallel. AB is the bisector of
CAA"
and BC is the bisector of
ACC". Show that
ABC = 90 .

Q20 In the figure below lines BC and DD' are parallel. The measure of
x is equal to 127
and the measure of
y is equal to 115 . Find all interior angles of triangle ADD'.
A

Q21 Which Pairs of lines are parallel? Justify your answers.


67

111

67
113

69
67

56

ELECTIVE

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Q22 In the figure below, find x. Justify your answer.

I
55
m
y
x
n

Q23 Which of the following depicts line l parallel to line m?


1
A

1
120
2

120
l

2
3

3
m

4 80 m

4 70
110
1
2

l
3
4 70

Q24 In the figure below, lines l and m are parallel, and AB = 5. What is the perpendicular
distance between lines l and m?
120
l
A
5
m
B

ELECTIVE

57

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Rubric of assessment (Elective)

Parameter

4 3 2 1

U n d e r s t a n d Can define all terms correctly, can


basic terms
recognize the appropriate part based
on given information, can name
rightly the marked portion on given
figure.

Can not define all terms


correctly, cannot
recognize the
appropriate part based
on given information,
cannot name rightly the
marked portion on
given figure.

Use and prove


all properties
of all types of
angles
generated
when a
transversal
intersect two
parallel lines.

Cannot Identify
accurately the type of
angles generated

58

Identify accurately the type of angles


generated
(alternate/corresponding/vertically
opposite angles) when a transversal
cuts two or more parallel lines and
use their properties in finding
unknown angles.
can write the stepwise proof of all
related theorems supported by
correct reasons for each step.

(alternate/corresponding/vertically
opposite angles) when a
transversal cuts two or
more parallel lines and
use their properties in
finding unknown
angles. Cannot write the
stepwise proof of all
related theorems
supported by correct
reasons for each step.

ELECTIVE

Lines, Angles And Triangles (Elective)

Prove and
apply the
angle sum
property,
exterior angle
property of
triangle.

Able to write deductive proof for the


angle sum theorem and exterior
angle theorem and can use it to trace
the unknown angles in given
problem.

Not able to write


deductive proof for the
angle sum theorem and
exterior angle theorem
and cannot use it to
trace the unknown
angles in given problem.

Recognize the
congruence in
figures
especially in
triangles
without
measuring the
sides using
the
appropriate
criteria of
congruence.

Can identify the exact criteria of


congruence(SSS,SAS,ASA,RHS)for
the given figure, recognize the
corresponding parts(CPCT),Able to
write the logical proof for the given
problem.

Cannot identify the


exact criteria of
congruence(SSS,SAS,AS
A,RHS)for the given
figure, cannot recognize
the corresponding
parts(CPCT),not able to
write the logical proof
for the given problem.

Prove all
theorem s for
inequality in
triangles,
property of
equilateral
triangle and
isosceles
triangles

Can write the systematic, logical


proof of mentioned theorems and the
proof of problems based on them by
identifying the given information
accurately.

Cannot write the


systematic, logical proof
of mentioned theorems
and cannot prove the
problems based on
them.

ELECTIVE

59