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International Journal of CivilJOURNAL

Engineering andOF
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(IJCIET),
ISSN 0976 6308 AND
(Print),
INTERNATIONAL
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ENGINEERING
ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July- December (2012), IAEME
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ISSN 0976 6308 (Print)


ISSN 0976 6316(Online)
Volume 3, Issue 2, July- December (2012), pp. 373-379
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DURABILITY OF STANDARD CONCRETE INCORPORATING


SUPPLEMENTARY CEMENTING MATERIALS USING RAPID
CHLORIDE PERMEABILITY TEST
M. Vijaya Sekhar Reddy1*, Dr.I.V. Ramana Reddy2, N.Krishna Murthy3
1

*HOD and Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering , Srikalahasteeswara


Institute of Technology, Srikalahasti, and Research Scholar at Sri Venkateswara University
College of Engineering, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India, Email Id: skitce.hod@gmail.com
2
Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Sri Venkateswara University College of
Engineering, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India, Email Id: svshaar4@yahoo.co.in
3
Assistant Engineer, YVU, Kadapa and Research Scholar at Sri Venkateswara University
College of Engineering, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India, Email Id: krishpurna@yahoo.in
ABSTRACT
Concrete has today very demanding performance requirements. The concrete
durability crisis which started to attract public attention forced the engineers to think about
the performance of concrete proper mix design and careful construction using the best
available materials and technologies are necessary to achieve quality concrete structures. The
February 2007 report issued by the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has started
in no uncertain terms that global warming is no longer an issue that has to be debated.
According to the report, global warming is here, and drastic actions are needed for the long
term sustainability of our environment. It is in this context that this paper discusses the role of
supplementing cementing materials as partial replacement for cement in concrete in reducing
green house gas emissions. In the last decade the use of Supplementary Cementing Materials
(SCM) has become an integral part of high strength and high performance concrete mix
design. The addition of SCM to concrete reduces the heat of hydration and extends the
service life in structures by improving both long term durability and strength. One of the
important changes is the introduction of micro technology for concrete with ultrafine and
various other micro sized and fine cementitious materials. It is now possible to achieve
excellent particle packing and thereby comply with the demands for performance in concrete
both in fresh and in the hardened state. Some of the commonly used SCMs are Flyash, Silica
fume, Blast furnace slag & Metakaoline. This paper presents the results of the durability
characteristic properties of M40 grade of concrete with Super Plasticizer. The durability was
evaluated using Rapid Chloride Permeability Test.
KEYWORDS: Standard Concrete, Supplementary Cementing
Superplasticizer, Durability, Rapid Chloride Permeability Test.
373

Materials

(SCMs),

International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July- December (2012), IAEME

INTRODUCTION
Durability of concrete plays an important role in the service life of RCC structures. It
can be enhanced by improving impermeability, resistance to chloride ion diffusion and
abrasion resistance. One of the ways to achieving this is by adding super plasticizers and
supplementary cementing materials.
Many researchers have demonstrated the beneficial effects of using Ground
Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) and flyash as Cement Replacement Materials and
obtained a reduction in the rate of penetration of chloride ions concrete reducing the potential
of chloride induced corrosion [1].
Smith Kevin et al., have established a testing regime to optimize the strengths and
durability characteristics of a wide range of high-performance concrete mixes. One of the
prime methods of optimizing the mixtures was to implement supplemental cementitious
materials, at their most advantageous levels. Fly ash, Slag cement, and Micro silica all proved
to be highly effective in creating more durable concrete design mixtures. These materials
have also shown success in substantially lowering chloride ingress, thus extending the
initiation phase of corrosion [2].
Swamy, (1996), defines that a high performance concrete element is that which is
designed to give optimized performance characteristics for a given set of load, usage and
exposure conditions, consistent with requirement of cost, service life and durability [3].
One of the main reasons for deterioration of concrete in the past is that too much
emphasis is placed on concrete compressive strength rather than on the performance criteria.
The deterioration of reinforced concrete structures usually involves the transport of
aggressive substances from the surrounding environment followed by physical and chemical
actions in its internal structure. The transport of aggressive gases and/or liquids into concrete
depends on its permeation characteristics. As the permeation of concrete decreases its
durability performance, in terms of physio-chemical degradation, increases. Therefore,
permeation of concrete is one of the most critical parameters in the determination of concrete
durability in aggressive environments [4].
High performance concrete (HPC) is that which is designed to give optimized
performance characteristics for the given set of materials, usage and exposure conditions,
consistent with requirement of cost, service life and durability. The Ordinary Portland
Cement is one of the main ingredients used for the production of concrete and has no
alternative in the construction industry. Unfortunately, production OPC involves emission of
large amounts of Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas into the atmosphere, a major contributor for
Green House Effect and Global Warming. Hence it is inevitable either to search for another
material or partly replace it by SCM which should lead to global sustainable development and
lowest possible environmental impact. Another advantage of using SCMs is increase in
durability of concrete which consequently results increase in resource use efficiency of
ingredients of concrete which are depleting at very fast rate. Long term performance of
structure has become vital to the economies of all nations [5].
Durability of concrete is the ability of concrete to remain fully functional over an
extended period under prevailing service conditions for the purpose for which it has been
374

International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July- December (2012), IAEME

designed. The durability of concrete is classily related to its permeability. The permeability
dictates the rate at which aggressive agents can penetrate to attack the concrete and the steel
reinforcement. Corrosion related damage to the concrete structure is a major problem
associated with high cost of repairs; sometimes replacement of structure. HPC is the key to
achieve impermeable, durable and improved protection of embedded steel [6].
MATERIALS USED IN THE PRESENT STUDY
Cement
Ordinary Portland cement Zuari-53 grade conforming to IS: 12269-1987 [6] were
used in concrete. The physical properties of the cement are listed in Table 1.
Table 1. Physical Properties of Zuari-53 Grade Cement
Sl. No.

Properties

Specific
gravity

Normal
consistency

Initial
setting
time

Final
setting
time

Compressive strength
(Mpa)

Values

3.15

32%

60 min

3 days

7 days

28days

29.4

44.8

56.5

320 min

Aggregates
A crushed granite rock with a maximum size of 20mm and 12mm with specific
gravity of 2.60 was used as a coarse aggregate. Natural sand from Swarnamukhi River in
Srikalahasthi with specific gravity of 2.60 was used as fine aggregate conforming to zone- II
of IS 383-1970 [7]. The individual aggregates were blended to get the desired combined
grading.
Water
Potable water was used for mixing and curing of concrete cubes.
SUPPLEMENTARY CEMENTING MATERIALS
Flyash
Fly ash was obtained directly from the M/s Ennore Thermal Power Station,
Tamilnadu, India. The physicochemical analysis of sample was presented in Table 2.

Sample

Table 2 . Physicochemical properties of Flyash sample.


Specific Specific
Moisture Wet
Turbidity
Gravity
Surface area Content
density
(NTU)
(m2/g)
(%)
(gram/cc)
2.20

Flyash

1.24

0.20

1.75

Chemical Composition, Elements (weight %)


SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
K2O TiO2
56.77 31.83
2.82
0.78
1.96 2.77

375

459
Na2O3
0.68

pH

7.3
MgO
2.39

International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July- December (2012), IAEME

Silica Fume
The silica fume used in the experimentation was obtained from Elkem Laboratory,
Navi Mumbai. The chemical composition of Silica Fume is shown in Table 3.
Table 3. Chemical composition of Silica Fume.
Iron
Calcium
Alkalies as
Silica Alumina
Chemical
Oxide
Oxide
(Na2O+K2O)
Composition (SiO2) (Al2O3)
(Fe2O3)
(CaO)
Percentage

89.00 0.50

2.50

1.20

Magnesiu
m
Oxide (MgO)

0.50

0.60

Metakaoline
The Metakaoline was obtained from M/s. 20 Microns Limited, Baroda, India. The
chemical composition of Metakaoline is shown in Table 4.
Table 4. Chemical composition of Metakaoline
Chemical
Composition

SiO2

Al2O3

Fe2O3

TiO2

CaO

MgO

SO3

Na2O

K2O

LOI

Mass
Percentage
(%)

52
to
54

42 to
44

< 1 to
1.4

<3

0.1

< 0.1

<0.1

< 0.05 <0.4

<1

Super Plasticizer
VARAPLAST SP123 is a chloride free, Superplasticising admixture based on
selected synthetic polymers. It is supplied as a brown solution which is instantly dispersible
in water and also it can provide very high level of water reduction and hence major increase
in strength can be obtained coupled with good retention of workability to aid placement.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
In the present work, proportions for high performance concrete mix design of M40
were carried out according to IS: 10262-2009 [8] recommendations. The mix proportions are
presented in Table 6 and Table 7.
Table 6. Mix Proportion for M40 Concrete.
Coarse aggregate
Secondary
Fine
Super(20mm 20% &
Water
Cementing
Cement
aggregate
plasticizer
Materials
12.5mm 80%)
Composition
270
in Kg/
Ratio in %
1

862

1097

140

115

7.7

3.193

4.062

0.518

0.425

0.0285

The standards cylindrical disc specimens of size 100 mm diameter and 50 mm thick after 90
days water curing were used in this test. As per ASTMC 1202-1997 [9]. The test results of
M40 mix of Binary system of concrete were compared with and without SCMs.

376

International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July- December (2012), IAEME

RAPID CHLORIDE PERMEABILITY TEST


The rapid chloride permeability test for different concrete mixtures was carried out as
per ASTM C1202 [9]. Standard cylindrical disc specimens of size 100mm diameter and
50mm thick after 90days water curing were used. This test method covers the determination
of the electrical conductance of concrete to provide a rapid indication of its resistance to
penetration of chloride ions.
The apparatus consists of variable D.C. power supply which feeds constant stabilized
voltage to the cells. The cells are made up of polymethyl methacrylate. The concrete
specimens are kept in between the cells. The cells are connected to main instrument through 3
pin plug and socket for voltage feeding. The charge of current flowing through the specimen
is measured by using an accurate digital current meter. The cells have grooved recess on one
face and closed at other end. The specimen can be fit into the open faces of the cells. One of
the cells is filled with sodium chloride (NaCl) solution 2.4M concentration and the other is
filled with 0.3M Sodium hydroxide (NaOH-0.3M) solution.
The cylindrical disc specimen are coated with quick setting epoxy on their curved
faces and mounted in the open spaces of the two cells. After checking the leak proofness, a
60V potential difference is applied between the electrodes. The electrochemical cell in the
assembly results in migration of the chloride ions from sodium hydroxide solution through the
pores of the concrete specimen. The current passed was noted at every 30 minutes over a
period of 6 hours and the total electric charge passed through the specimen is calculated using
the expression. The Table 8 shows the rating of chloride permeability according to ASTM
C1202-1997[9].
The following formula, based on the trapezoidal rule can be used to calculate the average
current flowing through one cell.
Total Charge Passed in Coulombs (Qc)
Q = 900(I0+2I30+2I60+2I90+2I120++2I300+2I330+I360)
Where,
Q = current flowing through one cell (coulombs)
I0 = Current reading in amperes immediately after voltage is applied, and
It = Current reading in amperes at t minutes after voltage is applied
Table 8. Rating of chloride permeability
Charge passing in coulombs

Chloride permeability rating

Greater than 4000


2001 to 4000
1001 to 2000
100 to 1000
Less than 100

High
Moderate
low
Very low
Negligible

The object of the test was to evaluate the durability performance of M40 mix and compared
with conventional concrete. The Rapid Chloride Permeability test result of M40 is represented
in Table 9 and corresponding graphical picture is shown in Figure 1 respectively.
377

International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July- December (2012), IAEME

Table 9: Rapid Chloride Permeability Test Results of M40 Mix

Sl.
No

GRADE

1
2

M40

3
4

RCPT ( TOTAL
CHARGE PASSED
THROUGH IN
COLUMB'S @90
DAYS )

Percentage
Replacement of SCMs
CONVENTIONAL
CONCRETE
20% FLYASH

1850
1275

10% SILICA FUME


10% METAKAOLIN

1245
1290

RCPT ( TOTAL CHARGE PASSED THROUGH IN


COLUMB'S @90 DAYS )
2000
1800

RCPT ( TOTAL CHARGE PASSED


THROUGH IN COLUMB'S
@90 DAYS

1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
ONLY CEMENT

WITH 20% FLYASH

WITH 10% SILICA


FUME

WITH 10%
METAKAOLIN

Fig 9. Rapid Chloride Permeability test results of M40 mix


CONCLUSIONS
1. In M40 grade of concrete as the water-cement ratios of 0.518 is insufficient to provide the
good workability, hence super plasticizer is necessary for M40 mix.
2. Rapid Chloride Permeability test results reveals that the total charge passed in Coulombs
is low for M40 grade of concrete with replacement of 10% Silica Fume. But the total
charge passed in Coulombs for conventional concrete is slightly higher than the concrete
replaced with SCMs.
3. The addition of SCMs causes pozzolanic reaction and thus resulting in improvement of
pore structure of concrete leading to lower permeability, causing higher resistance to
chloride ion penetration at the higher percentage replacement compared to conventional
concrete.
378

International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July- December (2012), IAEME

REFERENCES
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bond and durability related properties of concretes with mineral admixtures, Indian
Concrete Journal, Vol. 86(2), pp. 9-16,.
[2] Smith Kevin.M, Schokker Andrea. J, and Tikalsky Paul. J,( 2004) Performance of
supplementary cementitious materials in concrete resistivity and corrosion monitoring
evaluations, ACI Materials Journal, Vol.101(5), pp.385-390.
[3] Swamy.R.N (1996) High Performance Durability Through Design. International
Workshop on High Performance Concrete, ACI-SP, Vol.159 (14), pp. 209-230,.
[4] Vaishali Ghorpade and Sudarsana Rao. H, (2011) Chloride Ion Permeability Studies of
Metakaoline based, High Performance Concrete, International Journal of Engineering
Science and Technology (IJEST), Vol.3 (2), pp.1617-1623,.
[5] Khadiraranaikar. R.B, Chandrabansi .G.B. and Md. Asif Maruf,(2012) Durability of
High Performance Concrete Congaing Rice Husk Ash using Rapid Chloride Penetration
Test, In Proceedings of International conference on Sustainability Challenges and
advances in concrete technology (SCACT), Organized by Dept of Civil Engg , PSG
College of Technology, Coimbatore, India,.
[6] IS: 12269-1987, Specification for 53 Grade Ordinary Portland Cement, Bureau of Indian
Standards, New Delhi, India, 1989.
[7] IS: 383-1970: specifications for coarse and fine aggregates for natural sources of
concrete, Bureau of Indian standards, New Delhi.
[8] IS: 10262-2009: Concrete Mix Proportioning-guidelines, Bureau of Indian Standards,
New Delhi.
[9] Standard test method for electrical indication of concretes ability to resist chloride ion
penetration, ASTMC 1202-97, Annual book of ASTM standards, vol.04.02,pp.639-644.

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