Anda di halaman 1dari 589

S. HRG.

111688

Senate Hearings
Before the Committee on Appropriations

Department of Defense
Appropriations
Fiscal Year

111

2011

th CONGRESS, SECOND SESSION

S. 3800

DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE
NONDEPARTMENTAL WITNESSES

Department of Defense Appropriations, 2011 (S. 3800)

S. HRG. 111688

DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE APPROPRIATIONS FOR


FISCAL YEAR 2011

HEARINGS
BEFORE A

SUBCOMMITTEE OF THE

COMMITTEE ON APPROPRIATIONS
UNITED STATES SENATE
ONE HUNDRED ELEVENTH CONGRESS
SECOND SESSION
ON

S. 3800
AN ACT MAKING APPROPRIATIONS FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING SEPTEMBER 30, 2011, AND FOR
OTHER PURPOSES

Department of Defense
Nondepartmental Witnesses

Printed for the use of the Committee on Appropriations

(
Available via the World Wide Web: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE


54962 PDF

WASHINGTON

2010

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office,


http://bookstore.gpo.gov. For more information, contact the GPO Customer Contact Center,
U.S. Government Printing Office. Phone 2025121800, or 8665121800 (toll-free). E-mail, gpo@custhelp.com.

COMMITTEE ON APPROPRIATIONS
DANIEL K. INOUYE, Hawaii, Chairman
ROBERT C. BYRD, West Virginia
THAD COCHRAN, Mississippi
PATRICK J. LEAHY, Vermont
CHRISTOPHER S. BOND, Missouri
TOM HARKIN, Iowa
MITCH MCCONNELL, Kentucky
RICHARD C. SHELBY, Alabama
BARBARA A. MIKULSKI, Maryland
JUDD GREGG, New Hampshire
HERB KOHL, Wisconsin
ROBERT F. BENNETT, Utah
PATTY MURRAY, Washington
KAY BAILEY HUTCHISON, Texas
BYRON L. DORGAN, North Dakota
SAM BROWNBACK, Kansas
DIANNE FEINSTEIN, California
LAMAR ALEXANDER, Tennessee
RICHARD J. DURBIN, Illinois
SUSAN COLLINS, Maine
TIM JOHNSON, South Dakota
GEORGE V. VOINOVICH, Ohio
MARY L. LANDRIEU, Louisiana
LISA MURKOWSKI, Alaska
JACK REED, Rhode Island
FRANK R. LAUTENBERG, New Jersey
BEN NELSON, Nebraska
MARK PRYOR, Arkansas
JON TESTER, Montana
ARLEN SPECTER, Pennsylvania
CHARLES J. HOUY, Staff Director
BRUCE EVANS, Minority Staff Director

SUBCOMMITTEE

ON

DEFENSE

DANIEL K. INOUYE, Hawaii, Chairman


ROBERT C. BYRD, West Virginia
THAD COCHRAN, Mississippi
PATRICK J. LEAHY, Vermont
CHRISTOPHER S. BOND, Missouri
TOM HARKIN, Iowa
MITCH MCCONNELL, Kentucky
RICHARD C. SHELBY, Alabama
BYRON L. DORGAN, North Dakota
JUDD GREGG, New Hampshire
RICHARD J. DURBIN, Illinois
KAY BAILEY HUTCHISON, Texas
DIANNE FEINSTEIN, California
ROBERT F. BENNETT, Utah
BARBARA A. MIKULSKI, Maryland
SAM BROWNBACK, Kansas
HERB KOHL, Wisconsin
PATTY MURRAY, Washington
ARLEN SPECTER, Pennsylvania
Professional Staff
CHARLES J. HOUY
NICOLE DI RESTA
KATE FITZPATRICK
KATY HAGAN
KATE KAUFER
ELLEN MALDONADO
ERIK RAVEN
GARY REESE
BETSY SCHMID
BRIDGET ZARATE
STEWART HOLMES (Minority)
ALYCIA FARRELL (Minority)
BRIAN POTTS (Minority)
BRIAN WILSON (Minority)
Administrative Support
RACHEL MEYER

(II)

CONTENTS
WEDNESDAY, MARCH 3, 2010
Page

Department of Defense: Department of the Army: Office of the Secretary ........

WEDNESDAY, MARCH 10, 2010


Department of Defense: Medical Health Programs ..............................................

65

WEDNESDAY, MARCH 17, 2010


Department of Defense: Department of the Navy: Office of the Secretary .........

173

WEDNESDAY, MARCH 24, 2010


Department of Defense:
National Guard .................................................................................................
Reserves ............................................................................................................

235
291

WEDNESDAY, APRIL 21, 2010


Department of Defense: Missile Defense Agency ..................................................

337

WEDNESDAY, MAY 12, 2010


Department of Defense: Department of the Air Force: Office of the Secretary ..

365

WEDNESDAY, JUNE 16, 2010


Department of Defense: Office of the Secretary ....................................................

409

WEDNESDAY, JUNE 23, 2010


Nondepartmental Witnesses ...................................................................................

(III)

473

DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE APPROPRIATIONS


FOR FISCAL YEAR 2011
WEDNESDAY, MARCH 3, 2010

U.S. SENATE,
APPROPRIATIONS,
Washington, DC.
The subcommittee met at 9:31 a.m., in room SD192, Dirksen
Senate Office Building, Hon. Daniel K. Inouye (chairman) presiding.
Present: Senators Inouye, Dorgan, Shelby, and Brownback.
SUBCOMMITTEE

OF THE

COMMITTEE

ON

DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE
DEPARTMENT
OFFICE

OF THE

OF THE

ARMY

SECRETARY

STATEMENTS OF:
HON. JOHN M. McHUGH, SECRETARY
GENERAL GEORGE W. CASEY, CHIEF OF STAFF
OPENING STATEMENT OF CHAIRMAN DANIEL K. INOUYE

Chairman INOUYE. The hearing will come to order.


This morning, we welcome the Honorable John McHugh, Secretary of the Army, along with General George Casey, the Chief of
Staff of the United States Army.
Gentlemen, we thank you for being here with us today as we review the Armys budget request for fiscal year 2011.
Before proceeding, Id like to announce that, because of illness,
the vice chairman will not be with us this morning. In his place,
we have the gentleman from Alabama.
The Department of the Armys fiscal year 2011 budget request is
$143.4 billion, an increase of $2.5 billion over last years enacted
budget, excluding funding appropriated to the Army in the fiscal
year 2010 supplemental.
The Army also has requested $20 billion for overseas contingency
operations for the remainder of this fiscal year, primarily to fund
surge operations in Afghanistan. In April of last year, President
Obama and Secretary Gates announced substantial initiatives
within the Department of Defense to strengthen our All-Volunteer
Force, change how and what the Department buys, and rebalance
military capabilities.
After an overhaul of the Armys modernization effort last year,
fiscal year 2011 budget request includes $3.2 billion for the Armys
(1)

2
revamped Brigade Combat Team Modernization Program and provides $6 billion for Army aviation. The fiscal year 2011 budget request builds upon the reform agenda set by Secretary Gates last
year and supports the final year of a 5-year plan to restore balance
to an Army that has experienced the cumulative effects of years
upon years of conflict.
The subcommittee is looking forward to hearing not only about
these efforts, but also about the Departments vision to rebalance
and reshape, as directed in the Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR)
completed this past January. One of the central themes of the 2010
Quadrennial Defense Review is balance. The Department needs to
find balance between providing capabilities to prevail in todays
wars, while building the capabilities needed to counter future
threats. The Army is shouldering a very heavy burden, since it has
been conducting combat operations in two theaters while transforming and modernizing at the same time. However, budget pressures to support current operations have made it very difficult to
allow for the investment in modernization.
Not only is balance included and needed between meeting the demands of today and the threats of the future, it is also needed
within each of the military services, and the Army has continued
to answer the Nations call, but it has been at the expense of maintaining a well-balanced force.
We are aware of the demands created by more than 8 years of
continuous war. Repeated and lengthy deployments have stressed
our soldiers, their families, and our support systems and equipment. Currently the Department is managing a shift in focus in
our overseas contingency operations. While the withdrawal of U.S.
forces from Iraq has begun, an additional 30,000 troops have been
committed to supporting operations in Afghanistan.
Since the Army is the service most heavily engaged in these operations, the Secretary of Defense has permitted the Army to retain 22,000 soldiers, temporarily, above the authorized end
strength of 547,000. This decision was made to acknowledge the
fact that future readiness is dependent upon restoring balance and
lessening the strain upon the force.
Finally, there is one other type of balance that this subcommittee
will be looking for during the budget review, the balance between
risk and resources. The Quadrennial Defense Review has set the
agenda and defined requirements, and presumably the Department
has budgeted for those priorities. However, there will never be
enough resources to eliminate all risk. It is our hope that todays
hearing will help illuminate how the Armys fiscal year 2011 budget request addresses the recommendations of the Quadrennial Defense Review while maintaining balance among a number of valued, yet equally important, priorities.
Gentlemen, we sincerely appreciate your service to our Nation
and your dedication and sacrifices made daily by the men and
women in our Army. We could not be more grateful for what those
who wear our Nations uniform do for our country each and every
day.
Gentlemen, your full statements will be made a part of the
record.
And I would now wish to turn to the Senator from Alabama.

3
STATEMENT OF SENATOR RICHARD C. SHELBY

Senator SHELBY. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. Ill be brief. I just


want to join you in welcoming Secretary McHugh and General
Casey to this subcommittee. Theyre no strangers here.
Thank you.
Chairman INOUYE. I thank you very much.
Now, with that, Secretary, we are depending on you, sir.
SUMMARY STATEMENT OF HON. JOHN MC HUGH

Mr. MCHUGH. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman.


As you noted, well enter, with your permission, our full statements into the record. And I know time is of some concern here
this morning, so I just would like to summarize a few of those
points.
First of all, I want to, at the risk of stating the obvious, say what
an honor it is to be here today. I had the distinct honor of serving
for 17 years on the House Armed Services Committee, and in that
time I gained a great appreciation for the great work this subcommittee does, for the enormous support that it has, historically,
and certainly under the leadership of you, the vice chairman, and
the current members, have continued in support of not just our
Army, but all of our services. I certainly want to take this opportunity to express my personal appreciation and thanks for all that
you do, and all that you will continue to do.
If I may, Mr. Chairman, just a few comments on my now 5
months as the 21st Secretary of the Army. And while its been a
crash course of learning, I think some things are obvious. And I
would add, Mr. Chairman, in listening to your opening comments,
I think youve encapsulated very well the key questions, the key
challenges that lie before us.
As youve said, Mr. Chairman, and as I have seen from the first
day I walked into that hallowed building on the other side of the
Potomac, this is an Army that clearly is fatigued, is stressed by
nearly 9 years of combat. But, it is still an Army that is amazingly
resilient, that is amazingly effective. Today, as you know, this is
an Army that has more expertise, more education, it has more capability and lethality than any Army in our Nations history. That
is, in no small measure, because of the great support and leadership that has come out of this great subcommittee.
Those are significant gains, but, in spite of those gains, this is,
quite simply, an Army that is, and remains, out of balance. The
Chief of StaffGeneral Caseyand my predecessor, Pete Geren,
the Army leadership, along in partnership with the Congress have
made great progress in bringing that balance back. I think, one of
the key assets and key attributes of the Presidents proposed budget is that it allows us to continue the regaining of balance, and, in
fact, should allow us to finish it. But, this is a very delicate balance, and we need to stay focused on that objective.
You noted, Mr. Chairman, the variety of appropriations that take
us toward that goal, the $1.7 billion in requests to continue to fund
our vital family programs in support of those amazing families, and
other initiatives. I wont continue to repeat those, but a couple of
other points, I think, do bear noting.

4
We remain extraordinarily committed to our wounded warriors.
Tomorrow, I will have the opportunity to pay my regular visit to
Walter Reed, and I know what I will see. I will see a cadre of individuals who have stepped forward, who have given more in their
time on the battlefield than most Americans could possibly imagine, and who will ask one simple question, What can I do to serve
more? We recognize the obligation we have to provide world-class
transition, world-class healthcare services to those heroes. This
budget provides us with that opportunity and allows us to go forward in that solemn obligation.
It also allows us to do something very important, in terms of recapitalizing, rebalancing, and modernizing our equipment systems
that require those kinds of adjustments. And, as you noted, Mr.
Chairman, thats a significant challenge under the best of circumstances, but clearly, at time of war, becomes even more problematic. But, with your support, we will continue to do that. The
funding is there$3.1$31.7 billion in research and development,
brigade combat team modernization funds, et cetera, et cetera.
The other thingand its something that this Congress recognized last yearthat we need help in is acquisition reform. I think
its necessary to give our acquisition people, who have also been at
war for nearly 9 years, their due. Over the last 10 years, theyve
had a 15-percent cut in personnel and a 500-percent increase in
their dollars to bring under contract. And in spite of that, in that
time, 1,000 protests brought against the decisions that they made,
and only 8 of those 1,000 protests upheld. Still, they would be the
first to recognize they need help. We need to continue to redevelop
the acquisition rules and regulations to allow us to be more effective in support of the warfighter, and, equally important, more efficient in support of our taxpayer dollars. We look forward in engaging with this Congress, with this great subcommittee, in bringing
that about.
PREPARED STATEMENT

In the end, I would tell you, we have an Army that is strong in


spirit, it is strong in ability and in results. But, as I said in my
opening comments, and as you noted, Mr. Chairman, it is an Army
that is greatly stressed. We can do better by them. We feel thats
our obligation and what this budget brings to the table and allows
us the opportunity to do. And, in partnership with you, we look forward to pursuing that very worthy goal.
With that, Mr. Chairman, Id yield back.
Chairman INOUYE. I thank you very much, Mr. Secretary.
[The statement follows:]
PREPARED STATEMENT

OF

JOHN M. MCHUGH

AND

GENERAL GEORGE W. CASEY, JR.

INTRODUCTION

Americas Army continues to answer the Nations call, as it has since it was established nearly 235 years ago. Today our Army is fighting two wars, assisting other
nations as they build their own security capacity, supporting civil authorities at
home, helping the people of Haiti rebuild after a devastating earthquake, and preparing to deter and defeat new threats. The Armys Soldiers, Civilians, and Families
faithfully shoulder the load that our Nation asks of them. With the support of the
Congress, we are on track with our 4-year plan to put the Army back in balance.

5
Though their sacrifices can never be fully repaid, the Nation continues to recognize and honor our Soldiers and their Families by supporting them before, during,
and following deployments. Our Soldiers rely upon the best training and equipment
that our Nation can provide to accomplish their mission. Yet even with this continued support, the demands of 8 years of war weigh heavily on our Army. The strain
of multiple deployments is evident on Soldiers and their Families. Equipment is
used at a pace that seriously challenges our maintenance and replacement capabilities and resources. The stress is present in our institutions as we change 20th century systems and processes to meet the demands of the 21st century.
Our Nation faces the difficult challenge of balancing when, where, and how to engage in a dynamic and uncertain world while meeting important priorities at home.
However, when the security of our citizens or allies is threatened, the Nation can
depend on Americas Armythe Strength of the Nation.
STRATEGIC CONTEXT

The United States faces a complex strategic landscape with an array of diverse
security challenges. We are fighting wars in Iraq and Afghanistan while preparing
for future challenges to our national security. For the foreseeable future, violent extremist movements such as Al Qaeda and other terrorist organizations comprise the
most immediate threats. Current global economic conditions, changes in demographics, cultural pressures associated with globalization, and competition for scarce
resources exacerbate the uncertainty and volatility of the strategic environment.
Within this setting, the American Soldier stands as our Nations most visible and
enduring symbol of commitment in an era of persistent conflict.
PERSISTENT CONFLICT

For the near future, persistent conflictprotracted confrontation among state,


non-state, and individual actors that are increasingly willing to use violence to
achieve their political and ideological endswill characterize the global security environment. Security crises will arise unpredictably, vary in intensity and scope, and
last for uncertain durations. These challenges will take place in all domains: land,
sea, air, space, and cyberspace. Natural disasters and humanitarian emergencies
will continue to be frequent and unpredictable missions, requiring the commitment
of Soldiers and resources. In this dynamic environment, the Army will conduct operations that span the spectrum of conflict from humanitarian and civil support to
counterinsurgency to general war, often simultaneously.
GLOBAL TRENDS

Several global trends will continue to shape the international security environment and the conflicts confronting our Nation. Globalization may increase prosperity, but it can also spread destabilizing influences. The unequal distribution of
benefits creates societies with divisions between haves and have notsdivisions
that can be exploited by extremist ideologies and lead to conflict. Fault lines reflecting protracted competition and friction can erupt unpredictably as societies struggle
to adjust to the move toward modernity and greater interdependence. Meanwhile,
increasingly available and affordable technology provides our adversaries sophisticated tools to enable a networked approach to recruiting the disenfranchised and exporting terror.
Shifting demographics and rapid population growth that is increasingly urbanized
can continue to break down traditional, localized norms of governance, behavior, and
identity, and further strain already stressed governments. This is especially true
where a lack of economic opportunity increases the potential for instability and extremism. Those who are disaffected may rebel against perceived Western interference, challenges to traditional values, and ineffective governments. Increased resource demand, in particular energy, water, and food, is a consequence of growing
prosperity and populations. The growing global competition for resources will continue to produce friction and increase opportunities for conflict. In this environment,
climate change and natural disasters will compound already difficult conditions in
developing countries by igniting humanitarian crises, causing destabilizing population migrations, and raising the potential for epidemic diseases.
The two trends of greatest concern are the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and failed or failing states. A catastrophic attack utilizing WMD
has the potential to be globally destabilizing. Failed or failing states, lacking the
will or capacity to maintain effective territorial control, contribute to regional instability and provide ideal environments for terrorist groups to plan and export operations. The merging of these two trends constitutes a significant and compelling
threat. Together, these trends make conflict in the decades ahead more likely.

6
CHARACTER OF CONFLICT IN THE 21ST CENTURY

Global trends and recent conflictssuch as those in Lebanon and Georgiaand


our own recent combat experience indicate the evolving character of conflict in the
21st century.
Conflicts will be waged among diverse actorsstate and non-statewith the latter employing capabilities that, during the last century, remained largely the purview of nation-states. Motives, objectives, and often the identities of these actors will
be difficult to discern, and are likely to shift as some act covertly and others use
proxies. The battle to gain influence over, and support from, populations will be central to our success. Therefore, conflict will be unavoidably waged among the people.
The initiation, location, duration, and intensity of conflicts are increasingly unpredictable. In an interdependent world, conflicts are more susceptible to the potential
for spillover, creating regionally, and potentially globally, destabilizing effects. All
of this will occur under the unblinking scrutiny of the 24-hour global media cycle
and the Internet. Details of conflict as well as misinformation will flow equally
across social, communications, and cyber networks. Our adversaries will exploit
these media and communication sources locally and globally.
We are more likely to face hybrid threatsdiverse and dynamic combinations of
conventional, irregular, terrorist, and criminal capabilities employed asymmetrically
to counter our advantages. Hybrid threats require hybrid solutionsadaptive military forces that can function in a variety of situations with a diverse set of national,
allied, and indigenous partners. Given the strategic environment, enduring global
trends, and the character of 21st century conflict, the Army will operate as part of
a Joint, interagency, inter-governmental, and multi-national team to fulfill its global
commitments.
ROLES OF LAND FORCES

More than one million of our men and women have served in the ongoing campaigns in Iraq and Afghanistan. Over 3,900 American Soldiers have given their
lives, and more than 25,000 others have been wounded during this longest period
of sustained conflict ever fought by an all-volunteer force. Today, Americas Army
has over 255,000 Soldiers and more than 18,500 Army Civilians serving in nearly
80 countries around the worldwith the remainder stationed within the United
States supporting domestic missions, resetting from recent deployments, or preparing for an upcoming deployment.
Our Soldiers are performing magnificently around the world every day, and the
roles for land forces in this environment are becoming increasingly clear.
First, the Army must prevail in protracted counter-insurgency (COIN) operations.
Not only must we prevail in our current missions in Iraq, Afghanistan, and the Philippines, we must be prepared to prevail in any future COIN operation.
Second, the Army must engage to help other nations build capacity and to assure
our friends and allies. Through security force assistance, we can increase the capacity of other nations military and police to uphold the rule of law, ensure domestic
order, and deny sanctuary to terroriststhereby helping avoid future conflicts that
might otherwise develop. American Soldiers are currently deployed to Central America and the Balkans, building the capacity of indigenous security forces. Additionally, the Army has established an Army Service Component Command for U.S. Africa Command to assist partner nations and humanitarian organizations in Africa.
A third role that the Army fulfills is to provide support to civil authorities at
home and abroad. In the past year alone, American Soldiers have fought fires in
the west, conducted search and rescue operations in the Rockies and Alaska, and
assisted with tsunami relief in American Samoa, in support of civil authorities. The
Army has also provided a sizeable force to support the relief efforts in Haiti following the catastrophic earthquake that destroyed its capital. Army units from both
the active and reserve components remain prepared to react to a variety of crises
as consequence management and response forces. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is a lead organization in providing DOD support to civil authorities for disaster relief at home and engineering support to USAID overseas. Abroad, the Army
has also supported civil authorities in many ways, such as sending Agribusiness Development Teams from the Army National Guard to Afghanistan.
Finally, the Army must deter and defeat hybrid threats and hostile state actors.
As an Army, we recognize that we must remain prepared to meet and defeat hostile
state actors that threaten our national security. But we recognize that the probability of facing a nation that will challenge Americas military head-on is lower
than it was during the Cold War and other periods in our history. Our readiness
and capability to confront near-peer competitors also deters war by raising the
stakes for nation-state and hybrid actors who would threaten our security interests.

7
To meet these threats, Army units continue to participate in Joint and international training exercises around the world, ensuring that military skills and cooperative partnerships remain strong. The Army continues to position forces in Korea
and at various missile defense sites in order to discourage actors who seek to disrupt regional stability and security.
TWO CRITICAL CHALLENGES

The Army has operated at a demanding pace for the last 8 years, and while it
has met each challenge, the strain has placed the Army out of balance. Demand for
Army forces continues to exceed the sustainable supply. Against that backdrop, the
Army continues to meet the wartime requirements of our Nation while it addresses
the two major challenges facing our forcerestoring balance and setting conditions
for the future. In 2007, we established a 4-year plan to restore balance to an Army
that had experienced the cumulative effects of years of conflict. The fiscal year 2011
budget supports the final year in that plan. As we continue to restore balance to
the force, we are also setting the conditions for the Army of the 21st centuryan
Army that fulfills our strategic role as an integral part of our Joint Force.
RESTORING BALANCE: THE ARMYS FOUR IMPERATIVES

With the help of Congress, we have made significant progress over the past 3
years in our plan to restore balancea plan founded on four imperatives. Yet today
the Army remains out of balance. Weve improved our ability to sustain the Armys
Soldiers, Families, and Civilians; prepare forces for success in the current conflict;
reset returning units to rebuild the readiness consumed in operations and to prepare for future deployments and contingencies; and transform to meet the demands
of the 21st century. As a result of this progress we now are in a better position to
achieve balance than we were 2 years ago. Critical to this was the growth in the
size of the Army.
The security agreement with Iraq that transferred security in urban areas to
Iraqis was a momentous and welcomed accomplishment. The hard work and sacrifice of our Soldiers with the support of Congress helped make this achievement
possible and set the conditions for our responsible drawdown of combat forces in
Iraq this year. Coupled with our growth, the drawdown in Iraq allowed for our increased commitment of forces to Afghanistan to stem the rising violence, and disrupt, dismantle, and defeat al-Qaeda while reversing the momentum of the Taliban
insurgency. However, the campaigns in Iraq and Afghanistan continue to create demands that have our Army operating beyond sustainable capacity. In fact, in 2009
more Soldiers were deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan combined than during the
height of the Iraq surge.
Presently, and for the short term, we lack sufficient strategic flexibility, and we
continue to accumulate risk. We continue to stress our Soldiers, Families, Civilians,
equipment, and institutional systems, so our efforts to restore balance must not
waiver.
Sustain
Sustaining our all-volunteer force is our first imperative. Nowhere is the stress
on our force more profound than in the toll it takes on our people, as is tragically
evident in the rising number of suicides and increasing need for counseling among
our Soldiers and Families. We are aggressively addressing the causes of stress on
individuals resulting from the cumulative effects of multiple deployments, and seeking to build resilience in Soldiers, Families and Civilians. The Army is committed
to ensuring that the quality of life of those who serve the Nation is commensurate
with the quality of their service.
Goals
To sustain the force, the Army continues to pursue four major goals. Our first goal
is to Recruit and Retain quality Soldiers and Civilians dedicated to service to the
Nation. Next, we are committed to furnishing the best Care, Support, and Services
for Soldiers, Families, and Civilians by improving quality of life through meaningful
initiatives such as the Army Family Action Plan, the Army Family Covenant, Army
Community Covenants, and the Comprehensive Soldier Fitness Program. It is our
solemn obligation to provide world-class Warrior Care and Transition to our wounded, ill, and injured Warriors through properly led and resourced Warrior Transition
Units. Finally, by Supporting the Families of our Fallen Comrades we honor their
service and sacrifice.

8
Progress and Accomplishments
The Army met 104 percent of its recruiting goals for 2009, and achieved both numeric goals and quality benchmarks for new recruits.
All components exceeded 105 percent of their reenlistment goals.
We reduced off-duty fatalities by 20 percent, to include a 15 percent reduction in
overall privately-owned-vehicle fatalities and 37 percent reduction in motorcycle fatalities.
In collaboration with the National Institute of Mental Health, the Army began a
seminal study into suicide prevention that will inform the Army Suicide Prevention
Program and societys approach to suicide.
We began instituting Comprehensive Soldier Fitnessan all-inclusive approach to
emotional, social, spiritual, family, and physical fitnessas the foundation to building resiliency within the Army.
We initiated an unprecedented series of construction projects at five major hospitals as part of our commitment to modernize our healthcare system.
The Army established the Warrior Transition Command and reorganized Warrior
Transition Brigades to provide centralized support, rehabilitation, and individualized transition planning to our recovering Warriors.
We expanded Survivor Outreach Services to over 26,000 Family members, providing unified support and advocacy, and enhancing survivor benefits for the Families of our Soldiers who have made the ultimate sacrifice.
We implemented the Post 9/11 GI Bill, significantly increasing educational benefits for active duty Soldiers, Veterans, and Family members.
The Army Reserve established Army Strong Community Centers to support geographically-dispersed Soldiers and Families. Together with Army National Guard
Family Assistance Centers and Soldier and Family Assistance Centers on active
duty installations, these centers provide help to Soldiers Families near their hometowns.
Fiscal Year 2011 Budget Highlights
Provides $1.7 billion to standardize and fund vital Family programs and services
to include welfare and recreation; youth services and child care; Survivor Outreach
Services; and expanded education and employment opportunities for Family members.
Provides a 1.4 percent military basic pay raise and Civilian pay raise, a 3.9 percent basic allowance for housing increase, and a 3.4 percent basic allowance for subsistence increase.
Warrior Transition Units for our wounded Soldiers will continue to receive strong
support in fiscal year 2011 with $18 million in Military Construction funds allocated
to resource construction of barracks spaces.
Supports Residential Communities Initiatives program, which provides quality,
sustainable residential communities for Soldiers and their Families living on-post,
and continues to offset out-of-pocket housing expenses for those residing off-post.
Prepare
Our Soldiers face determined enemiesso preparing the force for our current conflict is complex and time-consuming, but essential for success. Our units must have
the people, training, and equipment they need to prevail. Meanwhile, our institutions and systems must adapt to provide those critical capabilities in a timely manner and in sufficient quantities.
Goals
To prepare the force, we have four key goals. First, we accelerated the pace at
which we needed to Grow the Army to our end strength and to grow our modular
brigades to 73 Brigade Combat Teams (BCTs) and nearly 230 Support Brigades.
Second, the Army is committed to improving individual and collective Training to
better prepare Soldiers and leaders for a complex and challenging operational environment. Next, we continuously work to provide our formations with effective
Equipment in a timely manner that maintains our technological edge and protects
our most critical resourcethe Soldier. Finally, we must transform the Army to a
rotational modelArmy Force Generation (ARFORGEN)the core process for generating trained, ready, and cohesive units on a sustained and rotational basisto
meet current and future strategic demands.
Progress and Accomplishments
We began the phase-out of stop-loss, starting with the Reserve Component in August 2009 and the Army National Guard in September 2009, and followed by the
Active Army in January 2010. Today, no mobilizing or deploying units have stoploss Soldiers in their ranks.

9
The force achieved its Grow the Army end strength goal of 1.1 million in 2009.
The active component continues to grow toward its additional authorized Temporary
End Strength in order to improve unit manning within the already existing Army
structure as we eliminate stop-loss.
Fifteen month tours effectively ended in November 2009, when the last Soldiers
on those extended deployments returned.
We completed fielding nearly 12,000 Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP)
vehicles in Iraq and Afghanistan and delivered the first MRAP All-Terrain Vehicles
(MATVs) to Afghanistanjust 15 months after identifying the need for that capability. As of the beginning of February, we have provided nearly 800 MATVs to
Afghanistan.
This year, we successfully manned, trained, equipped, and deployed 67 brigade
equivalents.
The Army exceeded fleet readiness of 90 percent for ground equipment, to include
MRAPs, and 75 percent for aviation.
We established Army Training Network (ATN)a 21st Century Approach to
Army Training. This revolution in training knowledge access is now providing a onestop portal to share training best practices, solutions, and products across the Army.
The Army increased its employment of biometric technologies enabling the Army
to better identify the enemy among the populace.
Fiscal Year 2011 Budget Highlights
Funds permanent, active component end strength at 547,400; Army Reserve at
205,000; and National Guard at 358,200 in the base budget and supports a 22,000
temporary increase in the active component through the Overseas Contingency Operations (OCO) request.
Procures and upgrades the Armys UH60 Black Hawk, CH47 Chinook, and AH
64 Apache helicopters, which are vital to operations in Afghanistan and Iraq.
Provides over $1 billion for flight crew training in all components to fund flying
hours, maintenance, fuel, airfield operations, and specialized skill training.
Reset
With the pace of continuous combat operations in two wars for the past 8 years,
we are consuming our readiness as fast as we can build it. Reset restores returning
unitstheir Soldiers, Families, and equipmentto a level of readiness necessary for
future missions.
Goals
Our Reset plans include four goals. Our efforts to Revitalize Soldiers and Families
seek to reestablish and strengthen relationships following deployments. The Armys
comprehensive efforts to Repair, Replace, and Recapitalize Equipment affected by
the harsh environments of the war are essential to resetting units. In particular,
achieving responsible drawdown in Iraq while increasing our commitment of forces
and equipment to Afghanistan will require an unprecedented reset effort. The Army
must Retrain Soldiers, Leaders, and Units to build critical skills necessary to operate across the spectrum of conflict in the current security environment. Lastly, we
are identifying and applying the lessons learned from the Reset Pilot Program that
was designed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the Reset process. Army
Reset is a necessary process that must continue not only as long as we have forces
deployed, but an additional two to three years after major deployments end.
Progress and Accomplishments
The Army completed the reset of 29 brigades worth of equipment in fiscal year
2009 and continued the reset of 13 more. In total, we have reset more than 98,000
pieces of equipment as depot production has doubled since September 11, 2001.
We began executing a responsible drawdown in Iraq which will redistribute,
transfer, or dispose of 3.4 million pieces of equipment; redeploy 143,000 military and
Civilian personnel, and 147,000 contractors; close 22 supply support activities; and
consume or dispose of over 21,000 short tons of supplies.
In 2009, more than 160,000 Soldiers and Family members participated in over
2,600 Strong Bonds events designed to strengthen Army Families.
The Army continues to revise its approach to training by emphasizing doing fewer
tasks better, making judicious use of field time, and maximizing the use of mobile
training teams and distributed learning.
We completed our Reset Pilot Program and will begin instituting the full Reset
model across the Army in 2010.
The Army fostered partnerships by executing more than $24 billion in new foreign
military sales.

10
Fiscal Year 2011 Budget Highlights
Provides $10.8 billion to reset Army equipment through the Overseas Contingency
Operations (OCO) request.
Supports training and sustainment of Army forces to include individual skills and
leader training; combined arms training toward full spectrum operations; and adaptable, phased training based on the ARFORGEN process.
Transform
Since 2004, the Army has been transforming our force to provide the combatant
commanders tailored, strategically responsive forces that can dominate across the
spectrum of conflict. Transformation is a continuous process that sets the conditions
for success against both near-term and future enemies.
Goals
Our goals for transformation include continued Modular Reorganization to standardize our formations to create a more deployable, adaptable, and versatile force.
We will accelerate fielding of Advanced Technologies to ensure our Soldiers retain
their technological edge. The Army will Operationalize the Reserve Components by
systematically building and sustaining readiness while increasing predictability for
these Soldiers, Families, employers, and communities.
Completing the requirements of the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) statutes is central to Restationing Forces. Soldier and Leader Development will ensure
that we produce the next generation of agile and adaptive military and Civilian
leaders who are supremely competent in their core proficiencies and sufficiently
broad enough to operate effectively in the Joint, interagency, intergovernmental,
and multi-national environments.
Progress and Accomplishments
The Army is 88 percent complete on the modular conversion of its brigades. The
fiscal year 2011 budget will support the near completion of this process.
The Army consolidated existing aviation force structure to create a 12th active
component combat aviation brigade (CAB) forming an additional deployable CAB
without adding force structure.
The Army activated the 162nd Infantry Brigade at Fort Polk, Louisiana, providing
a dedicated and enduring capability to prepare combat advisors to train and build
capacity in foreign security forces. Trainers from the brigade are now deployed to
Afghanistan to assist with the training and development of the Afghan Security
Forces.
The Army developed a new incremental capability package approach to modernization which will allow technologically mature, Soldier-tested, proven technologies to be prioritized, bundled in time, and fielded to the force more quickly
than ever before.
We provided combatant commanders with dedicated, regionally based network operations support, and integrated cyber security capability in the form of Theater
Network Operations and Security Centers, unique within the Department of Defense.
This past year, the Army closed three active installations and five U.S. Army Reserve Centers and is on course to complete BRAC in fiscal year 2011. To date, we
have awarded 265 major military construction projects, of which 59 are complete.
The Army built a Leader Development Strategy that balances experience, greater
opportunities for professional education, and training in full spectrum operations.
Fiscal Year 2011 Budget Highlights
Invests nearly $3.2 billion in BCT modernization programs that include procurement of the first incremental changes packages for Infantry BCTs and additional
research, development, testing, and evaluation funding for subsequent change packages as well as initial development of the Ground Combat Vehicle (GCV).
Provides funds to begin equipping a 13th Combat Aviation Brigade.
Supports the increase in ISR platforms to include the Extended Range/Multi-Purpose, Raven, Shadow unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and the Extended Medium
Altitude Reconnaissance and Surveillance System.
SETTING CONDITIONS FOR THE FUTURE

21st Century Army


The second critical challenge facing the Army is setting the conditions for the future through a continuous process of transformation. We must ensure that our Nation has the capability and range of military options to meet the evolving challenges
we face in the 21st century. We need an Army that is a versatile mix of tailorable

11
and networked organizations, operating on a rotational cycle, to provide a sustained
flow of trained and ready forces for full spectrum operations and to hedge against
unexpected contingenciesat a tempo that is predictable and sustainable for our
all-volunteer force.
Versatility is the central organizing principle of a balanced Army. It enables our
forces and institutions to effectively execute operations across the spectrum of conflict. Our modular heavy, Stryker, and light brigades provide a versatile mix of
forces that can be combined to provide multi-purpose capabilities, and sufficient capacity to accomplish a broad range of tasks from peacetime engagement to major
combat operations.
Our modular units are designed to be tailorable. Brigades now have capabilities
previously found at division level and higher. These brigades can be tailored for specific missions and combined with support units and key enablers such as ISR, communications, civil affairs, psychological operations, public affairs capabilities, and
expanded logistics support, to accomplish a wide variety of missions and increase
the land options available to combatant commanders.
The network is essential to a 21st century Army. Networked organizations improve the situational awareness and understanding leaders need to act decisively at
all points along the spectrum of conflict, while providing connectivity down to the
individual Soldier. The network allows dispersed Army organizations to plan and
operate together, and provides connectivity to Joint, combined, and interagency assets. To support this objective, the Army will use the Global Network Enterprise
Construct (GNEC) as our strategy to transform LandWarNet to a centralized, more
secure, operationalized, and sustainable network capable of supporting an expeditionary Army.
To provide a sustained flow of trained and ready forces at a tempo sustainable
for our all-volunteer force, we will put the whole Army under a rotational model
ARFORGEN.
The ARFORGEN process includes three force poolsReset, Train-Ready, and
Available. Each of the three force pools contains a versatile force package, available
at varying time intervals based on its readiness level. Each force pool consists of
an operational headquarters (a corps), five division headquarters (of which one or
two are National Guard), twenty brigade combat teams (three or four are National
Guard), and 90,000 enablers (about half of those are Guard and Reserve). Each will
be capable of full spectrum operations once we reach a steady-state, ratio of time
deployed (known as boots on the ground or BOG) to time at home (dwell) of 1:2
(BOG:dwell) for active component forces and 1:4 for reserve component forces. This
versatile mix of land forces could sustain operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. At
lower demand levels, a sustainable BOG:dwell ratio of 1:3 for active component
forces and 1:5 for reserve component forces provides ready, global reaction forces
and regionally-oriented forces for engagement in support of Theater Security Cooperation Programs. This process also allows strategic flexibility to surge in response to unexpected contingencies across the spectrum of conflict, and provides
operational depth with more forces available for longer commitment times.
The increased demands of our combatant commanders, coupled with the size of
our active component (AC) force, require that we continue to integrate reserve component (RC) forces as part of our operational force. Continued and routine access
to our RC forces is essential to sustaining current operations, and is improving the
overall operational experience and quality of our RC forces. Additionally, sufficient
Army National Guard (ARNG) forces must be ready and immediately available to
their state and territorial authorities to respond to domestic crises. We are building
an integrated Army in which our RC forces are included in the rotational cycle, but
at a deployment rate of about half that of their AC counterparts.
The ARFORGEN process increases predictability for Soldiers, Families, employers, and communities, and enables our RC to remain an integral element of the
operational force while providing the Nation with the strategic depth (i.e. those nondeployed units which are 2 to 3 years from commitment) and operational flexibility
to meet unexpected contingencies.
The Army has undergone significant changes in recent years, and we must continue to change in order to keep pace with an environment of uncertainty and complexity in this era of persistent conflict. The same requirements that drive the imperative to change also drive our modernization efforts and need for institutional
adaptation.
Realizing Change
To become the Army the Nation needs in the second decade of the 21st century,
we are transforming the Army and prioritizing programs and efforts that show the
most promise for today and tomorrow. Similarly, we are transforming business proc-

12
esses across the Army, including how we identify requirements, acquire, and provide
materiel capabilities to our Soldiers, and how we adapt our institutions to align with
the ARFORGEN process.
On April 6, 2009, Secretary Gates announced his adjustments to the defense program as part of the Presidents budget proposal for fiscal year 2010. The Secretarys
decisions had an immediate and major impact on our FCS-centric Army modernization effort. He terminated the MGV portion of FCS, directing that we reevaluate
the requirements, technology, and approachand then re-launch the Armys vehicle
modernization program. . . . He further directed the Army to accelerate the initial increment of the program to spin out technology enhancements to all combat
brigades, and retain and deliver software and network development program in increments, and incorporate MRAP into our force structure. Secretary Gates intent
for these bold adjustments was clearto better reflect the lessons that we were
learning from ongoing operations and better posture Army forces for a broader
range of future challenges.
To fully implement the Secretary of Defenses direction, the Army has developed
a comprehensive plan. We refer to this new program as the Armys Brigade Combat
Team Modernization Plan, which is a subset of our overall Army Modernization
Strategy.
BCT Modernization Plan
We will leverage the lessons learned from the last 8 years to provide effective and
affordable equipment now, while reducing the time it takes to develop and field new
and updated materiel solutions. BCT Modernization includes four elements: modernizing the network over time to take advantage of technology upgrades, while simultaneously expanding it to cover ever increasing portions of the force; incorporating
MRAPs into our force; rapidly developing and fielding a new Ground Combat Vehicle that meets the requirements of the 21st century Army; and incrementally fielding Capability Packages that best meet the needs of Soldiers and units as they train
and then deploy.
Army Network.Central to the Armys modernization efforts is an enhanced and
interoperable communication network that gives the Army a decisive advantage
across the spectrum of conflict. The network supports leaders in making timely, informed decisions, and supports organizational agility, lethality, and sustainability.
It allows our Soldiers to know where the enemy is, where other friendly forces and
civilian populations are, and what weapon systems are available for them at any
given time. The network links Soldiers on the battlefield with space-based and aerial sensors, robots, and command postsproviding unprecedented situational awareness and control and enabling the application of precise lethal fires on the modern
battlefield.
Maintaining our technological advantage is a constant challenge. The Armys battle command network must be continuously upgraded to ensure security and provide
improved capability, capacity, connectivity and operational effectiveness. The
Warfighter Information Network (Tactical) (WINT) is designed to extend the network ultimately to the company level for BCTs and provide real-time information,
such as high definition imagery, from surveillance sources. The Joint Tactical Radio
System (JTRS) was born Joint with the specific requirement to resolve radio interoperability among the services. It will provide Soldiers at the tactical level with
connectivity at extended ranges, including voice, data, and video, enabling them to
move information from platoon to higher-level command posts in complex terrain
(including urban and mountainous areas).
MRAP Strategy.In response to deadly IEDs in Iraq and Afghanistan, the Nation
made a tremendous investment in fielding MRAPs that have saved lives by providing significantly improved protection for our Soldiers. The Army is incorporating
these vehicles throughout its unit formations. Additionally, we used the basic design
of the MRAP as the foundation for the MATV, modifying it for the mountainous
terrain in Afghanistan and in other regions around the world. The MRAP family
of vehicles provides the versatility our forces need to rapidly move around the battlefield, particularly in an IED environment, with the best protection we can provide.
Ground Combat Vehicle.Combining the lessons learned from the survivability of
the MRAP, the tactical mobility of the Bradley Fighting Vehicle, and the operational
mobility of the Stryker, the Army is developing a Ground Combat Vehicle (GCV)
that possesses all of these qualities. Providing Soldiers protected mobility is our top
design criteria. The first combat vehicle designed from the ground up to operate in
an IED environment, the GCV will have enhanced mobility that will allow it to operate effectively in both urban and off-road environments. It will be designed to host
the Armys network. And perhaps most importantly, it will have the capacity avail-

13
able to accept future upgrades incrementally as technologies mature and threats
change.
The GCV will be versatile enough to support our expeditionary requirements and
be capable of carrying an infantry squad. It will combine sustainability features that
match the availability rates of the Stryker while consuming less fuel than current
vehicles of similar weight and power. The pace of change and the operational environment demand an expedited acquisition timeline, so the Army is pursuing a GCV
program timeline that provides the first production vehicles in seven years.
Capability Packages.Capability packages provide the Army a regular, timely
process to enable our deployable units with the latest materiel and non-materiel solutions based on the evolving challenges of the operating environment. The best
available capabilities will go to the Soldiers who need them most, based on the
threats they are likely to face. These bundles of capabilities will include materiel,
doctrine, organization, and training to fill the highest priority requirements and
mitigate risk for Soldiers. This incremental packaging approach will enable leaders
to make timely, resource-informed decisions, and will help ensure that we provide
the best available technologies to fulfill urgent needs to Soldiers in the fightall
driven by the cyclic readiness produced by ARFORGEN. These capability packages
will upgrade our units as they prepare to deploy by providing them improved capabilities such as precision fires and advanced Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR).
The Army Modernization Strategy
The Armys Brigade Combat Team Modernization Plan is a key element of our
overall Army Modernization Strategy. The Army Modernization Strategy reflects
our overarching vision of how we will achieve our ends, which is to:
Develop and field an affordable and interoperable mix of the best equipment
available to allow Soldiers and units to succeed in both todays and tomorrows
full spectrum military operations.
The Army Modernization Strategy relies on three interrelated lines of effort:
Develop and field new capabilities to meet identified capability gaps through
traditional or rapid acquisition processes. In support of this Line of Effort in
fiscal year 2011 we have requested $934 million to develop the Armys new
Ground Combat Vehicle (GCV), which will overcome critical capability gaps in
both current and future operations. It is envisioned to have the tactical mobility
of a Bradley, the operational mobility of a Stryker, and the protection of an
MRAP. We are also requesting $459 million to procure the Extended Range
Multi-Purpose Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. This extraordinarily capable platform,
which is already making a difference in Operation Enduring Freedom, gives
commanders longer dwell ISR capabilities across a joint area of operations.
Continuously modernize equipment to meet current and future capability needs
through upgrade, replacement, recapitalization, refurbishment, and technology
insertions. Army efforts in this Line of Effort include our request for $887 million for the procurement of 16 Block III AH64 Apache Helicopters, as well as
the upgrade of 13 AH64 Helicopters to Block II. Block III Apache is part of
a long-term effort to improve situational awareness, performance, reliability,
and sustainment of the Apache. Block II upgrades continue our commitment to
modernize the Army National Guard Aviation Fleet. Additionally, in this line
of effort, we have requested $505 million to upgrade Shadow RQ7 UAVs. This
key upgrade will increase the payload capacity and enhance the performance of
this key ISR asset for our BCT Commanders.
Meet continuously evolving force requirements in the current operational environment by fielding and distributing capabilities in accordance with the Army
Resource Priorities List (ARPL) and Army Force Generation (ARFORGEN)
Model. Meeting the constantly evolving needs of theater commanders and the
demands of persistent conflict will require unprecedented agility in our equipping and modernization programs. One example of this agility can be found in
our Kiowa Warrior fleet. We are currently maneuvering our fleet of OH58D
Kiowa Warrior Light Helicopters to meet Army and COCOM requirements
based on the ARFORGEN model. As Air Cavalry Squadrons return from conflict, their OH58D helicopters are placed into Reset. Units in Reset have very
few aircraft, if any. Because the Kiowa Warrior fleet is short 35 aircraft overall,
when the squadrons transition into the Train/Ready Phase of ARFORGEN, they
are provided a number of helicopters sufficient to conduct training (25), but less
than what they are fully authorized (30). When the units move into the Available phase, they are provided their full complement of aircraft. It is this agility
that has allowed Army forces to meet the needs of theater commanders for over
eight years of sustained combat.

14
What do we need? Congress has been very supportive of Army Modernization
needs in the past. Their tremendous support has ensured that the Army Soldier is
the best equipped and most respected combatant in the world. In order to execute
Army Modernization and ensure the continued success of Soldiers and units, we depend on a variety of resources, not the least of which is predictable funding. For
fiscal year 2011, we have requested $31.7 billion for procurement and Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT&E) efforts.
Adapting the Institution and Transforming Business Practices
In addition to modernizing our operating force, we are transforming our institutional Army. As required by Section 904 of the 2008 National Defense Authorization
Act (NDAA), the appointment of the Under Secretary of the Army as the Armys
Chief Management Officer (CMO) has allowed the Army to develop a series of initiatives to adapt the institutional Army and transform our business practices. In accordance with Section 908 of the 2009 NDAA, these efforts will result in the development and implementation of a comprehensive program that establishes a series
of measurable performance goals and objectives. Specifically, the comprehensive program will address the following:
Developing and implementing a business transformation plan focused on running
the Army as effectively and efficiently as possible.
Continuing the Armys business process reengineering activities, led by OSDs
Business Transformation Agency.
Developing an integrated business systems architecture that emphasizes transparency and seamless access to data, and provides timely and accurate information to decision makers.
Preparing Army leaders to take a greater role in inculcating the Army with a
cost-conscious culture.
While the Army transformed its operating forcebuilding versatile, agile units capable of adapting to changing environmentsthe institutional Army continued to
use processes and procedures that were designed to support a pre-9/11 Army based
on tiered levels of readiness. To support this new operating force, the Army must
have an updated institutional Armyour generating force.
Once the mission is defined, our institutions must seamlessly and continuously
adapttailoring force packages and quickly adjusting training, manning, and equippingto ensure units have all of the physical and mental tools necessary to succeed.
Institutional agility allows us to adapt to the realities that present themselves.
To that end, the CMO and Office of Business Transformation will build upon
progress that has already been made toward the Armys institutional adaptation,
specifically:
Improvement of the ARFORGEN processaligning the generating force and its
processes to better support Soldiers, Families, and units within the operating
force.
Adoption of an Enterprise Approachdeveloping civilian and military leaders
who take a collaborative, holistic view of Army objectives and resources to make
better decisions for the Army.
Reformation of the requirements and resource processesdelivering timely and
necessary capabilities at best value.
This transformational approach will overlay everything that the institutional
Army does, with the unwavering goal of effectively and efficiently providing trained
and ready forces to meet combatant commander requirements.
STEWARDSHIP AND INNOVATION

The Army remains devoted to the best possible stewardship of the resources it is
provided by the American people through Congress. The establishment of the CMO
and initiatives related to the transformation of Army business practices represent
the Armys effort to act as a responsible steward. Several other initiatives serve to
conserve resources and to reduce waste and inefficiencies wherever possible.
The Army achieved full operating capability of the new Army Contracting Command, Expeditionary Contracting Command, and Mission and Installation Contracting Command in 2009. These organizations are dedicated to ensuring professional, ethical, efficient, and responsive contracting.
Civilians are assuming increased responsibilities within the Army. The Army is
recouping intellectual capital by in-sourcing former contracted positions that were
associated with inherently governmental functions. In fiscal year 2009, the Army
saved significant resources by in-sourcing more than 900 core governmental functions to Army Civilians. We plan to in-source 7,162 positions in fiscal year 2010,
and are programmed to in-source 11,084 positions during fiscal year 20112015, of

15
which 3,988 are acquisition positions. These positions were identified in the Armys
ongoing contractor inventory review process.
In the Employer Partnership program, the Army Reserve works with public agencies and private employers to leverage their shared interests in recruiting, training,
and credentialing highly skilled Citizen-Soldiers. The Army Reserve has signed
more than 800 partnership agreements with corporations, state agencies, and local
police departments.
Energy security is a key component of Army installations, weapons systems, and
operations. The Army has developed a comprehensive energy security strategy, and
is acting now to implement initiatives to make us less dependent on foreign sources
of fuel and better stewards of our nations energy resources. In support of these
goals, we fielded the largest hybrid vehicle fleet within the Department of Defense.
Energy will continue to be a key consideration in all Army activities in order to reduce demand, increase efficiency, seek alternative sources, and create a culture of
energy accountability, while sustaining or enhancing operational capabilities.
The Army is committed to environmental stewardship. Through cooperative partner agreements and the Army Compatible Use Buffer Program, the Army protected
more than 28,000 acres of land at 14 locations in fiscal year 2009. Through creative
solutions, the Army continues to conduct realistic training on its installations while
protecting threatened and endangered species on Army lands.
AMERICAS ARMYTHE STRENGTH OF THE NATION

The professionalism, dedicated service, and sacrifice of our all-volunteer force are
hallmarks of the Armythe Strength of our Nation.
Our Soldiers and their Families quietly bear the burdens of a Nation at war. Our
Civilians stand with them, dedicated to the Nation and the Army that serves it. Despite the toll that 8 years of combat has taken, these great Americans continue to
step forward to answer our Nations call. In an environment in which we must make
hard choices, they deserve the very best we can offer, commensurate with their dedication and sacrifice.
To continue to fulfill our vital role for the Nation, the Army must sustain its efforts to restore balance and set conditions for the future. We have made significant
progress this year, but challenges remain. The continued support of Congress will
ensure that the Army remains manned, trained, and equipped to protect our national security interests at home and abroad, now and in the future. Americas
Armythe Strength of the Nation.
ADDENDUM ATHE FISCAL YEAR 2011 PRESIDENTS BUDGET

The fiscal year 2011 Presidents budget asks for $245.6 billion for the Army. This
budget, which includes $143.4 billion for the Base and $102.2 billion for the Overseas Contingency Operations (OCO) request, is necessary to: support current operations, increase forces in Afghanistan, responsibly drawdown in Iraq, sustain the
all-volunteer force, and prepare for future threats.

16

Amounts requested by major appropriation category in the fiscal year 2011 Presidents budget include:
Military Personnel
The fiscal year 2011 budget requests $71.0 billion, a $300 million increase over
fiscal year 2010. Military Personnel funds support Army end-strength requirements
for a Nation at war. This includes $1.2 billion for the temporary wartime increase
in personnel, an increase of $684 million over fiscal year 2010.
This amount funds pay, benefits, and associated personnel costs for 1,110,600 Soldiers: 547,400 Active, 358,200 Army National Guard, 205,000 Army Reserve and
funds an active component temporary end strength increase of 22,000.
The OCO request will fund special pays, incentives, and the mobilization of reserve component Soldiers.

17
Compelling Needs
Support the Armys base endstrength and the temporary end strength increase in
fiscal year 2011 to reduce strain on the force.
Sustain authorities and funding of programs in support of wounded, ill, and injured Warriors and their Families as they transition back to duty or to civilian life.
Provide recruiting and retention incentives and benefits to sustain the quality of
our all-volunteer force, allow the Army to meet end-strength objectives, and achieve
Army standards for recruit quality.
Enable the transition of the reserve component to an operational force by systematically building and sustaining readiness across the force and fund mobilization of
RC units to support growing demand.
Operation and Maintenance
The fiscal year 2011 budget requests $107.3 billiona $7 billion increase from fiscal year 2010. Operation and maintenance funds Soldier and unit training; ground
and air vehicle operating costs; depot maintenance; base operations, sustainment,
restoration, and modernization; and a 1.4 percent Civilian pay raise.
The OCO portion of the request includes $628 million for the training and
sustainment of the temporary wartime increase in personnelan increase of $242
million from fiscal year 2010.
The budget request works to restore balance to the force by recognizing $587 million of enduring requirements for training and depot maintenance in the base rather
than in OCO. The base funds home station training for 59 brigade combat teams,
24 rotations through the Armys combined arms training centers, and an increased
investment of $154 million in scholarships, language and individual training. It improves network security; operationalizes the LandWarNet; supports continued development and fielding of administrative systems; and provides funding for improvements in financial audit readiness (as required in NDAA 2009) by requesting an additional $578 million above the fiscal year 2010 levels for these activities. The base
budget also increases funding for facilities sustainment restoration and modernization by $320 million and includes one-time requests to support BRAC and the transition out of NSPS.
The OCO request will fund the day-to-day cost of the wars, training to prepare
units for deployment, force protection, in-theater maintenance and repair, drawdown
of equipment from Iraq, and reset of Army Prepositioned Stocks and equipment returning from deployment.
Compelling Needs
Sustain readiness through Soldier and unit training, including realistic, full spectrum training at the Armys three combat training centers.
Fund the reset of 30 brigades, other enabling units, and equipment.
Resource installation services worldwide and support the Army Family Covenant
to provide Soldiers and their Families the quality of life they deserve and to enhance the health of the force.
Procurement
The fiscal year 2011 budget requests $30.3 billiona $200 million decrease from
fiscal year 2010. Procurement funds the Armys future force equipment requirements; sustains modernization and recapitalization; and fills equipment shortages.
The OCO request will fund procurement of weapon systems to replace battle losses,
replacement of equipment taken for current operations from the reserve components, and to fill urgent operational needs for deployed forces.
Compelling Needs
Fund the fielding of the first Capability Packages to two more Army brigades.
Enhance Army command and control by providing an initial on-the-move networking capability resident in the Warfighter Information NetworkTactical (WIN
T), Increment 2.
Increase the Armys tactical agility through an aviation modernization strategy
that highlights the increasing importance of unmanned aerial systems (ERMP,
Shadow and Raven) and rotary wing aviation (AH64D Block III Apache, UH60M
Black Hawk and CH47F Chinook).
Improve lethality and precision fires by modernizing the Patriot PAC3 missile,
the Guided Multiple Launch Rocket System, the High Mobility Artillery Rocket System, and the Paladin howitzer.
Sustain access to training and war reserve ammunition by restoring stocks and
the selective repair, upgrade and replacement of key ammunition production base
equipment and facilities.

18
Research, Development, Test and Evaluation
The fiscal year 2011 budget requests $10.5 billion, approximately the same
amount requested last year.
Compelling Needs
Fund Brigade Combat Team modernization including initial Ground Combat Vehicle development and further development of the second set of Capability Packages.
Support Network modernization including continued development of WINT increment 2 and increment 3.
Continues the international partnership to develop the Patriot Medium Extended
Air Defense systems (MEADS)
Construction, Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC), and Army Housing
Fiscal year 2011 is a critical year for BRAC since this will be the final budget
executed to meet the statutory deadline for many of the BRAC actions. fiscal year
2011 will be a particularly challenging year for BRAC as four of our major command
headquarters and many of our military schools will be moving to new locations. The
fiscal year 2011 budget requests $7.9 billiona $2.5 billion decrease from fiscal year
2010. This funding supports the construction of facilities to support the growth and
re-stationing of Army forces. The OCO request will fund construction in Afghanistan.
Compelling Needs
Fund BRAC requirements to meet fiscal year 2011 statutory timelines.
Support construction of new family housing and improvements to existing housing.
Support construction of permanent party and training barracks.
Other Accounts
The Army is the executive agent for a variety of critical functions within the Department of Defense, to include the Chemical Agents and Munitions Destruction
Program. Funding for this account is $1.6 billion in fiscal year 2011a decrease of
$100 million from fiscal year 2010. The Army also has responsibility for the Iraq
Security Forces Fund (ISFF), Afghanistan Security Forces Fund (ASFF), and Joint
Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization (JIEDDO) appropriations. The
Army budgets for recurring sustainment costs of JIEDDO with fiscal year 2011
funds at $200 millionan increase of $100 million from fiscal year 2010. The OCO
Request will fund JIEDDO initiatives. The ISFF and ASFF are funded entirely
through the OCO request.
Compelling Needs
Fund the Afghan Security Forces Fund and the Iraq Security Forces Fund to enable building essential security capacity.
Support JIEDDO appropriations and initiatives to combat the most dangerous
threat to U.S. forces.
Continue the safe destruction of chemical agents and munitions and the closure
activities at selected chemical demilitarization sites.
Restoring Fiscal Balance
Timely and full funding of the Armys fiscal year 2011 request of $245.6 billion
will help ensure the Army is ready to meet the needs of the Nation and continue
the process of restoring balance while setting the conditions for the future. Over the
last 8 years, the Army has received significant portions of its funding for combat
readiness through OCO appropriations. This recurring reliance on OCO funds and
an overlap between base and OCO sustainment programs means that the Armys
base budget does not fully cover the cost of both current and future readiness requirements. Because of this reliance, a precipitous drop or delay in OCO funding
does not fully fund the readiness of our Army for the current conflict. Army continues the orderly restoration of the balance between base and OCO requirements
in its fiscal year 2011 base budget request. This request fully funds Army authorized end strength and brings $965 million in O&M expenses back into the base rather than finance those requirements in OCO.
ADDENDUM BRESERVE COMPONENT READINESS

Sections 517 and 521 of the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) 1994 require the information in this addendum be reported. Section 517 requires a report
relating to implementation of the pilot Program for Active Component Support of
the Reserves under Section 414 of the NDAA 1992 and 1993. Section 521 requires
a detailed presentation concerning the Army National Guard (ARNG), including in-

19
formation relating to implementation of the ARNG Combat Readiness Reform Act
of 1992 (Title XI of Public Law 102484, referred to in this addendum as
ANGCRRA). Section 521 reporting was later amended by Section 704 of NDAA
1996. U.S. Army Reserve information is also presented using Section 521 report criteria.
Section 517(b)(2)(A).The promotion rate for officers considered for promotion
from within the promotion zone who are serving as active component advisors to
units of the Selected Reserve of the Ready Reserve (in accordance with that program) compared with the promotion rate for other officers considered for promotion
from within the promotion zone in the same pay grade and the same competitive
category, shown for all officers of the Army.
Fiscal year 2008
In the Zone
AC in RC 1

Major ...................................................................
Lieutenant Colonel ..............................................
1 Active
2 Active

0 of 1
1 of 1

Percent

................
100

Fiscal year 2009


Army Average (percent) 2

92.8
89.1

Percent

AC in RC 1

Army Average (percent) 2

88.9
80.0

94.1
87.9

56 of 63
16 of 20

component officers serving in reserve component assignments at time of consideration.


component officers not serving in reserve component assignments at the time of consideration.

Section 517(b)(2)(B).The promotion rate for officers considered for promotion


from below the promotion zone who are serving as active component advisors to
units of the Selected Reserve of the Ready Reserve (in accordance with that program) compared in the same manner as specified in subparagraph (A) (the paragraph above).
Fiscal year 2008
Below the Zone
AC in RC 1

Major ...................................................................
Lieutenant Colonel ..............................................
1 Below the zone
2 Below-the-zone

0 of 4
0 of 0

Percent

................
................

Fiscal year 2009


Army Average (percent) 2

4.9
13.5

Percent

2 of 4
0 of 1

AC in RC 1

Army Average (percent) 2

50.0
................

6.0
7.2

active component officers serving in reserve component assignments at time of consideration.


active component officers not serving in reserve component assignments at time of consideration.

Section 521(b)
1. The number and percentage of officers with at least 2 years of active-duty before becoming a member of the Army National Guard or the U.S. Army Reserve Selected Reserve units.
ARNG officers: 14,760 or 36.3 percent
Army Reserve officers: 19,573 or 59 percent
2. The number and percentage of enlisted personnel with at least 2 years of active-duty before becoming a member of the Army National Guard or the U.S. Army
Reserve Selected Reserve units.
ARNG enlisted: 85,255 or 26.8 percent
Army Reserve enlisted: 63,311 or 41.6 percent
3. The number of officers who are graduates of one of the service academies and
were released from active duty before the completion of their active-duty service obligation and, of those officers:
The number who are serving the remaining period of their active-duty service
obligation as a member of the Selected Reserve pursuant to section 1112(a)(1)
of ANGCRRA:
In fiscal year 2009, 10 graduates from Service Academies were serving in the
Army National Guard to complete their service obligation.
In fiscal year 2009, 0 graduates from Service Academies were serving in the
Army Reserve to complete their service obligation.
The number for whom waivers were granted by the Secretary of the Army
under section 1112(a)(2) of ANGCRRA, together with the reason for each waiver:
In fiscal year 2009, no waivers were granted by the Secretary of the Army.
4. The number of officers who were commissioned as distinguished Reserve Officers Training Corps graduates and were released from active duty before the completion of their active-duty service obligation and, of those officers:
The number who are serving the remaining period of their active-duty service
obligation as a member of the Selected Reserve pursuant to section 1112(a)(1)
of ANGCRRA:

20
In fiscal year 2009, no distinguished Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC)
graduate was released before completing their active-duty service obligation.
The number for whom waivers were granted by the Secretary of the Army
under section 1112(a)(2) of ANGCRRA, together with the reason for each waiver:
In fiscal year 2009, no waivers were granted by the Secretary of the Army.
5. The number of officers who are graduates of the Reserve Officers Training
Corps program and who are performing their minimum period of obligated service
in accordance with section 1112(b) of ANGCRRA by a combination of (a) 2 years of
active duty, and (b) such additional period of service as is necessary to complete the
remainder of such obligation served in the National Guard and, of those officers, the
number for whom permission to perform their minimum period of obligated service
in accordance with that section was granted during the preceding fiscal year:
In fiscal year 2009, one ROTC graduate was released early from their activeduty obligation. The officer is serving the remainder of his/her obligation in the
ARNG
6. The number of officers for whom recommendations were made during the preceding fiscal year for a unit vacancy promotion to a grade above first lieutenant,
and of those recommendations, the number and percentage that were concurred in
by an active duty officer under section 1113(a) of ANGCRRA, shown separately for
each of the three categories of officers set forth in section 1113(b) of ANGCRRA
(with Army Reserve data also reported).
There are no longer active and reserve component associations due to operational mission requirements and deployment tempo. Active component officers
no longer concur or non-concur with unit vacancy promotion recommendations
for officers in associated units according to section 1113(a). However, unit vacancy promotion boards have active component representation.
In fiscal year 2009, 2,223 ARNG officers from units were recommended for position-vacancy promotion and promoted. This number consists of 319 U.S. Army
Medical Department, 1,864 Army Promotion List and 40 Chaplains.
In fiscal year 2009 the estimated percentage of Unit Vacancy Promotions CPT
through COL in which an active component representation was on the state
unit vacancy promotion board is as follows:
Percent

AMEDD ..............................................................................................................................................................
APL ....................................................................................................................................................................
Chaplain ...........................................................................................................................................................

12
10
13

In fiscal year 2009, 59 Army Reserve officers from units were recommended for
position-vacancy promotion and promoted. This number consists of 9 U.S. Army
Medical Department, 47 Army Promotion List, and 3 Chaplains.
7. The number of waivers during the preceding fiscal year under section 1114(a)
of ANGCRRA of any standard prescribed by the Secretary establishing a military
education requirement for non-commissioned officers and the reason for each such
waiver.
In fiscal year 2009, the ARNG had a total of 201 Noncommissioned Officers receive a military education waiver. As of September 30, 2009 all those waiver
recipients were eligible for promotion to the next rank, but none have obtained
the military education requirement that was previously waived.
In fiscal year 2009, the Army Reserve had a total of 331 Soldiers receive a military education waiver. Of these, 124 were SGTs in need of a waiver for Warrior
Leader Course (WLC) as a result of being deployed or assigned to Warrior Transition Units (WTU) (Medical Hold or Medical Hold-Over Units) whose medical
condition was incurred in direct support of Overseas Contingency Operations
and who were otherwise eligible for promotion, if recommended. Furthermore,
eligible Soldiers lacking the prerequisite level of military education due to operational deployment conflicts or the inability of the Army to schedule the course,
were granted waivers. This included 173 Soldiers who were granted waivers for
the Basic NCO Course (Now Advanced Leader Course) and 34 Soldiers who
were granted waivers for the Advanced NCO Course (now Senior Leader
Course).
The Secretary of the Army has delegated the authority for the waivers referred
to in section 1114(a) of ANGCRRA to the Director, ARNG and to the Commander, U.S. Army Reserve Command. A majority of these waivers were approved due to the Soldiers being deployed and/or performing operational missions. Each reserve component maintains details for each waiver.

21
8. The number and distribution by grade, shown for each State, of personnel in
the initial entry training and non-deployability personnel accounting category established under section 1115 of ANGCRRA for members of the Army National Guard
who have not completed the minimum training required for deployment or who are
otherwise not available for deployment. (A narrative summary of information pertaining to the Army Reserve is also provided.)
In fiscal year 2009, the ARNG had 61,812 Soldiers considered non-deployable
for reasons outlined in Army Regulation 2201, Unit Status Reporting (e.g.,
pending administrative/legal discharge or separation, medical non-availability,
incomplete initial entry training, officer transition, unsatisfactory participation,
or restrictions on the use or possession of weapons and ammunition under the
Lautenberg Amendment).
In fiscal year 2009, the Army Reserve had 49,330 Soldiers considered nondeployable for reasons outlined in Army Regulation 2201, Unit Status Reporting (e.g., pending administrative/legal discharge or separation, medical nonavailability, incomplete initial entry training, officer transition, unsatisfactory
participation, or restrictions on the use or possession of weapons and ammunition under the Lautenberg Amendment).
9. The number of members of the Army National Guard, shown for each State,
that were discharged during the previous fiscal year pursuant to section 1115(c)(1)
of ANGCRRA for not completing the minimum training required for deployment
within 24 months after entering the National Guard. (Army Reserve data also reported.)
The number of ARNG Soldiers discharged during fiscal year 2009 pursuant to
section 1115(c)(1) of ANGCRRA for not completing the minimum training required for deployment within 24 months after entering the Army National
Guard is 141 officers and 15,105 enlisted Soldiers from all U.S. states and territories. The breakdown by each state is maintained by the NGB.
The number of Army Reserve Soldiers discharged during fiscal year 2009 for not
completing the minimum training required for deployment within 24 months
after entering the Army Reserve is 63 officers and 2,910 enlisted Soldiers. Soldiers who have not completed the required initial entry training within the first
24 months are discharged from the Army Reserve under AR 135178, Separation of Enlisted Personnel. Officers who have not completed a basic branch
course within 36 months after commissioning are separated under AR 135175,
Separation of Officers.
10. The number of waivers, shown for each State, that were granted by the Secretary of the Army during the previous fiscal year under section 1115(c)(2) of
ANGCRRA of the requirement in section 1115(c)(1) of ANGCRRA described in paragraph (9), together with the reason for each waiver.
In fiscal year 2009, no waivers were granted by the Secretary of the Army for
the Army National Guard or the U.S. Army Reserve.
11. The number of Army National Guard members, shown for each State, (and
the number of AR members), who were screened during the preceding fiscal year
to determine whether they meet minimum physical profile standards required for
deployment and, of those members: (a) the number and percentage that did not
meet minimum physical profile standards for deployment; and (b) the number and
percentage who were transferred pursuant to section 1116 of ANGCRRA to the personnel accounting category described in paragraph (8).
The number and percentage who did not meet minimum physical profile standards required for deployment:
In fiscal year 2009, 242,777 ARNG Soldiers underwent a Periodic Health Assessment (PHA) physical. Of these personnel 18,830 or 7.7 percent were identified for review due to a possible deployment limiting condition or failure to
meet retention standards.
In fiscal year 2009, 115,133 Army Reserve Soldiers underwent a PHA physical. Of these personnel 21,505, or 18.68 percent were identified for review
due to a possible deployment limiting condition or failure to meet retention
standards. The fiscal year 20082009 increase is most attributable to PHA
physicals now being required annually.
The number and percentage that were transferred pursuant to section 1116 of
ANGCRRA to the personnel accounting category described in paragraph (8).
In fiscal year 2009, 18,830 ARNG Soldiers were transferred from deployable
to nondeployable status for failing to meet medical deployability standards.
This number includes Soldiers returning from a mobilization with a new medical condition and reflects an increase in the accuracy of electronic databases.
In fiscal year 2009, 21,505 Army Reserve Soldiers were considered non-available for deployment for failing to meet medical deployability standards. The

22
new PHA physicals being required annually may account for the increase in
those being found to be non-deployable.
12. The number of members and the percentage total membership of the Army
National Guard shown for each State who underwent a medical screening during
the previous fiscal year as provided in section 1117 of ANGCRRA.
Repealed. Public Law 104106 (NDAA 1996), Div. A, Title VII, Section 704(b),
February 10, 1996, repealed Section 1117 of ANGCRRA.
13. The number of members and the percentage of the total membership of the
Army National Guard shown for each State who underwent a dental screening during the previous fiscal year as provided in section 1117 of ANGCRRA.
Repealed. Public Law 104106 (NDAA 1996), Div. A, Title VII, Section 704(b),
February 10, 1996, repealed Section 1117 of ANGCRRA.
14. The number of members and the percentage of the total membership of the
Army National Guard shown for each State, over the age of 40 who underwent a
full physical examination during the previous fiscal year for purposes of section
1117 of ANGCRRA.
Repealed. Public Law 104106 (NDAA 1996), Div. A, Title VII, Section 704(b),
February 10, 1996, repealed Section 1117 of ANGCRRA.
15. The number of units of the Army National Guard that are scheduled for early
deployment in the event of a mobilization, and of those units, the number that are
dentally ready for deployment in accordance with section 1118 of ANGCRRA.
Repealed. Public Law 104106 (NDAA 1996), Div. A, Title VII, Section 704(b),
February 10, 1996, repealed Section 1118 of ANGCRRA.
16. The estimated post-mobilization training time for each Army National Guard
combat unit (and Army Reserve unit), and a description, displayed in broad categories and by State of what training would need to be accomplished for Army National Guard combat units (and AR units) in a post-mobilization period for purposes
of section 1119 of ANGCRRA.
Per January 2007 direction from the Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) reserve
component unit mobilizations are limited to 400-day periods, including a 30-day
post-mobilization leave and all post-mobilization training.
The most significant impact of this policy change is that many training tasks
previously conducted during the first 3 to 6 months of mobilization have been
identified for premobilization training, and units are training to standard on as
many of these tasks as resources permit. Information on the type of training
required by units during postmobilization is maintained by First Army. The
data are not captured by state.
ARNG units strive to train in accordance with the Army Force Generation
(ARFORGEN) process in order to prepare for operational missions and reduce
post-mobilization training time. The ARFORGEN process requires increased resources for company-level training proficiency prior to mobilization. This training generally consists of individual warrior training tasks, weapons qualification
and gunnery, battle staff training, and maneuver training. This is followed by
theater-specific tasks and higher level collective training to complete the
predeployment requirements for the units specific mission. The goal for postmobilization training time for a brigade-size organization is approximately 60
days.
Post-mobilization training time is contingent upon the amount of certified premobilization training conducted, the type of unit, and its assigned mission. In
order to reduce post-mobilization training time, the ARNG has developed programs and products such as the ARNG Battle Command Training Capability,
the eXportable Combat Training Capability (XCTC), training devices, and range
complexes for our units.
The combination of programs and products, provide units with the capability to
accomplish more during pre-mobilization training and therefore reduce post-mobilization training time.
The Army Reserve developed the Regional Training Center (RTC) concept in response to the SECDEF decision to restrict RC mobilizations to 1 year. These
centers provide the capability for Army Reserve units to conduct training on
Theater Specific Required Training (TSRT) to theater standards and conditions.
The majority of training is on individual tasks but some collective training is
also conducted. Because of certification by unit commanders, most of the training is not repeated in post-mobilization status. Exceptions are for tasks incorporated into other required training events and for convoy operations training.
The TSRT training is for units that will deploy to theater, including non-rotational forces (MTOE and TDA). Units mobilizing for CONUS based missions do
not require this training.

23
Each RTC conducts standard rotations throughout the year although each has
the capability to adjust training for selected large unit participation. Initially
the Army Reserve provided a staff projection to DA that the training would require 17 days, but in actual implementation the training has required 21 days.
Army goals for post-mobilization training for Army Reserve headquarters and
combat support/combat service support units range from 30 to 60 days. Postmobilization training conducted by First Army typically consists of counterinsurgency operations, counter-improvised-explosive-device training, convoy livefire exercises, theater orientation, rules of engagement/escalation-of-force training, and completion of any theater-specified training not completed during the
pre-mobilization period.
17. A description of the measures taken during the preceding fiscal year to comply
with the requirement in section 1120 of ANGCRRA to expand the use of simulations, simulators, and advanced training devices and technologies for members and
units of the Army National Guard (and the Army Reserve).
During fiscal year 2009, the ARNG continued to synchronize the use of existing
and ongoing live, virtual, and constructive training aids, devices, simulations
and simulators (TADSS) programs with the training requirements of the
ARFORGEN training model. By synchronizing the use of TADSS with
ARFORGEN, the ARNG continues to improve unit training proficiency prior to
mobilization.
To support the training requirements of M1A1 Abrams and M2A2 Bradleyequipped Brigade Combat Teams (BCTs), the ARNG continued the fielding of
the Advanced Bradley Full-Crew Interactive Simulation Trainer, which provides
full crew-simulations training for M2A2 units, Tabletop Full-fidelity Trainers
for the M2A2, and the Conduct of Fire Trainer XXI for M1A1 and M2A2. When
fully fielded, these devices, in addition to the Abrams Full-Crew Interactive
Simulation Trainer XXI, will be the primary simulations trainers to meet the
virtual gunnery requirements of M1A1 and M2A2 crews.
In order to meet the virtual-maneuver training requirements in the
ARFORGEN process, M1A1 and M2A2 units use the Close-Combat Tactical
Trainer (CCTT) and the Rehosted Simulations Network (SIMNET) XXI, in addition to the Rehosted SIMNET CCTT Core. The CCTT, SIMNET XXI, and
SIMNET CCTT provide a mobile training capability to our dispersed units.
In order to train all ARNG units on the tactics, techniques, and procedures
(TTPs) of convoy operations, the ARNG is fielding the Virtual Convoy Operations Trainer (VCOT). The VCOT, through the use of geo-specific databases,
provides commanders with a unique and critical mission rehearsal tool. Currently, 32 VCOT systems are positioned in the ARNG force to train units on
the fundamentals of convoy operations.
In order to meet basic and advanced rifle marksmanship requirements, the
ARNG is fielding the Engagement Skills Trainer (EST 2000). This system is the
Armys approved marksmanship-training device. The ARNG is also continuing
use of its previously procured Fire Arms Training System (FATS) until EST
2000 fielding is complete. The EST 2000 and FATS are also used to provide unit
collective tactical training for dismounted Infantry, Special Operations Forces,
Scouts, Engineer, and Military Police squads, as well as combat support and
combat service support elements. These systems also support units conducting
vital homeland defense missions.
The ARNG supplements its marksmanship-training strategy with the Laser
Marksmanship Training System (LMTS). The ARNG currently has over 900
systems fielded down to the company level. The LMTS is a laser-based training
device that replicates the firing of the Soldiers weapon without live ammunition. It is utilized for developing and sustaining marksmanship skills, diagnosing and correcting marksmanship problems, and assessing basic and advanced skills.
The ARNG has further developed its battle command training capability
through the three designated Battle Command Training Centers (BCTCs) at
Fort Leavenworth, Camp Dodge, and Fort Indiantown Gap, and the Distributed
Battle Simulation Program (DBSP). BCTCs provide the backbone of the program as collective hubs in the battle command training strategy. The DBSP
provides Commanders assistance from Commanders Operational Training Assistants, TADSS facilitators, and Technical Support Teams. BCTCs and the
DBSP collectively help units in the planning, preparation, and execution of simulations-based battle staff training that augments the Department of the Armydirected Warfighter Exercises and greatly enhances battle staff and unit proficiency.

24
In order to provide the critical culminating training event of ARFORGEN, the
ARNG has implemented the XCTC. The XCTC program provides the method to
certify that ARNG combat units have achieved company-level maneuver proficiency prior to mobilization. The XCTC incorporates the use of advanced live,
virtual, and constructive training technologies to replicate the training experience until now only found at one of the Armys Combat Training Centers. The
centerpiece of the XCTC is the Deployable Force-on-Force Instrumented Range
System (DFIRST). DFIRST utilizes training technologies that allow for full instrumentation of the training area from major combat systems down to the individual Soldier, role player, and Civilian on the battlefield.
The most important part of every training exercise is the After-Action Review
(AAR). By full instrumentation of the units, Soldiers, and training areas, units
receive an AAR complete with two-dimensional, three-dimensional, and video
playback of the actual training exercise. This allows Commanders and Soldiers
to see what occurred during the training exercise from a different perspective,
further enhancing the training experience.
The Army Reserve continues to leverageto the extent resources permit
TADSS into its training program. Implementation of Army Campaign Plan Decision Point 72 continues with establishment of the 75th Battle Command
Training Division (BCTD) (Provisional). This division, with five battle command
training brigades, employs legacy constructive simulations to provide battle
command and staff training to Army Reserve and Army National Guard battalion and brigade commanders and staffs during pre-mobilization and post-mobilization. The concept plan as well as requirements for supporting Army battle
command systems and simulations drivers for the 75th BCTD is pending Headquarters Department of the Army (HQDA) approval.
The Army Reserve continues to partner with the Program Executive Office,
Simulations, Training and Instrumentation; Training and Doctrine Command
agencies; and HQDA to define TADSS requirements for combat support and
combat service support units. The 75th BCTD is on the Entity-level Resolution
Federation (ERF) fielding plan. The ERF provides a high-resolution (e.g., individual Soldier-level fidelity aggregated to unit resolutions) joint constructive
battle staff training simulation.
The LMTS and EST 2000 remain essential elements of Army Reserve marksmanship training. LMTS procurement continues, and distribution throughout
the Army Reserve force continues to increase. The LMTS has also been adapted
to support convoy operations training. In either individual pre-marksmanship
training or convoy modes, the system allows the Soldier to use an assigned
weapon, as well as crew-served weapons, in a simulation/training mode. EST
2000 systems have been fielded to many Army Reserve Engineer and Military
Police organizations to enable full use of its training capabilities by units with
high densities of crew-served weapons their at home stations.
The Army Reserve also has a number of low-density simulators it employs to
reduce expensive live time for unique combat service support equipment. For
example, Army Reserve watercraft units train on the Maritime Integrated
Training System (MITS), a bridge simulator that not only trains vessel captains
but the entire crew of Army watercraft. In 2007 the Army Reserve invested in
communications infrastructure so that the MITS at Mare Island, California can
communicate and interact with another Army MITS at Fort Eustis, Virginia.
This provides the capability to conduct distributed multi-boat collective training
among all the simulators. Of note, the MITS is also used by U.S. Navy, U.S.
Coast Guard, and harbor management agencies. Other simulators include locomotive simulators used by Army Reserve railroad units and a barge derrick
simulator for floating watercraft maintenance units. Other simulator requirements are being identified in requirements documents.
18. Summary tables of unit readiness, shown for each State, (and for the Army
Reserve), and drawn from the unit readiness rating system as required by section
1121 of ANGCRRA, including the personnel readiness rating information and the
equipment readiness assessment information required by that section, together
with:
Explanations of the information: Readiness tables are classified. This information is maintained by the Department of the Army, G3.
Based on the information shown in the tables, the Secretarys overall assessment of the deployability of units of the ARNG (and Army Reserve), including
a discussion of personnel deficiencies and equipment shortfalls in accordance
with section 1121:
Summary tables and overall assessments are classified. This information is
maintained by the Department of the Army, G3.

25
19. Summary tables, shown for each State (and Army Reserve), of the results of
inspections of units of the Army National Guard (and Army Reserve) by inspectors
general or other commissioned officers of the Regular Army under the provisions of
Section 105 of Title 32, together with explanations of the information shown in the
tables, and including display of:
The number of such inspections;
Identification of the entity conducting each inspection;
The number of units inspected; and
The overall results of such inspections, including the inspectors determination
for each inspected unit of whether the unit met deployability standards and, for
those units not meeting deployability standards, the reasons for such failure
and the status of corrective actions.
During fiscal year 2009, Inspectors General and other commissioned officers
of the Regular Army conducted 947 inspections of the ARNG, inspecting 1,403
ARNG units. The bulk of these inspections, 711, were executed by Regular
Army officers assigned to the respective States and Territories as Inspectors
General. First Army and the Department of the Army Inspectors General conducted 96 of the inspections, and the remaining 140 by the U.S. Army Forces
Command (FORSCOM); Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC); Communications-Electronics Command (CECOM); and the U.S. Army Audit Agency. Because the inspections conducted by Inspectors General focused on findings and recommendations, the units involved in these inspections were not
provided with a pass/fail rating. Results of such inspections may be requested
for release through The Inspector General of the Army.
Operational Readiness Evaluation data for the Force Support Package and expanded separate brigades are unavailable, as inspections thereof were eliminated as requirements in 1997. Data available under the Training Assessment Model (TAM) relates to readiness levels and is generally not available
in an unclassified format. TAM data are maintained at the state level and
are available upon request from state level-training readiness officials.
In accordance with AR 1201, Army Inspection Policy, the U.S. Army Reserve
Command (USARC) conducts inspections of regional readiness commands and
direct support units within requirements of the USARC Organizational Inspection Program (OIP). Per the Army Regulation, OIPs at division levels and
above mainly comprise staff inspections, staff assistance visits, and Inspectors
General. Staff inspections are only one aspect by which Commanding Generals can evaluate the readiness of their commands. The Inspector General
conducts inspections and special assessments based on systemic issues and
trends analysis with emphasis on issues that could impede the readiness of
the Army Reserve.
The Chief, Army Reserve, directed the Inspector General to conduct special
assessments in fiscal year 2009 prompted by concerns over systemic issues.
One was the Special Assessment of Training Management. Its objective was
to determine if units in the Army Reserve were in compliance with Command
Training Guidance for Training Years 20082010, with emphasis on the execution of weapons training, remedial training, qualification, and ammunition
availability. This assessment also encompassed an annual regulatory review
of compliance with and effectiveness of the Army Voting Assistance Program,
a program of special interest to the Department of the Army. Another was
the Special Assessment of the Impact of Army Reserve Equipment Shortages
(Funding/Availability/Modernization) and Training with the U.S. Army Reserve Command (USARC), which evaluated training issues due to equipment
shortages and the affect it had on our Soldiers morale.
The Army Reserve is meeting regulatory requirements through a combination
of Battle-Focused Readiness Reviews (BFRRs) and staff assistance visits, with
the assistance visits conforming to regulatory requirements of AR 1201. The
BFRR is the tool used by major subordinate Commanders to provide the
Army Reserve Commanding General a status on resources and readiness of
their commands, and resolve systemic issues/trends in order to achieve continuous improvements in readiness. The Army Reserve conducted 19 BFRRs
in fiscal year 2009, while inspecting 65 units. The staff assistance visits were
more oriented to a particular topic in the staff proponents area.
20. A listing, for each ARNG combat unit (and U.S. Army Reserve FSP units) of
the active-duty combat units (and other units) associated with that ARNG (and U.S.
Army Reserve) unit in accordance with section 1131(a) of ANGCRRA, shown by
State, for each such ARNG unit (and for the U.S. Army Reserve) by: (A) the assessment of the commander of that associated active-duty unit of the manpower, equipment, and training resource requirements of that National Guard (and Army Re-

26
serve) unit in accordance with section 1131(b)(3) of the ANGCRRA; and (B) the results of the validation by the commander of that associated active-duty unit of the
compatibility of that National Guard (or U.S. Army Reserve) unit with active duty
forces in accordance with section 1131(b)(4) of ANGCRRA.
There are no longer ground combat active or reserve component associations
due to operational mission requirements and deployment tempo.
As FORSCOMs executive agent, First Army and U.S. Army Pacific (USARPAC)
for Pacific based Reserve Component units, execute active duty associate unit
responsibilities through both their pre-mobilization and post-mobilization efforts
with reserve component units. When reserve component units are mobilized,
they are thoroughly assessed in terms of manpower, equipment, and training
by the appropriate chain of command, and that assessment is approved by First
Army or USARPAC as part of the validation for unit deployment.
Validation of the compatibility of the Reserve Component units with the active
duty forces occurs primarily during training and readiness activities at mobilization stations, with direct oversight by First Army, USARPAC, and
FORSCOM.
21. A specification of the active-duty personnel assigned to units of the Selected
Reserve pursuant to section 414(c) of the National Defense Authorization Act for
Fiscal Years 1992 and 1993 (10 U.S.C. 261 note), shown (a) by State for the Army
National Guard (and for the U.S. Army Reserve), (b) by rank of officers, warrant
officers, and enlisted members assigned, and (c) by unit or other organizational entity of assignment.

TITLE XI (FISCAL YEAR 2009) AUTHORIZATIONS


OFF

ENL

WO

TOTAL

U.S. Army Reserve ........................................................................................


TRADOC .........................................................................................................
FORSCOM ......................................................................................................
USARPAC .......................................................................................................

97
50
979
30

110
3
2,165
49

8
0
101
1

215
53
3,245
80

TOTAL ...............................................................................................

1,156

2,327

102

3,593

TITLE XI (FISCAL YEAR 2009) ASSIGNED


OFF

ENL

WO

TOTAL

U.S. Army Reserve ........................................................................................


TRADOC .........................................................................................................
FORSCOM ......................................................................................................
USARPAC .......................................................................................................

28
5
659
28

77
5
2,119
53

7
0
85
1

112
10
2,863
82

TOTAL ...............................................................................................

720

2,254

93

3,067

As of September 30, 2009, the Army had 3,067 active component Soldiers assigned to Title XI positions. In fiscal year 2006, the Army began reducing authorizations in accordance with the National Defense Authorization Act 2005
(NDAA 2005, Public Laws 108767, Section 515). Army G1 and U.S. Army
Human Resources Command (HRC) carefully manage the authorizations and
fill of Title XI positions. The data is captured at the command level. The actual
duty location for each position is not captured down to the state level of detail.

Chairman INOUYE. And, may I now call upon General Casey.


SUMMARY STATEMENT OF GENERAL GEORGE W. CASEY

General CASEY. Thank you, Mr. Chairman, Senators. Ill give you
my whole statement for the record, and just try to summarize here
for you, because of time.
What Id like to do, Mr. Chairman, is give you a short update on
where we are on restoring balance, and then talk briefly about
three areas that are priorities for the Army and, I would hope, for
this committee, and thats sustaining our soldiers and families,
reset, and our modernization efforts.

27
Now, if I might, just to give you a quick update on balance, Ive
been saying, since 2007, that we were out of balance, that we were
so weighed down by our current commitments that we couldnt do
the things we knew we needed to do to sustain this force for the
long haul, this All-Volunteer Force, and to prepare ourselves to do
other things. And, with you, we have been working steadily at this
since 2007.
I will tell you, this budget, this 2011 budget, plus the drawdown
in Iraq, gives us the resources and the time to complete the efforts
that we began in 2007 to get ourselves back in balance.
Let me just give you an update on some key parameters:
First of all, growth. We completed the personnel growth that
President Bush directed in January 2007, late last summer. And
that is a huge boost for us. But, even as we completed that growth,
it was clear that, for a number of reasons, we needed to continue
to grow. And, as you mentioned in your opening statement, Mr.
Chairman, the Secretary of Defense did authorize us to grow by another 22,000, and we can talk a little bit more about that in the
questions and answers.
The second element of balance is probably the most important,
and thats dwell, the amount of time the soldiers spend at home.
We have intuitively known that it takes about 2 or 3 years to recover from a 12-month combat deployment, yet we have been returning soldiers to combat in about 12 months, because weve been
too small. Well, weve now documented that with a scientific study
that we finished last year that shows it takes 2 to 3 years to recover from a 12-month combat deployment. And so it is critically
important that we continue to make progress to our dwell goals of
1 year out, 2 years back, for the Active force; 1 year out, 4 years
back, for the Guard and Reserve.
Because of our growth and the drawdown in Iraq, even with the
plus-up in Afghanistanand our portion of that plus-up is about
20,000we will get 70 percent of the Army to our goal ofActive
Army to our goal of 1 to 2 by 2011; and 80 percent of the Guard
and Reserve to 1 to 4 by 2011. The rest will get there in 2012. So
thats critically important for us.
MODULARITY AND REBALANCE

Third element Id update you on is modularity. And youll remember, back in 2004, we came to the subcommittee and said we
were a cold war Army. We werent organized into formations that
could be organized to deal with the threat that presented itself. We
were designed to face a Warsaw Pact threat. And we have been
progressing ever since. Well, we are 90 percent of the way through
converting all 300 brigades in the Army to modular designs, and
we will largely finish that by 2011, which was our goal.
The other element of organizational change is rebalancing. We
had a lot of skills that were needed in the cold war, but were not
necessarily as needed today. And weve converted over 200 tank
companies, artillery batteries, air defense batteries, into civil affairs, psychological operations, special forces companies. So that
change has been going on.
So together, modularity and rebalancinglargest organizational
change of the Army since World War II, and done while weve been

28
deploying 150,000 soldiers over and back to Iraq and Afghanistan
every year.
Next element of balance, we feel we can get more out of our force
if we organize it on a rotational model, much like the Navy and
Marine Corps have been on for years. And were moving toward
that, and itll pay great benefits.
And last, restationing. With the base realignment and closure
and the growth, were moving 380,000 soldiers, civilians, and family members all around the world, here, over the next few years,
to complete that. But, the end result will be much better facilities
for our soldiers and families.
So, thats an update on rebalancing. With your support, we expect to largely complete what we set out to do in 2007, and be in
a much different position by the end of 2011. And this budget is
what gets us there. Still got stresses and strains, as the Secretary
said, and not out of the woods yet.
Now, if I could, just three quick priorities:
Sustaining soldiers and families. Theyre the heart and soul of
this force. Two years ago, we doubled the amount of money we
were putting toward soldiers and family programs. Weve sustained
that, and this budget continues that effort.
Second, reset. This budget contains almost $11 billion to reset
about 30 brigades worth of equipment. Thats, one, absolutely critical to sustaining the operational ready rates in the field in Iraq
and Afghanistan, and to the long-term health of the force. And as
we come downdraw down in Iraq, all that equipment has to go
through the depots and get reconditioned before its put back in the
force. And I worry that people will say, Yes, okay, were out of
Iraq, we dont need money for reset anymore. Thats not the case.
MODERNIZING

And then, last, modernization. As you mentioned in your statement, the FCSfuture combat systemsprogram was terminated.
And we have, in this budget, the beginning of a brigade combat
team modernization strategy that we believe is both affordable and
achievable. And thats based on four elements:
First of all, incrementally modernizing our network. And we do
that incrementally so that we can take advantage of continuing
growth in information technology.
Second is incrementally fielding capability packages. In the future combat systems, we talked about spinouts, about capabilities
that we could put into the force, ahead of the full system. Weve
refined that concept into capability packages, where we will incrementally put ready capabilities into the force as theyre ready,
rather than wait for the whole system to be developed.
Third, weve incorporated the MRAP, the mine resistant ambush
protected, vehicles into our forces. Theres a significant investment
in those vehicles, and weve incorporated them into the force. And
then, last, this budget includes just under $1 billion of research
and development effort for a new ground combat vehicle. And this
vehicle willis designed as a replacement for the Bradley. It is an
infantry fighting vehicle, and it is the first infantry fighting vehicle
designed, from the ground up, to operate in an improvised explo-

29
sive device (IED) environment. And it will become a very important
element for us.
Ill close with saying that I share your pride in what the men and
women of this Army are doing around the world every day. I
couldnt be prouder of them.
And so Id look forward to taking your questions.
Thanks very much.
Chairman INOUYE. Thank you.
Senator Brownback.
Senator BROWNBACK. No, Mr. Chairman, I dont have a statement to make. I would like to put one into the record.
And I certainly thank our two presenters here today. And I look
forward to making a couple of questions when my turn comes.
Chairman INOUYE. Without objection, your statement will be
made part of the record.
[The statement follows:]
PREPARED STATEMENT

OF

SENATOR SAM BROWNBACK

Mr. Chairman, I thank you and am pleased to attend my first Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Defense hearing. I welcome Secretary McHugh and General
Casey and look forward to your testimonies. On behalf of my state, I would like to
thank the Secretary and General Casey for their commitment to the military men
and women in Kansas, particularly at Fort Riley and Fort Leavenworth.
The Army faces a number of major challenges covered in the prepared statements
of todays witnesses. In particular, however, I would like to focus on the subject of
warrior care and our commitment to soldiers and families.
First, I applaud the Armys new Comprehensive Soldier Fitness program, an allinclusive approach to emotional, social, spiritual, family, and physical fitness, to
build resiliency within the Army. Recently the Army began a brain mapping program and I encourage these types of efforts to more fully understand the effect that
trauma and injury can have on the functionality of the brain. These efforts could
be a huge step in the right direction in suicide prevention and drug and alcohol
abuse prevention. I also want to commend the Army for their collaboration with the
National Institute of Mental Health on suicide prevention and I look forward to the
benefits we as a society can gain from the research and programs the Army implements.
Next, I would note that the budget provides $1.7 billion to family programs and
services and I commend the Army for making these programs an important part of
its budget. The Army is built on the backs of the families of its soldiers. I am
pleased with the commitment the Army has made to the military family and I encourage the continued investment in support services to these families. The implementation of the Army Strong Community Centers is a needed service for those
family members of the Army Reserve who so often do not have a physical base to
call home.
In particular, I want to highlight a couple of items worth of additional attention
from the Army. First, following the example in Illinois and other facilities, I encourage the Army to look at joint VA/DOD hospitals to streamline care and provide the
best medical services to military members, their families, and military retirees. A
related issue involves transitioning our active duty soldiers into the VA system.
There are several pilot programs that attempt to seamlessly transition active duty
soldiers into the VA system but they have had limited success. Obviously, the new
electronic medical records will be a huge step in help transition a soldier from DOD
to the VA. However, the disability rating system is still too slow and behind the
times. I ask that you work closely with the VA to ensure these soldiers are getting
the proper care and benefits they are entitled to.
I also want to highlight an emerging problem at Fort Riley, in my state, as well
as other Army posts: school overcrowding. Fort Riley is again the home of the headquarters of the First Infantry Division and the combination of that move with other
BRAC and Grow the Force decisions has led to a dramatic expansion of this post.
I am very proud that the surrounding communities stepped up to the plate to prepare for the thousands of soldiers and family members arriving in the area. But
after exhausting their bonding capacity to provide classroom space off-post (which
has already been filled), the local communities lack the ability to handle a much

30
larger than anticipated on-post student population. I know that the Army and the
Department of Defense are not usually in the business of school construction, but
I also know that Fort Riley is not the only installation facing this problem. Other
posts are now or will soon face similar issues, and we have to find a way to make
sure these children have a place to go to school.
It is a huge concern in the Fort Riley school district, a top priority of Major General Brooks, who commands the First Infantry Division, and something that I intend to prioritize during the upcoming appropriations process. I hope to learn more
from the Army about what can be done to address this concern.
Again, I thank the panel for their time and look forward to hearing how the Army
plans to use this budget to meet the needs of our nations military.

Chairman INOUYE. Gentlemen, I have a few questions. Id like to


submit the rest because of the technological nature of the questions. They refer to the Stryker, the cargo ship, and your program
on balance.
STRESS ON THE FORCE

But, at this stage, may I askas noted by all the witnesses and
everyone that has gone to Iraq and Afghanistan, if they would say
that the troops are under great stress? And, as such, we have noted
suicide rates rising, alcohol abuse, and divorce rates. And you have
provided additional mental health providers and launched a suicide
prevention education program. Can you give us an update, Mr. Secretary?
Mr. MCHUGH. I can, Mr. Chairman, and I appreciate your starting with this question, because obviously it goes to the core of the
stress and the pressure under which these brave soldiers have been
for the last 8 years, but it also shows, I think, the extent to which
it reaches beyond the soldier into the family structure. I think it
is one of the most important things weve doneI want to start by
giving a tip of the hat to the Chief, and to my predecessor Pete
Gerenwho helped establish the program called comprehensive
soldier fitness.
This is a program that was started to try to provide resiliency
trainingto provide resiliency trainers to go out, throughout the
force. And perhaps the Chief would like to comment further. But
it allows people the opportunity, on an anonymous basis, through
computer technology, but in a very real way, to find particularly
tailored programs to help them cope. And thats a great start.
BEHAVIORAL HEALTH

But we have to get down on the ground on a one-to-one basis.


And, as you noted, Mr. Chairman, were working very hard to try
to expand the wide range of programs, including a dramatic plusup in behavioral health specialists. In fact, now we see, in forwarddeployed positions, the availability of behavioral health specialists,
which is rated, generally, the ideal of one to every 700 troops.
Were actually below that level now, but were continuing to grow
to that. Like what happens in the private sector, of course, growing
that cadre of specialists has been a challenge, but I think were
making good progress.
With respect to suicide, the Vice Chief of Staff, General Pete
Chiarelli, has taken that under his wing and, I think, has done a
terrific job in establishing a way forward to try to provide stress
release, to try to keep a better assessment, the pre- and during and

31
post-assessment surveys that are required now, as mandated by
this Congress, for each soldier, so we can, hopefully, identify problems thatas they emerge, to engaging in a pretty revolutionary
5-year longitudinal study, for the cost of $55 million, with suicide
specialists and the National Academy ofNational Institute of
Mental Health, rather, to try to understand the causes of suicide.
The specialists tell us that the exciting thing about this is, they
feel it will have application to the factors behind those who find
themselves in a position of choosing suicide in the civilian sector,
as well.
We will receive reports, on a quarterly basis, to try to make sure
that were implementing hopeful and developing procedures to try
to do a better job.
So, whether its alcohol abuse programs, with more money, more
counselors, more availability; mental health; military life; family
consultants; people to talk to; people to go to, to try to receive more
helpweve taken a very holistic approach to this. Were doing a
better job, but, as you noted, Mr. Chairman, the stresses continue,
and those stressor indicators, across the board, continue to be troubling to us.
Chairman INOUYE. General, would you care to add to that?
SUICIDE

General CASEY. If I could, Chairman Inouye. Frankly, Im personally frustrated with the effort that we have put on this over the
last 3 years, and then particularly over the last year, that we
havent stemmed the tide. And weve increased by about 18 suicides
a year since 2004. In this past year, with all the effort we made,
we increased by about 20. And as I looked at this over the past
years, it was clear that we were shooting behind the target with
a lot of these programs. And thats why we instituted the Comprehensive Soldier Fitness Program, to give the soldiers and family
members and civilians the skills they need on the front end to be
more resilient and to stay away from suicide to begin with. Its a
long-term program, but I think that is the only way that we are
ultimately going to begin to reduce this.
And the last thing Id say is this is not just an Army problem.
There was an op-ed in The Washington Post this morning talking
about the impact of suicide in society; we all have to go at this together. I think this National Institute of Mental Health study that
weve done is going to help everybody.
Thank you.
Mr. MCHUGH. Mr. Chairman, can I add just one point? We know,
both intuitively and, as the chief mentioned in his comments, by
the findings of the mental health advisory teams that we employ,
that the operations and personal tempoOPS and PERSTEMPO
and the boots on the ground (BOG)/dwell inadequacies are critical,
across the board, to all of those stressor indicators, and suicide is
primary amongst them. So, as we continue to do a better job on
keeping people back home between deployments, were hopeful
thatll have a positive effect on the suicide rates, as well.
Chairman INOUYE. I thank you very much.

32
STRYKER

General, Id like to ask a few questions on the Stryker. Weve


been watching media reports from Afghanistan that suggest that
these Strykers are quite vulnerable to the explosive devices; and
also they suggest that the Strykers weight may be a bit too heavy
to give it the necessary mobility it needs in this Afghanistan theater. What are your thoughts on this?
General CASEY. Well, as you can imagine, Mr. Chairman, weve
been watching this very carefully for some time. And, the Stryker
Unit that went into southern Afghanistan ran into some pretty
heavy IEDsI mean, hundreds of pounds of explosive weightand,
it did suffer some significant casualties. Weve been working very
hard on this, over time, to increase the survivability of the Stryker.
I will tell you, it is more survivable than the up-armored Humvee
and less survivable than the mine resistant ambush protected
(MRAP), and we knew that, going in there.
Before we sent it in, we implemented a number of survivability
enhancements to the vehicle, and we are in the process of evaluating whether those are enough to operate in an IED environment.
We are actually in the process of exploring a V-shaped hull kit,
much like we were developing for the manned ground vehicle with
the Future Combat Systems Program, that could enhance the survivability of the Stryker against underbelly improvised explosive
devices. But, again, weve implemented a range of different options
to enhance the survivability.
Im less concerned about the weight and the decrease in mobility.
The Strykers have been remissioned, actually, to a mission of road
security that actually takes advantage of the mobility that they
provide.
Last thing Ill say is, they served for me in Iraq in an IED environment, and we were not nearly as challenged in that environment as we were in Afghanistan. So, its still a very important vehicle in an element of our force mix.
Mr. MCHUGH. Well, the only thing I would add is that, as were
finding in these theaters, not all equipment fits in all circumstances. The Stryker, something that I was a big supporter of
when I was on the Armed Services Committee, has proven to be
enormously effective. Its had 11 successful deployments in these
two theaters, and we expect more. In terms of the feedback from
the commanders forward-deployed, they view it as a very valuable
resource. Can we make it better, more survivable? As the Chief
mentioned, were doing that on a variety of R&D programs. And
the V hulldouble V hull is preeminent amongst them. But, we
think this is a very important program, and we have a great deal
of confidence in it.
RECRUITMENT

Chairman INOUYE. Mr. Secretary, wed like to congratulate you


on your recruiting program. You have recruited all the numbers
you need, and the quality of personnel. My question would be, can
you maintain this trend? And are you funded sufficiently?
Mr. MCHUGH. The answer to the first question, sir, is, we hope
so, and were working to try to make sure that happens. General

33
Ben Freakley, whos the head of our Accessions Command, I think
has done an amazing job. But, the most effective thing hes done
is to try to recognize that we, in our recruiting and retention efforts, are, to a very significant degree, the beneficiaries of this
economy. As Americans, we hope the economy turns around quickly, but that will change the environment in which we send out
these recruiters and bring peopleyoung people into the force. And
were trying to prepare and revamp and refigure our efforts and
our programs to be prepared for that.
The money, for the moment, is significant. One of the major complaints I had, when I was chairman of the Personnel Subcommittee
in the other body, was that we had an up-and-down on recruiting
resourcing. And you have to maintain, in my humble judgment, a
certain level of consistency to make sure youre not eroding away
your base, not eating your seed corn. Now, its totally appropriate,
in this environment, that we cut back on some of the inducements,
some of the bonuses were paying. Theyre not necessary in this environment. But, we have to maintain that. Im hopeful were going
to do that, I think were poised to do it, but well have to keep a
very close eye on it in the future.
Chairman INOUYE. I thank you, sir.
General CASEY. IfMr. Chairman, if I could.
Chairman INOUYE. Yeah.
General CASEY. To your point about stress on the force we measure a lot of things to tell us about whether the force is under
stress. And it is. But, also to alert us that we may break the force.
Last year, over 260,000 men and women enlisted or reenlisted in
the Army, the Army Guard, or the Reserve. Thats a very positive
indicator of their commitment and their willingness to continue to
serve.
Chairman INOUYE. Mr. Secretary and General, Ill be submitting
for your consideration questions on the brigade combat team modernization, on the future role of the MRAP, the Aerial Scout helicopter; the question on SDS, and the question on joint cargo aircraft.
As you know, we are attending the memorial services for our
great friend, and a great patriot, the Congressman from Pennsylvania.
So, if I may, at this stage, call upon Senator Shelby.
Senator SHELBY. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
STRYKER

Id like to pick up on the area dealing with the Strykers, and so


forth, that the chairman was getting into. Its been my understanding, from serving on this subcommittee many, many years,
and the Armed Services Committee, before this, when they were
developing, you know, the Stryker.
The Stryker has been very good in a lot of areas, as the Secretary alluded to. The question, I guess, now, General Casey, is,
How long would it take, if we do go a double V-, or something like
that, -shaped hull on the Stryker, to give them the MRAP-like protection, give them more protection? Because our troops need that
in Afghanistan. And where are you in that regard?

34
General CASEY. I cant tell you exactly how long its going to
take
Senator SHELBY. Okay.
General CASEY [continuing]. Because were in the early design
stages of it. But, we are moving rapidly to get it built, tested, and
into the hands of the forces as quickly as we can.
Senator SHELBY. But, from an engineering standpoint, it looks to
me, from what Ive been briefed on, that that could be a probability, more than a possibility, to do this stuff. In other words, to
reequip and make the Stryker more safe.
General CASEY. Absolutely. In fact, as I said, we developed a Vshaped hull kit for the manned ground vehicle, the future combat
systems vehicle. So, the technology is out there, and its available.
And, I think it has great promise.
Senator SHELBY. Thank you.
Do you agree with that Mr. Secretary? I know youyouve been
a supporter of the Stryker
Mr. MCHUGH. Yeah
Senator SHELBY [continuing]. As I have.
Mr. MCHUGH [continuing]. I have, andalthough the environment has changed dramatically. Thats not a step
Senator SHELBY. You have to
Mr. MCHUGH [continuing]. Back
Senator SHELBY [continuing]. Change with it
Mr. MCHUGH [continuing]. From
Senator SHELBY [continuing]. Though, dont you?
Mr. MCHUGH. Yes, youabsolutely, sir.
I think its worth noting that the manufacturer stepped out and
recognized this early on, and has been workingnot
extrajudiciously, but been working on this and studying it for some
time. And, thats a great compliment to them, to recognize they
want to keep this platform as relevant and as safe as possible.
Im optimistic, at this time, that we can field this. Weve done it
with the MRAP as a start-from-the-ground-up system, we have the
Stryker out in the field. Id like to think, and have enough faith
in our engineering capability, that we can pull this off, and do it
in a timely fashion.
Senator SHELBY. If we can do that, thoughthe Stryker has a
lot of utility that some of the other vehicles dont have, right?
Mr. MCHUGH. The commanders have told us, time and time
againand I just got back from my 15th visit to Iraq and 4th to
Afghanistanthat they like and value this platform.
Senator SHELBY. Yeah. We all do.
General CASEY. If Isorry. Could I just add
Senator SHELBY. Yes, sir, General.
General CASEY [continuing]. Something to this, because I think
its important. I mentioned that the ground combat vehicle that
were putting in this budget is the first vehicle designed from the
ground up to operate in an IED environment.
Senator SHELBY. That would take
General CASEY. Each
Senator SHELBY. That would take the place of the
General CASEY. The Bradley.
Senator SHELBY. That would succeed the Bradley.

35
General CASEY. Thats correct. But the issues that were having
with the Humvee and the Stryker are all because they were developed not necessarily to operate in IED environments. So, were
adapting as we go.
UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES

Senator SHELBY. Mr. Secretary, Id like to get in the area of the


unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), if I could, which is very important to the Army and to our soldiers. One issue that continues to
be of concern is the Armys ability to continue utilizing unmanned
systems when and where our soldiers want to control them. I continue to hear, from our commanders on the ground, about the importance of the Armyof our commandersretaining control of
tactical UAVs. Weve been through this before. I know that a great
deal of our success in the theater hinges upon this capability, command and control. And Im pleased that the Army has not lost
many of these systems, due, in part, to the fact that the unmanned
systems can land themselves.
What Im concerned about, Mr. Secretaryand Ill bet youve
been through thisyou and General Caseyis enemies being able
to back into these systems, like we saw with the Air Force Predator
system last year. Could you describe what the Army is doing to
mitigate this threat, if you can talk about it here, and also talk a
little about the cyber initiatives that the Armys pursuing in this
area? Without getting into classified.
Mr. MCHUGH. I appreciate your sensitivity there
Senator SHELBY. Yeah.
Mr. MCHUGH [continuing]. Senator. I think I can say, genericallyfirst of all, the Army greatly values, and, as you noted, sir,
correctly, the commanders feel very strongly about the Armys need
to have these capabilities, particularly at a strategic level. The
Armys
Senator SHELBY. And control, too, isnt it?
Mr. MCHUGH. Yes, sir. The Army is going forward with an unmanned systems program that starts with the extended range
multi-purpose (ERMP), which is provided for in this budget, future
development, right down to the Raven, which provides commandand-control opportunities for us, as well.
As to what we read about in the press, I think I can say that
all the services recognized that potential vulnerability early on, and
have reacted very aggressively to it. And, for the moment, we feel
comfortable as to the security systems in place. Id be happy to go
into closed session
Senator SHELBY. Sure.
Mr. MCHUGH [continuing]. And provide you
Senator SHELBY. Whenever the chairman wants to get into that,
sure.
MI-17 HELICOPTER

One last question, Mr. Secretary. The Mi-17 helicopters. The Department of Defense, as you well know, has spent about $1 billion
of funding to noncompetitively purchase nearly 50 Russian Mi-17
helicopters for Iraq, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Ive expressed to
the Secretary of Defense, not to you yet, as well as this sub-

36
committee, my grave concerns regarding the use of U.S. taxpayer
dollars for Mi-17s, based on what we believe are false assumptions,
a total lack of requirements and no analysis of alternatives.
The Army has been very involved with the procurement of these
helicopters. And until I raised this concern, last fall, it appeared
that the Army was completely fine with funneling millions of dollars to the Russians to equip the Iraqis and Afghans, based on
nothing more, as we understand it, than the fact that these militaries had once seen an Mi-17 in the area.
Id like to point out that the Mi-17s have an exceptionally high,
as you well know, maintenance requirement, parts and services,
and theyre not ready available for in theater. And the U.S. trade
sanctions, I believe, were violated in the initial procurement.
Finally, its also my understanding that this platform specifically
violates the U.S. Army airworthiness requirements, document AR
7062. The questionIm getting to it, Mr. Secretary, slowlynow,
that the Army has been designated as the lead service for the Mi17 procurement and has established a nonstandard rotary-wing
program management office, why are there still no requirements or
analysis of alternatives to this?
And, if I could, Mr. Secretary, Id like to just remind the subcommitteeour subcommittee, herethat the 2010 Defense appropriation bill requires a report detailing the current and anticipated
demand for Mi-17s for Iraq, Afghanistan, and Pakistan; the anticipated availability or shortage of additional airframes; the sustainability of the airframe slated for use; an analysis of alternative airframes; and the future cost and funding sources available for procuring Mi-17C17s within 60 days of the enactment of the bill.
That was 74 days ago, Mr. Secretary. Where are we, here?
Mr. MCHUGH. After 5 months
Senator SHELBY. That was a
Mr. MCHUGH [continuing]. In the
Senator SHELBY [continuing]. Long statement
Mr. MCHUGH [continuing]. Building, Ive had a
Senator SHELBY [continuing]. I know that.
Mr. MCHUGH [continuing]. Great time to analyze what your
question suggests is a very complex problem, Senator. And, I would
answer in this way.
First, I would beseech you for the opportunity to sit down with
you and to go into
Senator SHELBY. Absolutely.
Mr. MCHUGH [continuing]. Greater detail.
Second of all, as Ias you stated correctly, and as I think it
needs to be further expanded upon, this is a DOD-directed program. The Army has beenas you again correctly noted, been designated the lead agent and administrator on this, but that is to implement DOD policy. The procurement program is intended, and
has been explained to me, to meet current and near-term needs on
the battlefield. And both the Iraqis and Afghanistans have seen the
Mi-17s. Its been explained to me
Senator SHELBY. Probably flying around.
Go ahead.
Mr. MCHUGH. Its been explained to me that those pilotsand I
know you understand the development of the personnel and the

37
specialists to serve in both the Iraqi and the Afghan security forces,
to actually pilot and to do other specialty military occupational specialists (MOSs), in their ranks, is somewhat strained. But, in the
near term, those who have seen it have also flown it and are prepared to operate in those particular platforms.
Youre correct, as well, their maintenance scheduled needs are
somewhat of high operations tempo, but in complexity they are
somewhat simple, in thatand Im probably the last person in the
world to be talking about this, butin that the mechanics and the
opportunities for repair and maintenance are relatively routine.
Having said that, and as a Buy American kind of individual, I
think its totally appropriate, as we go forward, that we continue
to assess the program. And at such time as its appropriate, when
perhaps the theater needs growth, we reexamine exactly which way
shouldwe should go in future platforms. But
Senator SHELBY. Well, that would include alternatives as you
analyze the needs, right?
Mr. MCHUGH. As directed by the Department of Defense. And as
everybody in theater, including the Iraqis and Afghanistans, get
more sophisticated across the board, I assume their needs and their
capabilities will expand.
Senator SHELBY. Well, Id like to meet with you sometime, and
well expand this a little bit further.
Mr. MCHUGH. Id be honored to.
Senator SHELBY. Mr. Chairman, thank you.
Chairman INOUYE. Thank you.
Senator Brownback.
Senator BROWNBACK. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman.
Secretary, General, good to see you.
Let me start off just thanking you for your work youre doing on
theboth the suicide and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
traumatic brain injury (TBI)work. I think itsone of the startling things to me, when I came in as Congressman, was the number of veterans that we were having in our office and coming by
that were having a lot of long-term difficulties from the Vietnam
war and era.
And I think one of the things we didnt get on top of was what
was happening to them mentally after they came back from combat. And Iboy, I see that thing playing out again, if we dont get
on top of it. And, it seems like the militarys recognizing that and
saying, No, somethings going on here, and we need to get on top
of this. Because, otherwise, youre going to get a lot of long-term
problems, difficulties. And its like almost anything, the sooner you
get on top of it, the more likely you are to be successful with your
options, and the more options you generally have available. So, I
really applaud that.
And I also applaud that I think we can find things out, here, that
could be helpful to the broader society. Suicide rates in our young
people is the third highest cause of death in teenagers. And youre
going, You know, why on Earth is that? You know, when you live
in a great country like this, and opportunities that are here. But,
you know, people really develop a thought that theres just no hope.
And when they get to that point in time, then options for doing

38
very drastic, dramatic, self-harmful things grows, and the more
likelihood there is that it happens.
Youre doing some work on brain mapping studies, that Im a big
fan of, because I think that may teach us whats going on mentally,
inside of a person. And the brain is the final frontier for us as a
as an organ. I mean, its just phenomenal, and its complex, and we
dont understand it very well. But, you guys work on this could
really help us understand a lot of those complex inputs, and how
theyre processed, and what happens. So, I really want to urge you,
and support that effort.
A final thought in this area, my own personal experience and
view has been that the resources are available, but its that there
are plenty of resources that are there, but generally when a person
gets into this stage, theyve blown through most of their relationships. Theyve blown through, maybe, a spousal relationship, family relationship, friends, and theyre on their own now. Theyre
alone in it.
SUICIDE PREVENTION

And thats when you get in trouble, in that if theres a way that
we can look at encouraging those, or spotting the people when they
start moving to a loner status, Idthats, to me, the whole key of
it. And thats very hard to do. I think its on a front-end basis,
where we try to encourage the building of more relationships, and
be very systematic about it. You know, youve got a buddy program
in the military, youre always watching for the guy next to you. If
theres a way we expand that, get the volunteer community around
these bases, around Fort Riley and places like that to do it; faith
communities, very happy to step in and work in a relationshipbuilding setting because I think that, at the core, is where we lose
it. Its not technology, its old fashioned I care for you. And having
somebody there that actually cares for them, and through thick
and thin, and whenthis is generally when its getting really thin,
and people self-treating places and ways, and Ive seen plenty of it.
And thats at the core, but what youve got to get at is that relationship building.
So, I really want to support that effort, because I think you can
help us out in the broader society, and we need to address it as
a military.
Ive got two narrow Kansas issues I want to push out to you. And
this is, by virtue of the things youve identified here today, this is
very small potatoes. So, you can look at it as such. Theyre important to us. Weve got two major Army installations, a number of
Guard installations in the State. Fort Leavenworth, Fort Riley,
were very proud of in our State, and we love them. And we really
are very appreciative of those installations, those units.
NEW MILITARY/VA HOSPITAL

At Fort Leavenworth, theres not a military hospital there. And


I know weve looked at the numbers on this and said, Well, its
not a size, yet. We do have the disciplinary barracks thats there,
we do have a small Veterans Administration (VA) thats there. And
I think it may be one, if you look into your future plans, that you
may look at and decide a combined military/VA hospital might be

39
the way to go with this, because its got a large military community, a large military retiree community. I understand, in Chicago,
youve done a combined Army/VA center. And in our future, I think
weve just got to be less stovepipe and a lot more interconnected.
And I think this may be a classic one where it actually could work
pretty well and also fit the disciplinary barracks thats there, too.
[The information follows:]
Recapitalization of the Munson Army Health Center, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas,
is in the very early phases of planning. The next planning visit is scheduled for
March 2226, 2010 to clarify requirements and determine full replacement costs or
program amount. The replacement project will compete in the Department of Defenses Capital Investment Decision Making (CIDM) process for likely programming
in the fiscal year 201217 Defense Health Program Future Years Defense Plan.
While the Army Medical Command and Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) have
opened dialogue at the local level, the currently developed project that will be presented in this years CIDM is a modern 175,000 gross square foot replacement Army
Health Center. Collaborative efforts between the Army and the VA concerning this
project are not ready for consideration in this years CIDM process.

Senator BROWNBACK. A second issueand this, again, is a narrow oneat Fort Riley, with bringing the Big Red One back, which
we are delighted to havethe community, the area, is just delighted their headquarters is back from Germany. Were busting at
the seams on our grade school, middle schools, with the numbers
coming back in. And if you can look at if theres any way to help
out with that, because we want to make sure we provide a good
family experience for these young men and women in uniform, and
their families. And were having difficulty meeting that.
So, as I say, those are small potatoes, relative to the other
things.
And overall, I want to commend you for what youre doing in
Iraq and Afghanistan. I think this military has performed very,
very well. It has been tough circumstance, difficult to do, but Im
really proud of what youre doing. Im proud of how the military is
operating.
Thank you, Chairman.
[The information follows:]
The Army has no specific authority to fund public school construction.

Chairman INOUYE. Thank you very much, Senator.


Senator Dorgan.
Senator DORGAN. Mr. Chairman, thank you very much.
Mr. Secretary and General, thank you for being here.
Let me ask a couple of questions. First, the issue of the Sky Warriors. I know that my colleague is very interested in that issue, and
has been for some while. I have wondered aloud and questioned
why we have almost identical programs run by both the Army and
the Air Force: Sky Warriors, the Warriors, and the Predators.
DUPLICATION OF SYSTEM

And when I came to Congress, several decades ago, I joined a


group then, with Senator Gary Hart, talking about trying to change
the procurement process and try to stop the duplication. Because
every level of service wants to do everything that everybody else
does, and theyre pretty successful in making that happen. And as
I watched the growth of the Predator and the Warrior program, it
looked to me like youve got two branches of the service that have

40
done exactly the same thing. And Ive been enormously frustrated
by that.
So, the question is, How will the Army Sky Warriors UAVs integrate with the 50 Air Force UAV caps that are planned for 2011?
I mean, are you working with the Air Force trying totelltry
to
Mr. MCHUGH. We are, Senator. In fact, we have been for some
time. In fact, I started working with Buzz Moseley on UAV employment a couple years ago. Its not only the procurement side of
it, its the employment side of it. And as we sat down, we realized
that we were talking past each other a bit. If you look at the levels
of war, it was pretty clear to us that the Air Force had the strategic UAV requirement. That was their baby, nothing for the Army
in there.
At the tactical level, that was really the Armys purview, because
we need to maintain pretty tight control so we can shift them
around based on changing tactical situations.
At the theater level, the operational level is where we were
bumping up against each other. We worked with the Air Force to
build awe call it a CONOP, concept of operationsthat gave the
Air Force the highernot altitude, but the higher-level requirements for the theater commander; and the Army had the lowerlevel operational requirements for the core commanders. I think
weve done a good job of differentiating that. Probably not as much
progress on the procurement side, in differentiating that.
Now, wethese ERMP, that are basically enhanced Predators,
that are in this budget, 26 of them, are somewhat different than
the Predator. But, I ask myself the same question you do, Is it so
much different that it ought to be a different program? And could
we not gain efficiencies working with one program? And I have not
cracked that one with the Air Force yet.
Senator DORGAN. I hope you will, because I have thought there
should be an executive agency for UAVs in the Pentagon so that
we dont have different levels of service doing the same thing, and
duplicating the research, duplicating the management of the program, and so on. Iit is frustrating to see. And I understand that
most services want to do everything, and even some things another
service is doing. Its been a battle weve fought for 30 years; mostly
unsuccessfully, Im afraid. But, thank you for that answer.
I want to just mention to you that Im going to ask the chairman,
at some pointIve not had a chance to visit with himbut, in this
appropriations bill, to include an amendment that will take a new
and completely fresh look at whether deciding in LOGCAP to, essentially, contract everything out instead of doing it in the service,
whether that has been an effective thing for the countrywhether
its producing food for troops, you know, under a contract, or buying towels for troops, or moving water to base. I happen to think
that the LOGCAP, and the contracts under LOGCAP, have produced the greatest waste, fraud, and abuse, perhaps in the history
of our country. Ive done 20 hearings in the policy committee on
this. Let me just go through a couple of them quickly.
The contract to provide water to the military bases in Iraq, that
contract resulted in nonpotable water at a number of the military
bases being more contaminated than raw water from the Euphra-

41
tes River. And I had the internal documents of KBR that said this
was a near miss, could have caused mass sickness or death. Both
KBR said it didnt happen and the Army said it didnt happen. And
yet, I got an e-mail from a commander, a woman, a physician with
the U.S. Army in Iraq, saying, No. No. I read these things. It did
happen. Im here. Im treating patients as a result of that nonpotable water that is contaminated. And I got the Government Accountability Office (GAO) to door the inspector general, rather, to
do an investigation. He said, Yes. In fact, it did happen.
BAD CONTRACTS

And it kind of bothers me thatit bothered me then, and does


now, that the contractor said it didnt happen, the Army says it
didnt happen, and, in fact, when you investigate, it did happen.
The sodium dichromate. We now have the Indiana National Guard
and several others testing troops. Again, we had the person who
worked for KBR on the site, who was a safety inspector, said he
warned the contractor. Contractor denies all these issues.
Electrocutions, youre well familiar with. The contractors work on
providing electricity. And wiring had to be redone, and we found
massive mistakes. Soldiers have died. Mr. Maseth died, taking a
shower, because of incompetence, hiring third-country nationals,
that could barely speak English, to do the work.
A man showed up, who worked in Saudi Arabia, who was doing
part of what the Army used to do, he was ordering the supplies.
He was ordering towels. And he held up a towel, he said, Here is
a towel I was going to order. My boss said no, that towel is not the
one to order, I want you order this towel. It has our company logo
on it. He said, Well, thatll cost three to four times more. His
boss said, Doesnt matter. I mean, this is a cost-plus contract.
Were going to make more money. So, he ordered the towel with
the logo.
And the list goes on and on. I mean, 22-year-old Mr. Diveroli gets
$300 million in contracts. Hes a 22-year-old president of his dads
shell company, and he hires a 26-year-old masseuse as a vice president, and gets $300 million in contracts.
I had the head of your Army Sustainment Command in my office,
and we had quite a talk. He said, You know what? Id do the same
thing today, knowing what I knew then. I said, Well, then you
wouldntif I were running the Army, you wouldnt remain in my
Army.
But, all of those things suggest to me that theres been something fundamentally broken in the procurement process, in the contracting process. In some cases, we even have contracted out contractors to supervise other contractors. I know some of thats now
going to change.
Im going to ask that we include an amendment, in this years
bill, to take a fresh look at all thats been done and evaluate if
there is a better way to have done that, perhaps bringing some of
those functions back into the Army? But, give me your assessment
of all that, General Casey, and perhaps Secretary McHugh.

42
RESPONSE TO BAD CONTRACTS

General CASEY. Well, first of all, I think your efforts have shined
the light on some things that needed a light shined on them. And
all those things that you said, happened. But, I think we have
learned from them, in advance. I mean, were not where we were
3 years ago, with contracts today. We actuallyPete Geren, in
2007, had an independent assessment of our contracting capability,
and it was striking how much work we had to do. And since weve
set up an Army Contracting Command with an Expeditionary Command and a Mission and Installations Command, and we have
more than doubled the number of trained contractor representatives that are out there to supervise these contractors. And were
actively training soldiers in units before they deploy to give them
the skills they need to do some of the oversight that was clearly
missing in the cases that you saw.
My sense is, your call to re-look this is timely. And itIm not
sure how much of this is folklore, but when I talk to folks about
this, what they tell me is, when we took the Army down, back in
the late 1980s early 1990s, from 780,000 to 480,000, somethe
mitigation for that was to be able to go to contractors to the
logistical support. And way back then, they didIm sure they did
cost-benefit analysis and costed the cost of a logistics soldier out
over the lifecycle of the soldier, and they figured it was going to
be cheaper to do contract for some of those logistical tasks. I think
its high time that we go back and see if those assumptions are still
valid.
CONTRACTING CAPABILITY

Mr. MCHUGH. Let me echo the Chiefs comments to you, Senator.


And having served a number of years, and watching your efforts
while I was in Congress, and a big fan of the military and the
Army, I deeply appreciate it. And I think I can speak with some
validity in saying that so do the men and women in uniform and
their families.
I agree with the Chief. We have taken steps to try to do the best
we can within the framework that is provided. As you know, were
transitioning to a LOGCAP IV that is different. I dont want to suggest, at this early date, it is perfect, but it does do away with the
sole-source and range of potential abusive practices that LOGCAP
III did, but it may not be the perfect answer. And I assure you, the
Army will administer and implement, to the best of its ability,
whatever oversight structure that this Congress, in its wisdom, decides to place before us.
I agree. Your final comment was about insourcing. We went far
too far, in my humble judgment. And I was part of the Armed Services Committee that supported those outsourcing initiatives that,
perhaps well-intended, I think had difficult results. Weve already
re-brought into house, insourced, some 900 core capabilities that
have provided the Army and the taxpayers $41 million in savings
and, I would argue, better oversight. And we have an objective that
is, in large measure, supported in this budget, to, by the end of
2015, insource to the Army another nearly 4,000.

43
Chief mentioned our efforts at the brigade and battalion level to
provide well-trained and more sufficient numbers of CORs, contract
oversight officers, and were going to continue to do that.
But, my experience has been, theres always a better way; the
challenge is to find that. And to the extent we can be supportive
in that search, we want to do that.
Senator DORGAN. I know that the chairman wants to end the
hearing; I think we have another engagement. But, Ilet me just
make one final point.
First of all, thank you for your answers. I described some negatives; there are many, many positives. And I finished reading a
book recently, and I think the title was A Soldiers Life, and it
is an extraordinary book about what soldiers do every day, and
what our military does every day. And while I talked today about
my concerns of some things, let me add what Im sure youve heard
from my colleagues, we are enormously grateful for the work both
of you do on behalf of a lot of people today who got up this morning
to face danger on our behalf. So, General Casey, thanks for your
long service. Secretary McHugh, Im glad youre where you are.
And thank you very much.
Chairman INOUYE. I thank you very much, Secretary McHugh
and General Casey, for your testimony.
ADDITIONAL COMMITTEE QUESTIONS

I have two questions here, submitted by Senator Cochran, who


cannot be with us, so I will submit them for your consideration.
We look forward to working with you in the coming months. And
I can assure you that we will do our utmost to make certain that
the men and women in uniform are given whatever is needed to
make certain that their service to our country is not only one that
our Nation would appreciate, but it will be good for them. And I
commend you for the effort being made now to look into matters,
such as stress, which is very important.
[The following questions were not asked at the hearing, but were
submitted to the Department for response subsequent to the hearing:]
QUESTIONS SUBMITTED
QUESTIONS SUBMITTED

BY

TO

HON. JOHN M. MCHUGH

CHAIRMAN DANIEL K. INOUYE

BRIGADE COMBAT TEAM (BCT) MODERNIZATION

Question. Secretary McHugh, the Armys Future Combat Systems program, FCS,
has been terminated and replaced with a program to incrementally field many of
the technologies that were developed under the FCS program. However, a recent
Limited User Test showed that despite an investment of almost $21 billion in the
last 7 years, many of these technologies are unreliable and do not work as intended.
This raises serious questions about the acquisition strategy pursued by the Army
for FCS. What lessons has the Army learned from its FCS program acquisition
strategy and how will you incorporate them into future Army acquisition programs?
Answer. After cancellation of the FCS program, the Army conducted an analysis
of requirements based on the lessons learned from the last 8 years of war. We retained the family of systems knowledge base acquired during the FCS program as
well as technologies related to the network, and unmanned/ground vehicles developed during the program. This analysis will now support the BCT Modernization
Strategy.
We found that modeling, simulations and scenarios depicting FCS capabilities and
operations became increasingly complex over time, which resulted in fewer scenarios

44
that limited our ability to analyze across a wide range of relevant operating conditions. A key lesson learned from this experience was that the Lead Systems Integrator (LSI) was contracted to produce analytical deliverables that were duplicative
of what the Army was doing and that were more advocacy than analysis. These
products were therefore of questionable value. Additionally, during critical early program stages, the unique technical expertise and capabilities resident within the
Army were not leveraged by the Program Manager/LSI team, especially for platform
survivability and the network. The Army has moved away from the LSI model and
restructured the contract, establishing a Prime Contractor to deliver Increment 1 capabilities to our Brigade Combat Teams.
While retaining the effort to integrate, develop and field capabilities as a system,
the Army is also fully embracing competition and Department of Defense Instruction 5000.2 to support our BCT Modernization strategy. For example, the Ground
Combat Vehicle program will be competitive beginning at a Milestone A and using
best practices, including competitive prototyping through its acquisition process.
Further, FCS did not adequately revalidate operational concepts at regular intervals to address lessons learned or reassess technology development. The BCT Modernization Plan will focus on technologically feasible and affordable solutions, address lessons learned, allow for incremental technological development, and have appropriate mitigation plans in place. For example, the Army will field Increment 1
capabilities only when they are mature and will structure the program to allow for
technological upgrades and refinements even during the fielding process.
Early in development, the Army decided to let Soldiers test and evaluate the systems through the Army Evaluation Task Force. As a result, Soldier feedback has
played a key role in optimizing designs throughout the development phaseultimately leading to a better end product. Increment 1 capabilities are now in their
third year of the 4 year test cycle.
FUTURE ROLE OF MRAP VEHICLES

Question. Secretary McHugh, a success story from the wars has been the rapid
development and fielding of Mine Resistant Ambush Protected Vehicles, MRAPS.
The Army has taken receipt of 12,000 MRAPs and has a requirement for about
5,800 light-weight MRAPs. But despite the MRAPs unquestioned success, I get the
feeling that these vehicles are treated like the ugly step-child. The Army has no
funded plan to integrate them into its force structure, and you are developing another tactical vehicle that wont deliver for several years.
Mr. Secretary, given the difficult fiscal times and Secretary Gates guidance to
focus on the 80 percent solution that can be provided immediately instead of developing gold-plated exquisite systems that dont show up for years to come, what is
the future role of MRAPs in the Army?
Answer. The Army has developed an allocation plan for MRAPs as they return
from theater. This plan, and associated courses of action, was briefed to the Under
Secretary of the Army (USA) and the Vice Chief of Staff of the Army (VCSA) on
December 22, 2009. The plan included placing MRAPs in task organized sets, select
units, and the training base. The USA and VCSA directed the proponents to conduct
a detailed cost benefit analysis on two courses of action for task organized set placement. The results of this cost benefit analysis will be presented to the USA and
VCSA on March 25, 2010.
ARMED AERIAL SCOUT HELICOPTER

Question. The fiscal year 2011 budget continues to modernize Army aviation units
at a rapid pace. However, one key program, the replacement of the aging Kiowa
Warrior helicopter, has been set back by the failures of the Comanche and the
Armed Reconnaissance Helicopter.
The Army is conducting new studies on how to replace the Kiowa Warrior and
the studies are reportedly examining new concepts of teaming helicopters with
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). However, it is not currently known how many
years it will be before a prototype Armed Aerial Scout helicopter will fly.
Secretary McHugh, the Secretary of Defense has warned about the dangers of
pursuing exotic and costly weapons systems, while ignoring the 80 percent solution.
Do you feel the Army is taking the right approach to the Armed Aerial Scout helicopter?
Answer. In July 2009, the Defense Acquisition Executive directed the Army to
conduct an Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) to meet Armed Aerial Scout capabilities
and to determine a replacement for the OH58D Kiowa Warrior. This AoA will determine the appropriate materiel solution(s) to address any capability gaps and
meet Army requirements. The base for analysis is the current Kiowa Warrior, but

45
the review will also include ongoing improvements to the Kiowa Warrior as an option. The AoA will be conducted in two non-sequential phases with the preliminary
results completed in December 2010 and final results published in April 2011.
On April 14, 2009, the Secretary of the Army approved a strategy to reinvest in
the Kiowa Warrior helicopter to address obsolescence and sustainment issues until
a viable replacement is ready. The strategy includes a funded ACAT II program
called the Cockpit and Sensor Upgrade Program (CASUP). The CASUP addresses
obsolescence, safety and weight reduction so the aircraft performs better in the current combat environment. The Army expects to sustain the Kiowa Warrior until
2025.
ARMY FUNDS RUNNING OUT IN FISCAL YEAR 2010

Question. In fiscal year 2010, the Department of the Army was appropriated $141
billion in baseline funds and an additional $78 billion for an entire year of Overseas
Contingency Operations. When the budget request was submitted last month, it included a fiscal year 2010 supplemental to send an additional 30,000 troops to Afghanistan. Much of those expenses are for Army operating costs and in total, the
Armys request to support the new policy is $20 billion. Secretary McHugh, with the
current resources available to the Army in fiscal year 2010, how far do you think
you can make it into the fiscal year before running out of funding?
Answer. A critical portion of the fiscal year 2010 supplemental request is the Operation and Maintenance, Army (OMA) funding for increased operations in Afghanistan. Because OMA comprises the majority of the Armys funding, this account becomes the measure by which we project a run-out date at the end of June, beginning
of July. Passage of the supplemental prior to Memorial Day would make funds
available in June, and would minimize the risk of impact on theater operations,
base operations support, readiness and family programs. It would enable the Army
to maintain required execution flexibility across all appropriations.
JOINT CARGO AIRCRAFT

Question. Secretary McHugh, I have a couple of questions on the C27 Joint


Cargo Aircraftthe plane that will replace the Armys fleet of C23 Sherpas. Last
March, the Congress was told that the Army needed 54 of the 78 aircraft planned
for procurement. In May, the Department announced that it would procure just 38
aircraft, less than half the number in the original plan, and transferred management to the Air Force. Has your staff reviewed the analyses which produced the
lower requirement and are you satisfied that the Armys lift needs will be satisfied
with the planned buy of 38 aircraft?
Answer. The Army has a validated requirement for 75 cargo aircraft, per the Joint
Cargo Aircraft Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) and addendum. Office of the Secretary
of Defense Program Analysis and Evaluation (OSD PA&E) completed a sufficiency
review validating the Armys acquisition objective of up to 75 aircraft. The Armys
initial procurement was for 54 Joint Cargo Aircraft (C27J). However, in April 2009,
the SECDEF directed the Joint Cargo Aircraft (C27J) program be transferred from
a joint Army led program to a single service Air Force program. He further reduced
the initial joint procurement from 78 aircraft (54 for Army and 24 for Air Force)
to 38 aircraft. The SECDEF has directed that the lift requirements be met by the
Air Force, leveraging their entire fleet mix.
TACTICAL RADIOS

Question. Secretary McHugh, the Army successfully incorporated commercial


radio technology into the Joint Network Node system in the last decade. Is the
Army planning to leverage other commercial technologies as part of the Joint Tactical Radio System? In particular, has Army looked at commercial technologies to
meet the wide band networking requirements?
Answer. The Army has leveraged commercial technologies to fill urgent operational capability gaps; however, there are no commercial alternatives to the JTRS
programs that meet all the Joint Service requirements. Commercial off-the-shelf alternatives may offer an attractive up-front price over the JTRS programs; however,
they only provide limited solutions and potentially make it more difficult for the
DOD to achieve interoperability of our joint secure communications.
Question. Secretary McHugh, what is the Armys position on fielding additional
AN/PRC117G radios to meet contingency needs?
Answer. In certain situations and missions, forces in contingency operations have
expressed urgent operational requirements for a wideband networking radio capability. The Army Staff is currently analyzing each request carefully to determine the
proper materiel solution for validated requirements. In some cases, the AN/PRC

46
117G is the best solution available to satisfy these needs. The Army has sufficient
stocks of AN/PRC117G on hand to meet all known contingency operations requests,
and plans to resource/field any approved requests from these stocks only. The Army
is not currently planning to purchase additional AN/PRC117G to meet contingency
needs. The preferred approach is to accelerate Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS)
capabilities, wherever possible, to satisfy wideband networking radio requirements.
QUESTIONS SUBMITTED

BY

SENATOR PATRICK J. LEAHY

ARMY GUARD AND RESERVE EQUIPMENT

Question. How much funding is included in the Presidents fiscal year 2011 for
Army Guard and Reserve Equipment? How does this compare to the relative size
of the Army Guard and Reserve compared to the active duty Army? Does the Army
support a separate budget line item that annotates equipment procurement for the
Guard and Reserves? Wouldnt this provide greater transparency?
Answer. Funding requested for equipment procurement is as follows: $15 billion
(76 percent) for the Active Component (AC); $3.6 billion (18 percent) for the Army
National Guard (ARNG); and $1.1 billion (6 percent) for the U.S. Army Reserve
(USAR). There are some deviations of funding versus size (based on requirements).
However, a more telling comparison is requirements versus equipment on hand,
which shows that we are funding to increase readiness in all components equally.
The Army does not support a separate budget line item, as it would limit the
Armys fiscal flexibility, which is required in a constantly changing world.
The Department of Defense (DOD) has provided the Services with implementation
instructions on how to attain transparency. The instructions direct the Services to
provide component-level funding data for the AC, ARNG, and USAR on annual
budget exhibits. The Army has complied with this by providing the data on the P
40 (Budget Item Justification) and the P21 (Production) budget exhibits for both
the fiscal year 2010 and fiscal year 2011 budget requests.
The DOD instructions also direct the Services to provide quarterly reports that
track the execution of Reserve Component funding and procurement. The DOD intends to provide those reports to Congress on a semiannual basis. The Army fully
supports and is in compliance with the DOD implementation instructions and has
provided the required reports for fiscal year 2009 and 1st Quarter fiscal year 2010.
DIRECTOR OF THE ARMY GUARD

Question. In what stage of the nomination process are we for the position of the
Director of the Army Guard? When can the Senate anticipate receiving a new nominee for this position?
Answer. Currently, the Army and the National Guard are in the selection phase
of the nomination process. The Senate can anticipate receiving a nominee as soon
as the selection phase is complete, which is estimated to be within a few weeks.
HOMELAND RESPONSE FORCE

Question. How will the Department of Defense organize Emergency Management


Assistance Compacts between the state that owns a Homeland Response Force and
the other states in the region that share it? Under what emergency circumstances
would you envision Federalizing the Homeland Response Force and taking command and control away from the Governor in favor of U.S. Northern Command?
Was the decision to establish the Homeland Response Forces made jointly by DOD
and DHS?
Answer. Emergency Management Assistance Compacts (EMACs) are arranged
and entered into by the states and territories in order to provide mutual assistance
and support of one another. They are not compacts with the Department of Defense.
The Department is drawing on existing National Guard forces to build a Homeland Response Force (HRF) in each of the ten Federal Emergency Management
Agency (FEMA) regions. Creation of HRFs within the existing National Guard force
structure recognizes the need for increased Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and High-Yield Explosives (CBRNE) response capabilities and capacity in the
event of catastrophic CBRNE incidents. It also takes into account the operational
experience states and territories have in supporting each other using National
Guard forces in either State Active Duty (SAD) or Title 32 statuses.
As is the case for the states that currently maintain National Guard CBRNE Enhance Response Force Packages (CERFPs), the Adjutant General of the state or territory that gets an HRF agrees in writing that the HRF is a national response capability, which can be employed outside of the state to provide support within the

47
FEMA region or in other FEMA regions, as necessary. The 17 existing CERFPs are
employed in state, out of state, regionally and nationally to respond to CBRNE incidents regardless of the units location.
The HRF will have the same early, life-saving capabilities of the CERFPs (e.g.,
Search and Extraction, Decontamination, Emergency Medical, and Command and
Control (C2)), as well as security and Brigade level C2 for synchronizing multiple
CBRNE units. Each HRF will have approximately 566 personnel.
States generally have jurisdiction over the welfare of their citizens. However, in
many circumstances the President, by law, has preeminent jurisdiction to handle
certain incidents (e.g., terrorism, most nuclear or radiological events and/or environmental impacts). He or she also may have the political/moral obligation to assist regardless of the nature/size of incident. Accordingly, it is essential to facilitate a
unity of effort as Federal forces integrate with ongoing State responses.
The HRF is designed to be employed in SAD or Title 32 statuses. Only in an extreme situation, such as a states incapacitation to govern and/or control the emergency situation (continuity of government/continuity of operations), is it possible
that the President would Federalize the HRF and place it under the command and
control of the Commander, U.S. Northern Command (USNORTHCOM).
Historically, over 90 percent of all incidents are handled at the local level; approximately 6 to 8 percent involve state level engagement, and an even smaller percentages have a Federal response. As such, the Department does not envision the
likelihood of placing the HRF into a Title 10 status under the command and control
of USNORTHCOM. However, USNORTHCOM will command the follow-on CBRNE
Consequence Management Response Forces (CCMRF) when requested to augment
the consequence management efforts of State and local first responders, National
Guard forces and Federal agencies by providing complementary and unique capabilities when the effects of a CBRNE event exceed their capabilities.
The Department of Homeland Security participated in both the initial consequence management study and observed the Quadrennial Defense Review. FEMA
provided information about Federal, state, and local consequence management capabilities for inclusion in the consequence management study. State involvement, in
the form of the Adjutants Generals, was facilitated by the National Guard Bureau.
TITLE 32 LINE ITEM

Question. In each of the past several years, the Department of Defense has paid
for Title 32 funding requests for domestic disaster relief missions as requested by
State Governors and approved by the Secretary of Defense. Naturally, paying for
these much needed operations out of regular Army Operations and Maintenance accounts shortchanges other programs. Does the Army have plans to create a Title 32
line item in its Operations and Maintenance accounts? If not, why not? If such a
line item already exists, please provide the identification numbers used in the Army
budget justification documents.
Answer. Under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance
Act, Public Law 106390, October 30, 2000, DOD may be required to provide assistance to Federal agencies and state and local governments in response to major disasters or states of emergency declared by the President.
In fiscal year 1990, Congress established the Defense Emergency Response Fund
(DERF) to reimburse DOD for providing disaster or emergency assistance to other
Federal agencies and to state and local governments in anticipation of reimbursable
requests. The Treasury index symbol for the DERF is 97X4965 and was initially
funded at $100 million. The purpose of DERF is to allow DOD to provide disaster
and emergency relief assistance in response to natural or manmade disasters without depleting the funds it needs to accomplish its mission. DOD Financial Management Regulation (DODFMR), Volume 12, Chapter 6 provides for the policy and procedures governing the Defense Emergency Response Fund.
QUESTIONS SUBMITTED

BY

SENATOR PATTY MURRAY

NATIONAL GUARD AND RESERVES

Question. Secretary McHugh and General Casey, the National Guard and Reserves have been called upon to support the efforts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Despite
their dedicated service they often come home to hardships, especially in the current
economy. In the state of Washington, National Guard unemployment is over 14 percent vice the 9.5 percent unemployment rate statewide. In the last year there have
been seven suicides with 70 percent of those tied to the Guardsmans financial situation. 2,100 Washington National Guardsmen live at or below the poverty line as a

48
result of their employment situation. I am concerned for these soldiers mental and
emotional well-being as they are returning from serving their country to possible
unemployment and financial instability instead of a happy family reunion. What is
the Army doing across the nation to help these National Guard and Reserve soldiers
and their families when they return from deployment to financial hardship?
Answer. The Army Reserve Yellow Ribbon Reintegration Program (YRRP) provides information, services, referral, financial planning and assistance, and other
proactive outreach programs to Soldiers of the Army Reserve and their Families
through all phases of the deployment cycle.
The goal of the Yellow Ribbon Reintegration Program is to prepare soldiers and
families for mobilization, sustain families during mobilization, and reintegrate soldiers with their families, communities, and employers upon redeployment.
When a soldier or family member contacts the Army Reserve Family Programs
Office for financial counseling or assistance, the staff will support the soldier or family member by providing the appropriate assistance and/or connect them to community resources based on individual needs. Local Army Reserve Family Programs personnel also provide referrals to professional financial counseling services for deploying soldiers and their family members.
In-person financial counseling is now available in most locations through Military
OneSource in partnership with National Foundation for Credit Counseling (NFCC).
NFCC provides financial education and counseling services at hundreds of local offices nationwide. Military OneSource arranges for soldiers and family members to
meet face-to-face with a financial consultant in their community. This program is
specially designed to provide short-term, solution-focused financial counseling for
service members and families, who may be experiencing a financial setback. Up to
12 counseling sessions per issue, per calendar year are allowed for each National
Guard or Reserve soldier (regardless of activation status) and families located in the
continental United States. For those unable to attend in-person counseling or who
are in locations where in-person counseling is not available, Military OneSource will
provide telephone consultations.
Additional assistance for returning Reserve Component soldiers is available
through the Employer Partnership Office portal. The U.S. Army Reserve created the
Employer Partnership Office (EPO) of the Armed Forces with the goal of assisting
soldiers and family members with access to employment when they return from deployment. Launched in 2007, the program expanded in 2009 to include the Army
National Guard.
EPO regularly participates in Yellow Ribbon Reintegration events, job fairs,
Wounded Warrior events and visits to units to advise soldiers and family members
of the hundreds of thousands of jobs available to them. Through EPO, service members have access to more than 500,000 jobs listed by nearly 1,000 employers who
have partnered with EPO. Additional assistance includes personal contact with
EPOs Program Support Managers who serve as caseworkers, advising service members not only about employment listed on the EPO portal, but about in-kind services
offered by many of our partners and military service organizations. Services include
mentoring and career development, job counseling, resume writing assistance, how
to negotiate salaries, how to dress for success, tips on how to succeed in positions
which are competitive and how to find jobs that compliment their military service.
Question. How has this affected the readiness of our National Guard and Army
Reserves?
Answer. Financial hardships, caused by possible unemployment for redeploying
Reserve Component (RC) Soldiers, have not had a measureable impact on readiness.
During the beginning OIF and OEF, RC readiness did decline. With the implementation of the ARFORGEN model and the additional resources provided by Congress
for RC units, however, overall readiness has been steadily improving since early
2009.
Question. How is the Army assisting these soldiers to improve their job skills to
make them relevant and competitive in the current job market?
Answer. In addition to the highly valued skills Soldiers learn in the military, the
Army has a number of programs to assist Soldiers as they transition into the civilian workforce. One of the newest, and most innovative programs is the Employer
Partnership Office (EPO) launched in 2007 by Lt. Gen. Jack C. Stultz, Chief, Army
Reserve. The program was designed as a collaborative effort between employers and
the Army Reserve to provide a continuum of career for our service members. In July
2009, the Army National Guard joined the EPO. Currently nearly 1,000 companies
have signed non-legally binding memorandums of agreement with the EPO. Many
of our partners are Fortune 500 and Fortune 1000 companies; others are nonprofit
organizations who contribute in-kind support to our service members as they transition into or back to the civilian job market.

49
Through EPO, service members have access to program support managers and
business partners who can assist with resume writing in order to capture the skills
and talent these men and women earn while theyre serving in the military. Other
services include interviewing skills and how to dress for success. EPO program support managers can identify partners who offer internships and apprenticeships or
offer assistance with relocation or continuing education. EPO also regularly briefs
Soldiers and families at events such as Yellow Ribbon reintegration events, Veterans events, Wounded Warrior events, job fairs and briefings to individual units.
Many of the skills that reside in the Reserve Components are shared skills Soldiers
use in their civilian employment such as the medical field, transportation, city planning, management and military police. Due to these shared skills, through the EPO,
we are currently developing pilot programs that would provide cross-training opportunities. One such program to be unveiled in the coming months represents a partnership between a major American automotive manufacturer and EPO to offer RC
Soldiers an opportunity to train on the manufactures fleet training package. In the
second phase of this pilot, the partnership will embed Soldiers in industry to train
as mechanics on hybrid vehicles before hybrid vehicles are used on the battlefield.
Additionally, we are reviewing ways in which a Soldier can earn credit towards a
Commercial Drivers License (CDL) while learning to be a truck driver.
FAMILIES

Question. Secretary McHugh and General Casey, I applaud your efforts in making
the families of our soldiers a top priority. Family readiness and support is crucial
for the health of the Army. The health, mental health and welfare of Army families,
especially the children has been a concern of mine for many years. This also includes education, living conditions, and available healthcare. How are you meeting
the increased demand of healthcare and mental health professionals to support the
families? If not, where are the shortfalls?
Answer. The Army listens to Family members who want easier access to care. Attempts to improve access to care include two new Army programs associated with
the new Child, Adolescent and Family Behavioral Health Proponency (CAFBHP).
The CAFBHP focuses on two new innovative clinical programs to bridge the access
gap: School Behavioral Health and Child and Family Assistance Centers (CAFAC).
Breaking tradition, the School Behavioral Health program proactively brings care
to the children rather than requiring them to travel to the clinic in the military
treatment facility. Similarly, the Military and Family Life Consultant program provides care closer to where Soldiers work and Families live. Clinicians provide shortterm, situational, and problem-solving consultation services outside the walls of the
clinic, which breaks down some of the traditional barriers to care. The CAFAC is
a model designed to be established at the installation level. The CAFAC brings together under one roof all the services on an installation providing for Army Families who are experiencing the stress of multiple deployments. This model creates a
single point of entry for family members seeking help, thus allowing for more effective triage and efficient allocation of behavioral health resources while increasing
access to care and reducing the associated stigma.
However, due to the national shortage in Child Psychiatry, shortfalls remain and
we are having difficulty filling the numerous Child Psychiatry provider vacancies
throughout the Army. As a result of these shortages, some locations experience an
inadequate number of therapists to help Families during the deployment cycle. The
Army is continuously working to improve both military and civilian provider recruitment and retention. Recent incentives, including bonuses and relocation allowances,
aid in these efforts.
Question. What improvements have been made with respect to the children of soldiers and meeting their special requirements? What programs have you implemented to assist the children of servicemembers with coping with frequent deployments, re-integration, and other stresses of military families?
Answer. The health and welfare of our children is tremendously important to the
Army, and we recognize the difficulties frequent deployments cause. As a result, the
Army has taken great strides by creating and bolstering numerous Child, Youth,
and School Services infrastructures, programs and services to help our children cope
with the full spectrum of the deployment cycle.
Army Families receive reductions in child care fees during the deployment cycle
and Child Development Centers have extended operating hours. They offer many
options to support Family Readiness Groups and the Chaplains Strong Bonds program. No-cost respite child care has increased from 5 to 16 hours per child, per
month.

50
Operation Boots On and Operation Boots Off help children understand and prepare for their parents deployment and redeployment. Child Behavioral Health Consultants are embedded in our programs to provide social, emotional, and behavioral
support for both children and staff. Military Family Life Consultants provide nonmedical, short term, situational, problem-solving counseling services in schools with
high military-connected populations. Army School Liaison Officers serve as advocates for military-connected students and assist them through school transitions and
with school-related issues. Academic support services help students compensate for
parental absences with on-post homework centers, and 24/7 online tutoring support
for students regardless of where they live.
Army-sponsored Community Child Care Programs such as Operation Military
Child Care and Military Child Care in Your Neighborhood provide fee assistance to
geographically dispersed Families to reduce out-of-pocket child care expenses. Operation Military Kids coordinates networks of citizens and organizations in every state
to support military children impacted by deployment.
Detailed information about these programs is available at the Army OneSource
website, www.myarmyonesource.com.
Question. Jobs have also been a concern of military spouses of deployed soldiers
or who transition because of a Permanent Change of Station (PCS). Especially in
the current job market, what is the Army doing to assist family members seeking
employment after a PCS? What about spouses who must quit their job or reduce
the number of hours worked caused by a deployment and the demands of the family?
Answer. Families are important to the Army, a priority to soldiers, and a vital
factor in the Armys overall readiness. A prepared family is better able to manage
deployment, long-term separations and Army life in general. The Army has a myriad of employment support programs that are geared towards our spouses, both Active and Reserve Component.
The Employment Readiness Program provides assistance to family members in acquiring skills, networks and resources that will allow them to participate in the
workforce and to develop a career plan. Employment services are available to all
Army Components, regardless of location. Services include: career counseling and
coaching; employment training classes; job fairs; Army Spouse Career Assessment
Tool; job listings and information and assistance on the Military Spouse Career Advancement Account.
The Army Spouse Employment Partnership (ASEP) is an expanding partnership
that is mutually beneficial to the Army and corporate America. ASEP consists of
a small group of committed partners from the private sector, military and Federal
government that have pledged their best efforts to increase employment and career
opportunities for military spouses. The partnership provides spouses the opportunity
to attain financial security and achieve employment goals through career mobility
and enhanced employment options.
The Dependents Educational Assistance (DEA) Program provides education and
training opportunities to eligible dependents of deceased and/or permanently disabled veterans. DEA reduces tuition by offering up to 45 months of education benefits.
The Stateside Spouse Education Assistance Program (SSEAP) is a need-based
education assistance program designed to provide spouses of active duty and retired
Army Soldiers, and widows(ers) of Army Soldiers who died either on active duty or
in a retired status, and residing in the United States, with financial assistance in
pursuing educational goals. The program assists spouses/widows(ers) in gaining the
education required to allow them to qualify for increased occupational opportunities.
SEAP provides for up to $2,500 maximum per academic year for fees, supplies, or
books.
In addition to these Army programs, many communities partner with their local
installations through the Army Community Covenant and host job fairs and job centers to help spouses with employment searches, resume writing, interviewing techniques and other services to help them find meaningful employment.
More detailed information on all of these programs may be found at the Army
OneSource website, the Armys online resource for information on programs, services and support available to soldiers and their families.

51
QUESTIONS SUBMITTED

BY

SENATOR THAD COCHRAN

RESILIENCY OF THE FORCE

Question. Secretary McHugh, I have been informed that a third of the suicides
this year have occurred at Fort Hood and Fort Carson. What measures are being
taken alongside the Army Campaign Plan for Health Promotion, Risk Reduction and
Suicide Prevention to address additional stressors at these two forts?
Answer. As of March 2010, Fort Carson and Fort Hood each had 4 suicide deaths.
These two posts account for 24 percent of Active Duty suicide deaths this year (33).
At this point last year, the Army had 53 suicide deaths. The Armys senior leadership is committed to sustaining our current emphasis on this problem.
The Army conducts an extensive review of every suicide death to improve our understanding of why Soldiers choose to take their lives. The Armys Suicide Prevention Task Force has created a standardized 37 line report that units use to analyze
the factors surrounding each Soldiers suicide. Within 30 days after a Soldiers death,
this report is sent to Headquarters Department of the Army for review, and a General Officer must back brief the Vice Chief of Staff of the Army during a monthly
senior review board meeting. This back brief is done via a world-wide video teleconference, so that leaders across the Army can share lessons learned and improve
early recognition of at-risk Soldiers.
Additionally, the Army Public Health Command (Provisional) has created the
Army Behavioral Health Integrated Data Environment (ABHIDE) database. This
database provides a standardized, enterprise-wide capability designed to integrate
information from legal, medical and personnel databases into a comprehensive
health surveillance system to support mental, behavioral, social and public health
activities.
By increasing Soldiers access to behavioral health (BH) care and the reducing
stigma associated with seeking such care, the Army hopes to positively impact the
delivery of BH services in garrison. At Fort Carson, Mobile Behavior Health Teams
(MBHT) were created to meet this need. Each MBHT, which provides Soldiers with
expedited BH evaluations and community-level treatment, can support a full Brigade Combat Team (BCT) (3,0005,000 Soldiers) and has a licensed BH provider assigned exclusively to each battalion (500600 Soldiers) (BCT). This system provides
a single point of entry into BH care for Soldiers and a single point of contact for
leaders with questions. The U.S. Army Public Health Command (Provisional) has
evaluated similar BH outreach initiatives at other Army installations, such as Fort
Sills Outreach Program in Oklahoma, and is currently conducting a full program
evaluation of MBHT.
Preliminary results suggest a downward trend in off-post referrals, wait times for
Senate Appropriations Committee appointment and key suicide indicators. Efforts
to measure the impact of MBHT on BH accessibility, provider trust, stigma and mission readiness are ongoing. A final report is expected in January 2011.
Fort Hoods Resiliency Campus focuses on wellness for its soldiers, families, and
retirees. The campus is dedicated to integrating the body, mind, and spirit by aiding
visitors in reaching individualized and measurable wellness goals through education
and comprehensive programs. The Resiliency Campus is based on the idea of helping the soldier and the family before the crisis begins. Through a network of support
services, the campus hopes to train and empower all soldiers and their families to
be resilient, to continue fighting in spite of lifes challenges.
Question. Secretary McHugh, are resources available to Guardsmen and Reservists after they come off of active duty to help build resiliency? Is there outreach for
their families when these soldiers return to a traditional Reservist role?
Answer. The Army, Army Reserve and Army National Guard (ARNG) are working
diligently to increase the range and quality of services provided to soldiers throughout the deployment cycle and beyond. Currently, there are limited resources available through the Yellow Ribbon Reintegration Program and the Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) Program. The Yellow Ribbon Reintegration Program contains
outreach activities to help soldiers and their families with transitioning to a traditional role. In CSF, Master Resilience Trainers are being trained to teach resiliency
to these soldiers. Soldiers and families can also use the ARNGs Family Assistance
Centers to help with reintegration. The ARNG is looking to increase its capability
to train Master Resilience Trainers.
ARMED SCOUT HELICOPTER

Question. Secretary McHugh, Secretary Gates has been critical of recent modernization efforts and has stated that too often we seek a 99 percent solution over
a period of years rather the 75 percent solution over a period of months thats re-

52
quired for stability and counterinsurgency missions. I dont know what program or
programs Secretary Gates had in mind when he expressed that view, but the last
two Army efforts to replace the Kiowa Warrior helicopter fleetthe Comanche and
the Armed Reconnaissance Helicopter programsresulted in program terminations
due to requirements growth, cost overruns and schedule delays. In response to these
program replacement missteps, this Committee recommended the Army consider upgrades to existing in-service rotorcraft as a low-risk path to a Kiowa replacement.
Mr. Secretary, I know you have been in your job for less than 6 months, so you
may not have had time to consider the Committees recommendation. If you have
had the time to consider the merits of upgrading existing in-service rotorcraft, would
you share with the Committee your thoughts, and if you have not had time to consider this approach, would you personally look at this and get back to us with your
thoughts?
Answer. Considering the rapidly changing battlefield and new developments in
Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures, existing in-service rotorcraft are receiving extensive modifications. Unfortunately, modifications often add weight, which has a
negative effect on overall aircraft performance. An example is the aging OH58D
Kiowa Warrior fleet. Although the Kiowa Warrior has performed outstandingly in
theater, there are materiel limitations. There are technology improvements, however, which are available to help address capability gaps on a new platform.
On April 14, 2009, my predecessor approved a strategy to reinvest in the Kiowa
Warrior until a viable replacement is procured. The strategy involves executing upgrades to the fielded fleet, weight reduction efforts and the Cockpit and Sensor Upgrade Program. This funded ACAT II program will address obsolescence, safety,
weight issues in order to improve the aircrafts performance in the current combat
environment. We expect to sustain the Kiowa Warrior until 2025.
The Army is also exploring all options to leverage existing and potential developmental solutions. In July 2009, the Defense Acquisition Executive directed the Army
to conduct an Analysis of Alternatives to meet the Armys aerial reconnaissance
mission and determine a replacement for the Kiowa Warrior. The AoA will be conducted in two non-sequential phases with the preliminary results completed in December 2010 and final results published in April 2011.
BRIGADE COMBAT TEAM (BCT) MODERNIZATION

Question. Secretary McHugh, what are the lessons learned from the terminated
Future Combat System program, and what steps are being taken to ensure they are
incorporated in other Army modernization efforts?
Answer. After cancellation of the FCS program, the Army conducted an analysis
of requirements based on the lessons learned from the last 8 years of war. We retained the family of systems knowledge base acquired during the FCS program, as
well as technologies related to the network and unmanned/ground vehicles. This
analysis will now support the BCT Modernization Strategy.
We found that modeling, simulations, and scenarios depicting FCS capabilities
and operations became increasingly complex over time. This resulted in fewer scenarios that limited our ability to analyze across a wide range of relevant operating
conditions. A key lesson learned from this experience was that the Lead Systems
Integrator (LSI) was contracted to produce analytical deliverables that were duplicative of what the Army was doing and that were more advocacy than analysis. These
products were therefore of questionable value. Additionally, during critical early program stages, the unique technical expertise and capabilities resident within the
Army were not leveraged by the Program Manager/LSI team, especially for platform
survivability and the network. The Army has moved away from the LSI model and
restructured the contract, establishing a Prime Contractor to deliver Increment 1 capabilities to our Brigade Combat Teams.
While retaining the effort to integrate, develop, and field capabilities as a system,
the Army is also fully embracing competition and Department of Defense Instruction 5000.2 to support our BCT Modernization strategy. For example, the Ground
Combat Vehicle program will be competitive beginning at Milestone A and using
best practices, including competitive prototyping through its acquisition process.
Further, FCS did not adequately revalidate operational concepts at regular intervals to address lessons learned or reassess technology development. The BCT Modernization Plan will focus on technologically feasible and affordable solutions, address lessons learned, allow for incremental technological development, and have appropriate mitigation plans in place. For example, the Army will field Increment 1
capabilities only when they are mature; but they will be part of an incremental
process that will allow for technological upgrades and refinements even during the
fielding process.

53
Early in development, the Army decided to let soldiers test and evaluate the systems through the Army Evaluation Task Force. As a result, soldier feedback has
played a key role in optimizing designs throughout the development phaseultimately leading to a better end product. Increment 1 capabilities are now in their
third year of the 4 year test cycle.
MINE RESISTANT AMBUSH PROTECTED (MRAP) VEHICLES

Question. Secretary McHugh, considering Mine Resistant Ambush-Protected vehicles are being incorporated into unit formations and the Army may maintain a presence in Afghanistan for a very long time, do you foresee an increasing production
requirement for MRAP vehicles, and do you plan to look at maintaining a production capability instead of cycling production and the workforce between full production and idle production lines?
Answer. Current MRAP production will end in December 2010, and no follow-on
production is planned at this time. This will satisfy every known MRAP requirement received to date. However, given the evolving nature of the MRAP warfighting
requirements, the Department is confident in the industrial bases capacity and ability to respond to any future requirements. As of December 2010, 25,700 MRAP vehicles will have been produced to meet Joint Requirements Oversight Council (JROC)validated requirements from all Services (19,368 for the Army). This includes 8,104
MRAP All-Terrain Vehicles (MATV), the latest MRAP variant designed specifically
for the OEF environment. Of the 8,104 MATVs to be produced, 5,776 will be for
the Army.
QUESTIONS SUBMITTED

BY

SENATOR MITCH MCCONNELL

SUICIDES

Question. Congress has established a national suicide hotline for returning troops,
as well as increased funding for mental health programs for active duty military
personnel. However, there remain a high number of soldier suicides. For example,
at least 11 suicides occurred last year at Fort Campbell. What preventative measures are the Department of Defense taking to address this problem? What, if any,
legislative action would the Department need Congress to take to expand suicide
awareness and education on posts?
Answer. The Army has taken unprecedented steps to reduce suicidal behavior in
both the Active and Reserve Components. Every day, the Armys senior leaders address the issue of suicide prevention. For example, we conducted an Army-wide Suicide Prevention Stand-Down and Chain Teach (March thru July 2009), released an
interactive and awareness training video and partnered with the National Institute
of Mental Health to begin a 5-year study into risk and resilience factors. In 2010,
we are continuing this effort by expanding the training for peer to peer support
using the Ask-Care-Escort and other nationally-recognized suicide intervention models, developing new interactive and awareness training videos and increasing access
to behavioral healthcare thru telemedicine initiatives.
The Army fully supports the requirement set forth in the 2010 NDAA, which requires person to person behavioral health assessments for every Service Member
upon their redeployment from an overseas operation. Finally, the Army is fully engaged with the Congressionally directed DOD Task Force for the Prevention of Suicide by Members of the Armed Forces, which is required to submit a report to Congress this summer providing recommended legislative recommendations to improve
suicide prevention and awareness training and education.
Army actions in 2009 to combat increasing suicide rates included the following:
Produced the interactive Beyond the Front training video.
Produced the Shoulder to Shoulder: No Soldier Stands Alone training video.
Updated AR 60063 (Army Health Promotion) and DA Pam 60024 (Health
Promotion, Risk Reduction and Suicide Prevention).
Published Suicide Awareness Pocket Guide for all Soldiers.
Increased access to behavioral health and substance abuse counseling.
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) grant for the Army Study to Assess
Risk and Resilience in Service Members (STARRS), $50 million/5 year study
quarterly updates to VCSA to accelerate lessons learned.
Tele-Behavioral Health screening pilot project with 25th ID, 100 percent screening thru face to face, VTC, or Computer Skype-like counseling.
Approved nationally-recognized best-practice suicide intervention skills training
for Army use to assist in early recognition of at-risk individuals
Army actions for 2010 include the following:

54
Developing interactive Home Front training video.
Developing sequel to Shoulder to Shoulder training video.
Developing an Additional Skill Identifier for certified suicide intervention skills
trainers.
Expanding Tele-Behavioral Health pilot project, evaluate effectiveness, and determine feasibility for using Army wide.
Developing program effectiveness measures.
Utilizing the Suicide Specialized Augmentation Response Team/Staff Assistance
Team to support commanders by assessing programs, policies, and resources,
and identify gaps to improve local suicide prevention programs.
COUNSELING SERVICES

Question. With the current deployment schedule, a heavy toll is being placed upon
the spouses and children of servicemembers. How accessible are counseling services
for deployed servicemembers spouses and children? Are these services available on
all major military installations? What programs are available for those living away
from major military installations?
Answer. Counseling services are available for deployed service members spouses
and children on all major military installations. Spouses and children may access
Military and Family Life Consultants through the Army Community Service by self
referral, without having to provide a reason for seeking these services, or via Military OneSource.
Military and Family Life Consultants are Licensed Clinical Social Workers, Professional Counselors, Marriage and Family Therapists, and Psychologists. They provide six free informal and confidential counseling sessions. No records are kept and
flexible appointment times and locations are offered. Military and Family Life Consultants are also available to assist soldiers who are experiencing difficulty coping
with daily life concerns and issues.
For those family members who do not live near a military installation, the Department of Defense developed Military OneSource. Military OneSource is a free information center and website where family members can seek assistance 24 hours
a day, 7 days a week. Counseling is provided by phone or in person by Masterslevel consultants on issues such as family support, emotional support, debt management and legal problems for up to 12 sessions at no cost to the soldier. Military
OneSource can also assist with the identification of a consultant in the familys local
area. Military OneSource does not release information about users of the services,
with the exception of issues of child abuse, elder abuse, spousal abuse and/or risk
of harm to self or others. Military OneSource can be accessed at
www.militaryonesource.com or 18003429647.
Family Members may complete a free, voluntary online behavioral health self-assessment, and obtain referrals at www.MilitaryMentalHealth.org. This is an approach to assist soldiers and family members with identifying symptoms and getting
assistance. It provides confidential and immediate feedback, as well as referrals to
TRICARE, Veterans Administration Centers, and Military OneSource.
In addition to the behavioral healthcare services offered at our military treatment
facilities, the Army Medical Command recently established the Child, Adolescent
and Family Behavioral Health Proponency (CAFBHP). CAFBHP, located at Joint
Base Lewis McChord (JBLM), addresses Army-wide family behavioral health needs.
Its mission is to support and sustain a comprehensive, integrated, behavioral health
system of care for military children and their families. The CAFBHP collaborates
with national subject matter experts and professional organizations to develop and
promote evidence-based behavioral health treatments for military children and their
families. The CAFBHP is developing media-driven information campaigns to address military culture and the stigma associated with seeking behavioral healthcare.
HOSPITAL

Question. Ireland Army Community Hospital at Fort Knox is one of the oldest
hospitals in the Army. With the new Brigade Combat Team stationed at the post,
I am concerned over the state of the current hospital and its ability to meet the increased demands placed upon it. What is the status of the Armys decision on
whether and when to build a replacement?
Answer. The Army ranks the Fort Knox Hospital replacement as our second highest priority, behind a significant addition/alteration project at Tripler Army Medical
Center, Fort Shafter, Hawaii. However, the final decision to replace the 52-year old
facility will be made by the Department of Defense (DOD). DOD Health Affairs uses
a Capital Investment Decision Model (CIDM) process to rank order the consolidated
military medical construction priorities for all three Services. The CIDM determines

55
the Services priority projects according to weighted and scaled criteria, and by assigning scores by a 12 member Tri-service Capital Investment Review Board. The
results of the most recent CIDM for the fiscal year 201217 POM are expected in
mid to late May, and will determine if and when Ireland Army Community Hospital
is programmed for replacement.
PTSD/TBI

Question. What are the typical steps taken to identify soldiers who may have posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injuries (TBI) to ensure they
get the proper care? Are there any further legislative steps that Congress could take
to improve screening and the delivery of care to soldiers with PTSD and TBI?
Answer. Screening Army Soldiers for PTSD and TBI is intensive. The Army recently implemented new guidelines for identification and treatment of TBI in Theater. Upon return from deployment, there is 100 percent screening for PTSD and
TBI exposure using the Post-Deployment Health Assessment (PDHA). The PDHA is
mandatory within 30 days following deployment. An enhanced version of the PDHA
replaced the April 2003 version in January 2008. A panel of mental health experts
constructed the PDHA questions, and periodically reviews it to ensure it meets the
intent.
Many soldiers experience an initial honeymoon period when returning from a
combat tour, when symptoms do not manifest themselves immediately. Accordingly,
we initiated the Post Deployment Health Re-Assessment (PDHRA) in 2005. The
PDHRA occurs between 90 and 180 days post-deployment. A review and enhancement process has been underway for the PDHRA, and the January 2008 edition replaced the original 2005 version. In addition to the PDHA and PDHRA, the Army
requires soldiers to complete a Periodic Health Assessment annually, which again
screens for TBI and PTSD. Army Knowledge Online (AKO) now integrates all of
these screening requirements with a readiness stoplight (i.e. red, green, amber) status, so both the soldier and his or her commander are aware when a screening is
overdue. All primary care providers receive training in the identification of PTSD
and TBI. As part of the Respect-Mil Program (http://www.pdhealth.mil/respect-mil/
index1.asp) all enrolled soldiers are screened for PTSD and depression.
In summary, the typical soldier is assessed and reassessed for TBI and PTSD at
several points throughout his or her first year back from combat, and periodically
thereafter. The Army is fully engaged in screening, as well as research to improve
early detection, care, and treatment. Additionally, we are working to further de-stigmatize help seeking behaviors and to protect Service Members from adverse career
consequences. We do not request any legislative action.
BRIGADE COMBAT TEAM

Question. With the recent addition of the Brigade Combat Team at Fort Knox,
what is the Army doing to ensure that the installation is capable of deploying the
unit with dispatch?
Answer. Fort Knox is currently designated as a power support platform (PSP)
with the mission of strategically deploying individuals and units from all Services
to include Department of Defense civilian employees and Reserve Components. Even
with the addition of an Infantry Brigade Combat Team, Fort Knox has sufficient
capacity to support all deploying units.
The Army is working on several methods to maintain Fort Knoxs ability to support deploying units, including Forces Command providing additional resources to
support movement/deployment operations under Title 10 requirements. Additionally,
future military construction projects will be programmed to improve Fort Knoxs
services, infrastructure and deployment readiness as part of the Army Power Projection Upgrade Program (AP3).
HOUSING BARRACKS

Question. In light of heavy deployments, I am concerned that many installations,


including Fort Campbell, are still housing soldiers in Korean War-era barracks.
What is the Department of Defense doing to ensure housing is brought up to date
to help increase morale for our already overly taxed troops?
Answer. At Fort Campbell the Army presently has barrack construction projects
underway and programmed for fiscal year 2011, 2012 and 2013. Completion of these
projects will eliminate the need to occupy Korean War-era barracks at the installation.
In 2008, the Army completed the Permanent Party Barracks Upgrade Program
(BUP) using Army Sustainment, Restoration, & Modernization funding. BUP elimi-

56
nated many inadequate barracks through modernization of existing facilities where
feasible.
Additionally, the Permanent Party Barracks Modernization Program (BMP) is
scheduled for completion in the fiscal year 2013 MILCON program. BMP Military
Construction eliminates the Armys barracks shortfall and eliminates inadequate
barracks where modernization with Restoration and Modernization funding was not
feasible.
However, neither BUP nor BMP specifically address buyout of certain types of
buildings. Facility modernization not included in BUP or BMP, typically involves
gutting the building to its structural slab and columns then reconfiguring it to a
11 standard and adds approximately 30 years to the life of the facility.
The Army continuously reviews its capital investment strategy to validate the
plans for replacement and sustainment of barracks facilities, a major feature in the
Army Campaign Plan. These plans address Korean-War era, Vietnam-War era and
any other barracks built before 1980.
BLUE GRASS ARMY DEPOT

Question. Why is the Blue Grass Army Depot chemical weapons stockpile in central Kentucky not being monitored around the clock?
Answer. The Blue Grass Chemical Activity (BGCA), which is subordinate to the
U.S. Army Chemical Materials Agency, is in charge of the safe storage of chemical
weapons at Blue Grass Army Depot. The stockpile is stored in earth covered steel
reinforced concrete bunkers. The bunkers are in a secured area with intrusion detection, and armed guards on roving patrols providing surveillance 24 hours a day.
The BGCA relies on multiple safeguards to monitor the chemical munitions stockpile to ensure public and workforce safety. These safeguards include monitoring in
accordance with our Kentucky Department of Environment Protection permit, visual
inspections and application of munitions lot leaker data from both BGCA and other
chemical agent storage sites. These safeguards, as well as an active Chemical Stockpile Emergency Response Program have been in place at BGCA and all Army chemical stockpile storage sites for decades. History has proven their effectiveness at protecting both the workforce and the public.
Question. It is my understanding a directive, FRAGO 10041, was recently promulgated mandating that several restaurant concepts at military bases in Afghanistan be closed. What is the policy justification for this action? Why were some concepts chosen but not others? Might this limitation on food options have a negative
impact on morale among our warfighters?
Answer. FRAGO 10041 was issued on February 3, 2010 by the United States
ForcesAfghanistan Commander to implement a 60-day closure plan for specific
commercial activities available in Afghanistan. This included all commercial fast
food restaurants brought in by the Army and Air Force Exchange Service. Afghanistan is a war zone, which has very limited ground routes into and within it. The
Commanders intent is to eliminate all non-mission essential traffic, because of higher priority cargo needing to be transported over those routes.
Our forces have access to various high quality meals in military dining facilities
and therefore commercial fast food restaurants are considered as non-mission essential. Furthermore, those fast food restaurants were only available to our forces operating on the larger bases. This decision levels the unequal lifestyle between those
forward deployed and those living on fixed bases. We do not expect a significant morale issue to result.
QUESTIONS SUBMITTED

BY

SENATOR SAM BROWNBACK

SCHOOLS

Question. Secretary McHugh, I wrote to you in December to raise the issue of


overcrowding in schools on Fort Riley. The Armys response to that question was
that the issue is being studied, but in the meantime, the problem is getting worse.
The community around Fort Riley has spent all of its available resources but cant
keep pace with the influx of students. For that reason, General Brooks, the First
Infantry Division Commander, requested help from the Army and from the Department of Defense to address the overcrowding problem.
I also understand other installations that gained forces under the most recent
round of BRAC, such as Fort Lewis in Washington, face similar problems.
What is the Armys plan to handle this issue?
Answer. The Army has no specific authority to fund public school construction.
However, we recognize that some of the school districts serving our military children

57
are experiencing school construction funding challenges, specifically, Fort Riley and
Joint Base Lewis McChord (formerly named Fort Lewis), in Washington.
To better understand the issues for all school districts serving our military Families, the Army recently completed a comprehensive condition and capacity inventory
of all on-post schools in the United States. Results indicate that over 50 percent of
the 122 on-post schools are in need of renovation or replacement. Our plan is to
work with the Department of Defense, the Department of Education and the Congress to develop solutions for those districts that have exhausted local and state
funding options. Please note that, although operated by the local school district, six
of the seven schools at Joint Base Lewis McChord are owned by the Department
of Education. Department of Education has the responsibility to fund necessary renovation or reconstruction for these schools, hence our need to work with them to develop solutions. Army owns the remaining school.
Question. Does the Army require additional money to handle the issue of overcrowded schools at posts that gained forces through BRAC and Grow the Force?
Was such funding included in the fiscal year 2011 budget request, and if not, why
not?
Answer. Public school construction is normally a state and local responsibility. Because the Army has no specific authority to fund public school construction, we have
not included such funding in the fiscal year 2011 budget request. Additional authorization and appropriation legislation would be needed for the Department of Defense
to construct public schools.
Question. Does the Army need any statutory changes to facilitate on-post school
construction or modification?
Answer. Yes, the Army would need a legislative change to assist local public
school districts with school construction. One potential avenue would be through the
use of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funds specifically targeted to school
districts that have been significantly impacted by Base Realignment and Closure or
Grow the Army stationing decisions.

QUESTIONS SUBMITTED
QUESTION SUBMITTED

TO

BY

GENERAL GEORGE W. CASEY

CHAIRMAN DANIEL K. INOUYE

EQUIPMENT IN THEATER

Question. General Casey, the Army has massive amounts of equipment in Iraq
which, as U.S. forces withdraw, require evaluation and transfer for reset, use in Afghanistan or disposal. We hear that the drawdown is well underway and that over
300,000 containers are moving equipment out each month. General, what is the prospective timeline for retrograde and who is in charge of this effort?
Answer. The Commanding General, USARCENT (the Army component of U.S.
Central command), is in charge of orchestrating the retrograde of Army materiel
from Iraq. He has considerable support from the Army Materiel Command, which
has a substantial presence in both Kuwait and Iraq. As directed by the President,
the timeline for the drawdown in Iraq is to reduce our military presence to 50,000
U.S. forces by August 31, 2010 and to have all U.S. forces out of Iraq by the end
of December 2011. We have developed synchronized and coordinated plans for the
drawdown of personnel and for the redistribution and disposition of the equipment
and supplies in Iraq. As you noted, that process is well underway. In fact, we are
ahead of schedule against the our established monthly targets in every measurable
area (e.g., personnel drawdown, vehicles, supplies, base closure, etc.).

QUESTION SUBMITTED

BY

SENATOR PATRICK J. LEAHY

RECAPITALIZATION

Question. As the Army undertakes its recapitalization program, are there any differences in the rates of recapitalization for Army National Guard and Reserve units
and the recapitalization of active duty Army units? Can you explain the rationale
for the discrepancy if one exists?
Answer. The Army recapitalizes equipment based on equipment type, not Army
components. There is no difference in recapitalization of equipment between Reserve
Components and Active Duty units.

58
QUESTIONS SUBMITTED

BY

SENATOR PATTY MURRAY

COMPREHENSIVE SOLDIER FITNESS AND MENTAL HEALTH

Question. General Casey, I received a brief on Comprehensive Soldier Fitness by


General Cornum early last year (February 2009) year and you spoke about it earlier
today. This program is a valuable tool for equipping and training our soldiers and
family members to maximize their potential and face the physical and psychological
challenges of sustained operations. What is the status of this program?
Answer. Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) is a rapidly maturing program designed to develop psychological and physiological resilience across the entire Army
community, including soldiers, family members and Department of the Army civilians. To date, over 420,000 soldiers have taken the Global Assessment Tool, which
is a web-based strengths assessment. Eight web-based training modules that target
resiliency skills are currently available to soldiers once they complete the Global Assessment Tool, and 20 modules will be available by the end of fiscal year 2010. Additionally, CSF has trained 829 Master Resilience Trainers at the University of
Pennsylvania and satellite locations, with a goal of training at least 1,800 trainers
by the end of fiscal year 2010. These Master Resilience Trainers lead resilience development training in their units and local communities. CSF is currently budgeted
for $42 million annually over the next 5 years.
MENTAL HEALTH

Question. General Casey, your efforts to reduce the stigma of mental health has
been worthwhile. I understand that the number of soldiers who feel there is a stigma has been reduced from 80 to 50 percent. However, there is a difference between
those who feel there is a stigma versus those who are actually coming forward to
seek mental health treatment. Despite the reduced number of soldiers who feel
there is a stigma, are more soldiers coming forward to seeking treatment?
Answer. Yes, more soldiers are coming forward to seek treatment. Our behavioral
health utilization data shows that active duty utilization of behavioral health services has nearly doubled from 2005 to 2009.
Question. What actions is the Army taking to continue to reduce the embarrassment around seeking mental help and encourage soldiers to seek treatment?
Answer. The Army is aggressively working to address perceived stigma and/or
fear of negative repercussions associated with seeking behavioral healthcare. We
have developed programs not only to help decrease stigma, but to also provide an
increased layer of privacy.
The Re-Engineering Systems of Primary Care Treatment in the Military is a program designed to decrease stigma by placing these services within primary care facilities. Through this program, any visit a soldier makes to his/her primary care
physician for any reason is an opportunity to screen the Soldier for symptoms associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or other behavioral health diagnoses. This program is also accessible via the web, where soldiers can self-refer.
Services provided are confidential, with the exception of the determination that a
Soldier is at risk of harm to self or others.
The Soldier Evaluation for Life Fitness program incorporates behavioral health as
a routine component of the health readiness process for all soldiers returning to
their home stations following deployment. Since every soldier receives a consultation
on-site, no one is stigmatized when seen by a behavioral healthcare practitioner.
Through the Soldier Evaluation for Life Fitness program, soldiers first complete a
computer-based self-assessment. On-site clinicians review the results of the assessments immediately, allowing them to tailor their consultations to meet each soldiers
unique needs. Soldiers can then be evaluated for individual health risks that may
range from PTSD and other behavioral health diagnoses to physical health conditions.
Military OneSource is a free information center and website, where soldiers can
seek assistance 24 hours/day, 7 days/week. Counseling is provided by phone or in
person by Masters-level consultants on issues such as family support, emotional
support, debt management, and legal issues at no cost to the soldier for up to 12
sessions. Military OneSource does not release information about users of the services, with the exception of issues of child abuse, elder abuse, spousal abuse, and/
or risk of harm to self or others. Military OneSource can be accessed at
www.militaryonesource.com or 18003429647.
Soldiers may complete a free, voluntary online behavioral health self-assessment,
and obtain referrals at www.MilitaryMentalHealth.org. This is an approach to assist
soldiers and family members with identifying symptoms and getting assistance. It

59
provides confidential and immediate feedback, as well as referrals to TRICARE, Veterans Administration Centers, and Military OneSource.
Military and Family Life Consultants are also available to assist soldiers who are
experiencing difficulty coping. Military and family life consultants are licensed clinical social workers, professional counselors, marriage and family therapists, and
psychologists. They provide six free informal and confidential counseling sessions.
No records are kept, and flexible appointment times and locations are offered. Soldiers may access military and family life consultants through the Army Community
Services by self referral, without having to provide a reason for seeking these services, or via Military OneSource, which can assist Families with the identification of
consultants in the local area.
Question. Does your plan include the mental health of families, and if so what
is that plan?
Answer. The Army is committed to the Army Family Covenant, which recognizes
the strong commitment and many sacrifices that families make. The Army also
knows that the strength of soldiers is largely dependent upon the strength of their
families. To address the behavioral health needs of families, the Army supports
many deployment-related programs. For example, two well-developed programs include the Exceptional Family Member Program, which focuses on assistance for
families with special needs; and the Family Advocacy Program, which strengthens
family relationships and provides assistance and referral to victims of domestic violence and sexual assault.
The Army also supports the Military and Family Life Consultant Program
(MFLC), which provides deployment-related problem-solving consultation services
for families and children in schools on post and in the local community. The Army
has instituted Soldier and Family Assistance Centers (SFAC) at all the Warrior
Transition Units. The SFAC is a soldier and family-friendly environment that has
become a popular location for Warriors in Transition and their Families. The Center
provides individualized, integrated support services.
To augment the Military Treatment Facilitys behavioral healthcare services, the
Army Medical Command recently established the Child, Adolescent and Family Behavioral Health Proponency (CAFBHP) at Joint Base Lewis McChord, Tacoma,
Washington. This new Proponency specifically addresses family behavioral health
needs; its mission is to support and sustain a comprehensive, integrated, behavioral
health system of care for military children and their families.
The CAFBHP collaborates with national subject matter experts and professional
organizations, including the American Academy of Pediatrics, American Academy of
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, and American Psychological Association, to develop and promote evidence-based behavioral health treatments for military children
and their families. The CAFBHP focuses on two new innovative clinical programs,
the School Behavioral Health (SBH) and Child and Family Assistance Center
(CAFAC). CAFACs are being developed and deployed to help mitigate traditional
stove piping of behavioral health services. The CAFAC will provide adult and child
family members with 24/7 telephone triage and to mental health services at a single
location. Services include psychiatric, psychological, social services and community
resourcing. This integrated, comprehensive behavioral healthcare delivery system
promotes military readiness, wellness, and resilience in Army children and Families.
Schofield Barracks has an established CAFAC and we are pursuing initiatives at
JBLM and Fort Carson. In the next couple of years, we expect to establish the program at Fort Hood, Fort Bragg, Fort Bliss, Fort Campbell, Fort Sill, and Fort Drum.
To promote evidence-based treatments and best practices, the CAFBHP trains primary care providers and their staff in screening, diagnosing and treating common
behavioral health concerns. The CAFBHP also designs marketing strategies to decrease the stigma associated with seeking behavioral healthcare.
STRYKER V HULLS

Question. General Casey, as you well know, three Stryker brigades from Fort
Lewis Washington are on deployment today. Two are in Iraq and another in Afghanistan. It is my understanding the Army has gone to great lengths to enhance the
safety of these troops by adding armor kits to the vehicles to defeat various threats.
It is also my understanding that a so-called double-V hullsomething similar to the
MRAP vehiclehas been developed for the Stryker to further increase the protection of our soldiers. Can you explain the utility of the double-V hull and if this is
something we should be doing to protect those brave Stryker brigade soldiers?
Answer. The Double V-hull enhancement shows great potential for increasing survivability and mitigating the blast effects of Improvised Explosive Devices. The Dou-

60
ble V-hull is an accelerated portion of the current Army acquisition strategy for
Stryker modernization. The Double-V shaped hull will potentially provide Mine Resistant Ambush Protected vehicle-like protection to a proven fighting vehicle in the
Armys most highly demanded Brigade Combat Team.
If testing proves successful, the Army anticipates fielding an initial capability of
Double V-hulled Strykers in late fiscal year 2011, with a complete brigade set
(minus Mobile Gun System and Nuclear Biological Chemical Reconnaissance Vehicle) to Operation Enduring Freedom by late fiscal year 2012.

QUESTIONS SUBMITTED

BY

SENATOR THAD COCHRAN

RESTORING BALANCE/RISK

Question. General Casey, over the past few years, we have heard about efforts to
restore balance to the Army. In your prepared testimony, restoring balance is discussed, and it is noted that the Army lacks sufficient strategic flexibility and continues to accumulate risk to meet the challenges you may face in the future. Can
you expand on this statement and explain what it means, and over time, how much
risk has accumulated and is now being accepted by the Army. Does the Army and
our Armed Forces find themselves in the same situation as the proverbial frog in
a pot of waterthe frog is cozy as the water slowly heats-up and doesnt recognize
the danger it is in?
Answer. The Armys forces are committed to prevailing in the current fight by
ramping up in Afghanistan as we responsibly draw down in Iraq. Thanks to the
support of Congress and the American people, the Army is receiving the resources
it needs to restore readiness, but the continuing pace of operations means we are
consuming that readiness as fast as we produce it. The commitment of the Army
to Iraq and Afghanistan limits the choices available to our national leadership if another crisiswhether humanitarian or armed conflictarises. It also means the
Army cannot train all units to standard on full spectrum operations, which is necessary to provide a trained and ready force for the variety of possible missions in
a world of persistent conflict.
We are making progress in restoring balance, reaching a sustainable and predictable force rotational cycle in 2012 of 2 years at home station for every year deployed
for our Active Component, and 4 years at home station for every year mobilized for
our Reserve Component. However, even after the end of major combat operations
in Afghanistan, we expect a few challenging years of recapitalizing and repairing
equipment, re-integrating with our families, and training forces for full spectrum operations, before we can provide true strategic flexibility to our leaders.
With Congress continued support, the Army will restore balance by achieving sustainable deploy-to-dwell ratios; adequately providing for soldiers, civilians, and families; and with reliable, timely, and consistent funding, resetting our equipment and
pre-positioned stocks. These measures will restore readiness and the strategic flexibility necessary to provide trained and ready forces for full spectrum operations and
future contingencies at a tempo that is predictable and sustainable for our All-Volunteer Force.
ARMY UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES

Question. General Casey, I am informed that the Army plans to modify the Shadow Unmanned Aerial Vehicle to meet requirements that the terminated Fire Scout
program was expected to fulfill. The fiscal year 2011 budget request includes over
a half billion to begin this work. General Casey, can you share with the Committee
the thought behind the Fire Scout termination, and will this $500 million investment in Shadow provide your soldiers with the full capability needed to conduct
their missions?
Answer. With the termination of Future Combat Systems, we determined that the
Fire Scout did not fulfill a requirement in the modular Brigade Combat Teams
(BCT). The improvements that we are making to our Shadow fleet will sufficiently
address the most critical capability gaps in the BCTs. Some of these improvements
include retrofit kits to increase endurance while adding reliability, laser designation
capability and NSA Type I encryption. Our BCTs, Fires Brigades, Battlefield Surveillance Brigades and Special Forces formations will benefit from the additional capabilities funded in the fiscal year 2011 Presidents budget. This improvement effort
will continue beyond fiscal year 2011 to provide full capability to our soldiers.

61
RESILIENCY OF THE FORCE

Question. General Casey, does the fiscal year 2011 budget continue to fully support Army Resiliency initiatives? What other efforts are included in this years budget which was not part of the fiscal year 2010 program?
Answer. Yes. Comprehensive Soldier Fitness is fully funded in fiscal year 2011 at
$42.5 million. Future efforts include expanding the Master Resilience Trainers
(MRT) program by establishing an MRT course at Fort Jackson, South Carolina;
reaching out to family members through voluntary participation in the Global Assessment Tool; and increasing the online Comprehensive Resilience Modules.
BRIGADE COMBAT TEAM (BCT) MODERNIZATION

Question. General Casey, over $20 billion has been invested in technologies developed under the terminated Future Combat System program. The Army now plans
to field some of these technologies to Army brigades under the Brigade Combat
Team Modernization program. What systems or technologies are going to be fielded
under this effort, and how have they performed in recent testing?
Answer. Increment 1 of Brigade Combat Team (BCT) Modernization contains systems from the FCS program. It provides enhanced war fighter capabilities to the
Current Force in two primary areas. First, it provides enhanced situational awareness, force protection and lethality through the use of unattended and attended sensors and munitions. Second, it provides a communications network backbone for Infantry BCT and Battalion Command Networks. Increment 1 capabilities consist of
the following systems: Unattended Urban and Tactical Ground Sensors, Small Unmanned Ground Vehicle, Class I Block 0 Unmanned Air Vehicle, Non Line of SightLaunch System, and Network Integration Kit (for the HMMWV).
During the 2009 Limited User Test, Increment 1 capabilities met or partially met
14 of 15 Army test criteria. The systems did not meet reliability criteria. User tests
revealed issues with equipment and software reliability, availability and maintainability. The program office, in coordination with the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation
command and U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, is taking steps to correct these issues. To date, more than 94 percent of the hardware issues have been
corrected and the program is continuing to integrate software changes and increased
capability in preparation for the 2010 test cycle.
MINE RESISTANT AMBUSH PROTECTED (MRAP) VEHICLES

Question. General Casey, when Secretary Gates announced his adjustments to Defense acquisition programs last year, he terminated the manned ground vehicle portion of the Future Combat System. One of reasons cited for the termination was
that the Armys current vehicle program did not include a role for the Mine Resistant Ambush-Protected vehicles which has received more than $30 billion of investment. What is the Army plan for incorporating Mine Resistant Ambush-Protected
vehicles across your unit formations?
Answer. The Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) family of vehicles has
performed well in theater and provides critical protection to soldiers against mines
and improvised explosive devices. The Army plans to place over 15,000 MRAPs and
MATVs in the force structure. Vehicles will be allocated to task organized sets, and
deployed when MRAP levels of protection are required; used by units to fill existing
capability gaps; and used in a robust training fleet to assist soldiers in maintaining
proficiency.
We will place 9,284 vehicles in the following task organized sets: 11 Infantry Brigade Combat Teams; 6 Heavy Brigade Combat Teams, 3 Stryker Brigade Combat
Teams and a Multifunctional Support Brigade. The Army is currently analyzing set
positioning options.
The Army will place 3,631 vehicles on Transportation, Explosive Ordnance Disposal and echelon above brigade Medical unit MTOEs. We will also place 1,755 vehicles in training sets around the world and 495 in Sustainment Stocks and War Reserve. TRADOC will determine allocation of the additional 1,460 MRAP All Terrain
Vehicles and 1,300 MRAPs placed on contract in February 2010.
RESET OF ARMY EQUIPMENT

Question. General Casey, resetting or recapitalization of Army equipment used in


operations the past 8 years is requiring unprecedented funding levels. Its pointed
out in the prepared testimony that resetting Army equipment will need to continue
an additional 2 to 3 years after major deployments end. How does the Army plan
to maintain equipment reset funding levels and complete this necessary process considering the 5 year budget plan projects only 1 percent annual real growth and an

62
annual Overseas Contingency Operations budget that is more than $100 billion less
than it is today?
Answer. The Army will continue to request reset funding levels to meet the incremental costs of war in our Overseas Contingency Operations (OCO) budget. Since
2001, Congress has fully funded the reset of Army equipment returning from contingency operations and the Army used these funds to reset units for full spectrum operations. Reset funding for fiscal year 2010 and fiscal year 2011 is adequate to complete the reset of 25 brigades this year, 31 brigades in fiscal year 2011 and represents approximately $11 billion per year.
Current funding ensures that equipment can be rapidly repaired or replaced to
meet operational requirements. We will continue to use our Reset Cost Model to
forecast future reset costs based on force structure and equipping scenarios. Enduring requirements that are no longer part of the OCO will transition to our base
budgets. This approach, with corresponding budget request adjustments, will align
with the 5-year budget plan projections and OCO budget.
If OCO Reset needs are not resourced in the year required, it would cause either
the deferral of requirements or impact other programs resulting in equipment not
being reset (repaired or replaced). The net result would be less reliable equipment
or equipment shortages that would impact readiness and potentially put soldiers at
risk. Equipment Reset and the associated funding is essential to maintaining equipment readiness and restoring balance to the Army. In partnership with Congress,
the Army will continue to identify equipping Reset requirements that are cost effective, timely, and ensure readiness for future operations.
QUESTIONS SUBMITTED

BY

SENATOR CHRISTOPHER S. BOND

MODERNIZE THE FORCE

Question. Tell me about the Armys plan to modernize the force and what this
means for soldiers in the next 23 years, specifically regarding the spin-outs and
the priority delivery plan for the Army Infantry Brigades and others. Were any specific spin-outs cut as a result of the changes to Future Combat Systems (FCS)?
Answer. After cancellation of the Future Combat Systems (FCS) program, the
Army transitioned to a Brigade Combat Team (BCT) Modernization Plan. The Army
now refers to spin-outs as capability packages. This plan is supported by comprehensive lessons learned from more than 8 years of war, focuses on the evolving
needs of our warfighters in a rapidly changing security environment and exploits
the knowledge and technologies developed under the FCS program.
The BCT Modernization Plan aligns the fielding of capabilities with the Army
Force Generation Model, so that soldiers will have the right capabilities at the right
time to accomplish their mission. In the next 3 years, the Army plans to field the
first increment to three Infantry Brigade Combat Teams (IBCTs). We anticipate
fielding the first brigade set of Increment 1 equipment in 2011 and two additional
sets in 2012.
Rather than making one modernization decision and applying it over two or more
decades (as typically done in the past), the BCT Modernization Plan recognizes that
modernization decisions must be made incrementally to stay ahead of the demands
of the security environment and the needs of our warfighters.
After the programs cancellation, we reevaluated FCS systems in light of our
evolving needs. This led to the cancellation of the Class IV Unmanned Air System,
the Multifunction Utility/Logistics and Equipment Transport (MULET) and the
MULE-Countermine (MULECM) unmanned ground vehicles. Our analysis concluded that the Class IV UAS was no longer a cost-effective solution because current
UAS, with some improvements, can sufficiently meet most requirements. Likewise,
the two large robots (MULET and MULECM) did not meet rapidly changing
threats or address critical future mission needs.
Question. What is the Armys plan to integrate the Guard into its modernization
efforts with respect to a proportional and concurrent delivery of the equipment needed to modernize?
Answer. Because the Army has operationalized the Reserve Components to support Combatant Commanders, the Active Component (AC) is no longer a major factor in determining the order in which we field modernized systems. The goal of this
strategy, which is based on the Army Force Generation Model, is to provide units
with the equipment they need to perform their next mission. The Armys equipping
strategy provides the most modern, capable equipment to deploying units without
regard to whether they are AC, Army National Guard (ARNG), or Army Reserve.
Additionally, we remain committed to ensuring ARNG units are equipped to at least

63
80 percent of their critical dual use items (despite significant overseas contingency
operations and reset requirements) with a goal of reaching 100 percent. This is designed to ensure ARNG preparedness to support civil support missions.
Between September 2008 and September 2010, ARNG equipment on hand percentages will increase by approximately 6 percent, and ARNG equipment modernization levels will increase by approximately 4 percent. Both of these increases
surpass the ACs improvements over the same time period.
The Army is continuing to invest in ARNG modernization by procuring equipment
that will complete ARNG modernization in several key areas over the next year or
two. For example, the Army will soon complete the ARNG fielding of Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below and the M777 howitzer system. We will also complete 96 percent of the ARNG Warfighter Information Network-Tactical systems.
For ARNG aircraft, the Army is working toward modernizing the fleet. The Light
Utility Helicopter (LUH) is a key element of this strategy. The Army will field 88
of 210 LUHs by fiscal year 2011. The ARNG has the first two HH60M equipped
Medical Evacuation companies in the Army, as well as the second UH60M
equipped assault battalion. The ongoing modernization of the UH60A series aircraft (AAL) will continue to reduce the number of non-modernized Blackhawks
fleetwide in all components. We have already modernized four of the eight ARNG
attack battalions with AH64D model Apaches and plan to convert the remaining
four battalions in fiscal year 201314. The ARNG is receiving three CH47F models
for its training base, and will begin receiving CH47Fs for their operational units
in fiscal year 2011.
Question. If the current rotary wing modernization plan for the Army Guard is
any indication of how the effort is going, I am not hopeful. It is my understanding
the President requested funding for only 2 upgraded Blackhawk M models for the
Army Guard in fiscal year 2011? Is that enough?
Answer. Yes, two aircraft are sufficient in fiscal year 2011. The two HH60Ms
MEDEVAC aircraft included for the Army Guard in the fiscal year 2011-base budget
will be paired with 10 HH60Ms procured in the fiscal year 2010 base. This will
provide enough aircraft to equip one Army Guard 12-ship MEDEVAC Company.
This MEDEVAC Company is to be fielded in fiscal year 201112 (1 year after the
procurement funding), and will bring the ARNG total UH/HH60Ms to 70 aircraft.
The UH60M is the standard configuration for the Assault and General Support
units. The HH60M is the Medical Evacuation configuration for the MEDEVAC
units.
MILITARY CONSTRUCTION

Question. The fiscal year 2011 Army budget request for military construction increased by almost $300 million, so our Guard soldiers and their families thank you
for that. I have voiced concern in the past that the military construction funding
has not kept pace with the essential needs at Guard installations across the country
for modernization and replacement of aging facilities. I applaud the increase in
funding from $246 million to $374 million to replace the Guards aging facilities. In
your view, is this amount appropriate to support Army Guard training and readiness requirements?
Funding spent on the renovation and creation of new armories across the country
spurs economic growth and enhances the Guards and the Reserves ability to carry
out their missions. The benefit of these construction projects are two-fold because
they serve as both military readiness spaces and public locations for community
gatherings. As you know, training, maintenance and readiness is hampered by inadequate, unsafe and unhealthy facilities. The high level of mission readiness required
of Guard soldiers needs to be supported by functional facilities, so I thank you for
your support.
Answer. The fiscal year 2011 level of funding provides for 48 projects nationwide.
At this level of funding, the average age of an Army National Guard (ARNG) Readiness Center will increase from 41 to 49 years over the next decade. The current
level of funding provides for major renovation of ARNG facilities every 30 years. Accordingly, at this level of funding, the ARNG will continue to be challenged in meeting its readiness requirements.
TRANSIENTS, TRAINEES, HOLDEES AND STUDENTS (TTHS) ACCOUNT

Question. The Army National Guard is the only service component that doesnt
have a Transients, Trainees, Holdees and Students (TTHS) Account. As such, units
continue to witness taxing instances of personnel and equipment cross-leveling
when they are mobilized. Would creating such an account decrease some of the pressure placed upon soldiers dwell-time and help the force get back in balance?

64
Answer. Yes. In fact, the Army is creating an 8,000 slot TTHS account in the
ARNG. Although this is a relatively small account, it is a significant step forward.
It will allow the ARNG to place non-deployable soldiers in the TTHS account, thereby freeing spaces in units for trained, deployable personnel. The Army Training and
Doctrine Command has worked extensively with the ARNG to increase the number
of training seats available to Guard soldiers when recruits are available for training.
The result has been a much smaller number of untrained soldiers occupying
deployable unit positions.
Question. Can a TTHS account be implemented without increasing Army Guard
end-strength?
Answer. Yes. Because of certain force design updates, the Army National Guard
(ARNG) Force Structure Allowance is approximately 350,000. The Congressionally
mandated end strength of 358,200 personnel provides a deviation of approximately
8,000 soldiers. The ARNG can manage a small 8,000 soldier Trainees, Transients,
Holdees and Students account (TTHS) with this deviation. This will allow the
ARNG to remove non-deployable soldiers from operational units, as well as to reduce the untrained recruit population in mobilizing formations. Reducing force
structure allowance any further, however, would destabilize the readiness of formations, increase the rate of unit rotations overseas, reduce the ARNGs accessibility
to the Active Component and reduce its ability to function as an operational force.
Question. Do Army leaders believe the end-strength is adequate in the ARNG?
Answer. Yes, the Army Senior Leaders believe the end strength of the ARNG is
adequate.
Question. Is the ARNG experiencing commensurate, or proportionate troop
growth as compared to the active-component?
Answer. Since 2005, the Army National Guard (ARNG) has done a tremendous
job of increasing its end strength within authorized levels. Over the past 3 years,
the ARNG has met its accession mission 35 out of 36 months (in September 2009
it achieved a 99.6 percent accession rate), and increased its total end strength by
approximately 12,000 (from an End Strength Mission of 346,165 in March 2007 to
358,200 in February 2010). During this period, the total ARNG End Strength remained between 100103 percent of the End Strength Mission (only in August 2008,
did the end strength reach 103.1 percent).
In 2006, as part of the Grow the Army Initiative, the ARNGs end strength authorization grew by 8,200. The current temporary end strength increase in the Active Army will benefit the Army National Guard by allowing an increased dwell for
all Army units.
SUBCOMMITTEE RECESS

Chairman INOUYE. This subcommittee will reconvene on Wednesday, March 10, at 10:30. And at that time, we will consider health
programs of DOD.
And, with that, the subcommittee stands in recess.
[Whereupon, at 10:35 a.m., Wednesday, March 3, the subcommittee was recessed, to reconvene at 10:30 a.m., Wednesday,
March 10.]

DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE APPROPRIATIONS


FOR FISCAL YEAR 2011
WEDNESDAY, MARCH 10, 2010

U.S. SENATE,
APPROPRIATIONS,
Washington, DC.
The subcommittee met at 10:13 a.m., in room SD192, Dirksen
Senate Office Building, Hon. Daniel K. Inouye (chairman) presiding.
Present: Senators Inouye, Murray, and Cochran.
SUBCOMMITTEE

OF THE

COMMITTEE

ON

DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE
MEDICAL HEALTH PROGRAMS
STATEMENT OF VICE ADMIRAL ADAM M. ROBINSON, JR., SURGEON
GENERAL, DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY
OPENING STATEMENT OF CHAIRMAN DANIEL K. INOUYE

Chairman INOUYE. The hearing will come to order.


This morning, we will review the Department of Defenses medical programs.
And well have two panels. First, well hear from the Surgeon
Generals of the services: General Schoomaker, Admiral Adam Robinson, Jr., and General Charles Green. Then well hear from the
Chiefs of the Nurses Corps, General Patricia Horoho, Admiral
Karen Flaherty, and General Kimberly Siniscalchi.
And Id like to welcome all of you this morning, and Id like to
welcome back General Schoomaker, Admiral Robinson, and a special welcome to General Green, when he gets here.
Welcome, sir.
General GREEN. Thank you. My apologies.
Chairman INOUYE. This is your first hearing, and we look forward to working together.
The subcommittee holds a special hearing each year for an opportunity to discuss the critically important issues related to
healthcare, the well-being of our servicemembers and their families. As such, the Surgeons General and the Chiefs of the Nurses
Corps have been called upon to share their insight on areas that
need improvement and areas that see continuing success and
progress.
Military medicine is a critical element in our defense strength
and an essential component of the benefits provided to our
servicemembers and their families. We must ensure that the most
(65)

66
advanced treatment and technology is being used by expertly
trained personnel, and, on the battlefield, at the same time, providing sufficient capacity to care for servicemembers and their families at home.
Our ability to care for our wounded on the modern battlefields
is a testament both to hard work and dedication of our men and
women in uniform and to the application of new technology, which
is a hallmark of the United States Armed Forces. It is also due to
the dedicated men and women in our Medical Service Corps that
are deploying with our soldiers, airmen, sailors, and marines.
On average, over 50 percent of our current Active Duty Medical
Service Corps have deployed at least once. Numerous specialties
have had multiple deployments. This tempo is making it more challenging to recruit and to retain qualified medical personnel into the
services, and is presenting new stress for our caregivers who move
from treating injured servicemembers on the battlefield to treating
them back at home.
We are concerned about the number of deployments for all
servicemembers, but today Id like to take this opportunity to highlight the impact on our medical personnel.
Our medical personnel rely on a small pool of resources for deployment. While the total medical workforce is over 255,000, many
of these individuals are civilians or contractors, and do not deploy.
Therefore, the total pool of deployable military medical personnel
is only 177,000 plus. In 2009, 12,700 medical personnel were deployed, over 7 percent of the pool. These numbers present serious
challenges to the men and women testifying before us. It falls on
them to ensure a proper balance of care at home and treatment on
the battlefield, all the while furthering our advances in training
and technology, and providing care for our caregivers.
To help meet these needs, our medical service personnel must be
provided sufficient resources. The fiscal year 2011 budget before us
goes a long way in providing these resources. The Department has
made substantial progress in moving programs into the base budget that were initially funded through supplementals.
Determining that medical research and prevention for injuries
such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), psychological health, prosthetic, eye injuries, and hearing loss, and so much more, our cobudget responsibility of the Department of Defense (DOD) is essential in addressing the numerous issues facing our families and
members.
In addition, were aware that resources are required to achieve
a world-class facility at the new Walter Reed National Military
Medical Center. We also understand that more will be required as
we continue to identify the long-term needs of both our wounded
and our nonwounded servicemembers and their families.
These are some of the issues well discuss this morning, and I
look forward to your testimony and note that your full statements
will be made part of the record.
And may I call upon you, Admiral Robinson, for the opening
statement.
SUMMARY STATEMENT OF VICE ADMIRAL ADAM M. ROBINSON, JR.

Admiral ROBINSON. Thank you very much, sir.

67
Good morning, Chairman Inouye, Senator Cochran, Senator Murray, distinguished members of the subcommittee. I want to thank
you for your unwavering support of Navy medicineparticularly as
we continue to care for those who go in harms waytheir families,
and all beneficiaries. I am honored to be with you today to provide
an update on the state of Navy medicine, including some of our accomplishments, our challenges and our strategic priorities.
Navy medicine: world-class care anytime, anywhere. This poignant phrase is arguably the most telling description of Navy medicines accomplishments in 2009 and continues to drive our operational tempo and priorities for the coming years and beyond.
Throughout the last year, we saw challenges and opportunities
and, moving forward, I anticipate the pace of operations and demands will continue to increase. We have been stretched in our
ability to meet our increasing operational and humanitarian assistance requirements, as well as maintain our commitment to provide
care to a growing number of beneficiaries. However, I am proud to
say that we are responding to this demand with more flexibility
and agility than ever before.
The foundation of Navy medicine is force health protection; its
what we do and why we exist. Nowhere is our commitment more
evident than in Iraq and Afghanistan. During my October 2009 trip
to theater, I again saw the outstanding work of our medical personnel. The Navy medicine team is working side by side with Army
and Air Force medical personnel and coalition forces to deliver outstanding healthcare to our troops and civilians alike.
As our wounded warriors return from combat and begin the healing process, they deserve a seamless and comprehensive approach
to their recovery. We want them to mend in body, mind, and spirit.
Our patient and family centered approach brings together medical treatment providers, social workers, case managers, behavioral
health providers, and chaplains. We are working closely with our
line counterparts with the Marine Corps Wounded Warrior regiments and Navys Safe Harbor, to support the full-spectrum recovery process for sailors, marines, and their families.
We must act with a sense of urgency to continue to help build
resiliency among our sailors and marines, as well as the caregivers
who support them. We are aggressively working to reduce the stigma surrounding psychological health and operational stress concerns which can be a significant barrier to seeking mental health
services.
Programs such as Navy operational stress control, Marine Corps
combat operational stress control, FOCUSthat is, families over
coming under stresscaregiver occupational stress control, and our
suicide prevention programs are in place and maturing to provide
support to personnel and their families.
An important focus area for all of us continues to be caring for
our warriors suffering with traumatic brain injury. We are expanding TBI training to healthcare providers throughout the fleet and
the Marine Corps. We are also implementing a new in-theater TBI
Surveillance Program and conducting important research. We are
also employing a strategy that is both collaborative and integrative
by actively partnering with the other services, the Defense Center
of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury,

68
the Department of Veterans Affairs, and leading academic medical
and research centers, to make the best care available to our warriors.
We must continue to recognize the occupational stress on our
caregivers. They are subject to the psychological demands of exposure to trauma, loss, fatigue, and inner conflict. This is why our
caregiver occupational stress control programs are so important to
building and sustaining the resiliency of our providers.
Mental health specialists are being placed in operational environments and forward deployed to provide services where and when
they are needed. The Marine Corps is sending more mental health
teams to the front lines, with the goal of better treating an emotionally strained force.
Operational stress control and readiness teams, known as
OSCAR, will soon be expanded to include the battalion level. This
will put mental health support services much closer to combat
troops.
A mobile care team of Navy medicine mental health professionals
is currently deployed to Afghanistan, conducting mental health surveillance, commander leadership consultation, and coordination of
mental healthcare for sailors throughout the area of responsibility
(AOR).
As you know, an integral part of Navy medicine, or Navys maritime strategy is humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. In
support of Operation Unified Response, Haiti, Navy medicine answered the call. We deployed Comfort from her home port in Baltimore, within 77 hours of the order, and ahead of schedule. She was
on station in Port-au-Prince, 5 days later. And from the beginning,
the operational tempo onboard Comfort was high, and our personnel have been challenged, both professionally and personally.
For many, this will, indeed, be a career-defining experience. And I
spoke to the crew as they were preparing to get underway, and related just how important this mission is and why it is a vital part
of Navys maritime strategy.
I am encouraged with our recruiting efforts within Navy medicine, and we are starting to see the results of new incentive programs. But, while overall manning levels for both officer and enlisted personnel are relatively high, ensuring we have the proper
specialty mix continues to be a challenge in both the Active and
Reserve components.
Several wartime critical specialties, as well as advanced practice
nursing and physicians assistants, are undermanned. We are facing shortfalls for general dentists, oral maxillofacial surgeons, and
many of our mental health specialists, including clinical psychologists and social workers. We continue to work hard to meet this demand, but fulfilling the requirements among these specialties is expected to present a continuing challenge.
Research and development is critical to Navy medicines success
and our ability to remain agile to meet the evolving needs of our
warfighter. It is where we find solutions to our most challenging
problems and, at the same time, provide some of medicines most
significant innovations and discoveries.
Research efforts targeted at wound management, including enhanced wound repair and reconstruction, as well as extremity and

69
internal hemorrhage control and phantom limb pain in amputees,
present definitive benefits. These efforts support our emerging expeditionary medical operations and aid in support to our wounded
warriors.
Clearly, one of the most important priorities for leadership of all
the services is the successful transition to the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center on board the campus at the National Naval Medical Center. We are working diligently with the
lead DOD organizations, the Joint Task Force National Capital
Medical, to ensure that this significant and ambitious project is executed without any disruption to services to our sailors, marines,
and their families, and all of our beneficiaries for whom we are
privileged and honored to serve.
In summary, I believe that we are at an important crossroads for
military medicine. How we respond to the challenges facing us
today will likely set the stage for decades to come. Commitment to
our wounded warriors and their families must never waiver, and
our programs of support and hope must be built and sustained for
the long haul. And the long haul is the rest of this century, when
the young wounded warriors of today mature into our aging heroes
in the latter part of this century. They will need our care and support, as well as their families, for a lifetime.
PREPARED STATEMENT

On behalf of the men and women of Navy medicine, I want to


thank the subcommittee for their tremendous support, their confidence and their leadership. It has been my pleasure to testify
today, and I look forward to your questions.
Thank you very much.
[The statement follows:]
PREPARED STATEMENT

OF

VICE ADMIRAL ADAM M. ROBINSON, JR.

INTRODUCTION

Chairman Inouye, Senator Cochran, distinguished Members of the Subcommittee,


I am honored to be with you today to provide an update on the state of Navy Medicine, including some of our accomplishments, challenges and strategic priorities. I
want to thank the Committee Members for your unwavering support of Navy Medicine, particularly as we continue to care for those who go in harms way, their families and all beneficiaries.
Navy MedicineWorld Class Care . . . Anytime, Anywhere. This poignant
phrase is arguably the most telling description of Navy Medicines accomplishments
in 2009 and continues to drive our operational tempo and priorities for the coming
year and beyond. Throughout the last year we saw challenges and opportunities;
and moving forward, I anticipate the pace of operations and demands placed upon
us will continue to increase. Make no mistake: We have been stretched in our ability
to meet our increasing operational and humanitarian assistance requirements, as
well as maintain our commitment to provide Patient and Family-Centered care to
a growing number of beneficiaries. However, I am proud to say to that we are responding to this demand with more flexibility and agility than ever before. We are
a vibrant, world-wide healthcare system fully engaged and integrated in carrying
out the core capabilities of the Maritime Strategy around the globe. Regardless of
the challenges ahead, I am confident that we are well-positioned for the future.
Since becoming the Navy Surgeon General in 2007, I have invested heavily in our
strategic planning process. How we accomplish our mission is rooted in sound planning, sharp execution and constructive self-assessment at all levels of our organization. I challenged our leadership to create momentum and establish a solid foundation of measurable progress. Its paying dividends. We are seeing improved and sustained performance in our strategic objectives. Just as importantly, our planning

70
process supports alignment with the Department of Navys Strategic Plan and Operations Guidance.
Navy Medicines commitment to Patient and Family-Centered Care is also reflected in our resourcing processes. An integral component of our Strategic Plan is
providing performance incentives that promote quality and directly link back to
workload and resources. We are evolving from a fiscal planning and execution process rooted in historical data, to a system which links requirements, resources and
performance goals. This transformation properly aligns authority, accountability and
financial responsibility with the delivery of quality, cost-effective healthcare.
The Presidents budget for fiscal year 2011 adequately funds Navy Medicine to
meet its medical mission for the Navy and Marine Corps. The budget also provides
for the maintenance of our facilities. We are, however, closely assessing the resource
impacts associated with Operation Unified Response, in Haiti. While seeking reimbursement as appropriate from U.S. Southern Command in accordance with DOD
direction, we are working to mitigate any potential impactsboth in the short-term
and long-term. We are cross-leveling personnel, meaning that we are assigning personnel within Navy Medicine to ensure effective use of existing resources, while
leveraging support from the Navy Reserve, the other Services and our civilian network partners, as needed, and when conditions warrant.
FORCE HEALTH PROTECTION

The foundation of Navy Medicine is Force Health Protection. Its what we do and
why we exist. In executing our Force Health Protection mission, the men and
women of Navy Medicine are engaged in all aspects of expeditionary medical operations in support of our warfighters. The continuum of care we provide includes all
dimensions of physical and psychological well-being. This is our center of gravity
and we have and will continue to ensure our Sailors and Marines are medically and
mentally prepared to meet their world-wide missions.
Nowhere is our commitment to Force Health Protection more evident than in our
active engagement in military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. As these overseas contingency operations evolve, and in many respects become increasingly more
dangerous, we are seeing burgeoning demand for expeditionary combat casualty
care in support of joint operations. I recently returned from a trip to Afghanistan
and I again saw the outstanding work of our medical personnel. The Navy Medicine
team is working side-by-side with Army and Air Force medical personnel and coalition forces to deliver outstanding healthcare to our troops and civilians alike.
We must continue to be innovative and responsive at the deckplates and on the
battlefield. Since the start of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi
Freedom, the Marine Corps has fielded new combat casualty care capabilities which
include: updated individual first aid kits with combat gauze, advanced tourniquets,
use of Tactical Combat Casualty Care principles, troop training in Combat Lifesaver, and the use of Factor VIIa blood clotting agent used in trauma settings.
In addition, Navy Fleet Hospital transformation has redesigned expeditionary medical facilities that are lighter, modular, more mobile, and interoperable with other
Services facilities.
Our progress is also evident in the innovative work undertaken by a Shock Trauma Platoon (STP) 2 years ago in Afghanistan. This team, comprised of two physicians, two nurses, a physician assistant and 14 corpsmen, essentially created a mobile emergency rooma seven-ton truck with a Conex container and welded steel
platesthat went into combat to administer more expedient and effective care in
austere settings. This prototype led to the creation of the Mobile Trauma Bay
(MTB), a capability that both Marine Corps and Navy Medicine leadership immediately recognized as vital to the warfighter and an unquestionable life-saver on the
battlefield. MTB use has already been incorporated into our Afghanistan shock trauma platoon operations, and they are already positively impacting forward
resuscitative and stabilization care. We understand that the Marine Corps has fully
embraced the MTB concept and is planning to add additional units in future POM
submissions.
HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RESPONSE

An integral part of the Navys Maritime Strategy is humanitarian assistance and


disaster response. In the wake of the devastating earthquake in Haiti earlier this
year, our Nation moved forward with one of the largest relief efforts in our history
to save lives, deliver critically needed supplies and provide much-needed hope. The
response was rapid, as Navy deployed ships and expeditionary forces, comprised of
more than 10,000 personnel, to provide immediate relief and support for the Haitian
people. In support of Operation Unified Response, Navy Medicine answered the call.

71
We deployed USNS Comfort (TAH 20) from her homeport in Baltimore within 77
hours and ahead of schedulegoing from an industrial shipboard site to a ready
afloat Naval hospital, fully staffed and equipped. She was on station in Port-auPrince 5 days later and treating patients right away. From the beginning, the operational tempo onboard USNS Comfort has been high with a significant trauma and
surgical caseload. Medical teams from the ship are also ashore to help in casualty
evaluation, triage crush wounds, burn injuries and other health issues. Providing
care around the clock, our personnel have been challenged both professionally and
personally. For many, this will be a career-defining experience and certainly reflects
the Navys commitment as a Global Force for Good. I spoke to the crew as they
were preparing to get underway, and personally related just how important this
mission is and why it is a vital part of the Navys Maritime Strategy.
We train so we are mission ready and USNS Comfort was well-prepared for this
challenging deployment as a result of her crews participation in Continuing Promise (AprilJune 2009), a humanitarian and civic assistance mission, in partnership
with nations of the Caribbean and Latin America, to provide medical, dental, veterinary, educational and engineering programs both ashore and afloat.
We are continuing to respond to requirements from the Commander, U.S. Southern Command in order to put the proper supporting medical elements in the area
of operations. Navy Medicine additional support includes the deployment of a Forward Deployed Preventive Medicine Unit (FDPMU) and augmented Casualty Receiving and Treatment Ship (CRTS) medical staff capabilities onboard U.S.S. Bataan (LHD 5). We also recognize the potential psychological health impact on our
medical personnel involved in this humanitarian assistance mission and have ensured we have trained Caregiver Occupational Stress Control (CgOSC) staff onboard.
Navy Medicine is inherently flexible and capable of meeting the call to support
multiple missions. I am proud of the manner in which the men and women of Navy
Medicine leaned forward in response to the call for help. In support of coordination
efforts led by the Department of State and the U.S. Agency for International Development, and in collaboration with nongovernmental organizations, both domestic
and international, our response demonstrated how the expeditionary character of
our Naval and Marine forces is uniquely suited to provide assistance during interagency and multinational efforts.
CONCEPT OF CARE

Navy Medicines Concept of Care is Patient and Family-Centered Care. It is at


the epicenter of everything we do. This concept is elegant in its simplicity yet extraordinarily powerful. It identifies each patient as a participant in his or her own
healthcare and recognizes the vital importance of the family, military culture and
the military chain of command in supporting our patients. My goal is for this Concept of Carethis commitment to our patients and their familiesto resonate
throughout our system and guide all our actions. It is enabled by our primary mission to deliver force health protection and a fully ready force; mutually supported
by the force multipliers of world class research and development, and medical education. It also leverages our emphasis on the health and wellness of our patients
through an active focus on population health.
CARING FOR OUR HEROES

When our Warriors go into harms way, we in Navy Medicine go with them. At
sea or on the ground, Sailors and Marines know that the men and women of Navy
Medicine are by their side ready to care for them. There is a bond of trust that has
been earned over years of service together, and make no mistake, today that bond
is stronger than ever. Our mission is to care for our wounded, ill and injured, as
well as their families. Thats our job and it is our honor to have this opportunity.
As our Wounded Warriors return from combat and begin the healing process, they
deserve a seamless and comprehensive approach to their recovery. We want them
to mend in body, mind and spirit. Our focus is multidisciplinary-based care, bringing together medical treatment providers, social workers, case managers, behavioral
health providers and chaplains. We are working closely with our line counterparts
with programs like the Marine Corps Wounded Warrior Regiments and the Navys
Safe Harbor to support the full-spectrum recovery process for Sailors, Marines and
their families.
Based on the types of injuries that we see returning from war, Navy Medicine
continues to adapt our capabilities to best treat these conditions. When we saw a
need on the West Coast to provide expanded care for returning Wounded Warriors
with amputations, we established the Comprehensive Combat and Complex Cas-

72
ualty Care (C5) Program at Naval Medical Center, San Diego, in 2007. C5 manages
severely injured or ill patients from medical evacuation through inpatient care, outpatient rehabilitation, and their eventual return to active duty or transition from
the military. We are now working to expand utilization of Project C.A.R.EComprehensive Aesthetic Recovery Effort. This initiative follows the C5 model by ensuring a multidisciplinary approach to care, yet focuses on providing state-of-the-art
plastic and reconstructive surgery for our Wounded Warriors at both Naval Medical
Center San Diego and Naval Medical Center Portsmouth, with potential future opportunities at other treatment facilities.
We have also significantly refocused our efforts in the important area of clinical
case management at our military treatment facilities and major clinics serving
Wounded Warriors to ensure appropriate case management services are available
to all who need them. The Clinical Case Management Program assists patients and
families with clinical and non-clinical needs, facilitating communication between patient, family and multi-disciplinary care team. Our clinical case managers collaborate with Navy and Marine Corps Recovery Care Coordinators, Federal Recovery
Coordinators, Non-Medical Care Managers and other stakeholders to address Sailor
and Marine issues in developing Recovery Care Plans. As of January 2010, 192 Clinical Case Managers are assigned to Military Treatment Facilities and ambulatory
care clinics caring for over 2,900 Sailors, Marines and Coast Guardsmen.
PSYCHOLOGICAL HEALTH AND POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS

We must act with a sense of urgency to help build resiliency among our Sailors
and Marines, as well as the caregivers who support them. We recognize that operational tempo, including the number and length of deployments, has the potential
to impact the psychological health of service members and their family members.
We are aggressively working to reduce the stigma surrounding psychological health
and operational stress concerns which can be a significant barrier to seeking mental
health services for both military personnel and civilians. Programs such as Navy
Operational Stress Control, Marine Corps Combat Operational Stress Control,
FOCUS (Families Overcoming Under Stress), Caregiver Occupational Stress Control
(CgOSC), and our suicide prevention programs (ACT Ask-Treat-Care) are in place
and maturing to provide support to personnel and their families.
The Navy Operational Stress Control program and Marine Corps Combat Operational Stress Control program are the cornerstones of the Department of the
Navys approach to early detection of stress injuries in Sailors and Marines and are
comprised of:
Line led programs which focus on leaderships role in monitoring the health of
their people.
Tools leaders may employ when Sailors and Marines are experiencing mild to
moderate symptoms.
Multidisciplinary expertise (medical, chaplains and other support services) for
more affected members.
Decreasing the stigma associated with seeking psychological healthcare requires
a culture change throughout the Navy and Marine Corps. Confronting an ingrained
culture will take time and active leadership support. Stigma reducing interventions
span three major fronts: (1) education and training for individual Sailors and Marines that normalizes mental healthcare; (2) leadership training to improve command climate support for seeking mental healthcare; and (3) encouragement of care
outreach to individual Sailors, Marines, and their commands. This past year saw
wide-spread dissemination of Operational Stress Control (OSC) doctrine as well as
a Navy-wide education and training program that includes mandatory Navy Knowledge Online courses, instructor led and web-based training.
Navy Medicine ensures a continuum of psychological healthcare is available to
service members throughout the deployment cyclepre-deployment, during deployment, and post-deployment. We are working to improve screening and surveillance
using instruments such as the Behavior Health Needs Assessment Survey (BHNAS)
and Post-Deployment Health Assessment (PDHA) and Post-Deployment Health Reassessment (PDHRA).
Our mental health specialists are being placed in operational environments and
forward deployed to provide services where and when they are needed. The Marine
Corps is sending more mental health teams to the front lines with the goal of better
treating an emotionally strained force. Operational Stress Control and Readiness
(OSCAR) teams will soon be expanded to include the battalion level, putting mental
health support services much closer to combat troops. A Mobile Care Team (MCT)
of Navy Medicine mental health professionals is currently deployed to Afghanistan
to conduct mental health surveillance, command leadership consultation, and coordi-

73
nate mental healthcare for Sailors throughout the AOR. In addition to collecting important near real-time surveillance data, the MCT is furthering our efforts to decrease stigma and build resilience.
We are also making mental health services available to family members who may
be affected by the psychological consequences of combat and deployment through
our efforts with Project FOCUS, our military treatment facilities and our TRICARE
network partners. Project FOCUS continues to be successful and we are encouraged
that both the Army and Air Force are considering implementing this program. We
also recognize the importance of the counseling and support services provided
through the Fleet and Family Support Centers and Marine Corps Community Services.
Beginning in 2007, Navy Medicine established Deployment Health Centers
(DHCs) as non-stigmatizing portals of care for service members staffed with primary
care and psychological health providers. We now have 17 DHCs operational. Our
healthcare delivery model supports early recognition and treatment of deploymentrelated psychological health issues within the primary care setting. Psychological
health services account for approximately 30 percent of all DHC encounters. We
have also increased mental health training in primary care, and have actively
partnered with Line leaders and the Chaplain Corps to develop combat and operational stress control training resources. Awareness and training are keys to our
surveillance efforts. Over 4,000 Navy Medicine providers, mental health professionals, chaplains and support personnel have been trained to detect, screen and
refer personnel who may be struggling with mental health issues.
We must continue to recognize the occupational stress on our caregivers. They are
subject to the psychological demands of exposure to trauma, loss, fatigue and inner
conflict. This is why our Caregiver Occupational Stress Control programs are so important to building and sustaining the resiliency of our providers. We cannot overlook the impact on these professionals and I have directed Navy Medicine leadership
to be particularly attuned to this issue within their commands.
TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY

While there are many significant injury patterns in theatre, an important focus
area for all of us remains Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Blast is the signature injury of OEF and OIFand from blast injury comes TBI. The majority of TBI injuries are categorized as mild, or in other words, a concussion. Yet, there is much we
do not yet know about these injuries and their long-term impacts on the lives of
our service members.
The relative lack of knowledge about mild TBI amongst service members and
healthcare personnel represents an important gap that Navy Medicine is seriously
addressing. We are providing TBI training to healthcare providers from multiple
disciplines throughout the fleet and the Marine Corps. This training is designed to
educate personnel about TBI, introduce the Military Acute Concussion Exam
(MACE) as a screening tool for mild TBI, inform providers about the Automated
Neurocognitive Assessment Metric (ANAM) test, and identify a follow-up for assessment including use of a repeatable test battery for identification of cognitive status.
We have recently established and are now expanding our TBI program office to
manage the implementation of the ANAM as a pre-deployment test for service members in accordance with DOD policy. This office will further develop models of assessment and care as well as support research and evaluation programs.
All the Services expect to begin implementation of a new in-theater TBI surveillance system which will be based upon incident event tracking. Promulgated guidelines will mandate medical evaluation for all service members exposed within a set
radius of an explosive blast, with the goal to identify any service member with subtle cognitive deficits who may not be able to return to duty immediately.
Navy Medicine has begun implementing the ANAM assessment at the DHCs and
within deploying units as part of an Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs)
mandate. We have also partnered with Line leadership, or operational commanders,
to identify populations at risk for brain injury (e.g., front line units, SEAL units,
and Navy Explosive Ordinance Disposal units). In addition, an in-theater clinical
trial for the treatment of vestibular symptoms of blast-exposure/TBI was completed
at the USMC mTBI Center in Al Taqqadum, Iraq.
Both our Naval Health Research Center and Navy-Marine Corps Public Health
Center are engaged with tracking TBI data through ongoing epidemiology programs.
Goals this year include the establishment of a restoration center in-theatre to allow
injured Sailors and Marines a chance to recover near their units and return to the
fight.

74
Additionally, the National Naval Medical Centers Traumatic Stress and Brain Injury Program provides care to all blast-exposed or head-injured casualties returning
from theatre to include patients with an actual brain injury and traumatic stress.
Navy Medicine currently has TBI clinics at San Diego, Portsmouth, Camp Pendleton
and Camp Lejeune with plans for further expansion reflecting our commitment to
the treatment of this increasingly prevalent injury.
We are employing a strategy that is both collaborative and integrative by actively
partnering with the other Services, Defense Center of Excellence for Psychological
Health and Traumatic Brain Injury, the Veterans Administration, and leading academic medical and research centers to make the best care available to our Warriors
afflicted with TBI.
EXCELLENCE IN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (R&D)

Research and development is critical to Navy Medicines success and our ability
to remain agile to meet the evolving needs of our warfighters. It is where we find
solutions to our most challenging problems and, at the same time, provide some of
medicines most significant innovations and discoveries. Our R&D programs are
truly force-multipliers and enable us to provide world-class healthcare to our beneficiaries.
The approach at our research centers and laboratories around the world is
straightforward: Conduct health and medical research, development, testing, evaluation and surveillance to enhance deployment readiness. Each year, we see more accomplishments which have a direct impact on improving force health protection. The
contributions are many and varied, ranging from our confirmatory work in the early
stages of the H1N1 pandemic, to the exciting progress in the development of a malaria vaccine. Research efforts targeted at wound management, including enhanced
wound repair and reconstruction as well as extremity and internal hemorrhage control, and phantom limb pain in amputees, present definitive benefits. These efforts
also support our emerging expeditionary medical operations and aid in support to
our Wounded Warriors.
THE NAVY MEDICINE TEAM

Navy Medicine is comprised of compassionate and talented professionals who continue to make significant contributions and personal sacrifices to our global community. Our team includes our officers, enlisted personnel, government civilian employees, contract workers and volunteers working together in a vibrant healthcare community. All have a vital role in the success of our enterprise. Our priority is to
maintain the right workforce to deliver the required medical capabilities across the
enterprise, while using the appropriate mix of accession, retention, education and
training incentives.
Overall, I am encouraged with our recruiting efforts within Navy Medicine and
we are starting to see the results of new incentive programs. But while overall manning levels for both officer and enlisted personnel are relatively high, ensuring we
have the proper specialty mix continues to be a challenge. Several wartime critical
specialties including psychiatry, family medicine, general surgery, emergency medicine, critical care and perioperative nursing, as well as advanced practice nursing
and physician assistants, are undermanned. We are also facing shortfalls for general
dentists, oral maxillofacial surgeons, and many of our mental health specialists including clinical psychologists and social workers. We have increasing requirements
for mental health professionals as well as for Reserve Component Medical Corps,
Dental Corps, Medical Service Corps and Nurse Corps officers. We continue to work
hard to meet this demand, but fulfilling the requirements among these specialties
is expected to present a continuing challenge.
I want to also reemphasize the priority we place on diversity. We are setting the
standard for building a diverse, robust, innovative healthcare workforce, but we can
do more in this important area. Navy Medicine is stronger and more effective as
a result of our diversity at all levels. Our people are our most important resource,
and their dignity and worth are maintained through an atmosphere of service, professionalism, trust and respect.
PARTNERSHIPS AND COLLABORATION

Navy Medicine continues to focus on improving interoperability with the Army,


Air Force, Veterans Administration (VA), as well other Federal and civilian partners
to bring operational efficiencies, optimal technology and training together in support
of our patients and their families, our missions, and the national interests. Never
has this collaborative approach been more important, particularly as we improve
our approaches to ensuring seamless transitions for our veterans.

75
We remain committed to resource sharing agreements with the VA and our joint
efforts in support of improving the Disability Evaluation System (DES) through the
ongoing pilot program at several MTFs. The goal of this pilot is to improve the disability evaluation process for service members and help simplify their transitions.
Together with the VA and the other Services, we are examining opportunities to expand this pilot to additional military treatment facilities. Additionally, in partnership with the VA, we will be opening the James A. Lovell Federal Health Care Center in Great Lakes, Illinoisa uniquely integrated Navy/VA medical facility.
We also look forward to leveraging our inter-service education and training capabilities with the opening of the Medical Education and Training Campus (METC)
in San Antonio in 2010. This new tri-service command will oversee the largest consolidation of service training in DOD history. I am committed to an inter-service
education and training system that optimizes the assets and capabilities of all DOD
healthcare practitioners yet maintains the unique skills and capabilities that our
hospital corpsmen bring to the Navy and Marine Corpsin hospitals, clinics at sea
and on the battlefield.
Clearly one of the most important priorities for the leadership of all the Services
is the successful transition to the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center onboard the campus of the National Naval Medical Center, Bethesda. We are working
diligently with the lead DOD organization, Joint Task ForceNational Capital Region Medical, to ensure that this significant and ambitious project is executed properly and without any disruption of services to our Sailors, Marines, their families,
and all our beneficiaries for whom we are privileged to serve.
THE WAY FORWARD

I believe we are at an important crossroads for military medicine. How we respond to the challenges facing us today will likely set the stage for decades to come.
Commitment to our Wounded Warriors and their families must never waver and our
programs of support and hope must be built and sustained for the long-hauland
the long-haul is the rest of this century when the young Wounded Warriors of today
mature into our aging heroes in the years to come. They will need our care and support as will their families for a lifetime. Likewise, our missions of cooperative engagement, through humanitarian assistance and disaster response, bring opportunities for us, our military and the Nation. It is indeed a critical time in which to demonstrate that the United States Navy is truly a Global Force for Good.
Navy Medicine is a vibrant, world-wide healthcare system comprised of compassionate and talented professionals who are willing to make contributions and personal sacrifices. This teamour teamincluding officer, enlisted, civilians, contractors, and volunteers work together as a dynamic healthcare family. We are all essential to success.
Navy Medicine will continue to meet the challenges ahead and perform our missions with outstanding skill and commitment. On behalf of the men and women of
Navy Medicine, I want to thank the Committee for your tremendous support, confidence and leadership. It has been my pleasure to testify before you today and I
look forward to your questions.

Chairman INOUYE. I thank you very much, Admiral.


Before we proceed, I must apologize to my vice chairman for
overlooking his presence. May I call upon the vice chairman for his
opening statement.
Senator COCHRAN. Mr. Chairman, thank you very much.
Its a pleasure to join you in welcoming the leaders of our doctors
and nurses who serve in the military forces. We appreciate their
sacrifice and their service and their leadership in helping ensure
that, here at home and around the world, our servicemen and
women get the best medical care available. We look forward to
working with you in the appropriations process to identify priorities, to make sure that we have money where the needs are, and
living up to the commitment that we all feel toward our
servicemembers and their families who sacrifice so much for the security interests of our country.
Thank you very much for your service and for your presence here
today.

76
Chairman INOUYE. Senator Murray.
Senator MURRAY. Mr. Chairman, I will pass on an opening statement.
I just want to thank all of our witnesses today, and for having
this important hearing.
Chairman INOUYE. Thank you. Thank you very much.
And Id like to now call upon the Surgeon General of the Army,
General Schoomaker.
STATEMENT OF LIEUTENANT GENERAL ERIC B. SCHOOMAKER, M.D.,
Ph.D., SURGEON GENERAL; AND COMMANDER, U.S. ARMY MEDICAL COMMAND, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY

General SCHOOMAKER. Chairman Inouye, Vice Chairman Cochran, Senator Murray, and other distinguished members of the Defense Subcommittee, thank you for inviting us here to discuss the
Defense Health Program and our respective service medical programs.
Now, in my third congressional hearing cycle as the Army Surgeon General and the Commanding General of the Army Medical
Command, I can tell you that these hearings are valuable opportunities for me to talk about the accomplishments and challenges of
Army medicine, and to hearfor all of us to hear your collective
perspectives regarding military health promotion and healthcare.
You and your staff members ask some difficult questions, but
these questions help keep us focused on those whom we serve: our
soldiers, sailors, airmen, marines, coast guardsmen, our family
members, our retirees, and the American public at large.
Sir, you earlier introduced her, but I wanted to take this opportunity to welcome and introduce my chief of the Army Nurse Corps,
returning from a very successful command of the Western Regional
Medical Command, headquartered at Fort Lewis, Washington, and
covering the western third of the United States, including Alaska,
Major General Patty Horoho. Im pleased to say that shell be joining me on my staff as our Deputy Surgeon General, as of the 1st
of April, when David Rubenstein leaves a very successful tour to
take command of the Army Medical Center and School in San Antonio, Texas.
And so, Patty, welcome, and were glad to have you on the staff.
Im pleased to tell you that the Presidents budget submission for
fiscal year 2011 fully funds the Army Medical Departments needs.
Your support of the Presidents proposed budget will be greatly appreciated.
One particular area of special interest to this subcommittee is
our comprehensive effort to improve warrior care from the point of
injury through evacuation and inpatient treatment to rehabilitation
and return to duty or to productive citizens lives. We, in Army
medicine, continue to focus our efforts on our warriors in transition, which is the term we apply to our wounded and injured soldiers. And I want to thank the Congress for its unwavering support
of this effort.
The support of this subcommittee has allowed us to hire additional providers to staff our warrior transition units, the units to
which these warriors in transition are assigned, to conduct relevant
medical research, and to build even healing campuses across the
Army.

77
Im convinced the Army has made some lasting improvements
there. The most important improvement may be the change of
mindset from a focus on disability to an emphasis on ability and
achievement. Each of these warriors has the opportunity and the
resources to create their own future as soldiers or as productive
private citizens. I should say, in this forum, sir, lessons which you,
yourself, taught us following your own battle injuries inin World
War II, Mr. Chairman.
In keeping with our focus on preventing injury and illness, Army
leadership is currently engaged in an all-out effort to change the
Department of Defenses culture regarding traumatic brain injury,
or TBI, especially the milder form, which we call concussion. Our
goal is nothing less than a cultural change in the management of
soldiers after potential concussive events. Every warrior requires
appropriate treatment to minimize concussive injury and to maximize recovery. To achieve this goal, we are educating the force so
as to have trained and prepared soldiers, leaders, and medical personnel to provide early recognition, treatment, and tracking of concussive injuries, ultimately designed to protect warrior health.
Traumatic brain injury is a disruption of brain function that results from a blow or a jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury.
These occur in combat, they occur on our highways, on our training
posts, and on sports fields across the Nation. Its not a phantom
condition that is exhibited by a weak servicemember whos trying
to get out of a deployment. A servicemember whos behaving badly
or irregularly may be struggling and needs help, and we feel very
strongly that we need to do everything we can to take care of these
warriors who need help. Leaders at all levels must ensure that individuals are aware of, and are willing to take advantage of, available treatments and counseling options.
Our concern isand this has been documented in a number of
studies that weve conducted, including those in the battlefield
that our soldiers and other servicemembers are not coming forward
for treatment after the time of an incident. This results in delay
in identification, and it compliments the treatment course back
here in the United States. We know that early detection leads to
early treatment and improved outcomes. However, undiagnosed
concussion leads to symptoms affecting operational readiness on
the battlefield and the risk of recurrent concussion during the healing period, which can then lead to more long-term permanent brain
impairment.
An overview of the education program that weve worked on here
is included in this packet, Brain Injury Awareness Toolkit, which
we have available for you and your staffs after the hearing.
The Army is issuing very direct standards and protocols to Commanders and healthcare providers in the field, similar to actions
taken after aviation incidents. We have automatic grounding and
medical assessments which are required for any soldiers that meets
specified criteria.
The end state of these efforts is that every servicemember sustaining a potential concussion will receive early detection, state-ofthe-art treatment, and return-to-duty evaluation, with long-term
digital healthcare record tracking of their management.

78
Treatment of mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion, is an
emerging science. We feel strongly that the Army is leading the
way in implementing these new treatment protocols for the Department of Defense, and that the Department of Defense and the military health system (MHS) is leading the Nation in this regard. I
truly believe that this evidence-based directive approach to concussive management is going to change the military culture regarding
head injuries and significantly impact the well-being of the force.
In closing, Im very optimistic about the next 2 years. We have
weathered some very serious challenges to the trust that you all
have in Army medicine. Logic would not predict that we would be
doing as well as we are, and attracting and retaining and careerdeveloping such a talented team of uniformed and civilian medical
professionals. However, we continue to do so, year after year, a
tribute to all of our Officer Corps and the leadership of our Noncommissioned Officer Corps and our military and civilian workforce. Their continued leadership and dedication are essential for
Army medicine to remain strong, for the Army to remain healthy
and resilient, and for the Nation to endure.
I personally feel very privileged to serve with these men and
women in Army medicine, as soldiers, as Americans, and as global
citizens.
PREPARED STATEMENT

We thank you for holding this hearing and for your unwavering
support of the military health system and of Army medicine, and
I look forward to answering your questions.
Thank you, sir.
Chairman INOUYE. I thank you very much, General.
[The statement follows:]
PREPARED STATEMENT

OF

LIEUTENANT GENERAL ERIC B. SCHOOMAKER

Chairman Inouye, Vice Chairman Cochran, and distinguished members of the Defense Subcommittee, thank you for inviting us to discuss the Defense Health Program and our respective Service medical programs. Now in my third Congressional
hearing cycle as the Army Surgeon General and Commanding General, U.S. Army
Medical Command (MEDCOM), I can tell you that these hearings are valuable opportunities for me to talk about the accomplishments and challenges of Army Medicine and to hear your collective perspectives regarding military healthcare. You and
your staff members ask some difficult questions, but these questions help keep us
focused on those we servethe Soldiers, Sailors, Marines, Airmen, Coast Guardsmen, Family members, and Retirees as well as the American public. I hope you also
find these hearings beneficial as you review the Presidents budget submission,
which this year fully funds the Army Medical Departments needs, and determine
priorities and funding levels for the next fiscal year.
The U.S. Army Medical Department is a complex, globally-deployed, and world
class team. My command element alone, the MEDCOM, is an $11 billion international health improvement, health protection, emergency response and health
services organization staffed by 70,000 dedicated Soldiers, civilians, and contractors.
I am in awe at what these selfless servants have done over the past yearstheir
accomplishments have been quietly, effectively, powerfully successful. While we
have experienced our share of crises and even tragedies, despite 8 years of continuous armed conflict for which Army Medicine bears a heavy load, every day our Soldiers and their Families are kept from injuries, illnesses, and combat wounds
through our health promotion and prevention efforts; are treated in cutting-edge
fashion when prevention fails; and are supported by an extraordinarily talented
medical force to include those who serve at the side of the Warrior on the battlefield. We mourn the loss of 26 teammates in the Fort Hood shootingssix dead and
20 woundedbut are inspired by the resolve shown by their units to continue their

79
missions and the exemplary performance of the 467th and 1908th Medical Detachments serving in Afghanistan today.
One particular area of special interest to this subcommittee is our comprehensive
effort to improve warrior care from point of injury through evacuation and inpatient
treatment to rehabilitation and return to duty. I am convinced the Army has made
some lasting improvements, and I was recently heartened to read the comments of
a transitioning Warrior that reinforced these perceptions. She commented:
As I look back in the past I am able to see with a reflective eye . . . the people
that have helped me fight this battle, mostly my chain of command, who have always stood beside me instead of in front of me. They have gone out of their way
to do what was best for me and I cannot say I would be here still if I hadnt had
such wonderful support . . . This is my story at the WTB and all in all, I just had
to make aware to everyone that has helped that I am very grateful and I truly appreciate all of the work you have done for me.
There is nothing more gratifying than to care for these wounded, ill, and injured
heroes. We in Army Medicine continue to focus our efforts on our Warriors in Transition and I want to thank Congress for your unwavering support. The support of
this committee has allowed us to hire additional providers, staff our warrior transition units, conduct relevant medical research, and build healing campuses. In the
remainder of my testimony today, I will discuss how we are providing optimal stewardship of the investment the American public and this Committee has made in
Army Medicine.
We lead and manage Army Medicine through the Kaplan & Norton Balanced
Scorecard performance improvement framework that I introduced to you in last
years testimony. The Scorecard balances missions and resources across a broad
array, while ensuring that near-term measures of success are aligned with longerterm, more strategic results. This balancing is depicted on the Scorecards Strategy
Map, which shows how we marshal our resources, train and develop our people, and
focus our internal processes and efforts so as to balance competing goals. Ultimately
our means, ways, and ends contribute toward accomplishing our mission and achieving our strategic vision. The five strategic themes that guide our daily efforts are:
Maximize Value in Health Services, Provide Global Operational Forces, Build the
Team, Balance Innovation with Standardization, and Optimize Communication and
Knowledge Management. Although distinct themes, they inevitably overlap and
weave themselves through everything we do in Army Medicine.
The first strategic themeMaximize Value in Health Servicesis built on the belief that providing high quality, evidence-based services is not only the right for our
Soldiers and Families; it results in the most efficient use of resources within the
healthcare system, thus delivering value to not only our Patients, but indeed, the
Nation. In fact, what we really want to do is move from a healthcare system to a
system for health.
We have resisted simply inventing a new process, inserting a new diagnostic test
or therapeutic option in vacuo or adding more layers of bureaucracy but are truly
adding value to the products we deliver, the care we provide, and the training of
our people. This requires focusing on the clinical outcome for the patient and the
community and maintaining or even reducing the overall resource expenditure needed to achieve this objective. It has occurred through adoption of evidence-based practices and reducing unwarranted practice variationeven unwarranted administrative practice variation for the transactional processes in our work. As one example
of this, Army Medicine is expanding upon our Performance Based Budget model to
link resources to clinical and quality outputs. The Healthcare Effectiveness and
Data Information Set (HEDISR) is a tool used by more than 90 percent of Americas
health plans (>400 plans) to measure performance on important dimensions of care,
namely, the prevention of disease and evidence-based treatments for some of the
most common and onerous chronic illnesses. The measures are very specifically defined, thus permitting comparison across health plans. Since 2007, we have been
providing financial incentives to our hospitals, clinics and clinicians for superior
compliance in key HEDIS measures. Currently, we track nine measures and compare our performance to national benchmarks. Our performance has improved on
each measure, in one case by 63 percent. We have demonstrated that these incentives work to change organizational behavior to achieve desired outcomes in our
health system. Put quite simply, our beneficiaries, patients and communities are receiving not only better access to care but better careobjectively measured.
As the DOD budget and health-/healthcare-related costs come under increasing
scrutiny, this element of our strategy will be even more critical for us. As the United
States struggles to address improvements in health and healthcare outcomes while
stabilizing or reducing costs of our national system of care, we in Army Medicine

80
and the Military Health System will surely keep the goal of maximizing value in
our cross-hairs . . . or we will find our budgets tightening without a way to measure the effects on our patients and our communities health and well-being.
All of these remarkable achievements would be without meaning or importance
to our Soldiers, their Families and our patients if we do not provide access and continuity of care, especially within the direct care system of our medical centers, community hospitals, health centers, and clinics. I am looking carefully at my commanders leadership and success in ensuring that their medical and dental treatment facilities provide timely access and optimize continuity of care. We have undertaken major initiatives to improve both access and continuitythis is one of the
Army Chief of Staffs and my top priorities. After conducting thorough business case
analyses, Army Medicine is expanding product lines in some markets and expanding
clinical space in others. At 14 locations, we are establishing Community Based Primary Care Clinics by leasing and operating clinics located in off-post communities
that are close to where active duty Families live, work, and go to school. These clinics will provide a patient-centered medical home for Families and will provide a
range of benefits:
Improve the readiness of our Army and our Army Family;
Improve access to and continuity of care;
Reduce emergency room visits;
Improve patient satisfaction;
Implement Best Practices and standardization of services;
Increase physical space available in military treatment facilities (MTFs); and
Improve physical and psychological health promotion and prevention.
Along with the rest of the Military Health System, Army Medicine is embracing
the Patient-Centered Medical Home concept, which is a recommended practice of the
National Committee for Quality Assurance and is endorsed by a number of medical
associations, several large third-party payers, and many employers and health
plans. The Patient-Centered Medical Home improves patient satisfaction through its
emphasis on appropriate access, continuity and quality, and effective communication. The goal is simple: consult with one consistent primary care provider-nurse
team for all your medical needs. The seven core features of the Medical Home are:
Personal Primary Care Provider (primary care manager/team);
Primary Care Provider Directed Medical Practice (the primary care manager is
team leader);
Whole Person Orientation (patient centered, not disease or provider centered);
Care is Coordinated and/or Integrated (across all levels of care);
Quality and Safety (evidenced-based, safe medical care);
Enhanced Access (meets access standards from the patient perspective); and
Payment Reform (incentivizes the development and maintenance of the medical
home).
I look for 2010 to be the year Army Medicine achieves what we set out to improve
2 years ago in access and continuity, key elements of our covenant with the Army
Family, led by our Chief of Staff and Secretary of the Army.
Unlike civilian healthcare systems that can focus all of their energy and resources
on providing access and continuity of care, the Military Health System has the
equally important mission to Provide Global Operational Forces.
The partnership between and among the medical and line leadership of Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom, Central Command, Army Forces Command, U.S. Army Reserve Command, National Guard Bureau, Army Medical Department Center and School, Medical Research and Materiel Command, Army G3/
5/7, and others has resulted in a dynamic reconfiguration of the medical formations
and tactics, techniques, and procedures required to support the deployed Army, joint
and coalition force. Army Medicine has never missed movement and we continue to
achieve the highest survivability rate in the history of warfare. Army Medicine leaders have never lost sight of the need to first and foremost make a difference on the
battlefield.
This will not changeit will even intensify in 2010 as the complexity of the missions in Afghanistan increases. And this is occurring even while the need to sustain
an Army and joint force which is responsibly withdrawing from Iraq puts more pressure on those medics continuing to provide force health protection and care in Operation Iraqi Freedom. This pressure on our All-Volunteer Army is unprecedented.
Healthcare providers, in particular, are subject to unique strains and stressors while
serving in garrison as well as in deployed settings. The MEDCOM has initiated a
defined program to address provider fatigue with current efforts focused on sustaining the healthy force and identifying and supporting higher risk groups.
MEDCOM has a healthy healthcare workforce as demonstrated by statistically significant lower provider fatigue and burnout than: The Professional Quality of Life

81
Scale (ProQol) norming sample of 1,187 respondents; and Sprang, Clark and WhiteWoosleys study of 222 civilian behavioral health (BH) providers. But as our Chief
of Staff of the Army has told us: this is not an area where we just want to be a
little better than the other guywe want the healthiest and most resilient
healthcare provider workforce possible.
The Provider Resiliency Training (PRT) Program was originally designed in 2006,
based on Mental Health Advisory Team findings. The U.S. Army Medical Department Center and School (AMEDDC&S) developed a military-specific model identifying provider fatigue as the military equivalent of compassion fatigue. In June
of 2008, MEDCOM implemented a mandated PRT program to educate and train all
MTF personnel to include support staff on the prevention and treatment of signs
and symptoms of provider fatigue. The stated goal of PRT is to mitigate the negative
effects of exposure to combat, to deployment, to secondary trauma from caring for
the casualties of war as well as the unremitting demand for healthcare services and
from burnout. All will ultimately improve organizational effectiveness. The
AMEDDC&S currently offers three courses in support of the MEDCOM PRT: the
Train the Trainer Course; the Professional Resiliency Resident Course; and the PRT
Mobile Training.
None of our goals and themes would be achievable without the right mix of talented professionals within Army Medicine and working with Army Medicine; what
our Balanced Scorecard refers to as Build The Team: a larger, more inclusive joint
medical team; an adaptive and responsive interagency team (VA, DHS, DHHS/NIH/
NIAID, CDC, USDA, etc.); an effective coalition team; and a military-civilian/academic-operational team. The teams we build must be aligned with the Army, Defense, and National Military Strategy and long-term goals, not based solely on personalities and the arcane interests of a few. My Deputy Surgeon General, subordinate leaders, and others have been increasingly more deliberate and disciplined in
how we form and sustain these critical partnerships.
Effective joint, interagency and coalition team-building has been a serious challenge for some time now. I see the emphasis on our ability to craft these teams grow
in 2010. The arrival of September 15, 2011the deadline for the 2005 BRACwill
be one of the key milestones and tests of this skill. My regional commanding generals in San Antonio and Washington, DC have taken lead roles in this endeavor.
Let there be no question among those who underestimate our collective commitment
to working as a team and our shared vision to serve the Nation and protect and
care for the Warriors and his or her Familywe are One Team!
In addition to building external teams, we need to have the right mix and quality
of personnel internal to Army Medicine. In fiscal year 2010 and continuing into fiscal year 2011 the Army requested funding for programs to improve our ability to
attract and retain the professional workforce necessary to care for our Army. Our
use of civilian hiring incentives (Recruiting, Retention, and Relocation) increased in
fiscal year 2010 by $90 million and should increase by an additional $30 million in
fiscal year 2011. In fiscal year 2011, civilian hiring incentives will equate to 4.8 percent of total civilian pay. We have instituted and funded civilian recruiting programs at the MEDCOM, regional, and some local levels to seek qualified healthcare
professionals. For our military workforce, we are continuing our successful special
salary rates, civilian nurse loan repayment programs, and civilian education training programs. Additionally, our Health Professional Scholarship Program and loan
repayments will increase in fiscal year 2010 by $26 million and continue into fiscal
year 2011. This program supports 1,890 scholarships and 600 participants in loan
repaymentsit is as healthy a program as it has ever been. Let me point out that
our ability to educate and train from within the forcethrough physician, nursing,
administrative, medic and other programs in professional educationis a vital capability which we cannot permit to be degraded or lost altogether. In addition to providing essential enculturation for a military healthcare provider, administrator and
leader, these programs have proven to be critical for our retention of these professionals who are willing to remain in uniform, to deploy in harms way and to assume many onerous duties and assignments in exchange for education in some of
the Nations best programs. Army and Military Graduate Medical, Dental, Nursing
and other professional education has undoubtedly played a major role in our remaining a viable force this far into these difficult conflicts.
The theme of evidence-based practice runs through everything we do in Army
Medicine and is highlighted throughout our Balanced Scorecard. Evidence-based
practices mean integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence from systematic research. Typical examples of evidencebased practices include implementation of clinical practice guidelines and dissemination of best practices. I encourage my commanders and subordinate leaders to be
innovative, but across Army Medicine we Balance Innovation with Standardization

82
so that all of our patients are receiving the best care and treatment available.
Standardization efforts include:
The MEDCOM AHLTA Provider Satisfaction (MAPS) initiative.
Care of combat casualties through the Joint Theater Trauma System (JTTS),
enabled by the use of a Joint Theater Trauma Registry (JTTR)both of which
I will discuss further belowwhich examines every casualtys care and outcome
of that care, including en route care during medical evacuation (MEDEVAC)
with an eye toward standardizing care around the best practices.
The Virtual Behavioral Health Pilot (aka Comprehensive Behavioral Health Integration) being conducted at Schofield Barracks and Fort Richardson.
Our initiative to reduce Ventilator Associated Pneumonia events in our ICUs
by adopting not only industry best practices, but sending out an expert team
of MEDCOM professionals to evaluate our own best practices and barriers to
success.
Our standardized events-driven identification and management of mild TBI/concussion on the battlefield coupled with early diagnosis and treatment of PostTraumatic Stress Reactions/Acute Stress Reactions as close in time and space
to the events which lead to these reactions.
Programs which are in the process of maturing into best practices for more widespread dissemination are:
The Confidential Alcohol Treatment & Education Pilot (CATEP).
The standardized and now automated Comprehensive Transition Plan for Warriors In Transition in our WTUs and CBWTUs.
A standardized program to build trust in Army Medicine through hospitality
and patient/client/customer service in our medical, dental, and veterinary treatment facilities and throughout the MEDCOM.
Standardized support of our Active, National Guard, and Reserve forces engaged in the reiterative, cyclic process of the Army Force Generation Model
(ARFORGEN) including but not restricted to preparation for combat medics and
medical units, Soldier Readiness Processing of deploying units, ensuring full
medical readiness of the force, restoration of dental and behavioral health upon
redeployment, support of the total Army Family while Soldiers are deployed,
and provision of healthcare for mobilized and demobilizing Reserve Component
Soldiers and their Families.
These and many other standardized efforts reflect a change in how we do the
business of Army Medicine. We can no longer pride ourselves on engaging in a multiplicity of local science projects being conducted in a seemingly random manner
by well-meaning and creative people but without a focus on added value, standard
measures of improved outcomes, and sustainability of the product or process. Even
the remarkably agile response to the behavioral health needs-assessment and ongoing requirements at Fort Hood following the tragic shooting were conducted in a
very deliberate and effective fashion which emphasized unity of command and control, alignment of all efforts and marshalling of resources to meet a well-crafted and
even exportable community behavioral health plan.
The emphasis which Army Medicine leaders have placed on disciplining these innovative measures so as to harvest best practices, subject them to validation at
other sites, and rapidly proliferate them across the MEDCOM and Army in a standard fashion has been remarkable. It is the essence of Optimizing Communication
and Knowledge Management.
Many of our goals, internal processes and enablers, and resource investments are
focused on the knowledge hierarchy: collecting data; coalescing it into information
over time and space; giving it context to transform it into knowledge; and applying
that knowledge with careful outcome measures to achieve wisdom. This phenomenon of guiding clinical management by the emergence of new knowledge is perhaps best represented by Dr. Denis Cortese, former President and Chief Executive
Officer of the Mayo Clinic. He laid out this schematic earlier this year after participating in a set of workshops which centered on healthcare reform. We participated
to explore how the Federal system of care might contribute to these changes in
health improvement and healthcare delivery.
What Dr. Cortese depicted is a three-domain ideal representation of healthcare
delivery and its drivers. We share this vision of how an ideal system should operate.
His notion is that this system of care should focus on optimizing individual health
and healthcare needs, leveraging the knowledge domain to drive optimal clinical
practices. This transition from the knowledge domain to the care delivery domain
now takes 17 years. The clinical practice domain then informs and drives the payer
domain to remunerate for effective clinical outcomes. What occurs too often today
is what I call widget-building or turnstile medical care which chases remuneration for these encounterstoo often independent of whether it is the best treatment

83
aimed at the optimal outcome. To transform from a healthcare system to a system
for health, we need to change the social contract. No longer should we be paid for
building widgets (number of clinic visits or procedures), rather, we should be paid
for preventing illness and promoting healthy lifestyles. And when bad things happen to good peoplewhich severe illness and injury and war continuously challenge
us withwe should care for these illnesses, injuries and wounds by the most advanced evidence-based practices available, reducing unwarranted variation in practice whenever possible.
Our Military Health System is subtly different in that we have two practice domainsgarrison and battlefield. Increasingly, we leverage the clinical domain to
provide feedback into the knowledge domainwith the help of the electronic health
recordAHLTAand specialized databases. We do this in real time and all under
the umbrella of the regulatory domain which sets and enforces standards.
The reengineering of combat trauma care borne of rapid turnaround of new-found,
data-driven knowledge to new materiel and doctrinal solutions is one of the premier
examples of this concept. The simplest example is our continuous re-evaluation of
materials and devices available to Soldiers, combat life savers, combat medics and
the trauma team at the point of injury and in initial trauma management and the
intellectual framework for their application to rapidly improve outcomes from combat-injured Warriors.
After making the first major change in 40 years to the field medical kitthe Improved First Aid Kit (IFAK)we have modified the contents of the kit at least three
times since May 2005 based upon ongoing reviews of the effectiveness of the materials and head-to-head comparisons to competing devices or protocols. In like fashion, we have modified protocols for trauma management through active in-theater
and total systemic analyses of the clinical outcomes deriving from the use of materials and protocols.
The specialized system in this endeavor is a joint and inter-agency trauma system
which creates the equivalent of a trauma network available for a major metropolitan
area or geographic region in the United States but spread across three continents,
8000 miles end-to-endthe Joint Theater Trauma System (JTTS). Staffed and led
by members of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps and Air Force, it is truly a joint process. It is centered on the U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research in San Antonio,
Texas. The specialized database in this effort and an essential element of the JTTS
is the Joint Theater Trauma Registry (JTTR)a near-comprehensive standardized
database which has been developed for each casualty as soon as possible in the
treatment evacuation chainusually at level II or III healthcare in theater. One of
the most important critical applications of the JTTS and JTTR at present is the ongoing analysis of MEDEVAC times and the casualties being managed during evacuation. This is our effort to minimize the evacuation time for casualty in a highly
dispersed force which is subjected in Afghanistan to the tyranny of terrain and
weather.
The decisions about where and how many trauma teams should be placed around
the theater of operation as well as where to place MEDEVAC crews and aircraft
is a delicate balancing actone which balances the risk of putting care providers
and MEDEVAC crews and helicopters at risk to the enemy and the elements with
the risk of loss of life and limb to Warriors whose evacuation may be excessively
prolonged. The only way to fully understand these competing risks is to know the
outcomes of care and evacuation by injury type across a wide range of MEDEVAC
missions. This analysis will help us understand if we still require a Golden Hour
for every casualty between initial management at the point of injury and arrival at
a trauma treatment site (like an Army Forward Surgical Team, the Marine Forward
Resuscitative Surgical System or a Combat Support Hospital) or whether we now
have a Platinum 15 Minutes at the point of injury which extends the Golden Hour.
This methodology and these casualty data are being applied to the next higher
level of inquiry: how do we prevent injury and death of our combatants from wounds
and accidents at the point of potential injury? Can we design improved helmets, goggles, body armor, vehicles and aircraft to prevent serious injuries? These questions
are answered not only through the analysis of wound data, both survivable and nonsurvivable, through the JTTS and data from the virtual autopsy program of the Office of the Armed Forces Medical Examiner, but also by integrating these data with
information from the joint operational, intelligence, and materiel communities to enable the development of improved tactics, techniques, and procedures and materiel
improvements to protective equipment worn by the Warriors or built into the vehicles or aircraft in which they were riding. This work is performed by the Joint Trauma Analysis and Prevention of Injury in Combat program, a component of the DOD
Blast Injury Research Program directed by the National Defense Authorization Act
for 2006. To date it has been an effective means of improving the protection of War-

84
riors and preventing serious injury and death even as the enemy devises more lethal and adaptive weapons and battlefield tactics, techniques, and procedures.
We in Army Medicine are applying these knowledge management tools and approaches to the improvement of health and the delivery of healthcare back home as
well. We are coupling these knowledge management processes with a funding strategy which incentivizes our commanders and clinicians to balance productivityproviding episodes of carewith optimal outcome: the right kind of prevention and
care.
Among our greatest team achievements in 2009 was our effort to better understand how we communicate effectively with our internal and external stakeholders,
patients, clients and customers. We adopted a formal plan to align our messages
ultimately all tied to Army goals and those on our Balanced Scorecard. Our creation
of a Strategic Communications Directorate to ensure alignment of our key messages,
to better understand and use social media, to expedite cross-talk and learning
among such diverse groups as the Office of Congressional Liaison, Public Affairs,
Protocol, Medical History, the Borden Institute, the AMEDD Regiment and others
speaks directly to these efforts.
While we are still in the advanced crawl/early walk phase of knowledge management, we know from examples such as the Joint Theater Trauma System and the
Performance Based Budget Model that we can move best practices and newly found
evidence-based approaches into common or widespread use if we aggressively coordinate and manage our efforts and promote transparency of data and information and
the knowledge which derives from it. We have begun a formal process under the
Strategy and Innovation Directorate to move the best ideas in both clinical and
transactional processes into standard practices across the MEDCOM in a timely
way. This will be achieved through a process to identify, validate, and transfer best
practices. We endeavor to be more agile and adaptive in response to a rapidly
changing terrain of U.S. and Federal healthcare and operational requirements for
a Nation at war.
In closing, I am very optimistic about the next 2 years. We have weathered some
serious challenges to trust in Army Medicine. Logic would not predict that we would
be doing as well as we are in attracting, retaining and career developing such a talented team of uniformed and civilian medical professionals. However, we continue
to do so year after yeara tribute to all our Officer Corps, the leadership of our
Non-Commissioned Officers, and our military and civilian workforce. The results of
our latest Medical Corps Graduate Medical Education Selection Board and the
Human Capital Distribution Plan show continued strength and even improvements
over past years. The continued leadership and dedicated service of officers, non-commissioned officers, and civilian employees are essential for Army Medicine to remain
strong, for the Army to remain healthy and strong, and for the Nation to endure.
I feel very privileged to serve with the men and women of Army Medicine during
this historic period as Army Medics, as Soldiers, as Americans and as global citizens.
Thank you for holding this hearing and your unwavering support of the Military
Health System and Army Medicine. I look forward to working with you and your
staff and addressing any of your concerns or questions.

Chairman INOUYE. And now may I call upon General Green.


STATEMENT OF LIEUTENANT GENERAL (DR.) CHARLES B. GREEN,
SURGEON GENERAL, DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE

General GREEN. Chairman Inouye, Vice Chairman Cochran


Thank you, sir. Im new at this, and please forgive me.
Chairman Inouye, Vice Chairman Cochran, and distinguished
members of the subcommittee, its an honor and a privilege to appear before you representing the Air Force Medical Service. I look
forward to working with you, and pledge to do all in my power to
support the men and women of our Armed Forces and this great
country. Thank you for your immeasurable contributions to the
success of our mission.
Trusted Care Anywhere is our vision for 2010 mission and beyond. Our nearly 60,000 total force medics contribute world-class
medical capabilities to Air Force, joint, and coalition teams. Over
1,600 Air Force medics are currently deployed to 40 locations in 20

85
countries, delivering state-of-the-art preventive medicine, rapid lifesaving care, and critical-care air evacuation. At home, our
healthcare teams assure patient-centered care to produce healthy
and resilient airmen and provide families and retirees with fullspectrum healthcare.
Our success on the battlefield underscores our ability to provide
Trusted Care Anywhere. Since 2001, we have air-evacuated more
than 70,000 patients from Afghanistan and Iraq. We have lost only
four patients, and one dog. Joint and coalition medical teams have
achieved a less than 10 percent died of wounds rate, the best survival rate in the history of war.
In July, a British soldier sustained multiple gunshot wounds in
Afghanistan. He was stabilized by medical teams on the ground,
who replaced his blood more than 10 times and removed an injured
lung. It took two airplanes, three aircrews to get the medical team
and equipment in place, and another aircraft to fly the patient to
Germany. Every member of the joint casualty care and air evacuation team selflessly gave their all to ensure this soldier received
the critical care and compassionate support required. This was the
first known successful air evacuation of a patient with a traumatic
lung removal. The patient is doing well in Birmingham, England,
today.
In January 2010, a U.S. marine sustained dislocation of both
knees, with loss of blood flow to his lower legs following an improvised explosive device (IED) attack in the Helmand Province. Casualty evacuation delivered the marine to our British partners at
Camp Bastion, where surgeons restored blood flow to both legs,
using temporary shunt procedures that our surgeons had shared in
surgical journals. The marine was further evacuated to Craig Joint
Theater Hospital at Bagram, where Air Force surgeons performed
definitive vascular reconstruction. The marine is now recovering at
National Naval Medical Center and is expected to have fully functional limbs.
These success stories are possible only because of the tireless efforts of Air Force, Army, Navy, and coalition medics to continuously improve our care.
Air Force medics are responding globally in humanitarian missions as well as on the battlefield. Over the last 6 months, we contributed significant support in Indonesia, to the treatment and
evacuation of Haiti earthquake victims, and now have another expeditionary medical system (EMEDS) that should be arriving in
Chile today.
The Air Force Special Operations Command had 47 medics on
the ground within 12 hours following the Haiti disaster, performing
site assessments, preventive public health measures, and delivering lifesaving care. And Air Force EMEDS continues to coordinate care in Haiti today.
At home, were improving our patient and provider satisfaction
through our patient-centered medical home, building strong partnerships between patients and their healthcare teams. We are seeing improved performance in healthcare continuity, in quality, access, and patient satisfaction, based on our medical-home efforts.
We recognize the high OPSTEMPO and have identified high-risk
groups to target interventions and training, improving both airmen

86
and family resilience. Collaborative care, in the form of mental
health providers embedded in our family health clinics is present
at the majority of Air Force treatment facilities today.
To achieve our vision of Trusted Care Anywhere, we require
highly trained, current, and qualified providers. We are extremely
grateful to this subcommittee for your many efforts to strengthen
our recruiting and retention programs. Your support, in particular,
for the Health Profession Scholarship Program, the Uniformed
Services University, and other retention initiatives is making a
huge difference.
We are also indebted to private sector and Federal partners, who
help us maximize resources, leverage new capabilities, and sustain
clinical currency. Our research partners, with universities and private industry, ensure U.S. forces benefit from the latest medical
technologies and clinical advancements, and research and regenerative medicine, directed energy, improved diabetes prevention
and treatment, and state-of-the-art medical informatics shapes the
future and allows Air Force medics to implementation innovative
solutions.
Our Centers for the Sustainment of Trauma and Readiness Skills
at St. Louis University, University of Maryland, Baltimore Shock
Trauma, and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine are all
superb examples of what we can achieve through partnerships.
We also actively partner with the VA to meet beneficiary needs,
and now have five joint ventures, including Keesler Air Force Base,
Mississippi, and soon will open our sixth, with the standup at
Buckley Air Force Base, Colorado.
PREPARED STATEMENT

The Air Force Medical Service is committed to the health and


wellness of all entrusted to our care. We are, as our Chief says, all
in to meet our Nations call, and we will achieve our vision through
determined, continuous improvement. We could not achieve our
goals of better readiness, better health, better care, and best value
for our heroes and their families without your support.
Thank you, sir.
Chairman INOUYE. I thank you very much.
[The statement follows:]
PREPARED STATEMENT

OF

LIEUTENANT GENERAL CHARLES B. GREEN

Trusted Care Anywhere is the Air Force Medical Services vision for 2010 and
beyond. In the domain of Air, Space and Cyberspace, our medics contribute to the
Air Force, Joint, and coalition team with world class medical capabilities. Our
60,000 high performing Total Force medics around the globe are trained and ready
for mission success. Over 1,600 Air Force medics are now deployed to 40 locations
in 20 countries, building partnership capability and delivering state of the art preventive medicine, rapid life-saving care, and critical air evacuation. In all cases,
these efforts are conducted with joint and coalition partners. At home, our
healthcare teams assure patient-centered care to produce healthy and resilient Airmen, and provide our families and retirees with full spectrum healthcare.
Todays focus is on world-class healthcare delivery systems across the full spectrum of our operations. From theater hospitals in Balad and Bagram, to the efforts
of humanitarian assistance response teams, to the care of our families at home, we
put patients first. We are transforming deployable capabilities, building patient-centered care platforms, and investing in our people, the foundation of our success. We
are expanding collaboration with joint and coalition partners to collectively
strengthen rapid response capabilities. Globally, Air Force medics are diligently

87
working to balance the complex demands of multiple missions in current and expanding areas of operations.
We are committed to advancing capabilities through education and training, research, and infrastructure recapitalization. Recent efforts in these areas have paid
huge dividends, establishing new standards in virtually every major category of full
spectrum care including humanitarian assistance. The strategic investments assure
a trained, current, and deployable medical force today and tomorrow. They reinforce
a culture of learning to quickly adapt medical systems and implement agile organizations to produce healthier outcomes in diverse mission areas.
While weve earned our Nations trust with our unique capabilities and the expertise of our people, we constantly seek to do better! I would like to highlight our
areas of strategic focus and share some captivating examples of Air Force medics
in action.
TRANSFORMING EXPEDITIONARY MEDICINE AND AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION
CAPABILITIES

Our success on the battlefield underscores our ability to provide Trusted Care,
Anywhere. The joint and coalition medical teams bring wounded warriors from the
battlefield to an operating room within an unprecedented 20 to 40 minutes! This
rapid transfer rate enables medics to achieve a less than 10 percent died-of-wounds
rate, the best survival rate ever seen in war.
In late July, a British soldier sustained multiple gunshot wounds in Afghanistan.
After being stabilized by medical teams on the ground, who replaced his blood supply more than 10 times, doctors determined the patient had to be moved to higher
levels of care in Germany. It took two airplanes to get the medical team and equipment in place, another aircraft to fly the patient to Germany, three aircrews and
many more personnel coordinating on the ground to get this patient to the next
level of care. Every member of the joint casualty care and aeromedical evacuation
teams selflessly gave their all to ensure this soldier received the compassionate care
he deserved. After landing safely at Ramstein Air Base in Germany, the soldier was
flown to further medical care at a university hospital by helicopter. This case highlights the dedication and compassion our personnel deliver in the complex but seamless care continuum. This tremendous effort contributes to our unprecedented survival rate.
As evidenced in this story, our aeromedical evacuation system (AE) and critical
care air transport teams (CCATT) are world-class. We mobilize specially trained
flight crews and medical teams on a moments notice to transport the most critical
patients across oceans. Since November 2001, we have transported more than
70,000 patients from Afghanistan and Iraq.
We are proud of our accomplishments to date, but strive for further innovation.
As a result of battlefield lessons learned, we have recently implemented a device
to improve spinal immobilization for AE patients that maximizes patient comfort
and reduces skin pressure. We are working toward an improved detection mechanism for compartment syndrome in trauma patients. The early detection and prevention of excess compartment pressure could eliminate irreversible tissue damage
for patients. In February 2010, a joint Air Force and Army team will begin testing
equipment packages designed to improve ventilation, oxygen, fluid resuscitation,
physiological monitoring, hemodynamic monitoring and intervention in critical care
air transport.
INFORMATION MANAGEMENT/INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Our Theater Medical Information Program Air Force (TMIP AF) is a software
suite that automates and integrates clinical care documentation, medical supplies,
equipment, and patient movement. It provides the unique capabilities for in-transit
visibility and consolidated medical information to improve command and control and
allow better preventive surveillance at all Air Force deployed locations. This is a
historic first for the TMIP AF program.
Critical information is gathered on every patient, then entered into the Air Force
Medical Service (AFMS) deployed system. Within 24 hours, records are moved and
safely stored at secure consolidated databases in the United States. During the first
part of 2010, TMIP AF will be utilized in Aeromedical Evacuation and Air Force
Special Operations areas.
EXPEDITIONARY MEDICINE AND HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE

We have also creatively developed our Humanitarian Assistance Rapid Response


Team (HARRT), a Pacific Command (PACOM) initiative, to integrate expeditionary
medical systems and support functions. The HARRT provides the PACOM Com-

88
mander with a rapid response package that can deploy in less than 24 hours, requires only two C17s for transport and can be fully operational within hours of arrival at the disaster site. This unique capability augments host nation efforts during
the initial stages of rescue/recovery, thus saving lives, reducing suffering, and preventing the spread of disease. So far, HARRT successfully deployed on two occasions
in the Pacific. Efforts are underway to incorporate this humanitarian assistance and
disaster relief response capability into all AFMS Expeditionary Medical System
(EMEDS) assets.
Air Force medics contribute significant support to the treatment and evacuation
of Haiti earthquake victims. The Air Force Special Operations Command sent 47
medics to support AFSOC troops on the ground within 12 hours following the disaster to perform site assessments, establish preventive public health measures, and
deliver life-saving trauma care to include surgical and critical care support. This
team was also instrumental in working with Southern Command and Transportation Command to establish a patient movement bridge evacuating individuals
from Haiti via air transport.
As part of the U.S. Air Forces total force effort, we sent our EMEDS platform
into Haiti and rapidly established a 10-bed hospital to link the hospital ship to
ground operations. The new EMEDS includes capabilities for pediatrics, OB/GYN
and mental health. Personnel from five Air Force medical treatment facilities
(MTFs) are supporting Operation Unified Response, as well as volunteers from the
Air Reserve Forces.
BUILD PATIENT-CENTERED CARE AND FOCUS ON PREVENTION TO OPTIMIZE HEALTH

We are committed to achieving the same high level of trust with our patients at
home through our medical home concept. Medical home includes initiatives to personalize care, and to improve health and resilience. We are also working hard to
optimize our operations, reduce costs and improve patient access. We partner with
our Federal and civilian colleagues to continuously improve care to all our beneficiaries.
Family Health Initiative
To achieve better health outcomes for our patients, we implemented the Family
Health Initiative (FHI). FHI mirrors the American Academy of Family Physicians
Patient Centered Medical Home concept and is built on the team-approach for effective care delivery. The partnership between our patients and their healthcare
teams is critical to create better health and better care via improved continuity, and
reduce per capita cost.
Our providers are given full clinical oversight of their care teams and are expected
to practice to the full scope of their training. We believe the results will be high
quality care and improved professional satisfaction. Two of our pilot sites, Edwards
AFB, CA, and Ellsworth AFB, SD, have dramatically improved their national standings in continuity, quality, access to care, and patient satisfaction. Eleven other
bases are implementing Medical Home, with an additional 20 bases scheduled to
come on-line in 2010.
We are particularly encouraged by the results of our patient continuity data in
Medical Home. Previous metrics showed our patients only saw their assigned provider approximately 50 percent of the time. At Edwards and Ellsworth AFBs, provider continuity is now in the 8090 percent range.
We still have work to do, such as developing improved decision support tools, case
management support, and improved training. Implementing change of this size and
scope requires broad commitment. The Air Force Medical Service has the commitment and is confident that by focusing on patient-centered care through Medical
Home, we will deliver exceptional care in the years ahead.
The Military Health Systems Quadruple Aim of medical readiness, population
health, experience of care and per capita cost serves us well. Patient safety remains
central to everything we do. By focusing on lessons learned and sharing information,
we continually strive to enhance the safety and quality of our care. We share our
clinical lessons learned with the Department of Defense (DOD) Patient Safety Center and sister Services. We integrate clinical scenarios and lessons learned into our
simulation training. We securely share de-identified patient safety information
across the Services through DODs web-based Patient Safety Learning Center to
continuously improve safety.
Improving Resilience and Safeguarding the Mental Health of Our Airmen
Trusted care for our beneficiaries includes improving resilience and safeguarding
their mental health and well-being. We are engaged in several initiatives to optimize mental health access and support.

89
Air Force post-deployment health assessment (PDHA) and post-deployment health
re-assessment (PDHRA) data indicates a relatively low level of self-reported stress.
However, about 2030 percent of service members returning from OIF/OEF deployments report some form of psychological distress. The number of personnel referred
for further evaluation or treatment has increased from 25 percent to 50 percent over
the past 4 years, possibly reflecting success in reducing stigma of seeking mental
health support. We have identified our high-risk groups and can now provide targeted intervention and training.
We recently unveiled Defenders Edge, which is tailored to security forces Airmen who are deploying to the most hostile environments. This training is intended
to improve Airmen mental resiliency to combat-related stressors. Unlike conventional techniques, which adopt a one-on-one approach focusing on emotional vulnerability, DEFED brings the mental health professional into the group environment,
assimilating them into the security forces culture as skills are taught.
Airmen who are at higher risk for post traumatic stress are closely screened and
monitored for psychological concerns post-deployment. If treatment is required,
these individuals receive referrals to the appropriate providers. In addition to standard treatment protocols for post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), Air Force mental
health professionals are capitalizing on state-of-the-art treatment options using Virtual Reality. The use of a computer-generated virtual Iraq in combination with goggles, headphones, and a scent machine allow service members to receive enhanced
prolonged exposure therapy in a safe setting. In January 2009, 32 Air Force Medical
Service therapists received Tri-Service training in collaboration with the Defense
Center of Excellence at Madigan Army Medical Center. The system was deployed
to eight Air Force sites in February 2009 and is assisting service members in the
treatment of PTSD.
Future applications of technology employing avatars and virtual worlds may have
multiple applications. Service member and family resiliency will be enhanced by
providing pre- and post-deployment education; new parent support programs may
offer virtual parent training; and family advocacy and addiction treatment programs
may provide anger management, social skills training, and emotional and behavioral
regulation.
Rebuilding Our Capabilities by Recapturing Care and Reducing Costs
Our patients appropriately expect AFMS facilities and equipment will be stateof-the art and our medical teams clinically current. They trust we will give them
the best care possible. We are upgrading our medical facilities and rebuilding our
capabilities to give patients more choice and increase provider satisfaction with a
more complex case load. In our larger facilities, we launched the Surgical Optimization Initiative, which includes process improvement evaluations to improve operating room efficiency, enhance surgical teamwork, and eliminate waste and redundancy. This initiative resulted in a 30 percent increase in operative cases at Elmendorf AFB, Alaska, and 118 percent increase in neurosurgery at Travis AFB, California.
We are engaged in an extensive modernization of Wright-Patterson Air Force
Base Medical Center in Ohio with particular focus on surgical care and mental
health services. We are continuing investment in a state-of-the-art new medical
campus for SAMMC at Lackland AFB, TX. Our ambulatory care center at Andrews
AFB, MD, will provide a key capability for the delivery of world-class healthcare in
the National Capital Regions multi-service market.
By increasing volume, complexity and diversity of care provided in Air Force hospitals, we make more care available to our patients; and we provide our clinicians
with a robust clinical practice to ensure they are prepared for deployed operations,
humanitarian assistance, and disaster response.
Partnering With Our Private Sector and Federal Partners
Now more than ever, collaboration and cooperation with our private sector and
Federal partners is key to maximizing resources, leveraging capabilities and sustaining clinical currency. Initiatives to build strong academic partnerships with St.
Louis University, Wright State University (Ohio); University of Maryland; University of Mississippi; University of Nebraska-Lincoln; University of California-Davis
and University of Texas-San Antonio, among others, bolster research and training
platforms and ultimately, ensures a pipeline of current, deployable medics to sustain
Air Force medicine.
Our long history of collaborating with the Veterans Administration (VA) also enhances clinical currency for our providers, saves valuable resources, and provides a
more seamless transition for our Airmen as they move from active duty to veteran
status. The Air Force currently has five joint ventures with the VA, including the

90
most recent at Keesler AFB, MS. Additional efforts are underway for Buckley AFB,
CO, to share space with the Denver VA Medical Center, which is now under construction.
The new joint Department of Defense-Veterans Affairs disability evaluation system pilot started at Malcolm Grow Medical Center at Andrews AFB, MD in November 2007. It was expanded to include Elmendorf AFB, AK; Travis AFB, CA and
Vance AFB, OK; and MacDill AFB, FL, in May 2009. Lessons learned are streamlining and expediting disability recovery and processing, and creating improved
treatment, evaluation and delivery of compensation and benefits. The introduction
of a single comprehensive medical examination and single-sourced disability rating
was instrumental to improving the process and increasing the transparency. Services now allow members to see proposed VA disability ratings before separation.
We continue to work toward advances in the interoperability of the electronic
health record. Recent updates allow near real-time data sharing between DOD and
Veterans Affairs providers. Malcolm Grow Medical Center, Wright-Patterson Medical Center, and David Grant Medical Center are now using this technology, with
12 additional Air Force military treatment facilities slated to come online. New system updates will enhance capabilities to share images, assessment reports, and
data. All updates are geared toward producing a virtual lifetime electronic record
and a nationwide health information network.
YEAR OF THE AIR FORCE FAMILY

This is the Year of the Air Force Family, and we are working hand in hand with
Air Force personnel and force management to ensure our Exceptional Family Member Program (EFMP) beneficiaries receive the assistance they need.
In September 2009, the Air Force sponsored an Autism Summit where educational, medical, and community support personnel discussed challenges and best
practices. In December 2009, the Air Force Medical Service provided all Air Force
treatment facilities with an autism tool kit. The kit provided educational information to providers on diagnosis and treatment. Also, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH is
partnering with Childrens Hospital of Ohio in a research project to develop a comprehensive registry for autism spectrum disorders, behavioral therapies, and gene
mapping.
The Air Force actively collaborates with sister Services and the Defense Center
of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain injury (DCoE) to offer
a variety of programs and services to meet the needs of children of wounded warriors. One recent initiative was the Family Connections website with Sesame
Street-themed resources to help children cope with deployments and injured parents. In addition, DOD-funded websites, such as afterdeployment.org, providing specific information and guidance for parents/caregivers to understand and help kids
deal with issues related to deployment and its aftermath.
Parents and caregivers also consult with their childs primary care manager, who
can help identify issues and refer the child for care when necessary. Other resources
available to families include counseling through Military OneSource, Airman and
Family Readiness Centers, Chaplains, and Military Family Life Consultantsall of
whom may refer the family to seek more formal mental health treatment through
consultation with their primary care manager or by contacting a TRICARE mental
health provider directly.
INVESTING IN OUR PEOPLE: EDUCATION, TRAINING, AND RESEARCH

Increased Focus on Recruiting and Retention Initiatives


To gain and hold the trust of our patients, we must have highly trained, current,
and qualified providers. To attract those high quality providers in the future, we
have numerous efforts underway to improve recruiting and retention.
Weve changed our marketing efforts to better target recruits, such as providing
Corps-specific DVDs to recruiters. The Health Profession Scholarship Program remains vital to attracting doctors and dentists, accounting for 75 percent of these two
Corps accessions. The Air Force International Health Specialist program is another
successful program, providing Air Force Medical Service personnel with opportunities to leverage their foreign language and cultural knowledge to effectively execute
and lead global health engagements, each designed to build international partnerships and sustainable capacity.
The Nursing Enlisted Commissioning Program (NECP) is a terrific opportunity for
Airmen. Several Airmen have been accepted to the NECP, completed degrees, and
have been commissioned as Second Lieutenant within a year. To quote a recent
graduate, 2nd Lt. April C. Barr, The NECP was an excellent way for me to finish

91
my degree and gave me an opportunity to fulfill a goal I set as a young
Airman . . . to be commissioned as an Air Force nurse.
For our enlisted personnel, targeted Selective Reenlistment Bonuses, combined
with continued emphasis on quality of life, generous benefits, and job satisfaction
have positively impacted enlisted recruiting and retention efforts.
Increasing Synergy to Strengthen GME and Officer/Enlisted Training
We foster excellence in clinical, operational, joint and coalition partner roles for
all Air Force Medical Service personnel. We are increasing opportunities for advanced education in general dentistry and establishing more formalized, tiered approaches to Medical Corps faculty development. Senior officer and enlisted efforts
in the National Capital Region and the San Antonio Military Medical Center are
fostering Tri-Service collaboration, enlightening the Services to each others capabilities and qualifications, and establishing opportunities to develop and hone readiness
skills.
The Medical Education and Training Campus (METC) at Fort Sam Houston,
Texas, will have a monumental impact on the Department of Defense and all military services. We anticipate a smooth transition with our moves completed by summer 2011. METC will train future enlisted medics to take care of our service members and their families and will establish San Antonio as a medical training center
of excellence.
Our Centers for the Sustainment of Trauma and Readiness Skills at St. Louis
University, University of Maryland-Baltimore Shock Trauma and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine remain important and evolving training platforms for
our doctors, nurses and medical technicians preparing to deploy. We recently expanded our St. Louis University training program to include pediatric trauma. Tragically, this training became necessary, as our deployed medics treat hundreds of
children due to war-related violence.
Partnerships with the University Hospital Cincinnati and Scottsdale, AZ, trauma
hospitals allow the Air Forces nurse transition programs to provide newly graduated registered nurses 11 weeks of rotations in emergency care, cardiovascular intensive care, burn unit, endoscopy, same-day surgery, and respiratory therapy.
These advanced clinical and deployment readiness skills prepare them for success
in Air Force hospitals and deployed medical facilities, vital to the care of our patients and joint warfighters.
Setting Clear Research Requirements and Integrating Technology
Trusted care is not static. To sustain this trust, we must remain agile and adaptive, seeking innovative solutions to shape our future. Our ongoing research in procedures, technology, and equipment will ensure our patients and warfighters always
benefit from the latest medical technologies and clinical advancements.
Air Force Medical Service vascular surgeons, Lieutenant Colonels Todd Rasmussen and William Darrin Clouse, have completed 17 research papers since 2005
and edited the vascular surgery handbook. On January 10, 2009 a U.S. Marine sustained bilateral posterior knee dislocations with subsequent loss of blood flow to his
lower legs following an improvised explosive device attack in the Helmand Province.
Casualty evacuation delivered the Marine to our British partners at Camp Bastion,
a level II surgical unit within an hour. At Bastion, British surgeons applied knowledge gained from combat casualty care research and restored blood flow to both legs
using temporary vascular shunts. Medical evacuation then delivered the casualty to
the 455th Expeditionary Medical Group at Bagram. Upon arrival, our surgeons at
Bagram performed definitive vascular reconstruction and protected the fragile soft
tissue with negative pressure wound therapy. The Marine is currently recovering at
the National Military Medical Center in Bethesda and is expected to have functional
limbs.
In another example, a 21-year-old Airman underwent a rare pancreatic
autotransplantation surgery at Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC) to salvage his bodys ability to produce insulin. The airman was shot in the back three
times by an insurgent at a remote outpost in Afghanistan. The patient underwent
two procedures in Afghanistan to stop the bleeding, was flown to Germany, then to
WRAMC. Army surgeons consulted with University of Miamis Miller School of Medicine researchers on transplantation experiments. The surgeons decided to attempt
a rare autotransplantation surgery to save the remaining pancreas cells. WRAMC
Surgeons removed his remaining pancreas cells and flew them over 1,000 miles to
the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine. The University of Miami team
worked through the night to isolate and preserve the islet cells. The cells were flown
back to WRAMC the next day and successfully implanted in the patient. The surgery was a miraculous success, as the cells are producing insulin.

92
These two cases best illustrate the outcome of our collaborations, culture of research, international teamwork, innovation, and excellence.
Shaping the Future Today Through Partnerships and Training
Under a new partnership with the University of Illinois at Chicago, we are researching directed energy force protection, which focuses on detection, diagnosis and
treatment of directed energy devices. We are exploring the discovery of biomarkers
related to laser eye injuries, development of films for laser eye protection and the
development of a tricorder prototype capable of laser detection and biomarker assessment. Additional efforts focus on the use and safety of laser scalpels and the
development of a hand-held battery operated laser tool to treat wounds on the battlefield.
We continue our 7-year partnership with the University of Pittsburgh Medical
Center to develop Type II diabetes prevention and treatment programs for rural and
Air Force communities. Successful program efforts in the San Antonio area include
the establishment of a Diabetes Center of Excellence, Diabetes Day outreach specialty care, and efforts to establish a National Diabetes Model for diabetic care.
Another partnership, with the University of Maryland Medical Center and the
Center for the Sustainment of Trauma and Readiness Skills (CSTARS) in Baltimore is developing advanced training for Air Force trauma teams. The project goal
is to develop a multi-patient trauma simulation capability using high fidelity trauma simulators to challenge trauma teams in rapid assessment, task management,
and critical skills necessary for the survival of our wounded warriors. A debriefing
model is being developed to assist with after action reviews for trauma team members.
Radio frequency technology is contributing to medical process improvements at
Keesler AFB, MS. Currently, Keesler AFB is analyzing the use of automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) in AFMS business processes. The AIDC evaluation
focuses on four main areas: patient tracking, medication administration, specimen
tracking, and asset management. Further system evaluation and data collection is
ongoing in 2010 with an expansion of AIDC use in tracking automated data processing equipment.
CONCLUSION

As a unique health system, we are committed to success across the spectrum of


military operations through rapid deployability and patient-centered care. We are
partnering for better outcomes and increasing clinical capacity. We are strengthening our education and training platforms through partnerships and scanning the
environment for new research and development opportunities to keep Air Force
medicine on the cutting edge.
We will enhance our facilities and the quality of healthcare to ensure health and
wellness of all entrusted to our care. We do all this with a focus on patient safety
and sound fiscal stewardship. We could not achieve our goals of better readiness,
better health, better care and reduced cost without your support, and so again, I
thank you.
In closing, I share a quote from our Air Force Chief of Staff, Gen. Norton A.
Schwartz, who said, I see evidence every day the Medical Service is All In, faithfully executing its mission in the heat of the fight, in direct support of the
warfighter, and of families back home as well. I know you would agree that All
in is the right place to be.
CRITICAL WARFIGHTING-SKILL BONUSES

Chairman INOUYE. I have many questions here. Id like to submit


most of them. But, I have a few.
This morning, I received a call from a constituent, who said, I
just saw an ad that provides a bonus of $350,000 to anyone volunteering to serve as a doctor. I have no idea what service or where
the ad was, but, General, do you have any idea what this is all
about?
RECRUITING BONUSES

General SCHOOMAKER. No, sir, but Ill be happy to look into it


further. We have a variety of bonus programs to bring medical professionals of a variety of sourcesphysicians

93
Chairman INOUYE. What is the bonus for, say, a surgeon?
General SCHOOMAKER. Sir, Ill have to look into the
Chairman INOUYE. Oh.
General SCHOOMAKER [continuing]. Specifics of it. Its dependent
upon whether were looking at loan repayment from earlier training or multiyear signing bonuses by specialty. Its pretty much
shared across the three services. MaybeIm sorry, I dont have
the authority to do thisbut maybe one of my colleagues would be
able to answer.
Admiral ROBINSON. Senator Inouye, Mr. Chairman, I think the
critical warfighting-skill bonuses are in the, on the order of about
$275,000 over a 4-year period. And I may not have all of the numbers right. And then, there are a variety of lesser bonuses that fit
into place. So, theres variable incentive pay, theres board-certified
pay. There is a list of them, and theyre utilized in general surgery,
orthopaedic surgery. And the things that are most critical that we
are seeing now are mental health specialists, so psychiatrists will
also benefit.
Theres another level of boardor of bonus pay for clinical psychologists, for social workers, and also for mental health nurse specialists. Its much less, but there are incentive bonuses that are
being utilized. All three services are utilizingwe do it a little differently, but the amounts are approximately the same.
So, I do not know anything about a $350,000 bonus. But, again,
we can look into that.
[The information follows:]
No, there is not currently a $350,000 bonus for anyone volunteering to serve as
a doctor. Navy currently offers a Critical Wartime Skills Accession Bonus (CWSAB)
for specific physician and dental specialties. The accession bonus depends on the
specialty being accessed. The bonuses range from $220,000 to $400,000. The Navy
currently authorizes CWSAB to General Surgery, Orthopedic Surgery, Urology,
Family Medicine, Emergency Medicine, Psychiatry, Pulmonology, Diagnostic Radiology, Anesthesiology, Preventive Medicine, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons, and
Comprehensive Dentists.

Chairman INOUYE. I thank you very much.


General
General GREEN. Senator, if I may add
Chairman INOUYE. Yes.
General GREEN. Im sorry, sir.
Under current authorities for the multiyear retention bonuses
can go as high as $100,000 a year. Although I am not familiar with
the ad that you bring to our attention; however, I will say that, as
our personnel communities look at accession bonuses, one of the
tools they have used is to build an accession bonus that basically
gives a lump-sum payment, but then, they dont necessarily receive
that particular multiyear retention pay. So, accession bonuses
could go up, technically, by the authorities we have, as high as
$400,000, but then they would not receive that same pay while
they were on Active Duty. If that helps you, sir.
Chairman INOUYE. Oh, thank you.
REHABILITATION FOR WOUNDED WARRIORS

General Schoomaker, on warriors in transition, is that a rehab


program? Because I had the good fortune to be assigned to Percy
Jones General Hospital during World War II, and there they had

94
a 10-month program that included everything from how to use your
prosthetic appliance, driving, carpentry, electrical work, plumbing,
musical instruments, sports, sex, the whole worksdining. And I
felt, when I left the hospital, prepared for the world. Do we have
any sort of rehab program for our men and women?
General SCHOOMAKER. Yes, sir. I mean, the simple answer is,
absolutely. In fact, I think, in prior conversations you and I have
had, you shared with me the experience that you had. And Im
I, frankly, have taken that on the road, frequently, to talk about
rediscovering lessons from prior wars, what we had in World War
II through the convalescent hospital that you recovered in at Battle
Creek, our Valley Forge Convalescent Hospital during the Vietnam
era. These were lessons, quite frankly, that, in the late 1970s and
1980s and 1990s, we forgot. And as we move toward a more strict
definition, much like the civilian sector, of inpatient and outpatient
medicine, this war and the injuries, both in battle and not, and the
illnesses associated with it, have taught us the need to rediscover
and to redesign intermediate rehabilitation.
And this transition process that we have, thatmost recently,
my deputy commanderexcuse memy Assistant Surgeon General
for Warrior Care and Transition, and the Commander of our Warrior Transition Command, Brigadier General Gary Cheek, a career
artilleryman, has worked onin association and collaboration with
our colleagues in the Navy, the Marine Corps, and the Air Force,
has developed a comprehensive transition planits automated
now across our 29 warrior transition unitsand nine State-based,
community-based warrior transition units. And it includes all of
the things that you describe, from initial healing to longer-term recovery and rehabilitation, and includes the family, and is tailored
to the individual. It has vocational elements to it, educational elements, and always wraps in there the family and the soldiers interest in either returning to duty or going out into productive citizenship. On average, right now, about 50 percent of our warriors
in transition actually return to duty, which is, I think, a substantial reinvestment of our people back into uniform.
You know, I think, sir, that we have returned to duty over 140
amputees, as an example of this, and weve sent about 40 of them
into combat, 3 or 4 of whom have gone back into combat as amputees, having lost their limb not in combat, but in training accidents
or in motor vehicle accidents. And so, we see this as a terrific success and a rediscovery and a recharging of the whole effort to transition these soldiers successfully.
Chairman INOUYE. Is this a standard program for all men and
women in transition, or is it up to the hospital?
WALTER REED NATIONAL MILITARY MEDICAL CENTER

General SCHOOMAKER. No, sir. There are criteria to get them into
the program. We currently have approximately 9,000 soldiers in
them across these units I described; about 7,000 of them are within
our hospitals and on campuses in our installations; about 2,000 are
out in nine different States in these community-based organizations. We have some fairly good criteria to get them into the program, but, once into the program, the emphasis is in transition. Its
aan aspirational model that focuses on building abilities and re-

95
channeling or redirecting their efforts and their interests if their
former service and their former roles cannot be re-realized again.
And its in very close association with the Veterans Administration
and other civilian rehabilitation efforts.
Chairman INOUYE. Thank you.
Admiral Robinson, Id like to ask a few questions relating to Walter Reed National Military Medical Center. The subcommittee has
just a vague idea of what the additional budget will look like. We
have no idea precisely as to how much military construction will
be involved, when will it commence, and how much operation/maintenance will cost, how much new equipment. Can you give us some
idea?
Admiral ROBINSON. Yes, sir. I cant give you the complete answer
that youre looking for, but I can give you a Navy answer, of sorts.
The complete answer has to be contained in the JTF CAPMED
comprehensive master plan for the facility. And then, when that occurs, we can have, I think, an understanding of what requirements
will be necessary for the facilitieswhatever increased additional
cost there will be for facilities at the Walter Reed National Military
Medical Center.
As I sit today, there is a veryI call, a nonrobust number of
about, perhaps, $750 or $800 million that is being projected to be
needed in order to finish that construction, but I think that well
really need to wait, because thats not a very good requirementsbased analysis, as I sit now.
So, I think the first answer is the researchor, the comprehensive master plan.
The second portion is, in terms of the building that is occurring
now, the Base Realignment and Closure Commission (BRAC) has
funded us completely for new construction, and thats been fine,
and thats worked well. BRAC, as you know, did not fund any renovation. And the problems that have occurred have been that were
building a wonderful and state-of-the-art facility, but were attaching it to a 1982 constructed building. Its a very good building, its
a very fine building; but its 2010, so its a building from another
era. The renovation that is going to occur was not part of the
BRAC funding, so Navy has taken that up, and we are working
hard and will fund the renovation.
Sequencing it and getting it all done is the major element now,
because we dont think that we will be able to get all of the renovation done by the opening date of September 2011 at the Walter
Reed National Military Medical Center. We do not feel that that
will decrease the timeline on the opening of the new medical center, but we do think that there will be more work to be done on
the renovation side of the building.
And the third thing is, there are many definitions that are now
running around regarding what makes the proper facilities commitment and what makes the proper world-classwhich is the word
Im getting tothere are many definitions of what that could be,
and Im not sure exactly what that means.
In terms of quality of care, in terms of satisfaction with care, in
terms of ability to give care comprehensively, we already feel that
we are at a world-class level. If world-class is defined from a facilities point of view, that means square footage of operating rooms

96
or square footage of single-family or single-patient rooms, then
there will be more work that has to be done.
I think that that definition of world-class needs to be placed in
a very careful place, because world-class at the National Naval
Medical Center or Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
will automatically be translated to world-class in the military
health system for Army, for Air Force, for Navy, and that will be
CONUS and OCONUS facilities. So, I think that how we define
world-class cant be defined just for one facility, its going to need
to be defined for the MHS. Keeping that in mind as we do this, I
think, is important.
Chairman INOUYE. In terms of dollars, how much is involved?
Admiral ROBINSON. Sir, at this point, the buildingsand, forgive
me, I dont do this on a daily basis, but I think were at the $1.5
billion level, in terms of facilities, but I think that the addition that
will be needed is truly unclear at this moment. The additional
funding that wethat is being talked about by the JTF CAPMED
is in the $800 million range, but I dont think that that is a number thatI dont think that is the end number, and I dont think
I dont know the analysis behind that number. So, unfortunately,
Im not able to give you a very good answer regarding that.
Chairman INOUYE. May I request that, for the record, a detailed
response be made?
Admiral ROBINSON. Yes, sir, well do that.
Chairman INOUYE. Thank you.
Admiral ROBINSON. Youre welcome.
[The information follows:]
To carry out the 2005 BRAC law, JTF CAPMED was established to oversee the
realignment of Walter Reed Army Medical Center to the new Walter Reed National
Military Medical Center in Bethesda and Fort Belvoir Community Hospital. JTF
CAPMED reports to the Secretary of Defense through the Deputy Secretary of Defense. Due to the alignment of JTF CAPMED as an independent DOD entity, Navy
Medicine does not direct JTF CAPMED on construction or other priorities, nor are
we planning for future operation and maintenance requirements, since that by definition belongs to JTF CAPMED. These emerging priorities and requirements are
driven by many things, all of which are outside Navy Medicines budget process. As
part of our mission to ensure that our Wounded Warriors receive the care they need
and deserve, Navy Medicine is in regular communication with JTF CAPMED and
continues to provide support as necessary. Because of this regular communication
Navy Medicine is aware of the unique challenges facing JTF CAPMED, to include
the projected increase of financial requirements. However, specific details of these
challenges or the financial requirements cannot be defined or defended by Navy
Medicine.

Chairman INOUYE. And now, General Green, on the matter of recruiting and retaining, we have noted that, for example, in medical
schools today, about one-half of the graduates are women, but, on
an average throughout the servicesin the Medical Corps, I think
its 72 percent men and 28 percent women. And its the same thing
in the Dental Corps; its about 7525. Is a special effort being made
to recruit women, or is that part of culture?
General GREEN. Sir, we have looked at many avenues to try and
increase our attractiveness to women graduating from medical
school. Many times, it comes up to, as they look at life choices and
raising a family, concerns over time away from that family, et
cetera, play into this. And so, one of the things that weve been
looking at is whether we could do something with the Reserves,

97
which would allow people to come on Active Duty, basically pay
back a portion of their commitment, and, as some life-changing
event occurred, could there be a way to let them go into a Reserve
commitment for a period of time, and then come back to us on Active Duty? These things have many implications regarding how a
career is managed and whether or not they can be competitive with
others, to make certain that we do not limit them in any way in
their career planning.
And so, we have done some research, actually gone out and
talked with medical schools, looked at reasons why we have not
been attractive. And, for the most part, it is not that our scholarships are not attractive to these folks, its not that we dont have
very successful scholarship programs, it has to do with concerns
over lifestyle and the ability to adjust to things like childbirth,
marriage, and changes in their own personal situation.
And so, well continue to very actively try and attract those folks.
We realize that more than 50 percent of medical school graduates
now are women, and we very much want to bring them in; we simply have not yet found a way to make ourselves attractive and
change those percentages that you have quoted to us, sir.
Chairman INOUYE. How would you rate our retention and recruiting? Excellent? Good? Fair?
General GREEN. We have taken a different approach in the Air
Force. As you know, we did not have a great deal of success in
bringing in fully qualified, and so, we decided to move dollars from
our recruiting into scholarship programs, and have significantly increased the scholarships that we are offering.
We have done very well. We have three areas that we are having
troubles right now; in particular, its with psychologists, oral surgeons, and pharmacists. And so, we are hoping to offer some more
scholarships in those lines.
When we go after people who are interested in pursuing education, we find that we have always been able to fill nearly 100
percent. We had one year where we were at 98 percent. Whereas,
when we went after fully qualified, we frequently were not able to
get even one-half of what we were trying to achieve.
With our nurses this year, with the changes weve made in recruiting, we have seen a decrease in our ability to bring nurses in.
Whereas, the other two services, in their recruiting, have brought
in, I believe, very close to 100 percent of their nurses that they
need, this year we were only able to bring in about 81 percent.
Now, our nurse manning statistics are good. Were sitting at
about 90 percent. And our efforts have shifted again to try and use
the enlisted to nursing, and were going to be bringing in about 50
enlisted members per year, which we think will fill the gap.
I will let General Siniscalchi talk a little bit as to some of the
things that were also doing to establish relationships with the
nursing schools to show the benefits of an Air Force career.
I dont think that were falling behind, in terms of our changes
in how we approach recruiting, but some of the efforts, in terms of
the scholarships and things, have long tails. As you know, to graduate a physicianIll use a family physician4 years of medical
school and 3 years of residency. And so, from the time they take
the scholarship to the time we see them coming out is about 7

98
years. And so, we are very interested in maintaining our ability to
bring in fully qualified. We are leveraging the special pays and authorities that you have given us, to make certain that we can bring
in people who are interested in an Air Force career.
Chairman INOUYE. Thank you.
General Schoomaker and Admiral Robinson, for the record, will
you submit a paper on recruiting and retention?
Admiral ROBINSON. Yes, sir.
General SCHOOMAKER. Absolutely, sir.
[The information follows:]
The Army Medical Department is experiencing shortages in certain specialties
and in certain locations. However, despite the persistent deployment tempo, the national shortage of many healthcare disciplines, and the compensation gap between
military and civilian providers, the Army is doing well recruiting and retaining
healthcare providers. Recruiting and retention authorities and bonuses are working,
but we need to maintain constant vigilance.
The most difficult skill sets to recruit and retain are fully qualified physicians
with surgical or primary care specialties, dentists (general and specialty), behavioral
health professionals, and nurse anesthetists. According to the U.S. Army Recruiting
Command (USAREC), one of the greatest challenges in the recruitment of health
professionals is simply a lack of awareness of military medicine in general and
Army Medicine in particular. In an attempt to alleviate this challenge, USAREC is
adopting a strategy of increased marketing of the benefits of Army Medicine.
Mission success within the active force continues to rely on recruitment into our
student programs. The world-class training programs offered by the Army Medical
Department are critical to recruiting and retaining providers. Graduates of Army
medical training programs enjoy a first-time board pass rate well above the national
average.
The Critical Skills Accession Bonus granted by Congress has been fundamental
in turning around recruitment into the Health Professions Scholarship Program. In
fiscal year 2009, we were able to recruit 103 percent of mission for dental students,
103 percent of Veterinary Corps recruiting missions, and 93 percent for medical students. These are significant increases from previous fiscal years and will be the
building blocks for the future force.
The Active Duty Health Professions Loan Repayment program has been very successful with 256 officers participating and receiving up to $44,000 annually. The average continuation rate of healthcare personnel (the percentage of personnel who,
at their first opportunity to leave service, choose to remain) has averaged 92.5 percent over the last 5 years, peaking at 93.7 percent in 2009. Health Professions Special Pays are a key element in the retention of health professions. The new Consolidated Special Authority authorized by Congress provides increased flexibility for
which we are grateful. We must continue to make full use of the recruiting and retention authorities and bonuses provided by Congress if we are to maintain strong
recruiting and retention. Our experience over the last decade has proven that incentives, bonuses, and special pays work.
Recruiting for Navy Medical Department active duty is good to very good. Navy
Medicine recruiting efforts have been successful the past few years in making overall goal for all Corps in fiscal year 2008 and fiscal year 2009. Active Duty recruiting
is projected to meet or exceed fiscal year 2010 goals with fiscal year 2010 recruiting
performance outpacing the fiscal year 2009 effort. There continues to be difficulty
in directly accessing wartime specialties and medical specialties that are highly
compensated in the civilian sector.
Retention for Navy Medical Department active duty is fair to good. Retention has
stabilized over the past years due to increased retention bonuses. The overall loss
rate for the officer corps was approximately 9 percent. The following provides a
short synopsis of each of the Corps issues.
Medical Corps
We continue to experience difficulty in recruiting mental health providers, possibly due to the increased demand in the civilian sector.
Recruiting and retaining general surgeons, preventive medicine, occupational
medicine, family medicine, and psychiatrists will remain a challenge over the next
5 years. Wartime demand, perceived inequities in pay comparability between military and civilian providers, and limited student pipelines are contributing factors.

99
Dental Corps
Dental Corps has difficulty directly accessing and retaining oral surgeons and
general dentists because of the pay gap between military and civilian compensation.
A general dentist pay package offering significant compensation increases is currently routing through DOD. Additionally, the DOD Health Professions Incentive
Working Group will be recommending a $20,000 per year increase in incentive special pay for oral surgeons in fiscal year 2011.
Medical Service Corps
High operational commitments are affecting retention for physician assistants,
clinical psychologists and social workers. The new accession and retention bonuses
recently approved should have a positive impact on these specialties.
Recruiting for clinical psychologists, podiatrists, and pharmacists is difficult because of the perceived inequities in pay comparability between military and civilian
providers.
Nurse Corps
High operational commitments are affecting retention in all of Navys nurse practitioner specialties.
Current initiatives in place to retain these critically manned/high OPTEMPO
communities include RN Incentive Special Pay, Health Professional Loan Repayment Program, and a progressive Duty Under Instruction (DUINS) program for
which officers are eligible after the first permanent duty station.
Hospital Corps
The Hospital Corps has been very successful at both recruiting and retaining
corpsman.

General SCHOOMAKER. If I could just make one comment


Chairman INOUYE. Sure.
General SCHOOMAKER [continuing]. From the earlier discussion
about the recruiting bonuses.
RECRUITING CIVILIAN PROVIDERS

Army medicine is 60 percent civilian. Ifor people who might be


listening or reading this account, Id very much like to encourage
people who are looking for a career as a civilian in the medical
services of the uniformed services, to come and look at us, to include women who might be looking atwere experimenting and
looking at the potential for job-sharing around a single position,
split between, you know, multiple civilian physicians, psychologists,
psychiatrists, and the like.
Chairman INOUYE. Thank you.
Senator Cochran.
Senator COCHRAN. Mr. Chairman, thank you.
General Green, I was noticing a newspaper report discussing a
medical group at Keesler Air Force Base, in Biloxi, Mississippi, assembling to provide emergency medical service in Chile for the victims of the earthquake there. And the numbers of people who are
being treated by this special unit thats flown from our State is in
the neighborhood of 3,000 to 5,000 people, and making available
care from the Medical Support Squadron that was based in Biloxi,
Mississippi.
Have you had any recent report? This is a 2- or 3-day-old report
from a newspaper atthe Biloxi Sun Herald in Mississippi.
General GREEN. Sir, that team went to Wilford Hall. They aggregated with their equipment in San Antonio, and left, I believe, late
yesterday, are expected to arrive in Chile today. They will be working very closely with the Chileans, in terms of trying to decompress
healthcare issues that arise whenever the healthcare infrastructure

100
has been damaged. We built our EMEDS25, which is the unit
thats gone down there, based on the number of patients that they
can actually see. That particular unit that has gone to Chile is an
EMEDS25. I believe its just over 65 medical folks, and another
20 to 30 support people, that basically help with water and electricity and making sure the hospital has all of its needs met.
The intent is for them to augment the Chilean system. Well
work hand-in-hand with the Chilean doctors. And they will probably, I would guessbefore the end of their deployment, probably
see in the neighborhood of between 3,000 and 10,000 patients.
We maintain a robust supply channel to get that to them. And
you may wonder, How do you see so many patients with so few?
And the answer is that, when youre working hand-in-hand with a
host nation a lot is possible. As long as you have a good logistics
chain and the ability to move patients back into the host-nation
hospital, we find that we have tremendous capabilities. And these
have been used both here in the States and overseas.
Keesler did a superb job of mobilizing their people in less than
24 hours from the time they were notified. And a very excited
group from Mississippi have gone to do this important work for our
country.
Senator COCHRAN. Well, we appreciate that. And its very impressive to contemplate the amount of work and effort that went
into this, mobilizing the people, getting everything organized and
its not just a drive to the neighborhood; its a long way to Chile.
And its really remarkable, I think. And youre to be congratulated,
I think, as a service; and the Air Force personnel who are at
Keesler, and those who are volunteering to make this trip, really
deserve our highest praise and commendation.
General GREEN. Thank you, sir, Ill pass that to Brigadier General Dan Wyman, our Commander down there.
Senator COCHRAN. Well, thank you.
I wonder, just as a general proposition, the extent to which our
services are able to recruit and retain qualified medical personnel
to provide healthcare services. When I was in the Navy, we had
one medical doctor aboard our ship, a heavy cruiser. And I was impressed, though, by the corpsmen, who really make up the bulk of
the people who do the work and provide healthcare services at sea
like that, when youre a long way from anywhere. They really do
a marvelous job, sometimes with emergencies. I have to admit, I
wasnt in a military conflict when I was in the Navy. Some of the
ports we visited might have thought we were in a military conflict,
but
Anyway, what is your assessment right now of our ability to retain and train competent people to do these very important jobs?
General SCHOOMAKER. Is that directed to me, sir?
Senator COCHRAN. Yes, sir.
General SCHOOMAKER. To the Army?
Senator COCHRAN. Right.
VALUE OF COMBAT MEDICS

General SCHOOMAKER. First of all, let me just make a comment,


that Im really pleased that you recognize. A lot of people dont recognize the central role that our enlisted medics play in this. The

101
second largest military occupational specialistthe only larger population is that of infantrymen, 11 Bravosis the combat medic, the
68 Whiskey. In fact, yesterday, we held a ceremony down in San
Antonio, where my headquarters is, withattended by five of my
predecessors, Surgeons General, including nowformer Secretary
Jim Peake, who was the Surgeon General of the Army before that,
and who conceived of the need to better train our medics.
We now have the 68 Whiskey programvery highly trained medics. And, frankly, much of what my colleagues and I have talked
about, in terms of success on the battlefield, is owed to our medics.
Whether theyre Navy corpsmen, who are serving with marines, or
our Air Force medics, these kids are just amazing human beings
who havewho are truly heroic.
So, I appreciate that you recognized that, and the role that they
play.
RECRUITING AND RETAINING OFFICERS

As far as recruiting and retaining other officer-level specialties,


were doing quite well, sir. We hadespecially in the Nurse Corps
and the Medical Corps, the physicians and nursessome difficult
years in the past, but last year, physician recruitment, through our
Health Profession Scholarship Program, which is one of the centerpieces of that program, of bringing in kids interested in going to
medical schools under scholarships from the military, has been
very successful. That program is absolutely essential to us. Its
in the Army, its well funded, both for the Active as well as the Reserve component of it. And were seeing the products of it.
Our graduate health education, and specifically physician graduate education programs, and our nurse graduate programs, I
think are essential for retention of those high quality people. If we
didnt have those programs, frankly, I dont think we would be
doing as well as we do, because we recruit successfully through the
scholarship programs or loan repayment programs, but we retain
them through offering to them some of the very best training programs for physicians and nurses that exists anywhere in the country.
Senator COCHRAN. Admiral Robinson, I didnt mean to overlook
your opportunity of serving the Navy in the position you do. We appreciate your service. And Iwhat is your reaction to that same
question?
Admiral ROBINSON. Senator Cochran, thanks very much.
First of all, the corpsmen are the backbone of Navy medicine.
And you noted thatone doctor on your ship, but there were
morethere were probably several corpsmen. Today, in our submarine force and surface force, independent-duty corpsmen very
often are department heads for the medical departments. So, we
actually count on these men and women to give first-rate medical
care at sea to a large number of our forces. And they are qualified
to do that, and they do a good job, and have been doing that for
the last 50 years. So, its not a new program; its something that
weve had in place, and we need to continue.
The 8,404 corpsmen, who are corpsmen with the Marine Corps,
do an outstanding job, both from integrating with the marines, but
also from taking care of marines and people in harms way. And,

102
unfortunately, the largest number of casualties and mortalities
that we have in Navy medicine over the course of the last many
years actually is a result of the death of 8,404 corpsmen, my corpsmen who are with the Marine Corps.
So, the point is that the sacrifice and the bravery and the quality
of the care that the men and women who are corpsmen and who
are enlisted medics give is a testimony to the mortality/morbidity
rates coming out of theater, out of the battlefield, and also testimony to en route care, to the surgical care, to the care thats received at Landstuhl, and the care thats received here. So, its a
continuum of care that starts with that combat medic, with that
corpsman on the battlefield, thats able to reach out and actually
do an effective job.
And recruitment and retentionNavy medicine, I think I almost
will parallel completely what General Schoomaker said. Weve had
some poor years, but recently we have had good recruiting and retention numbers on the Active component side of our physicians.
We are down in family practice, general surgery, in terms of critical specialties that we need more of, and also psychiatry, mental
health, but we are doing a great job, and I feel very happy that the
Health Profession Scholarship Program and several of our other
programs are back up and are actually producing quite well.
On the Reserve side, there are some challenges that were having, and I think that the challengesweve looked at this, and I
think the challenges in the medical recruiting portion may be related to how we changed the recruiting several years; instead of
having an Active component and a Reserve component recruiter,
we put the recruiters together. And I think that, at that point, as
soon as the Active component member was obtained, as it were, I
dont know if the emphasis was put on the Reserve component. We
separated that out again, and were going to look at this very hard,
but I think were going to see an uptick in the Reserve component
recruiting thats occurring.
Thats something thats on my radar screen, but right now, recruitment and retention in medical is all rightand I dont want
to overplay thiswere looking hard, but its okay, and its better
than its been in the last several years.
Senator COCHRAN. Great. Thank you very much.
Mr. Chairman.
Chairman INOUYE. Thank you.
Senator Murray.
Senator MURRAY. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman.
This hearing really does come at a critical time. Were in the seventh year in Iraq, and are increasing our operations in Afghanistan. And the Department of Defense continues to see our returning members come home with both visible and invisible wounds of
war.
I know that youve all made a lot of progress, but we know our
jobs not finished. We need to make sure that all of our members
and their families have access to healthcare at all times, and we
cant forget toour wounded warriors, our reservists, National
Guard and Active Duty servicemembers, as they transition back to
civilian life, and make sure that were meeting all their needs.

103
To that end, I wanted to ask you specifically about the National
Guard and Reserves. Theyve been called on a number of times to
support us, and theyre coming home to some real hardships, with
the economy that is very difficult for all of us, but particularly for
them. Some of them come home to no jobs when theyre released
from Active Duty, and healthcare becomes an issue for them, as
well.
In some cases, the returning National Guard and Reserve soldiers have to live off limited savings or their drill pay to support
their families. And, you know, that contributes to greater mental
health stress for them. So, Im very worried about how were dealing with this right now.
And I wanted to ask all of you what kind of efforts are currently
underway to improve access to mental healthcare during the dwell
period for our National Guard and Reserve.
Open it up to any of you whod like to comment.
MENTAL HEALTHCARE FOR RESERVE COMPONENT

General SCHOOMAKER. First of all, maam, we share with you the


concern about the strain on the Activethe Army National Guard
and the Reserves. This period of transformation for the Army, as
you know, has been a transition from the reliance on our Reserves
as a strategic reserve poised to be mobilized in the event of a strategic threat to the Nation on a large scale, to one of an operational
reserve, where they are very much involved in continuous operations and mobilization and deployment.
Our first goal, across the board, in terms of health, dental, mental, and physical care, is at separation and demobilization, to fully
explore what problemsand, in the case of dental health, to restore dental health; in the case of behavioral health problems, to
comprehensively evaluate how the soldier is doing. And, I think, in
the National Guard and Reserves, we still have a way to go with
that.
Our Vice Chief of Staff of the Army, General Chiarelli, last year,
recognized that access to healthcare for the National Guard and
Reserve, who tend to live in sites remote from our installations and
in the heartland, often in rural areas, does not have the access to
care, even under TRICARE, that we would like. And we have a
he chartered, through Army medicine, a task force, co-chaired by
Major General Rich Stone, in the Army Reserves, and Major General Deborah Wheeling, in the National Guard, to bring together
leaders in TRICARE, leaders in the managed-care support contracts across the country, and for allfrom all the States Guards
and others, to identify our problems in getting access to care, and
to improve that. And thats a work in progress, maam, but we
share your concerns.
Senator MURRAY. Well, particularly now. These Guard and Reserve members are coming home; many of them are living at or
below the poverty line, including their drill pay, and they just
they dont have a job and they dont have health insurance. I know
we take care of them prior to deployment. I think its 6 months
prior to deployment, they get healthcare. But, they come home, and
they dont have anything during dwell time. Youre going to call
them up again, you know, in a year or two, and that becomes both

104
a recruitment issue for you, but its also a real hardship on their
families. And what are we doing to look at that?
General SCHOOMAKER. I think the first thing that weve been
working on with you all is an extended benefit through TRICARE
Reserve Select and other forms of TRICARE coverage, to reduce
the benefitexcuse mereduce the premium load on National
Guard and reservists
Senator MURRAY. During dwell time.
General SCHOOMAKER. Yes, maamso that they can get access
to care. Theres no question that
Senator MURRAY. So, is it an issue of budget or is it an issue of
policy? What is it that
General SCHOOMAKER. I think its a combination of things. Its
focus from Commanders. Weve got Reserve component National
Guard and Reserve commanders now focusing more on their soldiers comprehensive health benefits when theyre in dwell, and
putting emphasis on that. Its choices youve outlined, yourself,
maam, that when a soldier has a limited budget, and part of that
is even for a modest premium for a TRICARE benefit, they often
choose not to do that. And, frankly, as you know, young people
often kind of take risk that theyre not going to run into health
problems, and so, they forego health benefits, for that reason. And
I think, more and more, were emphasizing the importance and the
need for them to retain their medical and dental readiness, even
in dwell.
NATIONAL GUARD AND RESERVES

Senator MURRAY. Well, I think its a policy that we need to look


at and really focus on. Were a long ways into the war in Iraq, and,
with a lot of returning soldiers, we know thats going to go on for
some time, particularly in Afghanistan, and Im very concerned
about that, so I hope we can explore that.
Does anybody else have a comment on that issue?
Admiral.
Admiral ROBINSON. Senator Murray, I think that the TRICARE
Reserve Select is part of the answer. And that benefit, if Im not
mistaken, has been extended to the Reserve forces, because, certainly, the beneficiary numbers in the TRICARE system have increased, and I think part of that increase is that.
The second thing is thatand this is only for 180 daysits only
for 6 months, but the Active Duty, Reserve members that are coming off of Active Duty can still be covered, and their families can
be covered with TRICARE for that 180-day period.
So, marrying those two with the Reserve Select program and the
180 days can be of some benefit, in terms of getting the care that
they need.
In terms of the mental health coverage, on the Navy side the
psychologicalthe Reserve Psychological Outreach Program and
the Reserve Psychological Outreach Teams, which consists of about
24 to 25 social workers, are doing a good job of going to the Navy
Operational Reserve Centersthe NOSCs are what theyre called
and they have actually been reaching out to just under about
20,000 to 25,000 people. They have seen 1,700 people and referred
people to mental health coverage. Its a small part, but its the in-

105
creased focus on getting out into the heartland areas, the areas
away from the medical centers, and also taking care of
Senator MURRAY. Yup.
Admiral ROBINSON [continuing]. Those people, who arent seen
regularly.
Senator MURRAY. Right. But, weve been talking about this for a
long time, so Im frustrated that were not doing better than we are
today.
Admiral ROBINSON. We are doing better, but were not doing all
that we need to do. I would frame it in, in that direction.
Senator MURRAY. And I agree. I think thats fair. But, werewe
still have a big problem out there.
Admiral ROBINSON. Yes, maam, we do.
Senator MURRAY. General.
General GREEN. I think all the services share in their medical
continuation, in terms of any problems that are identified from
their deployments. We also all have the same survey systems that
are applied, regardlessActive Duty, Reserve, or Guardwith the
post-deployment surveys and the PDHRAs at about 6 months.
Were looking for any problems that may have developed in the interim.
The medical continuation is one of those things where any problem that looks like its associated with deployment, that they need
to remain on Active Duty, we try and get that resolved by extending their orders and keeping them there. And the TRICARE Reserve Select is available to them for 6 months post.
We also have programs that havent been mentioned here such
as the Yellow Ribbon Program
Senator MURRAY. Right.
General GREEN [continuing]. That are designed to try and help
people find services and to ensure that theyre getting some assistance. Were lookingthe Army, inparticularly, is looking at some
telemental-health, in terms of how we can also be of assistance
that way. And all the services are looking at these things because
we see some of the gaps that you see, and are trying to close those
gaps as best we can.
Senator MURRAY. Okay. General Schoomaker, I wanted to ask
you about the issue of suicides.
In January of this year, the Army released information that
there were 160 suicides of Active Duty soldiers in 2009, 140 in
2008. For Reserve soldiers, you reported 78 suicides; 2009, 57. That
increase in military suicides is really disturbing to me. And I think
we need to be doing everything we can to make sure that we identify and mitigate the issues that are leading up to these unfortunate incidences. I wanted to ask you, What measures or programs
has the Department of Defense instituted to mitigate future suicides? And what are we doing out there?
SUICIDE PREVENTION

General SCHOOMAKER. Maam, I think all the services, but certainly the Army, shares with you the concern that weve had about
suicides. Weve seen an increase, over the last 5 or 6 years, from
a suicide rate within the Army that roughly was one-half of the
benchmark, you know, age- and gender-adjusted statistics in the ci-

106
vilian sector, to one that now has risen to be almost in parallel
with. Its hard to tell, in the civilian sector, because the civiliansector numbers that are released by the Centers for Disease Control are 2 years after the fact, so we wont see 2009 statistics until
2011. But, this is athis is an issue which the highest levels of the
Army have taken responsibility for. The Vice Chief of Staff of the
Army has chartered a task force. For the past year, theyve looked
very, very carefully at all factors across
Senator MURRAY. Is this the National Institutes of Health study?
General SCHOOMAKER. No, maam, thats actually an additional
piece of this. The STARRS programthe acronym for which I just
blockedbut, the STARRS program is a $50 million, 5-year program that the Secretary of the Army chartered last yearwith the
National Institutes of Health, with University of Michigan, with
Johns Hopkinslooking very carefully at all of the factorswhats
been described as a Framingham Study that was done in Framingham, Massachusetts, beginning in the 1940s, looking at the
risk factors for heart disease, and has changed our whole approach,
nationally, to public health measures around heart disease. The
same methodology is now being applied to suicide and suicide prevention.
But, within the Army itself, were very actively looking at all of
the factors that go into this rising suicide rate. There is no one single factor we can put our finger on. Roughly one-third of our suicides occur in people who have never deployed at all. Roughly onethird occur in soldiers who are downrange and deployed. And onethird are in those that have deployed once or twice within the last
several years.
And the one transcendent factor that we seem to have, if theres
any one thats associated with it, is fractured relationships of some
sort, either a broken marriage, a girlfriend/boyfriend, even a relationship that might have been forged with the Army itself, as a
very tight association a soldier made may develop, and then maybe
does something that gets him administratively punished or, you
know, nonjudicial punishment, and they go out and kill themselves.
And so, were looking at all of those related factorsalcohol and
drug abuse that may be associated with itbecause this is an impulsive act, frequently lubricated by alcohol or drugs, and we are,
as an Army, very, very focused on how we can improve it.
At the Department level, theres a task force that has been chartered by the Secretary. In fact, Major General Phil Volpe, one of
my physicians, is a co-chair of that task force, right now is looking
at DOD-wide programs and how we can, in a unified way, take efforts to prevent suicide and better understand it.
Senator MURRAY. Okay. Well, I would like to work with all of you
and, you know, have aget as much information as possible. If we
need to be doing more, in terms of support services, outreach,
whatever, I think we really need to focus on that issue.
MENTAL HEALTH AWARENESS

General SCHOOMAKER. Yes, maam, we welcome it.


Senator MURRAY. Air Force or Navy, either one of you want to
comment on what your services are doing to promote mental health
awareness orare either of you doing studies, long term, on this?

107
Admiral ROBINSON. Studies, I cannot answer. I can tell you that,
in terms of the awareness and in terms of trying to do education
and training, trying to make sure that we make this an imperative
and a leadership imperative for all of our Commanders, making
sure that we decrease the stigma of getting mental healthcare,
which has been quite pervasive and is really a deterrent to people
who need to get care, and also to the establishment in our operational stress programs, both in combat, but alsoIm talkingnot
in combat, now; Im talking about operational stressin noncombat
situations, and also our caregivers operational stress programs, because they often are under a great deal of stressmaking sure that
we have primary care membersand a great deal of the mental
healthcare that is given to individuals, around the country, but certainly in the services, is given by family practitioners and primary
health providers, and making sure that they have training and
that they understand what is going on.
The dependentthe Deployment Health Clinics, the 17 that we
have in the Navy, about one-third of the people that are coming in
are coming in for mental health issues. And the nice thing is, no
one knows why youre going into that clinic, but we have embedded
psychiatrists, psychologists, and primary care members in that
clinic, so you can be referred immediately and talk to someone, and
get the care that you need.
I think, also, one additional thing, and that is the ACT Program,
that we take to the deckplates, as we say; and that is, each man
and woman, each person, each shipmate, can do the ACT. The
Ask, Are you thinking about harming yourself? The C is the
Care, the care to say, I think you need some help. I think you
need to see a chaplain. I think you need to go someplace. And
then, the T part is the Treat, and that is to actually make sure
that people get to that level.
The continuum of care that we try to give indicates that everyoneevery person in the Navy, civilian and Active Duty, in war
and out of waris responsible for their shipmate and is responsiblewere responsible for one another.
Senator MURRAY. General Green.
General GREEN. The Air Force, since 1997, has had a very successful Suicide Prevention Program, basically focused on 11 suicide
prevention initiatives, most of that focused on very close focus by
leadership, in terms of getting our wingman program out and making certain that everyone understands that this is not acceptable.
With those 11 suicide prevention initiatives, we were actually able
to decrease our rate below 10, for probably 5 to 7 years10 per
100,000. Over the last 3 years, we have seen slight increases back
to about our 1997 rate. We are also trying to reinvigorate our program. Actually, we work very closely together across the services
to do that.
We do have one study that the Air Force has funded, different
than the others, because we were very interested, in particular,
with civilian suicides, because of some events that have been happening that have made the news out at Hill Air Force Base. And
so, we had the RAND Corporation look at some of our initiatives
out there to try and create a first-sergeant equivalent, people who
could be there and be kind of initial capability to help civilians find

108
assistance in an area that did not have all the mental health support that it needed. And then, weve also put, in our occupational
clinics out there, a mental health social worker to try and assist
with some of that.
We did also identify that we have about three times the rate of
the rest of the Air Force in two career fields, in security forces and
in intel career fields. We are taking a very targeted approach with
those career fields to try and do face-to-face interventions with
much smaller groups, using some of our video vignettes, similar to
that used in our computer-based training. We are also mandating
those front-line supervisors will receive specific suicide training.
Because our programs been in place since 1997, it is in our PME
schools, it is in our basic training schools. And so, I think well continue to have success. Our rates are probably aboutnot quite onehalf of what the other services are. But, we believe our programs
are still valid, and were just emphasizing and trying to focus them
where we see problems.
Senator MURRAY. Okay. I really appreciate all of your focus and
attention on this. I think its extremely important.
And I know Im out of time, Mr. Chairman, and youve been generous.
I do want to submit some questions for the record.
One, in particular, that I want to hear back from all of you on
is what were doing for children of servicemembers today. We have
a lot of families out there who have sacrificed a heck of a lot in
a very tough economic climate, and I know who bears the brunt
often is the kids of those families, and Id like to hear back from
each one of you what you are doing uniquely with our families and
what we, as Congress, ought to be doing, or can be doing, to better
support the children of the members of our services.
SUPPORTING FAMILIES AND CHILDREN

General SCHOOMAKER. Yes, maam. We would love theto participate in that. As you know, one of the centers of this is in your
State, at Madigan Army Medical Center. Its one of our centers for
outreach for children.
Maam, if I might, real quickly, append the record just to say, before I get hate mail from my colleagues at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, one of the pivotal players in this
landmark study on suicide, the 5-year, $50 million study with the
National Institutes of Mental Health is the Uniformed Services
University of Health Sciences, Dr. Bob Ursano, who is really heading up this project.
Senator MURRAY. Okay. Look forward to hearing much from
that.
Admiral.
Admiral ROBINSON. Senator Murray, for your childrenand this
isnt a complete answer, but a short one, because it actually came
from this hearing, 2 years ago, but the FOCUS ProgramFamilies
Over Coming Under Stresswhich was originally started with
Navy in very small groups of mainly Special Ops families who had
had such an intense OPTEMPO. And we have now seen some really excellent results with that program, in terms of marriage, counseling. I cant say that all the marriages are successful, but theres

109
been a reduced rate of divorce, theres been a reduced rate of children involved in drugs and in other acting-out behaviors. Its a program thats focused on spouse and children, and its been very successful. And its being incorporated, now, into not only Navy, but
also Army and Air Force.
Senator MURRAY. Id like to get a briefing on that, if you could
tell me what youre doing and how its working
Admiral ROBINSON. Certainly.
Senator MURRAY [continuing]. And what some of your statistics
are. That would be great.
Admiral ROBINSON. Ill be happy to do that.
[The information follows:]
Project FOCUS (Families Over Coming Under Stress) Outcome Metrics
FOCUS has demonstrated that a family-centered targeted prevention program is
feasible and effective for military families. Utilizing national and local partnerships,
community outreach, and flexible and family friendly skills-based approach, FOCUS
has successfully initiated a resiliency training program in collaboration with the
military community. FOCUS has demonstrated that a strength-based approach to
building child and family resiliency skills is well received by service members and
their family members reflected in high satisfaction ratings. Notably, program participation has resulted in significant increases in family and child positive coping
and significant reductions in parent and child distress over time, suggesting longerterm benefits for military family wellness. Standardization in program implementation provides the foundation for FOCUS program implementation and sustainability
to support larger scale dissemination.
Current Service Metrics
Total all FOCUS Services to date at all sites: 92,000.
Navy: 40,000 (services began March 2008).
Marine Corps: 50,000 (services began March 2008).
Army: 2,000 (services began November 2009).
Air Force: 600 (services began November 2009).
Specific outcomes of program interventions as measured by validated and standard metrics used in psychological health surveys are:
Pre- and post-intervention levels of overall psychosocial functioning of program
participants (both adults and children), suggest a significant improvement. The
statistical level of significance is p < .001 level.
Pre- and post-intervention levels of general emotional stress suggest a significant reduction in depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints on the part of
adult care givers. The statistical level of significance is p < .01.
Change scores on 6 dimensions of family functioning were found to be highly
significant at the p < .0001 level of statistical significance. This suggests a
marked level of improvement across areas such as behavior control, problem
solving, communication, affective involvement and responsiveness, and general
level of family functioning.
Project FOCUS surveyed both parents and child participants and found a high
level of overall satisfaction with FOCUS services. The average of all respondents on
levels of satisfaction is reported below. A rating of 7 was the highest possible rating:
6.54 for program was very helpful; 6.59 for consumers being very satisfied; and
6.73 for consumers who would recommended the program to others.
In summary, since Project FOCUS has been in operation, ongoing and multiple
assessments of program effectiveness have repeatedly shown that the program is
worthy of being viewed as a model program for military families.

Senator MURRAY. Very good.


Admiral ROBINSON. Thank you.
Senator MURRAY. Thank you very much.
Thank you.
Chairman INOUYE. Thank you.
General Schoomaker, Admiral Robinson, and General Green, I
thank you very much.
Chairman INOUYE. And well now listen to the second panel, a
very important one.

110
Id like to welcome back Major General Patricia Horoho, Chief of
the U.S. Army Nurses Corps; and Major General Kimberly
Siniscalchi, Assistant Air Force Surgeon General for Nursing Services; and Id also like to extend a special welcome and congratulations to the newly appointed Director of the Navy Nurse Corps,
Rear Admiral Karen Flaherty.
Id like to also extend my congratulations to General Horoho for
being selected to serve as U.S. Army Deputy Surgeon General and
also as the Nurse Corps Chief.
As all of you know, I did have the privilege of serving in the
Army, and spent about 20 months in various hospitals. And at that
time, I saw the doctor about once a week, and the nurses 24 hours,
7 days a week. And, as a result, I looked upon them as special angels, in my case. They helped prepare me to get back into life.
Today, you have patients with problems that did not exist in
World War II. For example, in my regiment, with all the casualties,
there wasnt a single survivor of double amputation, no survivor of
brain injuries. But, these are becoming commonplace now, becausefor example, in my case, it took 9 hours to evacuate me by
stretcher. Today, if it were in Afghanistan or Iraq, Id be evacuated
in about 30 minutes by helicopter. And so, the survival rate is extremely high.
And added to this, you have cell phones, daily telephone calls between husbands and wives, and CNN telling you whats happening
out there.
And so, the stress is not only limited to soldiers, airmen, and marines, but also the family.
Do you think that nurses are adequately prepared and trained
to serve men and women with problems that didnt exist during my
time?
General Horoho.
General HOROHO. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
PREPARED STATEMENTS

Chairman INOUYE. Your statements have been made part of the


record, so
General HOROHO. Im sorry, sir?
Chairman INOUYE. Your full statements are part of the record
now.
General HOROHO. Okay.
[The statements follow:]
PREPARED STATEMENT

OF

MAJOR GENERAL PATRICIA D. HOROHO

Mr. Chairman and distinguished members of the committee, it is an honor and


a great privilege to speak before you today on behalf of the nearly 40,000 Active
component, Reserve component and National Guard officers, non-commissioned officers, enlisted and civilians that represent Army Nursing. It has been your continued
tremendous support that has enabled Army Nursing, in support of Army Medicine,
to provide the highest quality care for those who are entrusted to our care.
Last year I promised you an update on the Army Nurse Corps Campaign Plan
that we began in October 2008. It became evident that our efforts to transform
Army Nursing mirrored the desire of national nursing organizations and their leaders to improve nursing practice in support of the healthcare reform initiative. Today
I will share with you some of Army Nursings accomplishments that are leading national nursing initiatives as well as some of the challenges that we will face in the
years ahead.

111
LEADER DEVELOPMENT: BUILD OUR BENCH

The first priority for Army Nursing is to develop full spectrum Army nurse leaders. Considering our Nations continuous engagement in overseas contingency operations and the complex clinical challenges our nurse officers face both home and
abroad, I challenged my senior leaders to develop training platforms that will prepare our nurses to succeed in any contingency-based operation around the world.
Identifying the need for a clinical transition program for new graduate Army
Nurses, the Army Medical Command (MEDCOM) formally fielded the BG (R) Anna
Mae Hayes Clinical Transition Program (CTP), named in honor of our 13th Corps
Chief, across nine medical centers beginning in October 2008. During fiscal year
2009, 364 new graduate Army Nurses completed this program. Throughout the year,
the program was standardized to decrease the variance among the nine program
sites. Thus far in fiscal year 2010, over 270 nurses have graduated from the program. Their enthusiastic endorsement of the program usually ends with the question when can I deploy?
Our nurses take great pride in wearing the cloth of our nation. After graduating
from the Officer Basic Leader Course, the new nurse officer enters the Leader Academy via the CTP. This program is based on the Army leader development strategy
that articulates the characteristics we desire in our Army leaders as they progress
through their careers. The CTP is a 25.5 week program designed to bridge the baccalaureate education and professional practice of the New Graduate Army Nurse
(NGAN). It consists of three formal phases (orientation, preceptorship, and clinical
immersion) developed to foster critical thinking, communication, and deployment
skills. Incorporated into the phases are a 5-hour monthly didactic seminar, journal
club, and research review with a focus on leadership, professional role development,
and improvement of patient outcomes. The CTP is congruent with the National College of State Boards of Nursings intent to require residency programs for new
nurses.
Initial review of survey data collected during fiscal year 2009 reveals NGAN positive responses to the following domains of new graduate nurse satisfaction: intent
to stay, confidence levels in individual practice, and enthusiasm for the practice of
nursing. The responses of the NGANs were similar to the published survey results
from civilian clinical nurse transition programs. With the key elements of this program standardized, outcome variables related to risk management (such as medication errors, patient falls, and failure to rescue) can now be evaluated in fiscal year
2010.
The first course that we realigned in support of the Campaign Plan was the Head
Nurse Course. It has been renamed the Clinical OIC and NCOIC Clinical Leader
Development Course. The renaming is a result of acknowledgement of the critical
relationship that exists between the Clinical Nurse, OIC (Officer in Charge) and
their clinical right armthe NCOIC (Non-Commissioned Officer in Charge). As an
integrated training platform, this course has had very positive results. It provides
our mid-level managers the opportunity to learn the critical skills needed for working as a team, and to master those skills in a simulated environment. This allows
participants the opportunity to hone tactics and to learn techniques and procedures
and decision-making skills that are used in the clinical environment. The training
received in this course promotes cognitive competency and teamwork, and metrics
are being developed to examine the programs impact on patient outcomes. Twelve
clinical NCOICs from across Army Medicine attended the Head Nurse Leader Development Course as a pilot test October 2009. Due to the success of this pilot test,
full attendance of Clinical NCOICs at this course is in the approval process. Both
the CTP and the clinical leader development course are designed to prepare clinical
leaders to be experts at navigating the complexities of care delivery in any environment.
Through the past year we have leveraged the experience and expertise of our clinical Sergeants Major, as the senior enlisted advisors and subject matter experts on
NCO and enlisted issues. They are our primary advisors on policies and regulatory
guidance. Their voice and ideals have brought us a results-based leadership that
has allowed us to excel in our imperatives and adopt a new paradigm, or view of
the world. These NCOs could not accomplish their mission without the hard work
and dedication of the men and women of the Army Medical Department (AMEDD)
Enlisted Corps. Its through their unrelenting compassion to save and heal, despite
hardships and dangers to life and limb that makes them angels on the battlefield.
We are committed to the growth and development of our NCOs and Soldiers.
Therefore, starting in fiscal year 2011 we will fund two senior NCOs to obtain their
Masters in Healthcare Administration which will ensure a continuous capability to
meet the needs of the 21st Century. In addition, we are developing an Intensive

112
Care Unit course for our Licensed Practical Nurses (LPN); this additional capability
will allow commanders the flexibility to use LPNs for transport of critical patients,
improve patient outcomes, and expand practice opportunities.
Finally, the Leader Academy facilitates enhanced career-long development of
adaptive full spectrum Army Nurse Corps leaders through the level of Regional
Nurse Executive (RNE). We adopted the American Organization of Nurse Executive
competencies that include skills such as healthcare economics, and healthcare policy
management as well as abilities in outcomes measurement and change management
in order to ensure the RNEs have the knowledge, skills and behaviors to help manage the regions system of health. We leveraged George Mason Universitys Nursing
Administrative Leadership Academy into our own leader academy as a training
platform for our RNEs. We are sending three of our RNEs to the program this summer. We are also selectively using AMEDD courses such as the Interagency Federal
Executive and the Executive Skills Course to hone and refine the RNEs abilities
as influencers of the delivery of health. We believe the Army Nursing Leader Academy is setting the standard nationally for how nurse leaders are prepared to have
an active and influential voice in healthcare, AMEDD, and national nursing policy.
WARRIOR CARE: BACK TO BASICS

Our second strategic imperative is to standardize nursing care delivery systems


in order to perfect nursing care at the bedside. We created a Patient and Family
centered System of Nursing Care (SOC) that has as its cornerstone standardized
nursing practice. This SOC will not only enable the Surgeon Generals intent to improve and standardize care from the point of injury through evaluation and inpatient treatment and then return to duty, but will also enable, for the first time, comprehensive measurement and subsequent improvement of nurse-sensitive patient
outcomes.
We piloted elements of this SOC at Blanchfield Army Community Hospital, Fort
Campbell, Kentucky, in January 2009. After 6 months of monitoring we identified
notable improvements in care such that nurse sensitive errors declined, while compliance with quality initiatives increased. During the 6 month pilot period, we found
a 44 percent decrease in nursing medication errors and a 100 percent decrease in
risk management events. Additionally, patient pain reassessment improved from 90
percent to 99 percent and reporting of critical laboratory values improved from 92
percent to 100 percent. We realized several quick wins such as the marked improvement in how nursing staff communicate with patients and physicians. Unexpectedly, we noted improvement in nurse retention metrics including a 24 percent
increase in nurses opinions that they are rewarded for a job well done, and a 23
percent increase in nurses opinions that nurses are seen as important leaders in
their organizations. Overall, nurses reported that they believed that they were being
heard, and their opinions valued. One nurse at Blanchfield said Now I feel like I
have a voice in the organization.
Using the data from the Blanchfield pilot, we fully conceptualized the SOC as a
three-sided pyramid with one side delineating clinical practice elements, another
professional practice elements, and another business practice elements. The pyramid is anchored by the Army nursing triad; Army nurses, NCOs, and enlisted and
civilians comprise its base. Next month, select elements of care are being implemented at three medical centers: Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington,
DC; Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, Texas; and Madigan Army
Medical Center, Fort Lewis, Washington. For one element of the professional practice side of the pyramid, we are implementing an Army nursing creedit is our
nursing ethos and codifies who we are as nurses by articulating what we believe
in and value as nurses; it is the heart of nursing practice. It includes Army values
and the American Nurses Association Standards of Practice that allow us to define
a standard level of nursing care common to all nurses and a standard level of behavior in the professional role.
In April, at the same three hospitals, we are implementing nursing peer review
that aligns a business strategy with clinical practice. Peer review is a best clinical
business practice that enables us to retain the very best nurses who provide quality
care as measured against our professional standards of practice. Peer review is a
talent management tool that provides real time, constructive feedback to clinicians
to assist with their professional growth which leads to good patient outcomes.
In May, we will implement the Army Nurse Corps Practice Council along with
unit-specific governance councils to support the clinical practice side of the pyramid.
Governance councils will facilitate decentralized joint decisionmaking by nursing
leaders and staff nurses at the frontline of carethe patient/nurse interface. These
unit councils will collaborate with the Army Nurse Corps Practice Council to iden-

113
tify best practices relative to nursing tactics, techniques, and process, and then codify these practices for standard use across Army Nursing. Army Nursing identified
two best practices that were incorporated into the SOC. At Tripler Army Medical
Center (TAMC), nurses modified environmental and staff behavior factors to tailor
inpatient care to provide Healing Hours. The restorative importance of sleep is
well documented, but hospitalized patients report many factors including noise, pain
anxiety, light, and interruptions by hospital staff as sleep disruptors. To validate the
most common sleep disruptors, TAMC nurses requested input from 227 patients
over a 6 week period and received 135 responses. 71 percent of patients reported
averaging less than 4 hours of sleep a night during their hospitalization. 62 percent
reported their sleep being interrupted by a nurse or provider. With the information
gathered, TAMC initiated the Healing Hours concept. Healing Hours are individualized based on diagnosis and requirement for hands-on care. The overall purpose of
Healing Hours is to promote rest through consolidation of patient care activities.
Ancillary services aligned their services to support this initiative. Pharmacy adjusted routine medication times to coincide with established rest hours. Routine laboratory service rounds do not begin before 0600 hours. Signs are posted on each patients door to remind all staff of requested Healing Hours. Patients are provided
information during pre-admission activities to encourage them to bring comfort
items from home; i.e. earplugs, earphones, and eye masks.
At Walter Reed Army Medical Center, senior nursing leadership examined hourly
nursing rounds as a measure to improve patient and staff outcomes. A total of 11
intensive, medical, surgical, and same day surgery units participated in the project,
where we simultaneously measured outcomes such as patient satisfaction, staff satisfaction, falls, medication errors, and call light use. We compared pre and post
intervention efficacy of hourly nursing rounds and found that within 4 months of
the implementation of hourly rounds, patient outcomes, such as the use of call lights
and patient falls decreased while patient satisfaction increased.
In order to ensure implementation of innovative ways to deliver care to the inpatient, outpatient, and deployed environment, we are also moving forward with implementing team nursing, comprised of RN, LPN, and medics. This aspect of the
SOC aligns with The Surgeon Generals (TSG) Come Home to Army Medicine campaign. This community based primary care will bring healthcare closer to home,
standardize business practices, and develop the model for patient centered medical
home.
As we begin implementation of the SOC, our nurse researchers have begun the
transformation of a geographically disparate one to three person research cells into
the Offices of Nursing Science and Clinical Inquiry (NSCI). The NSCI will combine
the resources of Research Ph.D. Scientists, Nurse Methods Analysts, Clinical Nurse
Specialists, and the new DNP (Doctorate of Nursing Practice) with a robust mission
that will provide decision support, evidence-based practice, and research. These
NSCIs at each regional medical center will promote a shared vision across Army
nursing using shared and capitalizing on shared resources and infrastructure. This
change will shift emphasis in focus to capitalize on integration of evidence-based research into practice, improve warrior care, enable leader development and maximize
human capital while addressing Army nursing priorities. This fundamental shift
will transform Army nursing from an expert based practice to system based care
and will provide the impetus to move toward a culture and workforce with the ability to develop research agendas and translate evidence into practice at the bedside.
Currently the Army Nurse Corps has an inventory of 33 ANC Research Scientists
and two civilian nurse scientists with doctoral degrees. Twenty-one of these are actively working in research assignments.
In 2008, we initiated a comprehensive review of all Army nurse business and clinical processes and associated training and education. The gap analysis revealed a
requirement for more advanced degree experienced nurses at patients bedsides to
influence nursing care; specifically, to direct nursing care within a systems-based
care delivery model that decreased nursing care variance across the Army Medical
Department in order to measure and improve patient outcomes. To that end, we expanded our review to examine the new Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) role as
a modality for closing the gap. After this review was completed, we recognized the
value of placing select DNPs within our NSCIs and the ANC is in the process of
making this infrastructure change. This will provide clinical leadership, create a
partnership with nurse Ph.D.s and Nurse Method Analysts, and facilitate practical
application of evidence-based research at the patient bedside to ensure evidencebased nursing care.
According to the American Nursing Association (ANA), one of the most significant
shifts in health policy is represented in a measure to expand the involvement and
authority of advance practice nurses. Army Nursing is also working closely with na-

114
tional nursing organizations such as the American Academy of Colleges of Nursing
(AACN) in leading national efforts to conceptualize a value-add role for DNPs as
well as the new innovative clinical nurse leader role.
The Army nursing SOC will require new capabilities while allowing us to better
leverage current nursing capabilities. For example, nursing case management is increasingly being recognized as an essential component of healthcare delivery. Case
managers provide added value to the multidisciplinary healthcare team. Case managers in Warrior Transition Units (WTUs) are providing care to over 9,000 Soldiers
and have facilitated the transfer of over 8,500 Soldiers back to duty or on to become
productive Veterans. Warrior satisfaction with case management services has remained at or above 92 percent throughout the year.
The Army Nurse Case Management Course was fielded in December 2008. This
course was designed to better prepare case managers in their role, facilitate the successful completion of national certification, and standardize case management services across WTUs, to ensure case managers are effectively trained to perform their
mission. Over 300 nurse case managers participated in this web-based program that
utilizes adult learning principles that enhance the Army NCMs understanding of
case management theory. Students learn about best practices across military and
civilian settings, thus gaining knowledge of principles and tools utilized in case
management.
Army nursing case management is improving care in primary care settings as
well as in our WTUs. Nurses across the country espouse success stories where case
management has had a positive impact on patient care. In Alaska, NCMs were
working with a 28 year old infantry Soldier undergoing the Medical Evaluation
Board process for moderate Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). During one of
their sessions they talked about his mother who died at age 34 with colon cancer.
Because the case managers had developed a good rapport with the Soldier, he felt
comfortable mentioning that he had some rectal bleeding. He was immediately evaluated, determined to have metastatic colon cancer, and underwent a colectomy. The
operation saved his life. Subsequently, he was able to medically retire as a healthy,
productive veteran.
The strategic end state of this SOC is optimized nursing care delivery systems
that wrap capability around AMEDD goals and priorities to achieve the best patient
outcomes possible. This capability and functional structure is designed to leverage
proliferation of evidence-based care and best practices to support TSGs strategic objectives.
EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE: OPTIMIZE PERFORMANCE

Our third strategic imperative is to optimize Army Nursing performance using


evidence-based management and evidence-based clinical practice. Evidence-based
clinical practice aims to merge best practices from both clinical care and business
practices to produce optimal outcomes. These goals are achieved through scientific
analysis, data management, and system redesign to support the everyday performance of all our nurses. For example, the Workload Management System for Nursing
(WMSN) is a tool that ANC has been using for accurately measuring patient acuity
in order to establish manpower requirements in our inpatient care settings. This
past year, we initiated the most dramatic update to our WMSN since 1985. Led by
talented Army Nurses, the WMSN Refresh and Optimization project will enable us
to upgrade our WMSN operating system, integrate and migrate all previously separate servers, update the clinical classification and acuity measures, and develop a
software interface for real time reporting tools. This milestone business process improvement will afford our nursing leadership the necessary data to support current
and future resourcing decisions.
Another example is the Clinical Information System (CIS) that was developed
with input from our clinical and nursing informatics experts that has played a
major role in modernizing our electronic health record. This past year included tremendous expansion of the CIS inpatient health record throughout the MEDCOM.
The CIS is designed to help nurses and other healthcare personnel collect, record,
store and access patient data, as well as data from medical instrumentation and
physiologic monitors from a centralized computer system. The impact of a standardized inpatient nursing documentation system cannot be minimized as it not only
provides standardized documentation of the patients history, but allows, through its
requirement to enter data fields, standardization of how nurses practice.
Another evidence-based initiative is our collaboration with the Veterans Health
Administration (VHA) on Clinical Terminology Standardization that has resulted in
the development of over 2,236 standardized clinical terms. The development of Systematized Nomenclature of MedicineClinical Terms and Logical Observation Iden-

115
tifiers Names and Codes will allow for intra-operable standardized clinical vocabulary to assist both the providers, and the clinical researchers. Future collaboration
will allow for a seamless process to add, review, and map new terminology and integrate this into DOD inpatient documentation systems.
Given the magnitude of investment and the substantial military healthcare renovation and construction projects in the National Capital Region (NCR), it is important to examine the relationship between environmental evidence-based design
(EBD) features and patient and staff outcomes. COL Petra Goodman, an Army
Nurse (AN), has collaborated with investigators from numerous agencies, to include
our sister services, military treatment facilities in the NCR and the DOD Patient
Safety Center, to develop research protocols in EBD principles and their specific outcomes, including falls, work-related injuries, and hospital acquired infections. There
series of studies will provide critical baseline information for future research in
EBD.
Implementing 2005 BRAC Law, Army Nurses have been involved from Day One
in creating the new 1.23 million square foot Fort Belvoir Community Hospital ensuring that the project delivers on its mission to create a World Class Military
Health Care facility. DeWitt Army Community Hospital (DACH) nurses, both uniformed and civilian, have provided critical input in the design, development, and implementation phases of this project which includes numerous EBD features such as
single bed rooms with family zones, maximized use of natural light, healing gardens
and positive distractions, increased HEPA filtration, ceiling mounted patient lifts,
walled rather than cubicle spaces, and the use of reduced noise sources and sound
absorbing materials. MAJ LaShanda Cobbs, AN, serving as Transition Director for
the hospital project until July 2009, provided key leadership in coordinating design
concept of operations workgroups, guiding utilization of EBD principles, and developing manning determinations for this state-of-the-art inpatient and ambulatory
care center. Looking to the future, DACH nurses will continue to play pivotal roles
in implementing integrated bedside IT solutions, the Vocera hands-free nurse call
system, creating patient controlled environments utilizing Smart Room Technology,
and myriad other operational solutions to maximize EBD features to minimize hospital acquired infections and increase patient safety.
Never before have we relied so heavily on nursing research to infuse nursing practice with evidence-based science. In February 2009, the Triservice Nursing Research
Program (TSNRP) invited nurse scientists from all services to meet in order to determine new priorities for TSNRP. Not surprisingly, Force Health Protection was
recognized as the number one priority. Deployment research is designed to ask critical questions that cannot be answered other than on the battlefield providing medical care for our service members. Army nurses have led the way with deployment
research relative to their strong presence in field environments. There have been
34 nursing led protocols, 27 of those are from ANC researchers and one joint Army/
Air Force protocol. A breakdown of these protocols includes a total of 20 protocols
on warrior care, including five on Soldier Health, three on Trauma care, and one
on Behavioral Health and a total of 14 protocols to study the impact of compassion
fatigue and stress on nursing and healthcare professionals. Post Traumatic Stress
Disorder (PTSD) is a focal point for many of the studies. COL Kathy Gaylord at the
Armys Institute of Surgical Research is conducting three studies to evaluate alternative therapies for treatment of PTSD or PTSD symptoms in burn patients. Gradual Virtual Reality exposure therapy and D-Cycloserine (a learning enhancer pill)
treatment for combat-related PTSD is a pilot study to determine the effectiveness
of virtual reality therapy for service members who have sustained a burn injury requiring multiple dressing changes as a distraction to reduce their pain during these
dressing changes. Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) on PTSD Symptoms in
Burned Outpatients is a double-blind randomized control research study is to determine if CES given to service members who have sustained a burn injury and meet
PTSD criteria will be effective to reduce their PTSD symptoms and other deployment-related symptoms. ANC research scientists also continue to collaborate with
the other DOD agencies, the Department of Veterans Affairs, and universities in
support of the congressionally funded studies for research. In the Pacific region,
Army nurses established a clinical-academic research partnership between Pacific
Regional Medical Command (PRMC) and the University of Hawaii. This first formal
academic-clinical nursing research partnership between Tripler Army Medical Center and the University of Hawaii creates a joint vision for the future of nursing and
healthcare. This partnership provides the resources and structure that will allow
Pacific Regional Medical Command (PRMC)-based nurses and University of Hawaii
(UH)-based nurses to ask and answer the clinically relevant military healthcare
questions.

116
Army Nurses, like MAJ Rebecca Terwilliger, are leading the way with an innovative best clinical practice pilot to improve nursing care. She won a $17,532 grant
from the March of Dimes to establish a Centering Pregnancy Program for
antepartum patients. Participants enroll into a stable group that begins meeting at
16 weeks followed by monthly meetings until 32 weeks, then every other week for
the remainder of the pregnancy. The group meets for 2 hours each session and is
led by a certified nurse midwife. Benefits of the program include the development
of a socialization and support network system while providing 2 hours of education
on topics related to pregnancy, childbirth and newborn care. Evidence has shown
that the program increases patient satisfaction, increases continuity with a provider
and decreases preterm birth rate; for those that deliver prematurely, delivery occurs
in gestation and the newborn is at a higher birth weight.
Research is also supporting evidence-based business practices. For example, we
used data to evaluate our accession portals and make timely changes on how we
recruit, retain, and incentivize nursing personnel to remain a part of our nursing
team. The Army Nurse Corps was very successful in recruiting and retaining Army
Nurses in 2009. Research, like that being done by LTC Breckenridge-Sproat, AN,
titled Factors Associated with Retention of Army, Air Force, and Navy Nurses will
survey Active Duty Army, Navy and Air Force nurses to explore factors influencing
decisions to maintain their active duty status. In the history of military nursing research, there has never been a retention survey using a validated instrument conducted across all three services. Considering the changing market for registered
nurses in the United States and the complex factors that influence decisions to remain on active duty, it is important to obtain data to support appropriate strategies
to retain military nurses in the Army, Navy and Air Force. The results of this multiservice study will provide the Corps Chiefs from the Army, Navy, and Air Force
with a better understanding of factors impacting nurses intent to stay in the military. The findings should allow administrators to capitalize on specific factors that
positively influence nurses to stay in the military and implement changes to ameliorate factors that are influencing nurses to leave the military.
Research is also helping us develop new recruiting strategies, called precision recruiting, whereby we are recruiting experienced medical-surgical and specialty
trained nurses. This strategy will provide us with a balanced force of new nurse
graduates with more experienced clinical nurses. Leveraging data allowed us to determine the need for precision recruiting, i.e., targeted recruiting of critical low densities. As a result, we increased our recruitment of Nurse Anesthetists, Behavioral
Health Nurse Practitioners, Family Health Nurse Practitioners, and critical skills
such as Emergency Room and Critical Care trained nursing personnel. These skills
are especially in high demand with our nations continued involvement in overseas
contingency operations. Working closely with Accessions Command, we are formulating a recruitment strategy that ensures a consistent pipeline of ROTC, Army Enlisted Commissioning Program (AECP), and Federal Nurse Commissioning Program
graduates, balanced with direct accessions of experienced nursing personnel.
Evidence-based processes also allow us to look at who, when, and where we have
the greatest attrition and how attrition is impacting the care we provide for our
beneficiaries. Incentives, such as Incentive Special Pay, critical skills bonuses, and
hiring bonuses have not only allowed us to conduct precision hiring of civilian
nurses, but also allowed us to compete with the recruitment market for experienced
and well qualified nursing personnel. I want to thank the committee for supporting
these initiatives in the past and look forward to your continuing support in the future. In addition we raised and then codified minimum standards for entry into the
AECP based on the quality of the nurses this program produces. In the past we
have had as high as 14 percent non-completions in the AECP. Data analysis revealed an antiquated admission criteria resulting in candidates who were not adequately prepared to sustain the rigors of the Bachelors of Science program. The
change in admission standards has vastly improved the quality of candidates in the
program and will ultimately impact the quality of care we will provide to our warriors and their families.
HUMAN CAPITAL: PORTFOLIO OF TALENT

People are our organizations most valuable asset and remain one of my top priorities. Success toward our strategic initiatives has been possible only because of the
commitment and extraordinary work by the triad of nursing; Active and Reserve
component officers, non-commissioned officers, and civilians. Our efforts over the
past year in both recruitment and retention of active duty and civilian nurses have
positively impacted Army Nursing. Investing in human capital requires a strategic
approach to managing the recruited and retained talent so patient outcomes are op-

117
timized throughout the organization. Subsequently, our fourth imperative is optimizing human capital talent through talent management and succession management planning. One of the ways we are managing talent is by leveraging nursing
capability in new ways. A great example of this is the curbside nursing concept
that clinical nurse midwives implemented at Fort Campbell, KY. In 2009, it became
strategically imperative that some type of new Soldiers health initiative for womens gynecological intervention and engagement was needed to address the backlog
of gynecologic appointments. Several Certified Nurse Midwives (CNM) services have
actively engaged in leaving the confines of the hospitals and entered what normally
has been recognized as a Soldiers clinic. This medical model approach to womens
wellness has received laudatory comments noted in Army Provider Level Satisfaction Survey reports across several installations.
To support TSGs strategic priority of implementing a comprehensive behavioral
health system of care, BG Steve Jones, Commander, Pacific Regional Medical Command, and I worked together to implement a program to assess the effectiveness
of connecting behavioral health resources with soldiers in a virtual encounter. Nursing resources were engaged in validation of the assessment tool as well as serving
as a force multiplier through the integration of NCM and 68X, Mental Health Technicians, in the virtual program. Partnered with behavioral health (BH) providers,
NCM screen for at risk Soldiers face-to-face and virtually with the intent to provide access to BH in remote or isolated locations. Many Soldiers returning from deployment do not need the complex services of the Warrior Transition Unit (WTU),
but they do have significant concerns that could impact successful reintegration
with families and non-combat environments. Coordinating care and support through
the NCM, Soldiers and families are guided to financial, emotional, and physical care
to support reintegration. The NCM effort in this Comprehensive Behavioral Health
System, led by Amy Earle, RN, mitigates stressors to the Soldier and family by connecting them to services within the community.
At Europe Regional Medical Command, the Maternal Child Nursing section uses
a Perinatal Clinical Nurse Specialist to track high risk patients, which resulted in
significantly increasing the number of infants that were immunized against Hepatitis-B at birth or prior to discharge as recommended by the Centers for Disease
Control. In 2009, LTC Sherri Franklin, Chief of Nurse Midwifery, started a new
midwifery program with 3 active duty CNMs at Fort Benning, Georgia. Due to the
increased demand for low risk obstetrical care and the size of the post increasing,
this planned service will be stabilized at Benning. Planned for 2011, an additional
6 new CNM graduates from accredited mastered prepared programs across the
United States will be welcomed as new clinicians.
This year, for the first time in our history, two of the deployed Combat Support
Hospitals will be commanded by Army Nurse Corps officers. In 2009, 333 active
duty Army Nurses were deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. This represented a total of 70,589 deployed man days. In
2009, the 6 month (180 days) PROFIS deployment policy was successfully implemented, considerably reducing the adverse affects of long deployments on our nursing personnel. Through the expert coordination of our nursing leaders, nursing staff
were rotated at 6 month intervals with no adverse impacts in patient care. However,
our low density nurse specialists, to include nurse anesthetists, nurse practitioners,
critical care, perioperative and emergency nursing are still experiencing frequent deployments with some nurses completing their second and third deployments. We are
conducting an in-depth force structure analysis to determine our objective force
structure for the future years.
Our Budgeted End Strength is projected to increase from 3,515 in fiscal year 2010
to 3,580 in fiscal year 2011. In addition, 80 Army Nurse Corps officer authorizations
are projected as a part of the Grow the Army strategy. We are modeling for the optimal number of critical care nurses, emergency room nurses and behavioral health
nurses needed to ensure sufficient staffing in our CONUS based medical treatment
facilities and to continue the theater support that has supported the 93 percent survival rate of our service members injured in our combat theaters. We recognized
that many of our specialty nurses transition to advanced practice roles as nurse anesthetists or nurse practitioners but their loss from the specialty role was not included in our previous models. Using innovative analytical processes we have identified shortfalls in our training requirements that, when corrected, will increase the
available strength of these critical low density nurse specialists. With increased
numbers, the adverse impact of frequent repeat deployments will be mitigated. The
Army Nurse Corps has always been committed to advanced education as an essential element of quality healthcare. As we face the continuing behavioral health challenges, we are increasing our number of nurses selected for behavioral health nurse
practitioner programs. Of note, only the Psychiatrist and the Behavioral Health

118
Nurse Practitioner has prescriptive authority as Behavioral Health providers. We
have recognized that this level of Behavioral Health providers is critical in both garrison and deployed settings to facilitate optimal behavioral healthcare. This year,
we will select 5 nurses for attendance in the Psychiatric/Mental health NP program
at Uniformed Services University (USU) to start in 2011. In addition, as we transition our advanced practice nurse roles to the future DNP, we will be sending one
nurse for a DNP program as a Psychiatric/Mental Health NP.
We rely on the USU Graduate School of Nursing as the strongest educational
platform to develop critical talent to provide nursing capability across Army Medicine. A good example of how USU is helping us build new nursing capabilities is
the perioperative nursing program. COL (R) Wanzer and LCDR Conrardy, USU
nursing faculty, developed a perioperative CNS program marketing brochure and
designed a marketing poster for presentation at the 11th Annual Tri-Service
Perioperative Symposium in Chicago in March 2009, and along with her fellow researchers Cole Hawker and D. Moultrie, were awarded the 2009 Association of
Perioperative Registered Nurses National Research Excellence Award for their research titled: Factors Associated with Multidrug Resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter
Transmission Occurring in Traumatic War Injuries. COL (R) Wanzer was also invited to address Congress during hearings on healthcare reform and presented The
Role of Clinical Nurse Specialist in Health Care Delivery: Today and in the Future.
The Psychiatric Mental Health-Nurse Practitioner (PMHNP) Program was evaluated for its academic content, testing, and overall effectiveness. Changes have been
made to the course structure in order to ensure students integrate and apply their
knowledge in context of the goals of the program. In addition the Graduate School
has signed eleven new memorandums of understandings with new clinical sites. In
October 2008, USU chartered a task force to examine implementation of a DNP curriculum to be in line with the American Association of Colleges of Nursing decision
to move the current level of preparation necessary for advanced practice nursing
from the masters to doctoral level by the year 2015. The results of 8 months of
study revealed that USU should take the steps necessary to implement a USU DNP
program. This further expands USUs strength as an education platform for Army
Nursing so that we can apply a practical application of evidence-based research at
the patient bedside to ensure evidence-based nursing care.
Over 60 percent of our organization is our civilian workforce, so our retention efforts continue to be focused on this group. We continue to have unprecedented success in our civilian nurse loan repayment program, with over 41 percent of total
Army student loan repayments going to nurses. For fiscal year 2010, 314 applicants
were selected to participate in the nurse loan repayment program, the largest number since the program started in 2006. We also recognize that our talented civilian
healthcare professionals have unique issues and challenges. To provide support to
our civilian nurse workforce, the Civilian Nurse Task Force was chartered in March
2009 to provide a forum for specific discussion on issues related to recruitment, retention, and career progression. This groups hard work resulted in the adoption of
a civilian RN career pathway that remains in a working phase today. From this
task force, a Nurse Consortium was established, in November 2009, and each medical treatment facility has a civilian nurse representative. This consortium works on
key issues affecting satisfaction of the civilian nurse workforce. Current working
issues include improving the relationship between civilian and military nurses, recruitment of civilian new graduate nurses, and civilian nurses in senior leadership
positions in medical treatment facilities. Our first step to leverage civilian nurse talent at the senior executive level was the selection of Dr. Patricia Wilhem as a member of the Army Nurse Corps Executive Board of Directors. In addition, the Civilian
Connection link was established on our new, innovative ANC website and is used
to post links and information pertaining to civilian nurses. It facilitates a sharing
of information not only between civilian nurses but also between civilian and military nurses to enhance professional relationships.
Finally we continue to leverage our retired ANC officers to serve as nurse role
models, mentors and subject matter experts and ambassadors for the ANC. COL (R)
Jeri Graham, president of the Army Nurse Corps Association (ANCA) in partnership
with the ANC conducted the pilot Veterans Resiliency Program in May 2009. There
were sixteen participants with eleven active component combat veteran nurses and
five Vietnam veteran nurses. The program was designed to address the issues that
returning warrior nurses have after deployment that impact retention. The program
was received favorably and with many positive comments to sustain the program
in the future.

119
CONCLUSION

There has been great momentum since I introduced the Army Nurse Corps Campaign Plan to you last year. Our success has been the result of compassion, commitment, and dedication from all members of the triad of nursing. They have inspired
me with their pride, enthusiasm, and openness to change. We continue to experience
amazing progress in each of our strategic imperatives and we are ensuring that the
ANC remains relevant and a force multiplier for Army Medicine.
I continue to envision an Army Nurse Corps in 2012 that will leave its mark on
military nursing and will be a leader of nursing practice reform at the national
level. The implementation of the standardized Patient & Family Centered System
of Care is revolutionizing nursing care in the ANC and ensures that we optimize
patient outcomes at every point of care delivery, both home and abroad. It reminds
us that our priorities remain the patients and their families. Our common purpose
is to support and maintain a system of health. In order to achieve this common purpose, we will let nothing hinder those who wear the cloth of our Nation or those
who took an oath to forever save, protect, care, and heal.
PREPARED STATEMENT

OF

REAR ADMIRAL KAREN A. FLAHERTY

INTRODUCTION

Good Morning. Chairman Inouye, Senator Cochran and distinguished members of


the subcommittee, I am Rear Admiral Karen Flaherty, the 22nd Director of the
Navy Nurse Corps. Thank you for the opportunity to speak to you today. I also want
to express my sincere thanks and appreciation for the hard work and dedication of
Rear Admiral Christine Bruzek-Kohler, the 21st Director of the Navy Nurse Corps
during this past year.
In his 20092010 Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff Guidance, Admiral Mullen declared the Health of the Force as one of his three strategic initiatives, stating,
Our core responsibility is to win wars while caring for our people and their families. They are the heart and soul of our formations, our fleets, and our air expeditionary wings, and our incredible fighting spirit. As a Nation, we have a solemn obligation to fully support, across the spectrum of need, our service men and women,
standing and fallen, and their families.
Today, I will highlight the accomplishments and opportunities facing the Navy
Nurse Corps in 2010 as we care for the Health of the Force. The total Navy Nurse
Corps, comprised of Active, Reserve and Federal Civilian nurses, number more than
5,500 strong. Working together, we are clinicians and advocates for our patients, we
are mentors and leaders for our colleagues, and we are the face of caring and compassion to those affected by armed conflict and natural disasters. My strategy as
Director has been focused in three areas: People, Practice and Leadership. It is
within these three areas that I would like to highlight our successes and address
our current and future efforts.
OUR PEOPLE

Recruitment
Todays Navy Nurse Corps Active Component (AC) is manned at 91.2 percent with
2,837 nurses currently serving around the world. We have already achieved Navy
Nursings Active Component recruiting goal for 2010, for the fourth consecutive
year. Reserve Component (RC) recruiting is currently at 16.4 percent of the fiscal
year 2010 mission and requires our continued focus. I attribute our recruiting successes to the continued funding support for our accession programs, the local recruiting activities of Navy Recruiters and Navy Nurses, and the continued positive
public perception of Service to our Country.
The top three direct accession programs that are favorably impacting our recruiting efforts include the Nurse Accession Bonus (NAB), the Health Professions Loan
Repayment Program (HPLRP), and the Nurse Candidate Program (NCP). The NAB
continues to offer a $20,000 sign-on bonus for a 3-year commitment and $30,000 for
a 4-year commitment; the HPLRP repays student loans up to $40,000 for a 2-year
consecutive obligated service, and NCP, tailored for students who need financial assistance while attending school, provides a $10,000 sign-on bonus and $1,000
monthly stipend.
In 2008, Navy Medicine created a recruiting team aimed at increasing the visibility and focus on Navy Nursing recruiting initiatives. This effort provides a Navy
Nursing presence at local and national professional nursing conferences and collegiate recruiting events. In collaboration with the Navy Medicine Office of Diversity,

120
our Nurse Corps Recruitment Liaison Officer coordinates with local Military Treatment Facilities (MTFs) to have diverse Navy personnel attend national conferences
and recruiting, increasing Navys visibility among minority populations. This has allowed us to broaden our reach, and participate in and recruit across a broad range
of national nursing conferences. Further, recognizing that Americas youth contemplate career choices at a young age, Navy Nurses travel to local community
schools and serve as guest speakers and ambassadors for our Corps, the Navy and
the nursing profession.
Leveraging current technology, the Nurse Corps Recruitment Liaison Officer uses
a combination of social networking media tools, including Facebook and Twitter, and
online discussion forums (e.g., BLOGs), to reach students at colleges and high
schools, encouraging them to consider a career in Navy nursing. Through these
media tools, students ask candid questions and can obtain instant feedback in a
mode of communication with which they are comfortable. Additionally, students provide feedback of what is and is not working in the recruiting process. Using this
information, we have implemented process improvement strategies to correct any
gaps in the recruiting process. One improvement we are implementing in 2010 is
an early mentorship program for those entering the Navy Nurse Corps through one
of our accession programs. Junior nurses will serve as mentors to guide new accessions from school to their first duty station, providing information on pay, travel,
duty stations and transition to Navy Life. We know that the first impression of
the Navy and the Navy Nurse Corps are an important part of subsequent career
decisions.
Today, the Reserve Component is 83.6 percent manned with 1,112 nurses in inventory. Last year, the Navy Nurse Corps Reserve Component (RC) met 87 percent
of their recruiting goal. Over 48 percent of the accessions were Navy Veterans
(NAVETSnurses coming to the RC from active duty) with the remainder joining
the Navy Reserve as direct accessions. Success in recruiting NAVETS is related to
the initiation of an affiliation bonus of $10,000 and a policy that guarantees these
individuals a 2-year deferment from deployment. Additionally, the establishment of
the Career Transition Office (CTO) at Navy Personnel Command has been very successful in identifying those members desiring to move from the active component to
the reserve component. The CTO, working in concert with the Reserve Affairs Officer (RAO) and Centralized Credentialing and Privileging Department (CCPD), implemented practices that facilitate a smooth transition with regards to billet assignment, pay and establishment of credentials.
Our reserve recruiting goal for fiscal year 2010 is 165 nurses. A recruiting initiative targeting direct accessions will offer entry grade credit for advanced education
and work experience among the critical wartime specialties of Certified Registered
Nurse Anesthetists (CRNAs), psychiatric/mental health, emergency room, and
perioperative nursing. These initiatives will be expanded to include medical-surgical
nurses and critical care nurses as well.
Retention
Retaining Navy Nurses is one of my top priorities. We remain committed to providing a Total Force of Navy Nurses, balanced in terms of seniority, experience, and
skills, to provide the very best care to Sailors, Marines and their families. Key efforts have positively impacted retention, including the Registered Nurse Incentive
Specialty Pay, a targeted bonus program for undermanned clinical nursing specialties and highly deployed Nurse Practitioners. Our nurses are enriched by being able
to practice in both deployed and garrison care settings.
It is our responsibility as Nurse Corps leaders to fully understand all retention
issues. We commissioned the Center for Naval Analyses (CNA) in 2009 to conduct
a survey and hold focus groups to help us understand the factors that influence career satisfaction and dissatisfaction in the Nurse Corps. We have found that support
for families, childcare availability, healthcare, and other benefits such as the Post
9/11 GI Bill play an important role in nurse retention.
Navy Nurses told us they wanted a clinical career ladder. Junior nurses felt they
had to leave clinical nursing in order to advance in their careers. They also told us
that deployments were fulfilling and had a positive affect on retention. The factors
affecting retention are described more as a pull away from the military versus a
push out of the military.
To increase promotion opportunities for senior level positions, we converted a portion of vacant Lieutenant billets to Captain and Ensign billets. These actions also
improved the alignment of billets with the number of junior officers being accessed
each year. This right-sizing is also occurring for the Reserve Component led by Rear
Admiral Cindy Dullea, my Reserve Component Deputy Director. The RC is challenged with personnel gaps in the junior ranks and a larger senior officer force.

121
These initiatives will ensure we maintain an appropriate balance of highly-skilled
experienced nurses with promotion opportunities.
My goal for this year is to increase retention by 50 percent in the AC for those
with less than 10 years of service, and to retain the appropriate numbers in each
officer rank in the RC. To achieve this goal, we are increasing communication and
mentoring across all ranks, developing a clinical leadership model, and creating a
user-friendly job-assignments process focused on clinical specialty development.
Most importantly, I have asked each Nurse Corps officer to be part of this strategy;
people stay in organizations because of the positive influence of their peers and immediate supervisors.
OUR PRACTICE

Clinical Excellence
Clinical Excellence is one of the main tenets of the Nurse Corps Clinical Leadership Model. Our strategy prepares every nurse to practice safe, competent care in
any clinical setting, whether in a hospital or clinic, onboard ship or in forward deployed settings. Clinical Excellence is an expectation of the patients we care for and
is an integral part of the interdisciplinary healthcare team of Navy Medicine. In
2009, we developed and implemented standardized orientation and nursing competencies across all of our nursing specialties. This creates portability, efficiency and
consistency of care across all environments. Our goal is to deploy an electronic
standardized procedure manual in 2010 for all facilities to have real time access to
state-of-the-art updates to clinical care.
Over the past several years, the Nurse Corps identified eight critical wartime specialties, and developed our manning, training and bonus structures to incentivize
nurses to practice within these specialties. Additionally, each Nursing Specialty has
an assigned Specialty Leader, a Clinical Subject Matter Expert who understands the
nursing practice within each community. These Specialty Leaders are key in the
sourcing process for deployment missions, and have been empowered to implement
improvement strategies for their specialty communities.
Understanding deployments and the type of care needed by our patients is essential when developing our nurses. For example, the critical care patient in Afghanistan may be required to stay on the ground longer given the environmental challenges impacting medical airlift evacuation. Our staff needs to understand this and
add to their portfolio of skills in both acute and chronic critical care nursing competencies. To accomplish this goal, our Specialty Leaders worked with Senior Nurse
Leaders at MTFs to create partnerships with local civilian hospitals and military
nurses cross-train in local Emergency Departments and Intensive Care Units
(ICUs). All Navy Nurses deploying in a critical care role cross-train in an ICU and
attend the Essentials of Critical Care Orientation Course, the industry standard for
critical care orientation. We are also piloting a closed-loop detailing process where
nurses who desire to practice in the critical care specialty for their careers, have
the ability to be transferred to hospitals that provide critical care nursing. Our goal
is to keep these highly-trained critical care nurses working in critical care.
To support the behavioral health needs of our Warriors and their families, the
Nurse Corps has increased its inventory of psychiatric/mental health clinical nurse
specialists and nurse practitioners. This growth will support the projected growth
of the Marine Corps, Blue in Support of Green (BISOG) and the increase in the
number of Operational Stress Control and Readiness (OSCAR) teams. We have successfully employed Psychiatric-Mental Health Clinical Nurse Specialists and Mental
Health Nurse Practitioners to meet the operational demands of the Psychiatric-Mental health caseload. Looking ahead, we will align our core privileging with our civilian counterparts, deploy mental health nursing assets where needed, and increase
the education pipeline to meet this requirement.
Senior Nurses empower their staffs to innovate in hospital, clinic and operational
settings, ensuring a culture of clinical excellence is infused at all levels. An example
of these innovations is a job sharing initiative in USNH Guam, where two nurses
can gain leadership experience, while continuing to excel as clinicians. A Family
Nurse Practitioner in Okinawa, created efficiencies, eliminated patient visit backlogs, and increased family satisfaction while maintaining family-centered care. He
established a Fast-Track clinic that resulted in a 25 percent decrease in non-urgent
care provided by the Emergency Department. Through Clinical Excellence in Practice, our nurses gain the confidence and competencies to ensure that Navy Medicine
remains a leader in healthcare.

122
Nursing Education
I am a fervent supporter of graduate nursing education, research and professional
growth of my officers, and am committed to the sustainment and growth of the TriService Nursing Research Program (TSNRP). Each year, approximately 73 officers
are selected for Duty Under Instruction, the Nurse Corps graduate education program. Additionally, nurses are selected to participate in the Johnson and Johnson
Wharton Fellows Program in Management at the University of Pennsylvania, and
several Navy-sponsored leadership courses. Clinical specialization matched with
leadership experience is key to developing the clinical leader.
The American Association of Colleges of Nursing made the decision to move the
current level of preparation necessary for advanced nursing practice from the masters degree to the doctorate-level by 2015 based upon shifting patient demographics,
health needs, and changing health system expectations. The Navy Nurse Corps supports a phased approach toward adopting the Doctorate of Nursing Practice (DNP)
as the recommended terminal degree for Advanced Practice Nurses, and will utilize
a combination of short- and long-term action steps to incorporate the DNP degree
option as part of its education strategy. Using existing funding, three nurses will
graduate with a DNP in 2012 and the DNP degree will be incorporated into the
Nurse Corps Training Plan. As we make the transition to a greater number of
DNPs, we will conduct careful reviews of future education funding requirements.
To expand this clinical leadership model to Federal Civilian Registered Nurses,
we launched the Navy Graduate Program for Federal Civilian Registered Nurses,
the first of its kind in the Uniformed Services, and funded five competitively selected Federal civilian registered nurses to pursue their Master of Science in Nursing degrees. These selected candidates agreed to work a compressed work schedule
during the time they are in graduate school and incur a 2-year continued service
agreement. This program has been fully funded in 2010, and we are currently receiving applications to select our next class of candidates for Fall 2010. We expect
that this new program will retain our current civilian nurses, incentivize new
nurses to consider entry into Federal service, sustain Military Treatment Facilities
with subject matter experts when military nurses are deployed, and offer new educational growth for our civilian colleagues.
Every military nurse joins the Service with a Baccalaureate degree or higher, thus
our Nurse Corps education strategy is focused on Graduate Nursing Education. I
thank you for your support of this critical strategy.
Nursing Research
Navy Nurse Researchers assigned to Medical Centers educate nurses, physician
residents, faculty, and staff about research design, implementation and evaluation.
They facilitate the research process though collaboration with the Nursing Research
team, Clinical Investigations and local, national and international academic institutions. More than 15 formal studies are in progress to promote the health and
wellness of our Warriors and their families. Additionally, several evidence-based
practice projects underway synthesize research literature to create individual evidence-based nursing practice guidelines and ensure practice effectiveness. The
Back-to-Basics Bundle of Care Project at Naval Medical Center San Diego and the
Electronic Ticket-to-Ride, a Standardized Hand-off Program at National Naval
Medical Center are just two examples of research projects that will increase patient
safety and satisfaction, increase efficiency, decrease healthcare costs, and promote
positive health outcomes during inpatient stays.
Navy Nurses are accomplished authors, presenters and leaders not only in the
field of Nursing, but also in healthcare and medicine. Many have contributed to
military, national and international forums as keynote speakers and subject matter
experts. Captains Linnea Axman, NC, USN and Patricia Kelley, NC, USN were
members of the planning committee for the 2009 Botswana Conference. This conference, co-sponsored by Navy Medicine and Uniformed Services University, identified opportunities for the development of collaborative international research proposals and advancement of the concepts of integrity in research. Commander
Michele Kane, NC, USN was the first Nurse Corps officer to provide the keynote
address at the 2009 World Congress on Military Medicine. The research conducted
by these outstanding nurses is a testament to their expertise, scholarship and commitment to advancing scientific knowledge in the field of medicine.
Among the many nationally recognized award winners for Navy Nurses, Lieutenant Colleen Mahon, NC, USN was recognized as the National Association of Womens Health Obstetric and Neonatal Nursings Navy Nurse of the Year, and Commander John Maye, NC, USN was selected as the American Academy of Nurse Anesthetists Researcher of the Year.

123
Outreach and Partnerships
Navy Nurses, at our MTFs in the United States and abroad, passionately support
the professional development of Americas future nursing workforce by serving as
preceptors, teachers and mentors for local colleges and universities, as well as entire
health systems. During Continuing Promise 2009, Navy Nurse Corps officers from
the USNS Comfort served as subject matter experts providing training in Advanced
Cardiac Life Support, Basic Life Support, IV insertion, basic first aid, trauma care,
EKG interpretation and basic nutrition to 35,000 host nation medical personnel. Although a U.S. Navy mission, Nurses worked with partners from the Active Component, Reserve Component, Army, Air Force, U.S. Public Health Service, and over 90
nurse volunteers from Project Hope, the Church of Latter Day Saints, and Operation Smile. Additionally, over 40 military nurses from Canada, El Salvador, Netherlands, and France worked side-by-side with us in providing care to over 100,000
patients. Today, the USNS Comfort is deployed staffed by caring colleagues providing humanitarian assistance to the people of Haiti.
Navy Nurses deployed to Afghanistan in embedded training teams are teaching
culturally and linguistically appropriate public health measures. In response to
news of H1N1 outbreaks throughout the world, nurses prepared emergency response
plans and training for the local Forward Operating Base (FOB) and Regional Hospital in eastern Afghanistan, well in advance of cases appearing in-theater, and deployed critical counterinsurgency tactics by performing village medical outreaches to
the local community members in eastern Afghanistan. These missions improved relationships, increased trust and fostered cooperation with U.S. and coalition forces
among the local population.
OUR LEADERSHIP

I believe that leadership at all organizational levels is responsible for ensuring the
personnel under their charge are healthy and productive. This is echoed by Admiral
Mullen, As leaders, we must ensure that all receive the care, counseling, training
and financial support to become self-sufficient and lead productive and fulfilling
lives (CJCS Guidance, December 2009). My nursing leaders have developed and are
implementing an interactive career planning guide useful for mentoring seniors and
subordinates at every stage of their careers. This mentoring tool asks pointed selfassessment questions to the officer and the nurse leader to assist both in making
the best professional career decisions balanced with professional and personal goals.
It guides the nurse leader in assessing the strengths and needs of the officer and
balancing them with organizational goals. Blending our officers clinical excellence,
operational experience and leadership develops the highest caliber leaders for Navy
Medicine today and in the future. Each nurse is a leader, whether caring for a population of patients, leading a Command, or being the Nursing voice for our Fleet or
our Marines. Each day, we have an opportunity to impact the health and well-being
of others.
A key role of a leader is to know their people and help them develop the resiliency
to be able to handle stressors and life events. Navy Medicines Operational Stress
Control and Care for the Caregiver programs have a direct impact on the health
and well-being of the force, deployment readiness and retention. By developing and
providing education and training opportunities throughout the service members career, Operational Stress Control builds resilience and increases effective responses
to stress and stress-related injuries and illnesses. We know that caring for service
members and their families and experiencing the trauma and stress that they experience can impact our medical staff. Strengthening the resilience of our Navy
Nurses will assure they are better equipped to meet the day-to-day challenges of
both naval service and their profession.
CLOSING REMARKS

Thank you for providing me this opportunity to share with you the remarkable
accomplishments of the Navys Nurse Corps and our continuing efforts to meet Navy
Medicines mission. On behalf of the outstanding men and women of the Navy
Nurse Corps, and their families who faithfully support them, I want to extent my
sincere appreciation for your unwavering support.
PREPARED STATEMENT

OF

MAJOR GENERAL KIMBERLY A. SINISCALCHI

The Total Nursing Force (TNF) is comprised of our officer and enlisted nursing
personnel including the Active Duty (AD), Air National Guard (ANG), and Air Force
Reserve Command (AFRC) components. It is a pleasure to lead and serve alongside

124
my senior advisors, Brigadier General Catherine Lutz of the ANG and Colonel Anne
Manly of the AFRC. Together, we command a total force team delivering evidencebased, patient-centered care and support to meet Global Operations. Our nursing
service personnel confront the challenges of increasing commitments and deployments with distinction and professionalism. They support the top priorities of the
Secretary and the Chief of Staff of the Air Force to: (1) Continue to Strengthen the
Air Force Nuclear Enterprise, (2) Partner with the Joint and Coalition Team to Win
Todays Fight, (3) Develop and Care for Airmen and their Families, (4) Modernize
our Aging Air & Space Inventories, Organizations & Training, and (5) Recapture Acquisition Excellence. This testimony will reflect how Air Force Nurses, lead, partner,
and care every time and everywhere.
EXPEDITIONARY NURSING

Operational capability, the foundation and moral fiber of Air Force nursing, is instrumental in driving remarkable achievements. Air Force nurses and medical technicians at Craig Joint Theater Hospital (CJTH) at Bagram Airfield, Afghanistan
provided outstanding nursing care for the highest number of casualties in OEF.
CJTH is the only total U.S. staffed Level III military treatment facility in Afghanistan, and offers the most advanced medical capability in the country. CJTH nurses
functioned as preceptors for nine Afghan nurses embedded as part of an Afghan
Trauma Mentorship program. The Afghan nurses worked side-by-side with Air
Force nurses and medical technicians, gaining valuable clinical experience, which
they are excited to share with their co-workers to create positive change for the Afghan healthcare system for years to come.
The summer and fall of 2009 at CJTH is summarized through excerpts written
by Dr. Zeriold, the trauma czar, of his time in Afghanistan. A conflict that had
become known as The Forgotten War was suddenly remembered as we entered the
Afghan theater. We found a hospital and system in existence for several years that
had seen a moderate number of patients. We brought only ourselves; it was a team
from all over the United States from all branches of the military. No extra equipment, no new technology, no more medications, gear, or personnel. We were the
standard deployment team for this theater. However, the pattern of this war
changed. Over the next 6 months, we took care of more than 1,000 trauma admissions and countless medical admissions. The acuity was very high, and injuries were
horrendous. A new pattern of war trauma had emerged for this hospital, a pattern
that rivals and even surpasses a 500 bed, university based, Level I trauma center.
We safely returned to the states 550 injured U.S. service members. We returned
them to their families, children, and spouses. We changed the devastated lives of
450 Afghan nationals and won their hearts. I will never forget the bonds we formed
with so many. And the kidsmy God, I will never forget the kids; reaching out their
little hands, with a smile, at the time of discharge as if to say thank you, Ill be
okay, and can I go home now? As a result of your dedication and work, this hospital
and this team set the theater standard, and broke theater records for caseload, admissions, transfers, and outcomes. We transformed this time, mid to late 2009, into
an era never to be forgotten.
CJTH also functions as the primary theater Aeromedical Evacuation (AE) hub, for
out of country casualty transport. The Contingency Aeromedical Staging Facility at
Bagram facilitated an average of 500 patient movements per month, starting July
2009. They are the Angels of the Battlefieldmedics dedicated to transporting
wounded U.S. and coalition service members, as well as locals, to the medical care
they need. Its our job to take care of these wounded warriors, said Maj. Dawn Rice,
an Air Force Reserve flight nurse and medical crew director assigned to the 451st
Aeromedical Evacuation Squadron (AES). We take great pride in getting people the
top-notch care they deserve. Our country and our military will do whatever it takes
to get people to the appropriate medical facilities. We want people to know this,
she added. Hopefully, it will give them some comfort when they are outside the
wire fighting the enemy.
Air evacuation is a detailed process with the aircrew acting as the most visible
link in the chain. The process typically begins at a local level. The primary mission
at smaller field hospitals is simply stabilizing the patient, said Chief Master Sergeant John Trujillo, 451st AES superintendent. Once the patient is stabilized and
can be moved to another more capable hospital, then its our job to get them there.
While caring for wounded service members is the crews primary mission, they
provide the same level of dedication to all. The squadron recently flew a 9 year-old
Afghan girl and her 13 year-old brother from a major hospital at Bagram Airfield
to a base in Southern Afghanistan. She had been at the hospital at Bagram for 2
months recovering from injuries received during a mortar attack on her village.

125
Prior to the United States stepping in, her brother had been tasked with her care,
replacing bandages on her legs and overseeing her well-being. As she was brought
aboard the aircraft for her flight, nurses from Bagram said their tearful goodbyes
while crewmembers gave the children gifts and treats, bringing out their smiles.
Looking at the children, the Major spoke about this moment and how it transcended
geographical borders and political differences. It was truly a moment of human compassion. The care being given was not just between Americans and Afghans, or
adults and children, but between human beings taking care of each other. This is
why we do what we do, said Major Rice softly. These are the moments we live
for, she added with a smile.
Nursing Services are integral to the support of global and home base operations.
Day after day, we take the best care of our Nations heroes at home and abroad.
AE continues to be one of the greatest successes in the war on terror, and is the
vital link to saving lives. Another example of our AE teams heroic efforts occurred
when a skilled team of medical personnel worked tirelessly to keep a badly burned
23-year old civilian alive. Having already died and been brought back to life by a
shot of adrenalin and cardiopulmonary resuscitation, he was carried by litter onto
a C17 medical evacuation flight from Balad, Iraq to Germany. Lieutenant Colonel
Belinda Warren tucked a blanket around the patient and inserted numerous tubes
to provide vital fluids to his body. You have to make sure the burn victims dont
get cold, replace all the fluids leaking from their burns, and make sure they dont
go into hypothermia or get their blood clotting factors out of whack, she said. As
an Air Force Reserve Critical Care Air Transport Team (CCATT) nurse, her goal
was to make the patient as comfortable as possible. On a return flight to Germany
later that month, she learned that he had about a 20 percent chance of survival,
a higher rate than usual, and is doing better than expected, given the severity of
his injuries.
These critical missions sustain world-class care across the continuum, ensuring
our warriors are able to return to the fight with continued healthcare and family
support. Since overseas contingency operations began in 2001, over 70,000 patients
have been aeromedically evacuated. Year 2009 proved to be a robust one for patient
movement. We moved 21,500 patients globally including over 9,000 from the war
fronts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Men and women of the 32 Total Force Aeromedical
Evacuation (AE) Squadrons were augmented by CCATTs delivering hands-on care
in the air. These units are currently staffed at approximately 90 percent, but as the
troops in the Area of Responsibility (AOR) increase, additional crews will be needed
and are being built to support them.
One of our challenges in developing new AE crews is the training pipeline. It currently takes approximately 6 to 9 months to train each new crewmember. The initial
phase of this training takes place at our School of Aerospace Medicine and is standardized for the Total Force. Once the didactic portion of AE is completed, flight
nurses and technicians return to their units. The time required for nurses and technicians to be qualified on an aircraft can take an additional 2 to 6 months. The
Total Force is pursuing a single standardized Flight Training Unit (FTU) similar
to that being used by our pilots. This FTU will standardize the upgrade training
process across the Total Force by creating a single level of qualification and will,
most importantly, shorten the pipeline to approximately four weeks, creating parity
among all AE crews.
Captain Jac Solghan and his Aeromedical Evacuation Liaison Teams (AELT) actions provide a great example of what individuals and teams bring to the fight when
put to the test. Within 12 hours of landing at Bastion Joint Operating Base, an improvised explosive device (IED) explosion/multi-collision incident injured 5 Afghan
National Army personnel and 12 local nationals. After their initial medical assessments and treatments, Capt. Solghans AELT responded by providing Afghan patient movement requests for rotary wing airlift. Within 40 minutes, the patients
were ready for transport to Kandahar Air Base.
Additionally, Capt. Solghan and his team successfully coordinated with the United
Kingdom (UK) Aeromedical Evacuation Control Center (AECC) for the transport of
a UK solider that suffered a blast injury that left him with only one functioning
lung. Capitalizing on the capabilities of the USAF Lung Team stationed at
Ramstein Air Base, Germany, and the technology of a Nova artificial lung, this UK
service member was transported in the U.S. Aeromedical Evacuation System to Germany for critical treatment, and then finally to the Birmingham Military Hospital,
UK, where he is now doing well. This success story demonstrated a multinational
effort of over 1,000 aircrew, ground, and medical personnel.
Capt. Solghan and his team significantly improved the Afghan patient movement
system, integrating United States airlift capability with International Security Assistance Force and Afghan hospital networks. They executed the first-ever United

126
States airlift transport of an Afghan patient to an Afghan hospital and enabled
eight new casualty transport routes, increasing inpatient turnover by 70 percent
and influencing new joint theater policy. They also initiated joint operations with
the Afghan National Army Air Corps, enabling more than 43 patient evacuations
with indigenous air assets thus fostering national military airlift capability.
Major Louis Gallo, another Air Force nurse, elevated the level of care delivered
to our wounded warriors, by leading the first Contingency Aeromedical Staging Facility at Bagram Air Base, Afghanistan. His team set up tents to stage patients as
they waited for flights to Germany. He coordinated the procurement of essential
communication equipment and support services needed to sustain operations. Knowing that injured patients needed more than medical care, he contacted the United
Service Organization, whose volunteers set up a morale tent within days with supportive and recreational services to aid those awaiting transportation.
HUMANITARIAN

As a result of the devastating earthquake in Haiti on January 12, 2010, the Special Operations Surgical Teams and Special Operations Critical Care Evacuation
Teams, assigned to the 1st Special Operations Wing, Hurlburt Field, Florida, deployed with the initial response aircraft and were the first military medical teams
on the ground. The intense training and combat experience gained in Operation
Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) prepared the teams
for extremely difficult conditions. They worked around the clock to provide emergency life-saving care to countless American citizens and Haitian Nationals. The
teams established treatment areas at the Port-au-Prince Airport and the American
Embassy. The Critical Care Nurses provided casualty evacuation of patients both
in and out of country as well as pre- and post-operative intensive care unit management. The Nurse Anesthetists assisted in lifesaving surgeries including several amputations, and augmented the ICU.
Our Air Force Nurse Corps mission is we lead, we partner, we care. These words
have never been more relevant as when the nurses and medical technicians of Joint
Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst repatriated our fellow Americans who survived the
horrific earthquake in Haiti. Over a 4 day period, around the clock, plane after
plane, those three words, lead, partner, and care, defined every aspect of the mission we found ourselves involved in, stated Major Robert Groves, Deputy Chief
Nurse and Education and Training Flight Commander. He summarized his teams
experiences using the Air Force Nurse Corps mission as a backdrop:
We lead.Every shift had an assigned Nurse Corps officer and Senior NonCommissioned Officer, an Aerospace Medicine Services Technician, to organize
healthcare, mentor colleagues who had never participated in such an operation,
and, of course, to provide care to earthquake survivors. Among the major tasks
were organizing the treatment areas in the evacuation operations center,
inventorying and obtaining supplies, meeting planes, triaging patients, and assisting with patient transport to higher echelons of care.
We partner.When operational tasks did not involve direct care, one could find
nurses and technicians supporting the endeavors of our other Air Force colleagues. We allowed survivors to share their experiences, played soccer with
children in the fitness center gym, assisted them to find appropriate clothing
at the donation center, helped them pack new suitcases for their trip to families, and provided the use of personal cell phones to call loved ones to let them
know they were okay. For some, these were the first words heard from loved
ones in the four days following the earthquake.
We care.Direct patient care came easily and naturally to our nurses and
aeromedical technicians. But, it was more than that. From the beginning of operations it was decided that no survivor would be alone while on the ground
in our area. While few evacuees required transfer to higher echelons of care,
when they did, there was a member of our team assigned to accompany them
throughout the process. Many evacuees had not navigated the American
healthcare system. To prevent them from being overwhelmed and lost in an unfamiliar system, one of our team remained with them until they boarded flights
to their families. Sometimes it involved overnight stays at local hospitals so
they had a familiar, encouraging face during their treatment. In the end, we
processed 579 evacuees, with 70 needing more extensive medical care and six
requiring transport to community medical partners. But, the knowledge, skills
and cooperation with each other and our Joint Base mission partners will be
a long-lasting experience and will carry fond memories of our military service
long into the future. These four days are what our readiness training had adequately prepared us to do. This is what our service is all about.

127
RECRUITING AND RETENTION

A robust recruiting program is essential to keep the Nurse Corps healthy and
ready to meet the complex challenges in healthcare and national security. While we
have executed incentive programs to address the nursing shortage, shortfalls continue to be an enormous challenge. Todays nursing shortage is expected to deepen
as nursing faculty ages. The capacity for nursing schools to educate sufficient numbers of registered nurses (RN) to meet the future demand is stressed, largely due
to the limited number of nursing faculty. On July 2, 2009, the U.S. Bureau of Labor
Statistics reported the healthcare sector of the economy is continuing to grow, despite the recession, with more nursing jobs expected to be created in the next decade
than in any other single profession. RNs will be in high demand to fill the majority
of these positions, as they are the largest component of the healthcare workforce.
The BLS projects that nearly 600,000 new RN jobs will be created by 2018. Quality
of life and career opportunities, coupled with bonuses, special pays, and other incentives, are critical recruiting tools for Air Force Nursing.
Recruiting fully qualified nurses continues to be one of our largest challenges and
our historical and present statistics tell us this will be an issue for years to come.
In fiscal year 2009, we accessed 284 nurses against our total accession goal of 350
(81 percent), down 12 percent from what I reported the previous year. National competition to access nurses will continue as many professional employment opportunities exist.
Our Nurse Enlisted Commissioning Program continues to be a superb resource as
we continue to grow our own from our valuable enlisted medics. In fiscal year 2009,
of 69 applicants, 40 qualified candidates were selected. In fiscal year 2010, we will
meet our steady state goal of 50 quotas per year. The graduates from this program
are commissioned as Second Lieutenants and will continue to be valuable assets.
As we strive to meet our recruiting goals, NC retention remains challenging. In
fiscal year 2009, 267 (almost 10 percent) nurses separated or retired from the Air
Force, with 73 percent having 20 years or less time in service and 58 percent being
Lieutenants and Captains. With an Incentive Special Pay (ISP) budget increase of
$3.3 million compared to last year, our NC ISP is currently in its second year of
execution. Seventy-eight percent of our nurses exercised single or multi-year contracts. This years focus was to increase retention by recognizing advanced academic
preparation, certification and experience. In addition, we expanded the number of
nurses eligible for ISP by adding additional Air Force Specialty Codes and clinical
settings. While the ISP was not a retention bonus out right, we look forward to seeing a positive impact on retention as a result of this initiative.
A number of societal, scientific, and professional developments have stimulated a
major paradigm change in graduate nursing education. One major impetus for this
change was the American Association of Colleges of Nursings (AACN) decision in
2004 to endorse the Position Statement on the Doctorate in Nursing Practice (DNP).
This decision moves the current level of preparation necessary for advanced nursing
practice from the masters degree to the doctorate-level by the year 2015. The U.S.
Air Force Surgeon General fully supports AACNs decision, and in response, the Air
Force Nurse Corps has researched current practice issues within the Nurse Corps
and has developed an implementation proposal for achieving the AACN goals by
2015. Currently, all Air Force Nurse Practitioners are trained through a masters
degree program. The Air Force NC recommends a phased implementation approach
to meet the AACN intent. Starting in calendar year 2010, the Air Force Nurse
Corps proposes a small pool of Nurse Corps candidates to be selected to attend Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) programs and by 2015, all students entering the
nurse practitioner (NP) career path will graduate with a DNP. In addition, by 2015,
all new Air Force NP candidates accessed through the Health Professions Scholarship Program (HPSP) will be prepared at the doctorate level. Recruitment of fully
qualified NPs has been a challenge and will likely become more difficult with the
increased educational requirements. The Nurse Corps must pursue additional incentives to entice DNPs to enter the Air Force.
OPERATIONAL CURRENCY

Education and training is the foundation of the Nurse Corps competencies and
one of our priorities is to ensure currency platforms meet emerging clinical and
operational requirements. The Nurse Transition Program (NTP) continues to be one
of our many successes with 10 military and two civilian locations. We graduated 158
NTP nurses in fiscal year 2009. Last year; I reported a civilian partnership with
the Scottsdale Healthcare System, in Scottsdale, Arizona was on the horizon. I was
honored to deliver the commencement address for the second class in December,
where we graduated 15 students. We have partnered with an outstanding Magnet

128
status organization and our new Air Force nurses are getting unprecedented clinical
opportunities. At just 6 months, the Scottsdale program is already proving to be a
cornerstone in the success of a strong military partnership between Scottsdale
Healthcare and Luke Air Force Base, Arizona, located 35 miles east of Scottsdale.
From October to December, nurses trained on inpatient units at two Magnet-recognized facilities where they gained hands-on clinical experience and competence in
direct patient care under the supervision of nurse preceptors. Their training was
further enriched with rotations in peri-operative services, wound care, infusion services, laboratory, pediatrics and the Maricopa County burn unit. The privilege of
training in Magnet-recognized facilities is an experience that will prepare our
nurses to meet the demands in our stateside facilities as well as in deployed settings
around the globe. I am proud of the exceptional work the course supervisors, Majors
Deedra Zabokrtsky and Nancy Johnson, have achieved in such a short period of
time. The Scottsdale program will begin a steady state of 20 to 25 nurses per class
in 2010, making it the largest nurse transition-training site.
The 882nd Training Group at Sheppard Air Force Base, Texas, is instrumental
in establishing the largest joint armed services medical education and training center that the world has ever seen. To date, the 882 Training Group spent more than
11,000 hours working side by side with their Army and Navy counterparts to consolidate 15 military enlisted medical technical training courses. These collaborative
efforts have allowed the three services to incorporate best practices and build stateof-the-art training platforms that will prepare the next generation of medics for the
militarys diverse missions. The 882 Training Group began transitioning key and essential personnel in the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2009 and will continue staging
instructor staff and equipment to the Medical Education and Training Campus
(METC) at Fort Sam Houston in San Antonio through the last quarter of fiscal year
2011 when all courses are projected to be operational. The first METC Senior Enlisted Advisor is Chief Master Sergeant Kevin Lambing, an Air Force Senior Aerospace Medical Technician.
Our enlisted medical technicians, led by Chief Master Sergeant Joseph Potts, are
vital to the achievements of the TNF. One of many outstanding Airmen is Staff Sergeant Christopher Brown, a medical technician deployed from the 88th Medical
Group for 192 days to Kabul, Afghanistan, where he was assigned to Joint Task
Force Phoenix VII. SSgt. Brown received a Meritorious Service Medal in recognition
of his superior performance as a medical technician while supporting humanitarian
missions, conducting medical evacuations, training Afghanistan medics, participating in military convoys, and setting up an Afghanistan medical clinic. He was
the sole medic for a 12-person police mentoring team traveling to various remote
areas surrounding Kabul to train Afghan police. Assigned to the Afghan Evaluation
Transition Team, he was given 14 Afghan medics to train and prepare to treat patients at a bare base. He participated in the longest convoy in OEF history to move
the Afghan Kadack to the bare base in western Afghanistan. SSgt. Brown is a fine
example of the many committed Airmen who continue to make our Air Force proud.
In an effort to increase advanced life support capability at bases, we have trained
several of our Aerospace Medical Service Technicians to the National Registry of
Emergency Medical Technician-Paramedic level. The inaugural class launched last
fall graduated 19 students. This initiative helps reduce the number of contract services in our emergency response platforms by growing our own paramedics from our
enlisted force. This will also provide a marketable career path outside the military
when these individuals retire. We are expecting an annual growth rate of 50 per
year with the vision of providing relief for a stressed career field.
Another force multiplier is our Independent Duty Medical Technicians (IDMT).
We continue to see a steady increase in our IDMTs as we balance the end strength
of our medical technicians. They play an integral role within our Air Force Medical
Service as our physician extenders. They are designed to function in a small footprint providing patient care, as well as fourteen other ancillary support functions.
The continued efforts to recruit IDMTs have garnered our highest true volunteer
candidates equaling 24 in the past 10 years. The remainder of our IDMT candidates
are gained through the Noncommissioned Officer Retraining Program designed to
right size undermanned career fields across the Air Force. Additionally, continuation of the selective reenlistment bonus has aided the recruitment and retention
of these valuable assets. Information technology has further enhanced our IDMTs
capabilities. We supply each IDMT with a hand-held Hewlett-Packard iPAQ that is
fully loaded with reference materials, thereby increasing access to the most up-todate medical information without adversely affecting space and weight limitations
of their medical bags.

129
SKILLS SUSTAINMENT

For nearly a decade, the Air Force Medical Service has partnered with high volume civilian trauma centers to prepare doctors, nurses, and technicians to care for
combat casualties. Maintaining readiness to care for the complex traumatic injuries
seen in war is challenging as most military treatment facilities care for lower acuity
patients. To bridge this gap, three Centers for Sustainment of Trauma and Readiness Skills (CSTARS) platforms were established at the R Adams Cowley Shock
Trauma Center in Baltimore, at University Hospital Cincinnati, and at Saint Louis
University Hospital. CSTARS Baltimore has a surgical and emergency care focus.
CSTARS Cincinnati is designed specifically for the clinical sustainment of Critical
Care Air Transport Teams. CSTARS St. Louis serves a range of medical and surgical specialties. In 2009, 817 doctors, nurses, and technicians completed vital training at one of these three centers. Since inception, these partnerships have enabled
4,336 Total Force medical Airmen to maintain clinical currency. During their 2 to
3 week tours, participants complete 90 to 100 percent of required readiness skills
through hands-on patient care, supplemented by didactics, cadaver labs, training
with patient simulations, and field exercises.
In addition to the immersion experience obtained at CSTARS, a complementary
initiative was started in 2009 called STARSP, the Sustainment of Trauma and Resuscitation Skills Program. Personnel assigned to designated STARSP military
treatment facilities at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio; Luke AFB, Arizona; Nellis AFB,
Nevada; Travis AFB, California; and Wilford Hall Medical Center, Texas, rotate
through local civilian Level I trauma centers as part of their normal duty time. For
example, medical personnel assigned to Luke AFB, routinely rotate to nearby
Scottsdale Healthcare. As a new initiative, we continue to define processes that best
match the needs of the military treatment facility and the host civilian institution;
however, STARSP holds great promise as another approach to honing war-readiness skills. These partnerships with civilian medical facilities have proven to be invaluable to maintaining a high state of readiness to deliver quality care to our Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, Marines, their families and coalition partners.
Another valuable skills sustainment program is the Critical Care/Emergency
Nursing (CC/EN) Fellowship. The three fellowship sites, Wilford Hall Medical Center, San Antonio, Texas, St. Louis Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri, and the National
Naval Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland, continue to produce superbly trained
nurse clinicians. Many graduates have already employed their new skills at deployed locations in Afghanistan or Iraq, and several stationed at the 59th Medical
Wing have returned to one or both AORs for more than one tour. Forty-three percent of the San Antonio Military Medical Center graduates have obtained advanced
certification as Critical Care Registered Nurses. As of March 2009, 99 of 313 critical
care nurses are Critical Care Registered Nurses. Graduates of these benchmark programs are phenomenal and often light years ahead of their peers. Nurse leaders repeatedly report from the deployed environment that our graduates are the best,
Put into any situation and they simply shine. They have developed critical thinking skills that often exceed those of more experienced critical care nurses.
We received updates from two of our June 2009 graduates, Captain Matthew
Howard and Captain Lindsay Erickson, both currently serving at Bagram Air Base,
Afghanistan. Their comments clearly highlight their enhanced level of clinical and
critical thinking skills. Capt Howard stated, I in-serviced the staff on
ventriculostomies the very first shift I worked. We set a record last month for the
most traumas since the war started here, and if we keep going, we will exceed it
this month. More importantly, the survival rate is up 3 percent and at a record
high.
Capt Erickson stated, By the end of my second week, a mass casualty situation
arose. The unit was full with 16 patients. We moved three non-vented patients to
the ward, and quickly acquired six new trauma/burn patients. I started the day with
a three-patient assignment and ended up taking one of the new traumas on top of
that. It was challenging but I felt very well prepared and took the assignment on
without hesitation. No doubt my Critical Care fellowship training prepared me well.
One of the burn patients required bladder pressure monitoring. Many of the nurses
here arent too familiar with this, so I volunteered to teach.
The CC/EN Fellowships have set the standard. Our graduates provide the highest
quality care, both stateside and in the deployed environment, positively impacting
lives on a daily basis. In the area of responsibility, the impact is palpable with a
sustained 95 percent survival rate for OIF, and 96 percent survival rate for OEF.

130
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

The Air Force Medical Operations Agency (AFMOA) in San Antonio, Texas is a
single support agency that stood up in September 2008 under the command of Brigadier General Mark A. Ediger. Nearly 18 months later, AFMOA has progressed as
a robust centralized reach-out, reach-back clinical support hub, collaborating with
the major commands to standardize business practices across the Air Force Medical
Service in pursuit of Excellent Healthcare, Clinical Currency. To that end, the
AFMOA Surgeon General Nursing Directorate, comprised of three divisions and led
by Colonel Leslie Claravall, has concentrated efforts toward developing currency
platforms to sustain clinical skills for deployed operations. For example, the Provision of Nursing Care Division, led by Colonel Doug Howard, participated in an
Emergency Department Analysis and Process Improvement Project in November
2009 and is partnering with emergency services leadership of nine military treatment facilities to employ efficient evidence-based processes. Ultimately, the goal is
to increase throughput leading to enhanced patient safety and satisfaction, while
providing more experience and opportunity for medics to sustain clinical currency.
Other clinical arenas, to include inpatient care and specialty care clinics, will be targeted in the same manner.
Additionally, AFMOA Surgeon General Nursing is contributing to efficient
healthcare and clinical currency by building tools to enhance mentoring and information sharing. To illustrate, the Education and Training Division, led by Colonel
Lilly Chrisman, was key in facilitating Mosby on line as an Air Force Medical
Service enterprise-wide reference tool. Modernizing access to the most current edition of a sound clinical reference allows our medics to obtain guidance anytime from
any computer, while saving countless dollars by averting the distribution of new
hard copies to replace outdated ones across the Air Force Medical Service
AFMOA Nursing Service Resourcing Division, led by Colonel Robert Hontz, was
the last division to stand up this summer. This division analyzed nurse resources
across the major commands making recommendations to support Air Force initiatives such as the Medical Home Model for patient-centered care, a new Special
Needs Coordination Cell to improve continuity of care for special needs family members, and the plus up of mental health nurses to support increasing deployment demands on a stressed career field. The Mental Health Nurse (46P3) and the Mental
Health Nurse Practitioner (46Y3P) Air Force Specialty Code (AFSC) is currently
staffed at 77 percent for 46P3 and 100 percent for the 46Y3P. The high mobility
tempo of this specialty makes it difficult to retain these critically manned mental
health nurses. Currently, there are 30 psychiatric nurses in deployment unit type
codes increasing to 40 in fiscal year 2010 to meet the career fields rigorous mobility
requirements. The entire Air Force Medical Service mental healthcareer field is in
the Band D Battle Rhythm which requires a 1:2 deployment: dwell time. Seven
to eight psychiatric nurses are deployed worldwide in support of OIF and OEF each
cycle.
The Air Force Medical Service is taking steps to alleviate the stressors on the
mental health nursing career field, and plans are under way to build a formal training program at the David Grant Medical Center at Travis AFB, California. This
course will train clinical nurses to become mental health nurses. Additionally, we
are pursuing an increase in mental health nurse and mental health nurse practitioner authorizations. Our goal is to place 10 additional mental health nurses in our
bedded military treatment facilities to augment the staff caring for our wounded
warriors and other beneficiaries. The advanced clinical capability of our mental
health nurse practitioners has been lauded by patients as well as other provider
staff. The Air Force Medical Service has grown our own through the Air Force Institute of Technology program, with 14 of our 15 nurse practitioners having come
from our mental health nurse career field.
RESEARCH

Air Force nurse researchers are integral to the joint research conducted in the
U.S. Central Command area of responsibility. The Joint Combat Casualty Care Research Team (JC2RT) consists of six Army and three Air Force members with the
mission of fostering and facilitating medical research, performance improvement,
and evidence-based practice initiatives for the United States Central Command
Joint Operations Area: Multi-National CorpsIraq Theater, U.S. Forces Afghanistan, and Kuwait. In March 2009, the Department of Defense medical research program was initiated in Afghanistan under the direction of Colonel Elizabeth Bridges,
an Air Force Reserve Ph.D. prepared nurse. Simultaneously, Lieutenant Colonel Teresa Ryan, also an Air Force Reserve Ph.D. prepared nurse from Keesler AFB, Mis-

131
sissippi was the senior Deployed Combat Casualty Research Team (DC2RT) researcher at Balad, Iraq.
Colonel Bridges laid the groundwork for the arrival of a team of six researchers
(physicians, nurses, a nutritionist, and a physiologist) who arrived in September to
Bagram. Currently, Major Candy Wilson, a Ph.D. prepared nurse, from the 59th
Clinical Research Squadron at Lackland AFB, Texas is at Bagram. In August 2009,
the JC2RT Headquarters office moved from Ibn Sina, Iraq to Bagram, Afghanistan.
In October 2009, Lieutenant Colonel Kevin Bohan from the Graduate School of
Nursing, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences along with SGT Andrew Coggins, a Army laboratory services NCO, established an office in Kandahar
to expand the research program. The nurse researchers assigned to the DC2RT
identified the following major areas for research: mild traumatic brain injury, management of complex orthopedic trauma, pain management across the continuum of
care, and integration of information from the Level II medical facilities and the enroute phase of care, both medical evacuation and aeromedical evacuation.
The teams provide guidance and review for all research conducted in Afghanistan,
Iraq and Kuwait. The Ph.D. prepared nurses provide leadership and guidance on
scientific merit, design and methodology of research. Each team member is involved
in collecting data for a variety of research protocols focusing on combat casualty
care. Over 150 research studies have been conducted or are being planned as a result of the JC2RTs efforts. More than 20,000 subjects have been enrolled in research studies. Areas of research conducted by the U.S. military in Afghanistan and
Iraq have led to advancements in combat casualty medical care and therapies to include tourniquet application, combat gauze, life saving interventions, en-route care,
resuscitation, blood product administration, burns, wound care, post traumatic
stress disorder (PTSD), traumatic brain injury, and infectious diseases.
Colonel Bridges, as the first research nurse in Bagram, Afghanistan, from April
to August 2009, received Tri-Service Nursing Research Program (TSNRP) funding
for a functional hemo-dynamic study in Afghanistan. Since 2006, 34 nursing research protocols have been approved with U.S. Air Force nurse researchers being
principal investigators in five of those studies. The overall nursing research themes
include warrior care, healthcare delivery, trauma, behavioral health, and nursing/
healthcare professional issues. Nursing principal investigators have investigated
pain management, functional hemo-dynamics, and StO2 monitor for occult hypo-perfusion, carbon monoxide exposure, womens health, sleep disturbances in soldiers,
oral care in the critically ill, retention, recruitment, PTSD, burnout, compassion fatigue, and moral distress in nursing personnel. To date, three Air Force led nursing
research protocols are in the final stages of approval by the institutional review
board, which researchers by law must submit their research proposal to receive approval before beginning a research study.
As a member of the Joint Combat Casualty Research Team, Major Wilson augmented the Combined Joint Special Operation Forces to provide healthcare for local
men, women, children and the Afghanistan National Army. During visits to the villages, Maj. Wilson, a nurse practitioner, along with other healthcare professionals,
provided medical care for over 10,000 patients during a 6-day period. The rugged
and austere healthcare delivery conditions required medical diagnoses to be made
based on patient presentation, without the aid of laboratory or radiology analyses.
In addition to the direct benefits of the care provided, valuable and actionable intelligence was gathered on these missions that resulted in improved situational awareness by U.S. forces and directly resulted in saving lives of service members.
The TSNRP Executive Director position transitioned to Colonel Marla DeJong in
2009, the second Air Force nurse researcher to hold this position. The TSNRP is
the only program with the primary mission of funding military unique and military
relevant nursing research. Colonel DeJong is responsible for facilitating tri-service
nursing research to optimize the health of military members and their beneficiaries.
The goal of military nursing research is to produce knowledge that further enhances
clinical practice, the delivery of healthcare, nursing education, and nursing management. Since its inception in 1992, the TSNRP has funded more than 300 military
nursing research studies and several evidenced-based practice projects. Ultimately,
application of this new knowledge improves the quality and delivery of nursing practice, promotes the best possible outcomes for patients and families, and informs
healthcare policy decisionmakers. With the support of TSNRP funding, the pocket
guide, Battlefield and Disaster Nursing Pocket Guide, which I shared during last
years testimony, has been distributed to 15,000 Air Force military nurses and medics to augment readiness preparation.
During 2009, military nurse leaders, researchers, and stakeholders of the TSNRP
revised the mission and research priorities to ensure the funding clearly reflects the
mission and research vision of military nurses. The current TSNRP research prior-

132
ities are (1) force health protection, (2) nursing competencies and practice, and (3)
leadership, ethics, and mentoring. The TSNRP sponsors Grant Writing Workshops
for novice and experienced researchers to learn how to design studies and write
high-quality applications that will be competitive for funding. Annually, the TSNRP
conducts a Post-Award Management Workshop to inform grant recipients of Federal, Department of Defense, and TSNRP management policies and guidance on
grant execution.
Results from TSNRP-funded research impacts nursing clinical practice in deployment resilience, retention, methods to reduce ventilator-associated pneumonia,
health disparities, and womens health during deployments. For example, Major
Jennifer Hatzfeld who defended her dissertation in 2009, Assessing Health Disparities in the Air Force documented the prevalence of health disparities according to
race or ethnicity for chronic diseases such as hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetes among adult Active Duty Air Force members; however, she found no evidence
of disparities in the treatment outcomes of patients with these conditions, indicating
patients received appropriate medical care.
Numerous mission-relevant studies are in progress. Colonel Bridges study is designed to evaluate new methods of monitoring patients after hemorrhage on the battlefield. Colonel Penny Pierce, a retired Air Force nurse reservist, and her colleagues have systematically collected comprehensive survey data from deploying
troops beginning with the Persian Gulf War and continuing through OEF and OIF.
The initial studies focused primarily on military women due to the sociopolitical concerns raised by deployment of large numbers of women, reservists, and mothers of
dependent children. Later studies included men and women from the Air Force and
Army, enabling researchers to compare findings by gender, military service, and deployed locations. Data collection pertained to physical, mental, and gender-specific
health issues. Junior enlisted women and families experiencing economic hardships
were particularly vulnerable to work-family conflict. Further, individuals with workfamily conflict were at high risk to develop post-traumatic stress disorder. Stressors
such as family conflict and organizational issues influenced the physical and mental
health of military members and impacted retention. Importantly, these stressors are
potentially modifiable. Work is underway to identify interventions that will benefit
individuals, families, and the uniformed services.
TSNRP-funded researchers continue to disseminate the results of their studies
through peer-reviewed publications and numerous presentations at nursing and
medical conferences. The TSNRP co-sponsored the Karen A. Rieder Nursing Research Poster Session at the 115th annual meeting of the Association of Military
Surgeons of the United States. Air Force nurses presented 29 of the 90 posters
which summarized the results of recent studies, evidence-based practice projects,
and process improvement activities. Colonel Bridges, for example, recommended
interventions to prevent complications during en-route care of casualties transported
by Critical Care Air Transport Team during OEF and OIF.
In addition to her duties as TSNRP program director, Colonel DeJong is assigned
to the DOD Blast Injury Research Program Coordinating Office. She organized and
hosted an international, state-of-the-science meeting on blast-related mild traumatic
brain injury. The meeting resulted in a thorough assessment of knowledge about
TBI and identified the gaps necessary to shape future research. Colonel DeJong also
co-chaired the Joint Program Committee for Battle Injury Prevention Research and
helped execute the $247 million Battle Casualty and Psychological Health Research
Program.
Colonel Karen Weis, another one of our Ph.D.-prepared nurses, co-authored Psychosocial Adaptation to Pregnancy: Seven Dimensions of Maternal Role Development. Colonel Weis also authored a nurse-physician communication assessment tool
used in several military treatment facilities, as well as the Methodist health system
in Houston, Texas. The instrument assesses perceived barriers to physician-nurse
communication enabling focused attention for improved staffing effectiveness.
Colonel John Murray just completed a chapter entitled, The U.S. military health
system: Meeting healthcare needs in wartime and peacetime, to be included in Policy & Politics in Nursing and Health Care. As the Director of Education, Training
& Research, Joint Task Force, National Capital RegionMedical, he developed
Joint-level DOD Assurance and Issuing authority for research within the National
Capital Region. Colonel Murray is a member of the Department of Veterans Affairs
(VA) National Research Advisory Council and the VA workgroup for Research on
Educational Interventions for Health Professionals.
Lieutenant Colonels Patricia Bradshaw and Karen OConnell, and Majors Susan
Dukes, Brenda Morgan, and Antoinette Shin are near completion of their Ph.D. program. These nurses will be deliberately placed as the Nurse Corps builds research
specific locations or cells.

133
We recently developed a nursing research fellowship and the first candidate will
begin this spring. This 1-year pre-doctoral research fellowship will focus on clinical
and operational sustainment platforms. The intent of this program is for the fellow
to develop a foundation in nursing research and ultimately pursue a Ph.D.
The desire for evidence-based nursing care is at the forefront of the nursing staff
at the 59th Medical Wing, Wilford Hall Medical Center, San Antonio, Texas. Newly
hired nurses are oriented to the benefits of nursing research and evidence-based
practice during nursing orientation. The deliberate promotion of nursing research
has resulted in three nurses developing protocols for funding from TSNRP.
Nursing staff from the 88th Medical Group, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, have
submitted three research grants this year and are participating in two nursing studies. Major Bonnie Stiffler, the primary investigator for the study, Barriers to
Screening Mammography for Medical Treatment Facility Enrolled Beneficiaries, is
conducting telephone interviews to identify barriers to obtaining provider recommended mammography. The goal is to identify barriers to care and then develop
methods to minimize or eliminate the barriers. Colonel Robie Hughes is the primary
investigator for a funded multi-site study titled, Air Force Nurse Transition Program Student Quantitative Medical Simulation Performance. This study will be the
first formal study conducted at the nine Nurse Transition Program sites during a
simulated medical scenario evaluating nurse performance from this established 11week training program.
STRATEGIES FOR THE FUTURE

I am proud to report that we have created a Masters Degree in Flight Nursing


with an Adult Clinical Nurse Specialist focus and concentration in Disaster Preparedness. This program, the first of its kind in the country, was designed and
ready for students in just 3 months. We partnered with Wright State UniversityMiami Valley College of Nursing, Dayton, Ohio and the Health and National Center
for Medical Readiness Tactical Laboratory at Calamityville. Graduates from this
program will gain expertise in Flight Nursing as well as emergency and disaster
preparedness from military and civilian perspectives. Our first candidate will begin
in the spring. The unique and diverse curriculum will meet Homeland Security
Presidential Directive #21 and include advanced clinical courses in acute and chronic health issues for the adult population with an emphasis in flight and disaster
nursing. The Flight Nursing component will address symptom management and stabilization during air transport. In addition to the classroom training, students will
be connected with a preceptor in an active flight nursing setting with both fixed and
rotary aircraft at the 375th, Scott AFB, Illinois and Care Flight at Miami Valley
Hospital, Dayton, Ohio. Students will be exposed to tragic scenarios to illustrate the
impact disasters place on the health and safety of individuals and families. A former
54-acre cement plant in Ohio is being developed into an all-hazards disaster and
training facility. This site will be incorporated into joint civilian and military training programs to provide a realistic venue to simulate natural and man-made disasters. Upon completion of this rigorous program, graduates will be eligible to take
the Adult Health CNS and American Nurse Credentialing Center certification
exams.
The Graduate School of Nursing at the Uniformed Services University Health
Sciences (USUHS) continues to provide cutting-edge academic programs to prepare
nurses with military unique clinical and research skills in support of delivery of patient care during peace, war, disaster, and other contingencies. As they move toward
their vision of being a nationally recognized academic leader, while on the forefront
of a nurse and nurse educator shortage, the Graduate School of Nursing was asked
to collaborate with the Federal Nursing Service Chiefs to increase the cadre of baccalaureate-prepared military nurses, through creative partnerships with existing
schools of nursing. One of Uniformed Services University Health Sciences top initiatives is to work with civilian nursing institutions to address the military nursing
shortage and assist the Department of Defense to identify strategies to encourage
and incentivize potential applicants to enroll in baccalaureate nursing programs.
USUHS plans to develop and deploy a comprehensive survey to assess the willingness of potential student populations to consider accepting an undergraduate nursing education in return for a commission as a Nurse Corps officer in the Armed
Forces with a subsequent service obligation. The targeted populations will include
students in nursing school programs, qualified applicants who are not accepted for
admission to nursing school due to space limitations, associate-degreed registered
nurses, second career nurses, and enlisted service members with a desire to be commissioned as a nurse corps officer. Data from these surveys will be analyzed to identify and quantify perceptions of potential nurse applicants towards military service.

134
As I reported last year, we developed Master Clinician roles to afford our most
clinically experienced senior nurses with advanced academic preparation to remain
at the bedside without sacrificing promotion opportunities. We have 20 Colonel positions identified across our military treatment facilities and are diligently working
to fill these authorizations in fiscal year 2010.
WAY AHEAD

Nursing, the essential healthcare profession, is highly valued for providing skilled,
evidence-based quality care to Airmen and their families. We continue to arm our
nursing service personnel with the necessary skill sets through education, training,
and research to meet the challenges of operating in the ever changing global environments.
Nurse recruitment and retention continues to be our focus as we develop academic
partnerships, sustain our accession programs, reward clinical practice through incentive specialty pay, and enhance nursing capabilities through advanced academic
preparation such as the Masters Degree in Flight Nursing and our DNP implementation plan.
We look forward to the future. By being actively engaged in nursing research, we
are generating the knowledge necessary to guide Air Force and Joint nursing operations. Through the synergy of our AD, ANG, AFRC, civilian, and contract forces,
coupled with the collaborative relationships of our sister Services and civilian partners, we are prepared to meet emerging challenges with strength and confidence.
Air Force Nursing stands ready today to embrace the challenges of tomorrow as we
lead, partner, and care, every time, everywhere.
Mister Chairman and distinguished members of the Committee, it is my honor to
be here with you today representing a dedicated, strong Total Nursing Force of
nearly 18,000 men and women. We sincerely thank you for your tremendous support
for Air Force Nursing.
CARING FOR WOUNDED, ILL AND INJURED

General HOROHO. Sir, I absolutely believe Army nurses are prepared for those types of injuries. But, it has proven a challenge.
You know, years ago, if you asked whether or not Army nursing
provided rehabilitative nursing, we didnt. Post-9/11, absolutely.
Thats one of our core competencies. And weve worked hand in
handwhen we talk about Army nursing, we talk about our Active
component, our Reserve component, our National Guard, our medics, and our civilians. All three of those are critical to ensuring that
were being able to meet the needs of our patients on the battlefield
inboth in our stateside facilities.
So, when you talk about whether you have the capabilities, every
single one of our medics are highly trained, and thats where weve
got that life-sustaining care thats given at the point of injury, and
then theyre immediately evacuated back either for our forward
surgical teams or back to our combat support hospitals. And then,
in 36 hours, those critically injured patients will be seen at
Landstuhl Regional Medical Command, and then further evacuated
to our majorour nine other major medical centers.
And so, weve spent the very first year, in 2008, of really looking
at every single competency needed to be able to support an expeditionary force, and then weve spent this past year changing the way
that we leader-develop, changing our competencies, and actually
changing how we assign our nurses. So, instead of assigning based
on authorizations, we actually assign based on capabilities, so we
know where the needs are, what type of capabilities are needed,
and then we make those assignments across the Army Nurse
Corps.
Chairman INOUYE. Admiral.
Admiral FLAHERTY. Yes, sir.

135
The Navy Nurse Corps has added a number of programs to keep
our staff well trained. As the war began, we saw new injuries and
new types of injuries that perhaps we had not cared for before.
We also have a workforce that had been deployed and had been
at war, and come back with significant skills. So they are part of
the training pipeline. They are training each other about what they
saw, what theyve been able to care for, and what now is needed.
Weve partnered with our civilian organizations to get our nurses
to some intensive intensive care unit (ICU) care and also some
emergency medicine care, because we know theythe corpsmen on
the battlefieldare the ones who are providing that wonderful support for that young marine or that young sailor or that young soldier.
So, do we have all the answers? No, sir. Are we well prepared
and well positioned to go forward with the future of what we see
in the injuries? Yes, sir. We have training dollars, we have people
in the pipeline for masters programs, and we are doing all that we
can to make sure that thats shaped appropriately.
Chairman INOUYE. General.
General SINISCALCHI. Senator Inouye, thank you for your question.
Sir, our focus has been on lifelong training, starting from novice
through expert. Our nurse transition programs provide us an opportunity to take nurses, right from their bachelor of science degree
program, into a transition program that focuses on building clinical
competency. And as they progress throughout the professional continuum, we have very robust programs for skill sustainment, for
just-in-time training. Weve partnered with our sister services on
developing critical care, trauma, and emergency room fellowships.
Its a 12-yearor, a 12-month fellowship that prepares our criticalcare nurses to go into intensive-care settings in the deployedin
deployed operations, and have the advanced skills that they need
to take care of our wounded who have traumatic injuries.
Were focusing on mental health specialties. We are in the process of developing a Mental Health Training Program, at Travis Air
Force Base in California, which will help us to grow our own. As
we recognize the increased need for behavioral health, we can take
our clinical nurses and put them through this educational program,
at Travis, which will help to grow mental-health nurses. USUHS
has developed a Mental Health Nurse Practitioner Program, and
they have a unique focus in preparing mental-health nurse practitioners with the skill set they need to meet the challenges with our
wounded warriors and their families.
Our critical care educational programs, our Nurse Anesthetist
Program, our nurse practitioner programs, are very, very robust,
and our focus has been on developing partnerships with civilian
universities and with USUHS so that, throughout the continuum,
we can allow our nursesafford our nurses the opportunity for advanced clinical preparation and training. I had testified last year
that we had started a new role for master clinicians, and this role
allows us to grow clinical experts with advanced experience and advanced academic preparation, and allow them to continue to compete for promotion and function at the bedside as true clinical leaders and clinical experts.

136
We realize the increased challenges our flight nurses face with
critical-caremovement of critical-care patients. And so, weve recently partnered with Wright State University, in Dayton, Ohio, to
establish the first of its kind masters program in flight nursing,
with a focus on adult health clinical specialists and homeland defense and disaster preparedness. And we are proud to say that our
first student begins this fall.
Chairman INOUYE. Thank you very much.
All of you heard Senator Murray set forth a few numbers. The
suicide rate among service personnel is the highest in 28 years
about 35 percent higher than the general population of the United
States. And, surprisingly, over one-third have never been deployed.
It was assumed that they were afraid of combat, but over one-third,
never been deployed.
As I pointed out, nurses spend more time with their patients
than doctors because of the nature of their work, but do you believe
that our program to attack this problem is adequate? Suicides.
SUICIDE PREVENTION

General HOROHO. Yes, Mr. Chairman.


One of the things that, when weve looked at the psychological
health in suicide prevention is, we really looked at it through the
lenses of each member of the team, because each healthcare provider and ancillary support provides a critical skill set when theyre
interacting with our patients; and not just our patients, but also
with their family members.
Weve taken the focus of looking at a holistic, kind of, comprehensive view. The Army has been very much engaged, over this past
year, of looking at a behavioral health system of care that looks at
taking that capability and, How do we surge that across Army
medicine, push that into theater by using the electronic virtual behavioral health, so that we establish that relationship while your
warriors are deployed?
We also have very robust behavioral health and psychological
support for the family members. One of the examples that were
doing right now is with the family members of 52 that are deployed. In preparation for them redeploying back, we have already
partnered with TriWest, as well as with the local civilian communities and our military health providers, to start providing that
support with the reintegration process now, in dealing with issues
now, before waiting for those families to reintegrate together.
So, its really looking at a comprehensive piece of all of our clinical assets, to be able to impact patient outcomes. We have a long
way to go, but I believe with the partnering that weve established
with our civilian community leaders in healthcare, as well as with
our sister services, so that we ensure that we are looking at this
from a comprehensive perspective.
Chairman INOUYE. Admiral.
Admiral FLAHERTY. Thank you. As we look at suicides, we look
at both the Navy and Marine Corps numbers, and Navy medicine
and Navy nursing are playing a key supporting role to our line colleagues. The line runs our program, and we are there in a supporting role. And as our Surgeon General talked about, often its

137
relationshipfractured-relationship issues that happen either at
home or with a girlfriend, a boyfriend, et ceteraor partners.
So, we need to pay attention to that, and we believe the core
component of our programs really rests on resiliency. And how do
we build internal resiliency for young men and women who, quite
honestly, are quite strong, the military families are very resilient,
but its the stresses of the deployments that often can cause that
fractureso, how do we have our eyes on that? How do we care for
each other? And it is, as the SG talked about, it is that shipmate.
And I see you today, and I know that youre not the same as you
were yesterday; youre not as funny as you were yesterday, perhaps. Whats going on? That should be the first red flag to ask the
question, How are you doing?
When people are uncomfortable about asking specific intrusive
questions, you can ask, How are you sleeping? Because someones
sleep patterns and their sleep behavior often is a predictor of
stress. So, getting our arms around the stress and understanding
that.
I believe we dont need a specialist to have that conversation. I
believe the Navy nurse has every single skill that they need to
have those conversations with people to talk about how well theyre
doing. What are their relationships? How are they feeling? And
that is the backbone of some of the programs that weve put in
place.
So, its resiliency, sir. Its operational stress control. For the
Navy, we talk about staying in the green. We travel intowe
look at a stoplight; green, yellow, orange, and red. Red means that
Im fractured and I need, probably, some intervention and support.
I want to stay in the green; I want to be healthy, I want to eat
right, I want to feel well, and I want to be able to do all the things
that matter or are important. And we, as Navy support colleagues,
try to help people stay in the green.
If you get to the yellow, we can get you back to the green. If you
get to the orange, we can still get you back to the green. We want
to keep you there, so that you stay well and healthy.
Chairman INOUYE. General.
General SINISCALCHI. Sir, prevention of suicide begins with building a strong wingman culture. Resiliency is key to prevention of
suicide. And in February, our Air Force senior leadership supported
Lieutenant General Greens plans for providing targeted, tiered, resiliency training for our high-risk groups.
And as we look at the tiered resiliency training, the focus is on
instilling resiliency and building that wingman culture throughout
an entire career. It begins with foundational training and it continues throughout a career, focusing on groups that are identified
as high risk. And as we identify groups that are high risk for risk
of suicide, then we implement face-to-face training, increased interaction from the Commander, from the front line supervisor, so that
we are doing training and instilling resiliency and building that
wingman culture in building that team.
Our focus for suicide prevention is on our total force. Were looking across our Active Duty, our Guard, our Reserve, and our civilian force for suicide prevention.

138
Chairman INOUYE. To close this hearing, may I call upon the
nurses, if they so feel, to make their statements.
General Horoho.
STATEMENT OF MAJOR GENERAL PATRICIA HOROHO, CHIEF, ARMY
NURSE CORPS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY

General HOROHO. Mr. Chairman, distinguished members of the


subcommittee, it is an honor and a great privilege to speak before
you today on behalf of the nearly 40,000 Active component, Reserve
component, National Guard officers, noncommissioned officers, enlisted, and civilians that are Army nursing.
It has been your continued tremendous support that has enabled
Army nursing, in support of Army medicine, to provide the highest
quality of care to those that are entrusted to our care.
Last year, I promised you an update on the Army Nurse Corps
campaign plan that we began in October 2008. Leader development
has always been one of the Army Nurse Corps foundations, but as
we move the Corps forward, we realize the need to develop a strategy to provide overarching, longitudinal training programs to ensure that we are building leaders for the future. A major initiative
is the Leader Academy, a virtual construct designed to facilitate
and enhance adaptive, full-spectrum Army Nurse Corps leaders.
We also determined that there were nurses that needed a standardized clinical transition program to ensure success as they move
from academics to nursing practice. In October 2008, the Army
Medical Command formally fielded the Brigadier General Retired
Anna Mae Hay Clinical Transition Program, named in honor of our
13th Corps Chief and the first female officer in the Army across
nine medical centers. During fiscal year 2009, 364 new graduate
Army nurses completed the program, and so far this year over 270
have completed this program.
The program is designed to ensure that we develop and foster
critical thinking, communication, multidisciplinary teambuilding,
and deployment skills. The first training and educational platform
that we realigned to support our transformation was a head nurse
course, and we named it the Clinical Nurse OIC and NCOIC Leader Development Course, as a result of recognizing the critical relationship that exists between the clinical nurse, the officer in
charge, and the noncommissioned officer (NCO) in charge. The
course provides our mid-level managers the opportunity to learn
the essential skills to execute sound clinical and business practices.
We are equally committed to the growth and the development of
our NCOs and soldiers. In fiscal year 2011, well fund two senior
NCOs to obtain their masters in healthcare administration, to ensure that we continue to meet the needs of the 21st century.
We are also developing an intensive care course for our licensed
practical nurses that will give Commanders the flexibility to use
LPNs for transport of critical patients, standardized knowledge,
and expand practice opportunities.
Finally, the Leader Academy facilitates enhanced, care-long development through the level of our regional nurse executives. We
adopted the American Organization of Nurse Executive Competencies to ensure the RNE has the knowledge, skills, and expertise to help manage their regions system of health. Were trans-

139
forming Army nursing through the development of a nursing care
delivery system, in order to perfect nursing care at the bedside.
The patient and the family centered system of care has, at its cornerstone, standardized nursing practice. The standardized system
of care will enable us to increase quality of care, reduce resources,
and ensure standardization and stability of providing quality patient care. This is in support, and will allow the surgeon generals
intent to improve healthcare delivery through standardization from
the point of injury through evaluation and return to duty.
The system of care will not only standardize nursing practice,
but will also enable, for the first time, comprehensive measurements and improvement of nurse-sensitive patient outcomes, while
leveraging evidence-based care and practices. Our efforts to transform Army nursing mirror the national initiatives to improve nursing practice in support of healthcare reform.
In January 2009, we piloted elements of the system of care at
Blanchfield Army Community Hospital at Fort Campbell, Kentucky. After 6 months of monitoring this program, the outcome
measures showed an increase in nurse and patient satisfaction, an
increase in critical lab reporting and pain reassessment, a decrease
in nurse turnover, and a decrease in patients that left without
being seen in our emergency room, as well as decreases in medication errors and risk management events.
Select elements of the system of care are initially being implemented at three of our medical centers. For example, Tripler Army
Medical Center has been using healing hours as a goal to promote
rest and increase healing through consolidation of patient-care activities and then tailoring the provision of care for each of our individual patients.
The Army Nurse Corps is aligned with our seven other Corps
within the Army in support of Army medicine to foster evidencebased practice. At every patient touch-point, were ensuring that
evidence-based practice is the foundation that supports the delivery
of care. Were aggressively realigning expert clinical capability to
surge as a bridge between research and clinical practice.
In February 2009, the Tri-Service Nursing Research Program
(TSNRP) invited nurse scientists from all services to meet and to
determine new priorities for TSNRP. Not surprisingly, force health
protection was recognized as the number one priority.
Deployment research is designed to ask critical questions that
cannot be answered other than on the battlefield, and Army nurses
are leading the way. There have been 34 nursing-led protocols; 27
of those are from Army Nurse Corps researchers and one joint
Army-Air Force protocol. The focus has been on warrior care, soldier health, trauma care, and behavioral health.
We also rely on the Uniform Services University Graduate School
of Nursing as the strongest educational platform to develop clinical
talent.
There has been great momentum since Ive had the honor of introducing the Army Nurse Corps campaign plan to you last year.
Our collective success has been the result of compassion, commitment, and dedication. Im inspired by the pride, enthusiasm, and
openness to change that I see across the Army Nurse Corps.

140
We continue to experience amazing progress in each one of our
strategic imperatives, and were ensuring that the Army Nurse
Corps remains relevant and a force multiplier for the Army medicine, the Army, Department of Defense, and our Nation.
I continue to envision an Army Nurse Corps in 2012 that will
leave its mark on military nursing and will be a leader of nursing
practice reform at the national level. Our priority remains the patients and their families, and our common purpose is to support
and maintain a system of health. In order to achieve this common
purpose, we will let nothing hinder those who wear the cloth of our
Nation, and those who took the oath to forever save, protect, and
heal.
The Army Nurse Corps is committed to embracing the past, engaging the present, and collectively, continuing to work to envision
our future.
On behalf of the entire Army Nurse Corps serving both home
and abroad, I would like to thank you for your unwavering support
and the entire subcommittees unwavering support, and I look forward to continuing to work with you.
Thank you, sir.
Chairman INOUYE. Thank you very much, General Horoho.
Now may I call upon Admiral Flaherty.
STATEMENT OF REAR ADMIRAL KAREN FLAHERTY, DIRECTOR, NAVY
NURSE CORPS, DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY

Admiral FLAHERTY. Yes, sir. Thank you Chairman Inouye.


And thank you for the opportunity today to highlight the accomplishments and opportunities facing the Navy Nurse Corps in 2010
as we care for the health of our force.
Our Navy Nurse Corps, comprised of Active, Reserve, and Federal civilian nursesmany are here today in the roomare 5,500
strong. My priorities, as Director, have been focused in three areas:
people, practice, and leadership.
Our Active component is manned at 91 percent, with 2,837
nurses currently serving around the world, and we have already
achieved our recruiting goal for 2010. The top three direct accession influences that are favorably impacting our recruiting efforts
include the nurse accession bonus, Health Professions Loan Repayment Program, and the Nurse Candidate Program.
Today, the Reserve component is 83 percent manned, with 1,112
nurses. Last year, the Navy Nurse Corps Reserve component met
87 percent of their goal. Over 48 percent of those accessions were
nurses coming to the Reserve component from Active Duty.
We are continuing to focus closely on all the many pathways to
achieve this goal. Leveraging current technology, the Nurse Corps
recruitment liaison officer offers a combination of social networking
media tools, including Facebook and Twitter and online discussion
forums, to reach students at colleges and high schools, encouraging
them to consider a career in Navy nursing. We have found that
students have many thoughts, they have questions, and starting
this discussion early is essential.
Retaining Navy nurses is my top priority. Key efforts have positively impacted retention, including the registered nurse incentive
specialty pay, a targeted bonus program for undermanned clinical

141
and nursing specialties and our highly deployed nurse practitioners. My goal for this year is to increase retention by 50 percent
in the Active Duty component for those with less than 10 years of
service, and to retain the appropriate number in each officer rank
in the Reserve component. We want our nurses to accept orders to
a second and a third duty station, and begin early planning for
their long career.
I believe it is our responsibility, as Nurse Corps leaders, to fully
understand all of the retention issues. In 2009, we commissioned
the Center for Naval Analysis to conduct a survey and hold focus
groups to help us understand factors that influence career satisfaction and dissatisfaction within our Nurse Corps. Our nurses told us
they wanted us to be more understanding of family needs, career
moves, and clinical advancement. We also learned that deployments were professionally fulfilling. We will do all that we can to
make the required changes to impact this retention.
Clinical excellence is one of the main tenets of the Nurse Corps
clinical leadership model. In 2009, we developed and implemented
standardized orientation in nursing competencies across all of our
nursing specialties. Over the past several years, the Nurse Corps
identified eight critical wartime specialties and developed our manning, training, and bonus structures to incentivize nurses to practice within those specialties. Each nursing specialty has an assigned specialty leader who is a clinical expert and understands the
nursing practice within each community. We work closely together
to embrace practice trends and future requirements.
Understanding the deployments and type of care needed by our
patients was essential when developing our nurses. To accomplish
this goal, the specialty leaders work with senior nurse leaders at
the military treatment facilities to create, again, the partnerships
with our local civilian hospitals. Our military nurses are crosstrained in local emergency departments, as I mentioned, and in intensive care units. This is just one example of what is possible.
We know that the wars have created both visible and invisible
wounds, and our warriors and our families have experienced stress.
To support the behavioral health needs of our warriors and their
families, the Nurse Corps has increased its inventory of psychiatric
and mental health clinical nurse specialists and nurse practitioners. This growth will also support the projected expansion of
our Marine Corps. I believe that every nurse, as Ive stated, has
the ability to understand the unique needs of their patients, and
offer support and guidance at every encounter.
I am a fervent supporter of graduate nursing education, research,
and professional growth of my nurses, and am committed to the
sustainment and growth of the Tri-Service Nursing Research Program. Each year, approximately 73 Nurse Corps officers are selected for duty under instruction or graduate education program.
Fields of study include behavioral health, anesthesia, family practice, research, and critical care.
The American Association of Colleges of Nursing has made the
decision to move the current level of preparation necessary for advanced nursing practice from the masters degree to the doctoral
level by 2015. The Navy Nurse Corps supports a phased approach
toward adopting the doctorate nursing practice (DNP), and will uti-

142
lize a combination of short- and long-term steps to incorporate this
degree at options part of our education strategy.
Using existing funds, three nurses will graduate with a DNP in
2012, and the DNP degree will be incorporated into the Nurse
Corps training plan. As we make the transition to a greater number of DNPs, additional education funding will be required.
To expand this clinical leadership model that we have so well
achieved over the last number of years to our Federal civilian registered nurses, we launched the Navy Graduate Program for Federal Civilian Registered Nurses, the first of its kind in the uniformed services. We expect that this new program will retain our
current civilian nurses, incentivize new nurses to consider entry
into Federal service, and sustain military treatment facilities with
clinical experts, when our military nurses are deployed.
We have funded five competitively selected Federal civilian registered nurses to pursue their masters of science in nursing. We
are currently receiving applications to select our next class of candidates for the fall 2010.
Navy nurses at our military treatment facilities in the United
States and abroad passionately support the professional development of Americas future nursing workforce by serving as preceptors, teachers, mentors for local colleges and universities, as well
as entire health systems.
Navy nurses deployed to Afghanistan in embedded training
teams are teaching culturally and linguistically appropriate public
health measures. In response to the news of H1N1 outbreaks
throughout the world, those nurses prepared emergency response
plans and training for local forward operating bases and regional
hospitals in eastern Afghanistan, well in advance of the cases appearing in theater. And they deployed critical counterinsurgency
tactics by performing village medical outreaches to the local community members in Afghanistan.
I believe that leadership at all organizational levels is responsible for ensuring that personnel under their charge are healthy
and productive. My nursing leaders have developed and are implementing an interactive career-planning guide, useful for mentoring
seniors and subordinates at every stage of their careers, because
we do ask people to change and move into different jobs.
A key role of these leaders is to know their people and help them
develop the resiliency to be able to handle stressors and life events.
Navy medicines Operational Stress Control and Care for the Caregiver Programs have a direct impact on the health and well-being
of the force, deployment readiness, and our retention. We know
that caring for service members and their families and experiencing their trauma and stress can impact our medical staff. We
must be prepared to care for ourselves, to be able to care for others.
Chairman Inouye, thank you. Thank you, again, for the opportunityproviding me this opportunity to share with you the remarkable accomplishments of our Navy Nurse Corps and our continuing efforts to meet Navy medicines mission.
On behalf of the outstanding men and women of the Navy Nurse
Corps and their families who so faithfully support them, I want to
extend my sincere appreciation for your unwavering support.
Thank you.

143
Chairman INOUYE. Thank you, Admiral.
Admiral FLAHERTY. Yes, sir.
Chairman INOUYE. And now, may I
Siniscalchi.

call

upon

General

STATEMENT OF MAJOR GENERAL KIMBERLY SINISCALCHI, ASSISTANT SURGEON GENERAL FOR NURSING SERVICES, AIR FORCE
NURSE CORPS, DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE

General SINISCALCHI. Chairman Inouye and distinguished members, it is an honor to represent the Air Force Nurse Corps.
Our total nursing force is comprised of Active Duty, Air National
Guard, and Air Force Reserve officer and enlisted nursing personnel.
It is a pleasure to serve alongside my senior advisors: Brigadier
General Catherine Lutz, Air National Guard; Colonel Ann Manley,
Air Force Reserve; and Chief Master Sergeant Joseph Potts, our
Active Duty enlisted career field manager. Together, we lead a
total force team delivering evidence-based, patient-centered care to
meet global operations.
On behalf of our total nursing force, sir, thank you for your outstanding support. Your unwavering commitment to our Tri-Service
Nursing Research Program, and your continued support of our
Nurse Corps Incentive Special Pay Program is genuinely appreciated.
Nursing is integral to the support of global operations. Day after
day, our nurses and technicians provide care to our Nations heroes
at home and abroad. Operational capability is the foundation and
moral fiber of Air Force nursing.
As an example, Lieutenant Colonel Zierold, from Salt Lake City,
Utah, led a trauma team at Bagram, Afghanistan. In his words,
Over a period of 6 months, we took care of more than 1,000 traumas and countless medical admissions. The acuity was high and
the injuries were horrendous, but we safely returned 550 injured
U.S. servicemembers to their families, children, and spouses. We
forever changed the lives of 450 devastated Afghan nationals, and
we won their hearts. And the kids; we will never forget the kids.
At the time of their discharge, they reached out their little hands
and smiled, as if to say, Thank you. Ill be okay.
On this side of the globe, no one could have anticipated the total
devastation that took place on January 12, when our Haitian
neighbors experienced the massive earthquake. Special Operations
surgical teams and critical-care evacuation teams deployed with
the initial response aircraft, and were the first military medical
teams on the ground. Our critical-care nurses worked around the
clock, providing casualty evacuation of patients in and out of theater, as well as pre- and postoperative surgical and intensive care.
Our anesthetists assisted in lifesaving surgeries and augmented
the surgical and critical care teams.
The vital link, sir, to saving lives, is our aeromedical evacuation
capability. These critical missions sustain world-class care across
the continuum. Since operations began in 2001, over 197,000 patients have been air-evacd. In 2009 alone, we moved 21,500 patients globally. Our superb flight nurses, technicians in critical care
air transports teams have rightfully earned the title, Angels of the
Battlefield. One such Battlefield Angel, Captain Jack Solgen, of

144
Ballston Spa, New York, and his team successfully coordinated
with the United Kingdom Aeromedical Evacuation Control Center
for the transport of the British soldier with a traumatic pneumonectomy that Lieutenant General Green had mentioned.
Two weeks ago, I had the opportunity to personally meet the
lung team based at Ramstein Air Base, Germany. They passionately shared their experience of the emergency use of cutting-edge
lung-support technology in saving the British soldiers life. This
success story demonstrates a multinational effort of over 1,000 aircrew, ground, and medical personnel.
The flexibility and responsiveness of todays aeromedical evacuation system demands educated and experienced flight nurses with
enhanced clinical capability and disaster management expertise. I
am proud to report that we created a masters degree in flight
nursing with adult clinical nurse specialist focused in concentration
in disaster management. This programfirst of its kindwas designed and ready for students in less than 6 months. We partnered
with Wright State University, in Dayton, Ohio, to strategically develop this program, and, as I mentioned earlier, our first student
will begin this fall.
We continue our commitment to provide the best care possible to
our men and women in harms way. Its imperative to advance
operational medicine through research. Doctorally prepared nurses
are integral to advancing multidisciplinary research. In March
2009, the Department of Defense Medical Research Program was
initiated in Afghanistan, under the direction of Colonel Elizabeth
Bridges, Air Force Reserve, Seattle, Washington, while Lieutenant
Colonel Teresa Ryan, Air Reserve, Biloxi, Mississippi, was a senior
nurse researcher in Iraq. Research conducted in Afghanistan and
Iraq has led to important advancements in combat casualty medical care and therapies. Our nurse researchers provide leadership
and guidance on scientific merit, design, and methodology.
I am pleased to report that we developed a nursing research fellowship. Our first candidate will begin this spring. This 1-year
predoctoral fellowship focuses on clinical and operational research.
One of our valuable skill sustainment programs is the Critical
Care Emergency Nursing Fellowship. Our graduates provide the
highest quality of care, both stateside and in the deployed environment, saving lives on a daily basis.
To mitigate the increased demands on mental health nurses, we
continue to recruit, educate, and train internally. Currently, 93
percent of our mental health nurse practitioners are Air Force Institute of Technology graduates. A formal mental health nurse
training program is being developed at David Grant Medical Center, at Travis Air Force Base in California, to help train clinical
nurses to become mental health nurses.
Increasing our advanced life-support footprint, we have started
severalwe have started training several of our aerospace medical
service technicians at the National Registry of Emergency Medical
Technician Paramedic level. The inaugural class started and graduated 19 students, and we are programming for 50 students annually.
A robust recruiting program is essential to keep our Nurse Corps
healthy and ready to meet future challenges. While we have exe-

145
cuted incentive programs to address the nursing shortage, we still
have shortfalls. In 2009, we assessed 284 nurses against our total
accession goal of 350, for an overall 81 percent.
Our Nurse Enlisted Commissioning Program continues to be a
reliable platform to assess nurses. In 2009, fully40 qualified candidates were selected. In 2010, we will meet our steady-state goal
of 50 quotas annually. Assessing fully qualified nurses continues to
be challenging. While the recruitment of novice nurses is going
well, the limiting factor is their depth of clinical expertise. Our
Nurse Transition Program advances the clinical skills of these new
nurses through direct patient care under the supervision of seasoned nurse preceptors. The transition program continues to be one
of our many successes, with eight military and two civilian locations. We graduated 158 nurses in 2009.
Last year, I reported that a civilian partnership with Scottsdale
Healthcare System in Arizona was on the horizon. This past December, I had the honor to deliver the commencement address for
the second graduating class. Air Force nurses are gaining unprecedented clinical opportunities as a result of our transition programs.
As we strive to meet our recruiting goals, we continue to focus
on the retention of our experienced nurses. In its second year of
execution, the Incentive Special Pay Program is positively impacting retention. Seventy-eight percent of our nurses accepted a
single- or multiyear contract. With a $3.3 million increase, this
years focus is to improve retention by recognizing advanced academic preparation certification and experience.
Through the Tri-Service Nursing Research Program, my colleagues and I commissioned the first-of-its-kind joint research
study designed to quantify factors impacting recruitment and retention. An associate investigator for each service will ensure service-specific and across-service initiatives are identified and validated for use in shaping future strategies.
A number of scientific, societal, and professional developments
stimulated a major change in requirements for licensed practitioners. The American Association of Colleges of Nursing endorsed
the position statement on the doctorate in nursing practice. This
decision moves the level of preparation for advanced practice from
the masters degree to the doctorate level by 2015.
With Lieutenant General Greens full support, we developed a
phased implementation plan, starting in 2010. As I reported last
year, we developed master clinician roles to afford our most clinically experienced senior nurses with advanced academic preparation, to remain at the bedside, without sacrificing promotion. We
are diligently working to retain and field these authorizations.
As we reflect, sir, on the achievements of the past, and the challenges of the present, we look forward to the future. By being actively engaged in education, training, and research, we are generating new knowledge and advancing evidence-based care necessary
to enhance interoperability in nursing operations across our services.
Through the synergy of our Active, Guard, Reserve, civilian, and
contract forces, coupled with the collaborative relationships with
our sister services and civilian colleagues, we are prepared to meet
emerging challenges with strength and confidence.

146
Air Force nursing stands ready today to embrace the challenges
of tomorrow, as we lead, partner, and care, every time, everywhere.
Mr. Chairman and distinguished members, it is my honor to be
here with you today, representing a dedicated, strong, total nursing
force of nearly 18,000 men and women.
Thank you, sir.
Chairman INOUYE. I thank you very much, General.
ADDITIONAL COMMITTEE QUESTIONS

General Horoho, Admiral Flaherty, and General Siniscalchi, on


behalf of the subcommittee, thank you very much for your testimony, and especially for your service to our Nation. And, through
you, the subcommittee wishes to thank those under your command
for their unselfish service.
Thank you very much.
[The following questions were not asked at the hearing, but were
submitted to the Department for response subsequent to the hearing:]
QUESTIONS SUBMITTED

TO

VICE ADMIRAL ADAM M. ROBINSON, JR.

QUESTIONS SUBMITTED

BY

CHAIRMAN DANIEL K. INOUYE

O7 AND O8 NURSE CORPS BILLETS

Question. RADM Robinson, what mechanisms are in place to ensure the continuation of both an O7 and O8 billet for the Navy Nurse Corps?
Answer. Currently Navy Medicine has two designated billets for Navy Nurse
Corps, one for an O7 (Rear Admiral Lower Half) and one for an O8 (Rear Admiral
Upper Half). Our practice has been to have both of these billets manned. Currently,
Rear Admiral (lower half) Elizabeth Niemeyer holds the O7 billet and Rear Admiral (upper half) Christine Bruzek-Kohler holds the O8 billet. RADM Bruzek-Kohler
has plans to retire in the Fall of 2010. At the time of the 2010 DOD Congressional
Testimony, results of the fiscal year 2010 O8 Selection Board have not yet been
released.
CBOC

Question. Admiral Robinson, the Army is planning to open 22 Community Based


Primary Care Clinics in 14 different market areas to provide better access for the
thousands of beneficiaries who live off post. Have you looked into a similar concept
for the Navy and do you plan to promote the Army clinics to Navy personnel and
their families serving near them?
Answer. A number of primary care practice models, including those from the Federal and private healthcare sectors, were evaluated as Navy Medicine developed the
Navy Primary Care Model called Medical HomePort. Navy Medicine is launching a
phased implementation of Medical HomePort across the enterprise as the practice
standard for primary care. The initial phase will include NNMC Bethesda, NMC
Portsmouth, NMC San Diego, NH Bremerton, NH Jacksonville, NH Lejeune, NH
Pendleton and NH Pensacola. NHC Quantico will also be part of the first phase during fiscal year 2010.
Medical HomePort utilizes a dedicated team of medical providers and support
staff designed to increase access to care. The increased access aims to provide continuity for beneficiaries with their provider team, and we expect will improve the
health of enrolled patients through preventive health practices, integrated mental
healthcare and chronic disease management. We plan to closely monitor the
Healthcare Effectiveness and Data Information Set (HEDIS) outcomes for the sites
selected for implementation.
In addition, this program will allow enrolled patients to access to their healthcare
team 24/7 through secure messaging, schedule appointments through patient-preferred modes, and tailored education to their learning style.
Navy personnel and their family members who reside within the catchment areas
for the Army Community Based Primary Care Clinics would be notified of their en-

147
rollment options for those facilities via the Tricare Managed Care Support Contractor (if a Navy medical facility is not available within the area).
DCOE CHAIN OF COMMAND FOR INSTALLATION REPAIRS

Question. Admiral Robinson, I am very interested in the growing number of medically focused centers of excellence in the military and how the Department intends
to ensure the appropriate level of attention and allocation of resources are devoted
to the issues we are faced with today and also those we might encounter in the future. The current centers are focused around known critical areas of concern that
impact both the Department of Defense and the Department of Veterans Affairs:
hearing loss, vision, extremity injury, traumatic brain injury and psychological
health. Some of these centers will be located on the Walter Reed National Military
Medical Center Campus. What will be the chain of command for responding to each
Centers needs like fixing medical equipment or fixing a leaky roof? Will it be the
medical centers responsibility or Naval Installation Command?
Answer. Any Center of Excellence located on the Walter Reed National Military
Medical Center Campus will fall under the control of the Medical Center Commanding Officer and his or her chain of command. Center of Excellence facility repairs will be the responsibility of the Medical Center Commanding Officer and will
be resourced through the Defense Health Program (DHP).
NAVY MEDICINE INTERACTION WITH SAFE HARBOR

Question. Admiral Robinson, a tremendous amount of attention has been devoted


to the care of our wounded warriors. The two main Navy programs designed to meet
the needs of wounded service members are the Navys Safe Harbor and the Marine
Corps Wounded Warrior Regiment. Navy Medicine works cooperatively with these
programs to develop comprehensive recovery plans. How are the Services interacting
with private sector care providers to ensure they have the necessary information on
those Service programs relevant to their patients?
Answer. Navys Safe Harbor and the Marine Corps Wounded Warrior Regiment
were designed to take care of the non-medical needs of our wounded Sailors, Marines and Coast Guardsmen. Their role is to provide information and assist with access to the resources necessary to support the non-medical needs of our wounded
warriors as they recover, rehabilitate, and reintegrate. Coordination of care when
individuals transition from military treatment facilities to civilian care is accomplished through the Medical Care Case Managers (MCCMs) and the clinicians caring for the patients. Exchange of medical information occurs through provider to
provider communication. Assistance in transition of medical care to the private sector is provided by the MCCM who remains engaged with the patient until they successfully establish a new care provider. Understanding the unique needs of the Reserve Component with regards to transition of care, especially transition of mental
healthcare, Navy Medicine established the Psychological Health Outreach Program.
This program is specifically designed to provide an additional layer of support to Reservists making their transition to private sector or VA care.
FUNDING A WORLD CLASS FACILITY

Question. Admiral Robinson, there is a tremendous amount of focus on the establishment of the new Walter Reed National Military Medical Center at Bethesda.
One of the latest developments is the effort to make it a World Class Facility and
to produce a master plan for the campus to accommodate those changes. While Congress anxiously awaits the delivery of the master plan later this month, I am very
concerned over the expected price tag for these additional projects that havent been
budgeted. As I understand it, this could cost upwards of $800 million from operation
and maintenance and millions more in military construction. As these projects are
being evaluated by the Department, are they also determining how these projects
will be funded and by which Service?
Answer. To carry out the 2005 BRAC law, JTF CAPMED was established to oversee the realignment of Walter Reed Army Medical Center to the new Walter Reed
National Military Medical Center in Bethesda and Fort Belvoir Community Hospital. JTF CAPMED reports to the Secretary of Defense through the Deputy Secretary of Defense. Due to the alignment of JTF CAPMED as an independent DOD
entity, Navy Medicine does not direct JTF CAPMED on construction or other priorities, nor are we planning for future operation and maintenance requirements, since
that by definition belongs to JTF CAPMED. These emerging priorities and requirements are driven by many things, all of which are outside Navy Medicines budget
process. As part of our mission to ensure that our Wounded Warriors receive the
care they need and deserve, Navy Medicine is in regular communication with JTF

148
CAPMED and continues to provide support as necessary. Because of this regular
communication Navy Medicine is aware of the unique challenges facing JTF
CAPMED, to include the projected increase of financial requirements. However, specific details of these challenges or the financial requirements cannot be defined or
defended by Navy Medicine.
RECRUITING FOR THE RESERVES

Question. Admiral Robinson, each Service faces unique medical personnel recruiting challenges but it appears all are having significant difficulties in the reserve
component. Could you explain what this is attributable to and what efforts are underway to improve recruitment and retention for the reserves?
Answer. Length and frequency of mobilizations are main reasons given for recruiting challenges.
The financial and professional implications of being absent from a medical/dental
practice, individual or group, for a period of time, are significant. Loss of patient
base, medical staff, and support staff all contribute to these difficulties. The benefits
and compensation for service do not adequately compensate for these losses.
Initiatives currently underway are specific to Corps and specialty.
Medical Corps.Recruiting is focused on Critical Wartime Specialties (CWS) that
are currently manned below 80 percent. In addition to a Loan Repayment Program
and stipend, physicians who meet the CWS criteria are offered a bonus of $25,000
per year, for a maximum of 3 years. Prior service physicians who do not meet the
CWS criteria may receive a $10,000 lump sum bonus for a 3 year drill obligation.
However, this has not attracted enough applicants to alleviate shortfalls. Were currently considering establishing an accession bonus for Non-CWS Direct Commissioned Officers which could potentially attract eligible candidates.
Dental Corps.Reserve Dental Corps has a $10,000 lump sum affiliation bonus
for prior service General Dentists for a 3 year drill obligation. Overall manning in
this community is at 100 percent; however, oral surgeons are in high demand and
are manned at only 43 percent. Dentists who are interested in serving in the Navy
as maxillo-facial surgeons can qualify for a Loan Repayment Program, stipend, and
a CWS bonus of $25,000 per year, for a maximum of 3 years. However, this has
not attracted enough applicants to alleviate shortfalls. Were currently considering
establishing an accession bonus for Non-CWS Direct Commissioned Officers which
could potentially attract eligible candidates.
Medical Service Corps.Current recruiting incentives for clinical psychologists,
physician assistants, and environmental health officers include the Loan Repayment
Program, stipend, and a CWS bonus. Navy veterans (NAVETS) may be eligible for
an affiliation bonus of $10,000.
Nurse Corps.Current recruiting incentives for Nurse Corps officers in CWS include stipend, Loan Repayment Programs, or CWS bonuses for the following communities: Psychiatric Care, Perioperative, Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists
and Mental Health Nurse Practitioners. An affiliation bonus of $10,000 is available
to Navy veterans for all sub specialty programs. In February 2010, we began offering a $10,000 accession bonus for direct commission officers for medical-surgical,
maternal infant, critical care, and neonatal intensive care unit nurses.
QUESTIONS SUBMITTED

BY

SENATOR PATTY MURRAY

NURSE RECRUITING

Question. Nurses significantly contribute to the healthcare of our service members


and their families. It is important that we maintain appropriate levels of highly
trained nurses capable of performing a wide range of healthcare functions.
a. With the maintained high operations tempo of combat in Iraq and Afghanistan,
and the increasing requirements for healthcare for the service member and their
families, are you able to maintain the required level of nurses?
b. Are there enough nurses entering the military to ensure quality of care for the
service members and to maintain the legacy of superb leadership in the future?
c. What are you doing to prepare nurses for senior leadership roles and responsibilities?
Answer. a. Retaining Navy Nurses is one of my top priorities. We remain committed to providing a total force of Navy Nurses, balanced in terms of seniority, experience, and skills, to provide the very best care to Sailors, Marines and their families. Key efforts have positively impacted retention, including the Registered Nurse
Incentive Specialty Pay, a targeted bonus program for undermanned clinical nursing
specialties and highly deployed Nurse Practitioners. Our nurses are enriched by

149
being able to practice in both deployed and garrison care settings. My goal for this
year is to increase retention by 50 percent in the Active Component (AC) for those
with less than 10 years of service, and to retain the appropriate numbers in each
officer rank in the Reserve Component (RC).
b. Nurse Corps AC manning is 91 percent, with 2,837 nurses in inventory. We
have already achieved the Nurse Corps AC recruiting goal for fiscal year 2010,
marking the fourth consecutive year we have met our accession goal. Nurse Corps
RC manning is 83.6 percent, with 1,112 nurses in inventory. As of late March 2010,
we have met 25 percent of the RC fiscal year 2010 mission of 165 nurses, and we
remain focused on this area. I attribute our recruiting successes to the continued
funding support for our accession programs, the local recruiting activities of Navy
Recruiters and Navy Nurses, and the continued positive public perception of service
to our country. A recruiting initiative targeting direct accessions will offer entry
grade credit for advanced education and work experience among the critical wartime
specialties of Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNAs), psychiatric/mental
health, emergency room, and perioperative nursing. These initiatives will be expanded to include medical-surgical nurses and critical care nurses as well.
c. In addition to sequential assignments to clinical and administrative leadership
roles with increasing scope and responsibility, Navy Nurses are eligible and encouraged to pursue leadership training at all stages of their career. Leadership education starts with a 5-week long Basic Officer Development School (ODS) at Newport, Rhode Island before the officer receives their first military assignment. At the
mid-grade career level, nurses are encouraged to complete the Basic Medical Department Officer Course (BMDOC), followed by the Advanced Medical Department
Officer Course (AMDOC). Subsequent to completing these two courses, Nurse Corps
officers are highly competitive for nominative assignments to the Interagency Institute for Federal Health Care Executives, MedXellence, and Capstone Courses.
Nurse Corps officers interested in senior leadership and executive medicine positions are encouraged to obtain their Executive Medicine Additional Qualification
Designation (AQD) through the Joint Medical Executive Skills Institute (JMESI).
Mid and senior-level Nurse Corps officers compete for opportunities to attend the
Navy War College through distance learning programs or residence assignments.
MENTAL HEALTH AWARENESS

Question. The Army has partnered with the National Institute of Mental Health
(NIMH) to conduct a long-term study of risk and protective factors to inform health
promotion and suicide prevention efforts in late 2008.
What is the Navy doing to promote mental health awareness?
Answer. The Navy Operational Stress Control (OSC) program and USMC Combat
Operational Stress Control (COSC) programs are working together to provide Sailors, Marines and their families increased education and awareness to early recognition of those in distress, to mitigate the stigma associated with seeking psychological care and to promote a culture of psychological wellness/health (vice the old
paradigm of focusing on mental illness). These programs are Line-led and owned
programs, supported by Navy Medicine, designed to provide leaders with tools they
can use to recognize and act on early indicators of stress and to understand and
use appropriate support resources, including medical and mental health treatment.
The end state is a more resilient force. Navy Medicine has developed the Caregiver
Occupational Stress Control (CgOSC) program to specifically address our caregivers
who are often more prone to adhering to a code of silence pertaining to acknowledging personal stress-related issues. A multimedia (print, digital and social media)
marketing campaign is underway to further mitigate stigma and increase awareness
to resources. Additional mental health awareness initiatives include Project Focus
Familys Overcoming Under Stress; Combat and Operational Stress First Aid
(COSFA); BUMED/Navy Chaplain Corps annual Professional Development Training
Seminars on Combat and Operational Stress Control for deploying Sailors/Marines
as well as a family-focused seminar; and Navy Returning Warrior Workshops.
Question. Is the Navy conducting long-term studies similar to that of the Army
and NIMH?
Answer. Navy Medicine is conducting a number of studies to investigate the longitudinal health experience of deployed military personnel. The Naval Health Research Center (NHRC) in San Diego, California, is the lead agency for the Millennium Cohort Study, which is the largest prospective health project in military history. It is designed to evaluate the long-term health effects of military service, including deployments. The study, which was launched in 2001, currently includes almost 150,000 participants and has already documented a number of risk factors for
PTSD and depression following deployments. Other studies are focused on specific

150
Navy and Marine Corps subgroups. For example, the Marine Resiliency Study is a
collaboration between NHRC, the San Diego VA, Headquarters Marine Corps, and
the National Center for PTSD, is collecting psychological and physiological data on
Marine Corps Infantry personnel before and after combat deployments to identify
both subtle and overt indices of combat stress. The Marine Resiliency Study documents the incidence of combat-related psychological disorders as well as risk factors
for disorders. NHRC is also collecting longitudinal data on Navy and Marine Corps
personnel before and after separation from military service. The goal of this effort
is to identify factors associated with successful readjustment of Veterans to civilian
life. In another effort, the Behavioral Health Needs Assessment Survey (BHNAS)
is an ongoing series of surveys and focus groups conducted with Sailors in combat
zones to identify rates and causes of psychological problems.
MENTAL HEALTH ASSETS AND SERVICES FOR FAMILIES

Question. Family Readiness and support is crucial for the health of the services.
The health, mental health, and welfare of military families, especially the children
has been a concern of mine for many years. This also includes education, living conditions, and available healthcare.
Are you meeting the increased demand for healthcare and mental health professionals to support these families? If not, where are the shortfalls?
What improvements have been made with respect to the children of soldiers and
meeting their special requirements? What programs have you implemented to assist
the children with coping with frequent deployments, re-integration, and other
stresses of military families?
Answer. Since the beginning of Overseas Contingency Operations, Navy Medicine
has increased mental health assets across the enterprise to meet the increasing
needs of service members and their families.
To meet the specific needs of families, we have implemented several programs targeted at the types of challenges families face as a result of deployments and injuries
to the service member.
Examples of these programs include:
FOCUS (Families Over Coming Under Stress) is a family-centered resiliency
training program based on evidenced-based interventions that enhance understanding, psychological health and developmental outcomes for highly stressed
children and families. FOCUS has been adapted for military families facing
multiple deployments, combat operational stress and physical injuries in a family member. FOCUS has demonstrated that a strength-based approach to building child and family resiliency skills is well received by service members and
their family members reflected in high satisfaction ratings. Notably, program
participation has resulted in statistically significant increases in family and
child positive coping and significant reductions in parent and child distress over
time, suggesting longer-term benefits for military family wellness. In June
2009, the Office of the Secretary of Defense Child and Family Policy determined
FOCUS as a best practice program and requested the support of BUMED to expand to select Army and Air Force sites for services. To date over 97,000 service
members, spouses, children and community providers have received services on
FOCUS.
Navy Fleet and Family Support Centers (FFSCs) offer a wide-range of services
to families to include pre- and post-deployment programs.
Ombudsmen/Navy Regional Family Support Liaison; Navy Expeditionary Combat Readiness Centers (ECRC) Individual Augmentee (IA) Family Readiness
Program.
The Reserve Psychological Health Outreach creates a Psychological health
safety net for Navy and Marine Corps Reservists and their families. It improves the overall Psychological Health and resiliency of Reservists and their
families, and identifies long-term strategies to improve Psychological Health
support services. In addition, Psychological health Outreach Teams have been
in place at Navy Reserve Component Commands since fiscal year 2008.
Returning Warrior Workshops provides 2 day workshops designed to support reintegration of deployed Reservists and their family using a weekend-formatted
program that includes assisting families in identifying issues during post-deployment, providing resources for issues resolution, sharing common experiences in a comfortable setting, honoring sacrifices endured, and engaging family
members and service members with process improvement.

151
TRANSITION OF WOUNDED WARRIORS TO THE VA

Question. In the recently released Department of Defense budget guidance, it


states that caring for our wounded warriors is our highest priority: through improving health benefits, establishing centers of excellence, and wounded warrior initiatives.
What system do you have to ensure the transition of wounded warriors from Department of Defense to the Department of Veterans Affairs is completed without
any unnecessary problems?
Answer. To ensure the transition of Wounded Warriors from Department of Defense to the Department of Veterans Affairs is completed without any unnecessary
problems, Navy Case Management (both medical and non-medical) work collaboratively with Federal agencies including the VA. This collaboration includes multidisciplinary team meetings with Navy and USMC Recovery Care Coordinators, Federal Recovery Coordinators, Non-Medical Care Managers, Medical Care Managers
and VA Liaisons, patients and their families in developing Recovery Care Plans.
Question. What do you consider a successful transition and do you follow-up with
the service members to ensure there are no problems even after they have been released from Active Duty?
Answer. A successful transition is one that results in the service member and his/
her familys needs being met to their satisfaction. Navy Medicine Medical Care
Managers provide a warm hand off of the medical case management of an individual
to VA Medical Care Managers when an individual transitions from Active Duty to
Veteran status. This hand off ensures smooth transition of the medical needs of the
Sailor/Marine. Navy Safe Harbor and Wounded Warrior Regiment Recovery Care
Coordinators and the Federal Recovery Coordinators assigned to these wounded
warriors, provide a lifetime of individually tailored assistance designed to optimize
the success of the injured service members recovery, rehabilitation and reintegration activities. Their involvement with the individual continues through and beyond
the transition period.
MENTAL HEALTH STIGMA

Question. General Casey recently stated that the number of Army soldiers who
feel there is a stigma for seeking mental healthcare has been reduced from 80 to
50 percent. This is a significant improvement, but there is much more work to be
done.
Despite the reduced number of soldiers who feel there is a stigma, are more service members coming forward to seek treatment?
Answer. Yes, Navy Medicine has experienced a 30 percent increase in outpatient
mental health encounters for Sailors and Marines over the past 2 years. Greater
data analysis is required in order to correlate the impact of reduced stigma and increases in demand.
Question. What actions are the services taking to continue to reduce the stigma
and encourage service members to seek treatment?
Answer. Prior Navy Medicine innovations that have now become the norm include operationally embedded mental health providers, integration of Mental Health
Care into primary care, Psychological Health Outreach Coordinators and use of our
Deployment Health Centers as destigmatizing portals of care. Navy Medicine has
also developed the Caregiver Occupational Stress Control (CgOSC) program to specifically address our caregivers who are often more prone to adhere to a code of
silence pertaining to acknowledging personal stress-related issues. Another innovative program is the multidisciplinary team assessment of every patient that is medically evacuated from theater to identify potential cognitive and psychological health
issues. Access is increased in a non-stigmatizing manner by providing this assessment to all patients without need for consult or self-referral. Follow on care is provided as indicated utilizing all members of the multidisciplinary team. The Navy
Operational Stress Control (OSC) program and USMC Combat Operational Stress
Control (COSC) programs are working together to provide Sailors, Marines and
their families increased education and awareness to facilitate early recognition of
those in distress and to help combat the stigma associated with seeking psychological care. A multimedia (print, digital and social media) marketing campaign is
also underway to further mitigate stigma and increase awareness to resources.
Question. Does your plan include the mental health of families, and if so what
is that plan?
Answer. Yes, Navy medical care is patient and family centered care. The psychological health of our families is crucial in maintaining a health fighting force. Navy
Operational Stress Control (OSC) is developing specific Family OSC curriculum in
collaboration with our life educators from Fleet and Family Support Centers. Project

152
FOCUS (Families Over Coming Under Stress) is a family-centered resiliency training program based on evidenced-based interventions that enhance understanding,
psychological health and developmental outcomes for highly stressed children and
families. Navy Medicine has partnered with the Navy and Marine Corps Public
Health Center and USMC COSC to develop and pilot a Family component to the
USMC Operational Stress Control and Readiness (OSCAR) program.

QUESTIONS SUBMITTED

BY

SENATOR PATRICK J. LEAHY

NAVY MEDICINE USE OF SOFTWARE

Question. DOD renewed its contract with a Vermont medical firm, ProblemKnowledge Couplers (PKC), last fall. DOD licenses 95 standard PKC tools and six
custom tools used for deployment and readiness medical processes. PKC is presently
including the six custom tools into a single CHART smart-questionnaire, migrating these tools from a Windows to a web-based interface, and preparing a set of
web-based medical history questionnaires for patients to complete online prior to the
medical encounter.
DOD has not yet issued a Department-wide policy on how the Services are to employ the CHART tool. How does your Service plan to use CHART? Will you issue
a policy directing how it is to be used, since employing it will substantially change
the workflows of Service medical practitioners?
As for the medical history questionnaires, the use of this tool by the Services will
put DOD in the very forefront of medical information technology innovation. Can
each of you describe how your Service will direct the use of these questionnaires,
educate your medical professionals about their existence and value, and track and
oversee their full integration into patient contact processes?
Answer. PKC couplers in their current configuration are in use at a limited number of locations for routine screenings such as the annual Periodic Health Screening.
The current version of the tool does not represent an ideal configuration for efficient
use with our current systems.
CHART is currently undergoing testing for use with our current systems. Once
the testing is complete the tool can be examined for routine use as a screening tool
by both clinical and technical experts. Once the technical examination is complete,
Navy Medicine will consider how CHART can be best utilized.
Once Navy Medicine decides how CHART may be used, web based training as
well as live training at our individual treatment facilities can be utilized to train
the healthcare team.
DEFENSE CENTERS OF EXCELLENCE

Question. Would you each describe the relationship of your Services to the Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury?
How do you share and receive information and support from these Centers? How
timely are they in responding to requests from support from your Services?
What is the relationship between your Services and the centers of excellence directed by the 2008 and 2009 National Defense Authorization Acts related to hearing
loss and auditory system injuries, military eye injuries, and traumatic extremity injuries and amputations? How mature are these organizations, at what level are they
staffed, and do you find that those staffing levels are sufficient to support the needs
of your Service in each medical area?
Answer. Navy Medicine works collaboratively with the Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury and its component centers: Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center (DVBIC); Center for the Study of
Traumatic Stress (CSTS); Center for Deployment Psychology (CDP); Deployment
Health Clinical Center (DHCC); National Center for Telehealth and Technology (T2);
and the National Intrepid Center of Excellence (NICoE). Navy Medicine provides
staffing to the DCoE, but also has been working to ensure that Navy Medicine professionalsclinicians, researchers, educators and program managersare working
collaboratively with the DCoE staff to improve their important research, education
and outreach efforts. We are encouraged by the work of the DCoE and look forward
to working with ASD (HA) and the other services to determine the best organizational structure and way forward. Preliminary work is underway in support of the
ASD (HA) plan to designate each of the Services with lead operational support responsibilities for one of these Centers: NavyVision Center of Excellence; Army
Center of Excellence for Traumatic Extremities and Amputations; and Air Force
Hearing Center of Excellence. ASD (HA), along with the Services Surgeons General,

153
are in the process of evaluating organizational models to best support the DCoE
mission.

QUESTIONS SUBMITTED

BY

SENATOR BARBARA A. MIKULSKI

MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALS

Question. DOD has a critical shortage of mental healthcare professionals. During


review of the Fort Hood incident where the alleged gunman, Major Hasad, U.S.
Army psychologist, is charged with the deaths of 13 victims, reports show discrepancies in documentation and counseling as it related to his professional abilities and
behavior. Suggestions were made that he was kept on active duty with no negative
reprimands because he had diversity as a Muslim to our nations service despite his
failure to perform. What is DOD doing to recruit more mental health workers and
to ensure they are quality healthcare professionals?
What are the roadblocks to meeting the shortage of mental health professional?
Answer. Navy Medicine has been successful in hiring civilian and contract mental
health providers. The difficulty is the long training pipelines required to access and
train our military mental health providers. The majority of our military mental providers are either trained in-house, through student pipelines or both. For example
a Psychiatrist training pipeline includes 4 years of medical school, 1 year of internship and a 3 year Psychiatry residency. These long training timelines impact our
ability to replace and increase our inventory of military Psychiatrists with any expediency. Clinical Psychologists and Social Workers were recently approved by Navy
for accession bonuses beginning in February 2010. We believe these new bonuses
will impact direct accession of fully trained Clinical Psychologists and Social Workers.
Question. What is being done to reduce the stigma and provide enough care givers
so soldier and their families do not suffer in silence?
Answer. Navy Medicine has focused much attention on reducing stigma and ensuring that an adequate number of mental health professionals are available to care
for our beneficiaries. Mental health providers are routinely embedded with our operational units, both ashore and afloat. Seventeen Deployment Health Centers (DHCs)
were established in fiscal year 2006 as non-stigmatizing portals of care in high Fleet
and Marine Corps concentration areas. The DHCs augment existing MTF resources
with an additional 170 multi-disciplinary contract positions, including psychiatrists,
psychologists, and social workers, and provide a robust capability to screen, evaluate, and treat Service members for deployment related health concerns. In a major
initiative, efforts are underway to integrate mental health providers into our Primary Care Clinics, further improving access and reducing stigma. Additional mental
health providers have been hired in recent years to support a host of other programs, including psychological health outreach and family support and counseling.
The Navy Operational Stress Control (OSC) program and USMC Combat Operational Stress Control (COSC) programs are working together to provide Sailors,
Marines and their families increased education and awareness to facilitate early recognition of those in distress and to help combat the stigma associated with seeking
psychological care. Navy Medicine has developed the Caregiver Occupational Stress
Control (CgOSC) program to specifically address stress in our caregivers.
Question. How is Navy Medicine integrated into the suicide prevention programs
to ensure mental health services are getting to those who need it before it is too
late?
Answer. Navy Medicine personnel (military and civilian) are required to receive
annual awareness training to improve ability to recognize risk factors, warning
signs, and protective factors related to suicide and know how to assist someone in
need to get care. Medical facilities and all Navy commands must have written crisis
response plans with consideration of safely reaching, engaging and transporting an
individual in acute risk to care. Navy suicide prevention is part of a comprehensive
effort in the Navy to educate Sailors, families, and leaders to recognize and act on
early indicators of stress and to understand and use appropriate support resources,
including medical and mental health treatment.
WOMENS HEALTH: CERVICAL CANCER

Question. Cervical Cancer is preventable. In 2009 over 11,000 American women


were expected to be diagnosed with cervical cancer and over 4,000 women were expected to die from the disease. More than one-half of women who die from cervical
cancer have never been screened or have not been screened in the past 5 years.

154
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) testing is an approved and widely accepted test to
search for cells that have the potential of turning cancerous. Research has proven
that when performed together with cytology screening, it increases detection of abnormal cell changes by 30 percent. National medical organizations and insurance
companies have determined screening of HPV testing and cytology screening at the
same time as the standard of care, however Tricare has deemed HPV testing authorized only after a negative cytology exam.
What is Navy medicine doing to ensure its female patients are receiving the highest quality of cervical cancer screening available?
a. What is the percentage of female patients who receive current standards of
screening within the required timeframes?
b. Is HPV tests available at all Navy MTFs?
c. What is Navy medicine doing to increase prevention efforts of their female patients from developing cervical cancer?
Answer. Navy Medicine is dedicated to ensuring that all patients receive the highest quality of care. All female patients who present for care have the opportunity
to be screened for cervical cancer, following the guidelines of the USPSTF (United
States Preventive Services Task Force).
(a) The percentage of female patients who are screened is 85.9 percent (December
2009the most current data from the Population Health Navigator). To put this figure into context, the civilian HEDIS Benchmark for 75th percentile is 84.6 percent
and for 90th percentile is 87.8 percent, so we fit in with national norms. Our true
measure for cervical cancer screening is actually a little higher, as our current data
systems are not able to exclude women who have had a hysterectomy and no longer
need to be screened. All active duty patients are screened according to guidelines;
however, for our family members and other non-active duty beneficiaries, we can
screen only those who present for care.
(b) Yes. HPV testing and vaccinations are available through all Navy MTFs.
(c) Navy Medicine is very proactive in providing patient education regarding cervical cancer through both patient/physician discussions and community public
health outreach efforts via various media formats. The HPV vaccine is available for
all beneficiaries in accordance with recommended guidelines.
QUESTION SUBMITTED

BY

SENATOR THAD COCHRAN

VA SHARING AGREEMENTS

Question. Admiral Robinson, the Department of Defense and the Department of


Veterans Affairs are establishing joint ventures in hospitals that are co-located
around the country, in hopes to achieve efficiencies with combined personnel and
shared resources, thus eliminating duplication. Currently, as you know, the Navy
and the VA are working on a joint venture in North Chicago, where the plan is to
operate the facility with a single civilian staff under the VA, operating out of one
combined facility.
The Air Force and the VA are also working toward a joint-venture between
Keesler and Biloxi, but have adopted a different model than the North Chicago
model. I understand the Air Force has stated that not every joint venture will be
applicable to every location, and thus the Air Force is not inclined to follow the
North Chicago model. One of these reasons might be due to the different mission
focus between the two locales. For example, the North Chicago facility supports
mostly non-deployable personnel (Navy recruits) and serves as a schoolhouse for
medical trainees. In Keesler, many of the medical Airmen deploy in their respective
Air Expeditionary Force rotations (AEF) and for humanitarian missions, as needed.
Admiral, what are your thoughts regarding the joint venture in North Chicago?
In your opinion, is total consolidation between the Navy and the VA the best answer
for meeting the Navy mission at Great Lakes?
Finally, do you believe this is the model of the future for other Navy-VA joint ventures? Or will the Navy look at other models of implementation, depending upon
the mission at that location?
Answer. The total consolidation between the Navy and the VA in North Chicago
will allow Navy Medicine to meet our mission in Great Lakes. The fully integrated
joint venture in North Chicago is a model that has evolved over 10 years of expanding and developing extensive resource sharing between the two Departments.
Prior to plans for consolidation in North Chicago, the Navy was moving forward
with programmed replacement ambulatory care center to replace the aging Navy
hospital. Simultaneously, discussions were taking place within the VA to close their
North Chicago facility and reassign the workload to both Milwaukee and Chicago

155
Veterans facility. A decision was made to explore a joint Federal solution to combine
both the Navy-VA healthcare missions, which would provide a more cost effective
solution to meet the healthcare needs of a wide array of active duty, veterans, and
dependent beneficiary populations. This combined healthcare project is in its 10th
year of evolving from planning to operational status with many of the integration
challenges having been addressed such as the reconciliation process and the IT solutions for interoperability.
The current demonstration project will commence October 1, 2010 and is expected
to extend efficiencies gained through local consolidation and use of a single chain
of command, as well as single systems for personnel, logistics, and financial management. The Department of Veterans Affairs, North Chicago will be the lead executive department. Following review of the financial and personnel systems, workload
and patient satisfaction surveys, this fully integrated facility may become the model
for future DOD and VA operations where appropriate. Navy Medicine, the Department of Defense and the Department of Veterans Affairs are already establishing
joint ventures with the goal of eliminating duplication.
QUESTIONS SUBMITTED

BY

SENATOR ROBERT F. BENNETT

CHIROPRACTORS

Question. Im pleased that TRICARE has worked over the past few years to expand chiropractic care for service members. Indeed, I have heard one of the top complaints of returning soldiers has been the type of neck and back pain that chiropractic care would seemingly address. Given the strains placed upon our soldiers in
theater, what consideration (if any) has been given to commissioning chiropractors,
such that they can be deployed and provide care for our soldiers abroad? Are there
any obstacles currently in place that would prevent you from doing so?
Answer. Approximately 25 percent of entrants to the Navy Medical Corps currently have the Doctor of Osteopathy degree. The manipulation skill set is available
in this group of physicians who are widely deployed in support of theater operations.
More importantly, these physicians along with orthopedic surgeons and sports medicine physicians are more versatile in their use in theater and at home.
Additionally, physical therapists, now doctorally prepared, also have the skill set
necessary to address neck and back pain as well as the full spectrum of other musculoskeletal complaints widely experienced by deploying service members. Physical
therapists are deploying with service members, and there is a desire to expand this
availability.
The Navy Medical Department prefers to use full spectrum physicians and physical therapists rather than limited spectrum providers to meet the needs of its beneficiaries.
CHIROPRACTORS AT MTFS

Question. In fiscal year 2009, Congress required that 11 new Military Treatment
Facilities be staffed with chiropractors by the end of last fiscal year. I have listed
the specific locations of those positions that were announced below. To my knowledge only 4 have opened upwhat is the status of each of those 11 new positions?
Air Force
1st Special Operations Medical Group, Hurlburt Field, Florida.
Army
Irwin Army Community Hospital, Fort Riley, Kansas.
Lyster Army Health Clinic, Fort Rucker, Alabama.
Bayne-Jones Army Community Hospital, Fort Polk, Louisiana.
Bassett Army Community Hospital, Fort Wainwright, Alaska.
Landstuhl Regional Medical Center, Germany.
Grafenwoehr Army Health Clinic, Germany.
Navy
Naval Health Clinic Quantico, Virginia.
Naval Branch Health Clinic Groton, Connecticut.
Naval Hospital Lemoore, California.
U.S. Naval Hospital, Okinawa, Japan.
Answer. Navy Medicine currently has contract chiropractors at NHC Quantico,
NBHC Groton, and NH Lemoore. NH Okinawa presently does not have a chiropractor. Additionally Navy Medicine has contract chiropractors at NH 29 Palms, NH
Beaufort, NH Bremerton, NH Camp Lejeune, NH Camp Pendleton, NH Pensacola,

156
NHC Cherry Point, NHC Great Lakes, NHC Hawaii, NMC Portsmouth, NMC San
Diego and NNMC Bethesda.
QUESTIONS SUBMITTED

TO

LIEUTENANT GENERAL ERIC B. SCHOOMAKER

QUESTIONS SUBMITTED

BY

SENATOR BYRON L. DORGAN

Question. My staff has made repeated requests for this report. In response I have
received a letter acknowledging my request, and repeated assurances that the review is in process.
Does the Department of Defense intend to complete a review of TRICARE standards for residential treatment centers, including the 24 hour nursing requirement?
When will the report be complete?
Answer. Yes, the review has been completed and TRICARE is working to modify
certain requirements related to the certification of residential treatment centers, including those setting standards for overnight medical care in such settings. However, to fulfill the requirements of the report, the Department must change our regulation on standards. The timeline for the report is predicated on how soon the regulation can be changed. As soon as the report is completed, it will be sent to all
the appropriate Committees.
Question. On March 17, 2009, the Federal Register published a final rule on the
inclusion of the TRICARE retail pharmacy program as part of the DOD for the purpose of the procurement of pharmaceuticals by Federal agencies. This program requires pharmaceutical manufacturers to provide, at minimum, a 24 percent discount
on prescription drugs. The final rule estimated the resulting savings to the Department of Defense would be over $12 billion in fiscal years 20102015.
Is DOD on track to obtain the estimated savings? Are all drug manufacturers
complying with the requirements? If not, what steps are being undertaken to ensure
that the Federal pricing is obtained?
Answer. Yes, the Department is on track to obtain savings on prescription drugs.
However, the initial Independent Government Cost Estimate (IGCE) done in 2008,
relied on 2007 data from Pharmacy Data Transaction Service. The IGCE also based
several significant assumptions on data published by CBO that was from 2002 and
2003, a period which experienced higher inflation and price changes than what was
seen in 2006 and going forward. Therefore, the IGCE based on these assumptions
and data available at that time and calculated a initial savings rate of 35 percent.
This calculation of 35 percent was proved incorrect due to the inaccurate data used.
In order to have an accurate calculation of the savings, in February 2010, the
Pharmacy Operations Directorate (POD) provided information to OMB Budget Officials concerning differences between the projected savings of the Federal Ceiling
Price (FCP) program and our recalculations of projected savings based on actual refund data to date. The corrected calculations, provided by the POD in February
2010 using actual data, yielded a rate of 28 percent. It is anticipated that our FCP
refund estimates will continue to be refined as we have more experience with the
program, receive additional quarters worth of refunds, and develop more precise
methodologies for determining future refunds. As of August 27, 2010, fiscal year
2010 total collections (DHP/Non-DOD/MERHCF) for pharmacy rebates were $664
million.
Yes, almost all manufacturers have opted in for all of their drugs for purposes
of preserving preferred uniform formulary status and no manufacturer has opted
out of the program. If that were to occur, the most likely outcome would be to switch
to another drug in the drug class. In the unlikely event that this would not be medically sufficient, DOD could use the preauthorization, transition, and waiver/compromise processes under the Final Rule to ensure that patient needs are met.
QUESTIONS SUBMITTED

TO

LIEUTENANT GENERAL CHARLES B. GREEN

QUESTIONS SUBMITTED

BY

CHAIRMAN DANIEL K. INOUYE

COMMUNITY BASED PRIMARY CARE CLINICS

Question. General Green, over the years the Air Force has transformed its medical
care more toward clinic based rather than large military treatment facilities. Are
there lessons learned from your experience providing care in a clinic setting that
the Army would find beneficial as they plan to open 22 Community Based Primary
Care Clinics?

157
Answer. A solid business plan is required to ensure long term viability of the clinic. Enrollment based clinics drive different practice than a fee for service clinic that
requires many procedures to cover the operating costs. Most medical care is provided in the outpatient arena, which meets the majority of our beneficiaries needs.
We have learned the importance, particularly in free-standing outpatient clinics, of
providing patients a Medical Home with good access to their provider, continuity of
care and a relationship with a Family Health Team. Family Health providers require specialty care resources to complete the spectrum of healthcare delivered for
patients with disease and injury. Specialty consultation can sometimes result in
fractionated care, particularly when it requires referral outside the medical treatment facility. The central tenet of the Air Force Medical Services Medical Home is
a focus on referral management, disease management, and a team approach to
healthcare to ensure coordinated care that anticipates each patients needs over
time. We are also working to expedite the flow of relevant research information from
the medical journals to our providers desktops to improve medical management.
Another important effort is that the Air Force has hired 32 full-time behavioral
health providers to embed in our primary care clinics to facilitate mental health
treatment in the primary care setting. Research shows that over 70 percent of physical complaints have a psychological component and the vast majority of
psychotropics are prescribed in primary care. Via this program, mental health providers are embedded in Primary Cares to provide consultation and brief intervention
to our beneficiaries, who often do not seek or follow through with specialty care.
This program streamlines the process for beneficiaries, providing brief mental
health intervention when and where needed.
HEARING CENTER OF EXCELLENCE

Question. General Green, I am very interested in the growing number of medically


focused centers of excellence in the military and how the Department intends to ensure the appropriate level of attention and allocation of resources are devoted to the
issues we are faced with today and also those we might encounter in the future.
The current centers are focused around known critical areas of concern that impact
both the Department of Defense and the Department of Veterans Affairs: hearing
loss, vision, extremity injury, traumatic brain injury and psychological health. Since
the Air Force will likely be the executive agent for the Hearing Center of Excellence,
can you detail the role you believe the Air Force should play in developing the operational and research requirements as well as resourcing the Center to meet those
needs?
Answer. The establishment of a Hearing Center of Excellence is well underway.
The Hearing Center of Excellence is positioned to roll out the necessary programs
to connect, coordinate and focus the Department of Defense (DOD) and Veterans Affairs (VA) tracking, clinical care and research efforts for each injured military member and our expanding population of auditory disabled veterans.
In October 2009, the Air Force was designated as the lead component and is
standing up the Hearing Center of Excellence in partnership with the VA, Navy,
and Army. The Executive hub will be located in San Antonio at Wilford Hall Medical Center within the 59th Medical Wing.
The Hearing Center of Excellence office will be comprised of a lean cadre of staff
working as an administrative hub leveraging technology to create and sustain a network of regional treatment facilities. This network will provide coordinated research
and treatment. The Center staff will include a cadre of otolaryngology, speech and
audiology professionals from within DOD, VA, and civilian settings. Wilford Hall
Medical Center is an ideal site for the Hearing Center of Excellence hub. With ten
Air Force, and five Army otolaryngologists and nine audiologists, Wilford Hall is the
most robust clinical otolaryngology and audiology department in the DOD and VA
systems.
Wilford Hall is integrated with Brooke Army Medical Center in Graduate Medical
Education in otolaryngology and audiology. The Wilford Hall/Brooke Army Medical
Center partnership provides support for the Audie Murphy and Central Texas VA
hospitals, and provides didactic and surgical training support for the University of
Texas at San Antonio Medical School. This local support underpinning the Hearing
Center of Excellence hub will ensure success as links with regional DOD and VA
facilities are developed. The BRAC-directed coalescence to the San Antonio Military
Medical Center construct will provide convenient, top-quality platforms that are
critical for focused clinical and research activities.
The Wilford Hall otolaryngology department has a strong legacy and understanding of deployment medicine supporting special operations, aeromedical evacuation, and humanitarian roles and is keenly aware of the ongoing dichotomy faced

158
by our troops between hearing protection and the essential need for optimal situational awareness and communication. Wilford Hall audiology has a solid deployment
and research foundation and a working relationship with the Army medical facilities, the VA system, and the Institute for Surgical Research. They have established
collaborative teaching and research ties with the Navy, acclaimed universities, and
national and international industry leaders. The San Antonio military medical community supports Fort Hood, the Armys largest armored post, the Center for the Intrepid, all Air Force entry-level enlisted training and the new Medical Education
and Training Campus on Fort Sam Houston.
Since the designation of the Air Force as lead component for the Hearing Center
of Excellence, the Interim Director has worked with the tri-service/VA working
group to draft the concept of operations and to direct and define the functional
needs for the hearing loss and auditory injury registry. The lead component structure is supporting cross-talk between the DOD Centers of Excellence and will lead
to well coordinated efficiency of operations by sharing many functions.
WILFORD HALL CLOSURE

Question. General Green, you are dealing with the closure of Wilford Hall in San
Antonio, Texas resulting in a combined medical facility with the Army. Please detail
for the subcommittee how each Service is integrating and coordinating the various
approaches to military medicine and serving their unique populations?
Answer. The Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) 2005 Law, Business Plan
172, states that we are to realign [not close] Lackland Air Force Base, Texas, by
relocating the inpatient medical function of the 59th Medical Wing to the Brooke
Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, establishing it as the San Antonio Military Medical Center and converting Wilford Hall Medical Center to an Ambulatory
Care Clinic. With your support, we are on track to meet the BRAC deadline to
transition all inpatient care to the Brooke Army Medical Center and establish a
combined San Antonio Military Medical Center. The 59th Medical Wings Ambulatory Care Clinic is also a critical component of this integrated military health system in San Antonio. To ensure we appropriately realign and integrate clinical operations, the Military Health System is modernizing these key facilities. The result
will be the efficient and effective provision of world-class military medicine within
the greater San Antonio area.
We are capitalizing on prior collaboration and expanding new agreements. To ensure integration manner we are mixing resources at the market level to provide best
value military healthcare for San Antonio. Examples are integration of graduate
medical education under the San Antonio Uniformed Services Healthcare Education
Consortium; fully integrated department leaders; collaborative basic and clinical biomedical research; and a San Antonio Healthcare Advisory Group to facilitate privileging, clinical business operations, healthcare management, and strategic planning.
Efforts are ongoing with regard to governance structure, but our vision is a Service
lead of the joint hospital and the joint ambulatory surgery facility, each staffed by
both Army and Air Force personnel, similar to the Landstuhl Regional Medical Center model.
The Army and the Air Force have worked diligently to integrate operations and
improve military medicine delivery, while meeting the needs of each Services beneficiary population and sustaining the readiness skills and focus of the militarys
medical force.
HEALTH PROFESSIONS SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM

Question. General Green, the Health Professions Scholarship Program is one of


the best mechanisms to recruit medical personnel into the Services. This program
provides 4 years of tuition, books, and a monthly stipend, yet only 25 percent of all
graduates of this program stay in the Service after the initial 4 year commitment.
After spending hundreds of thousands of dollars training these medical professionals, how can we do a better job of retaining them in either the Active component
or in the Reserves?
Answer. Retaining healthcare professionals beyond completion of their initial
Health Professions Scholarship Program obligation is both multi-faceted and complex. Although the current economic climate may assist in some regards to some
specialties, data from exit surveys consistently indicates that the prolonged war
efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq and the associated requirement for more frequent
and/or extended deployments plays a significant role in influencing whether a service member will remain in uniform beyond his/her initial service commitment. We
continue to seek mechanisms to create more pay equity with private sector salaries.
New authorities for special pays are helping.

159
To assist in retention of personnel, we also perform active mentorship with the
Developmental Team of each Corps. Considering the members professional experience, clinical expertise, and preferences for education/training and future assignments, the Corps leadership is able to evaluate their potential as leaders and clinicians and to guide them to future success as a valued Air Force officer and skilled
member of the medical team.
NURSE CORPS PROMOTIONS

Question. LTG Green, what are the potential adverse effects of the Nurse Corps
Chiefs non-sequential promotion from O6 to O8? What actions have been considered to mitigate these effects on the Chief of the Nurse Corps? Has any consideration been given to the possibility of allocating an O7 billet to the Nurse Corps
to ensure that the Corps Chief is afforded the opportunity to properly transition to
the rank of Major General?
Answer. Force developing our colonels and considering only those colonels with
2629 years of service provides a more seasoned senior officer and decreases the potential for transition challenges. However, we would certainly welcome the opportunity for another pinnacle position for Nurse Corps force development and transition to the second star.

QUESTIONS SUBMITTED

BY

SENATOR BARBARA A. MIKULSKI

RECRUITMENT OF MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALS

Question. DOD has a critical shortage of mental healthcare professionals. During


review of the Fort Hood incident where the alleged gunman, Major Hasad, U.S.
Army psychologist, is charged with the deaths of 13 victims, reports show discrepancies in documentation and counseling as it related to his professional abilities and
behavior. Suggestions were made that he was kept on active duty with no negative
reprimands because he had diversity as a Muslim to our nations service despite his
failure to perform.
What is DOD doing to recruit more mental health workers and to ensure they are
quality healthcare professionals? What are the roadblocks to meeting the shortage
of mental health professional?
Answer. We are currently assessing new and emerging mental health requirements and determining the best mix and number of mental health providers required to meet future needs. As recruiting fully qualified psychologists, psychiatrists
and mental health nurses remains challenging, the Air Force has focused on developing our own pool of mental health professionals. In addition to highly regarded
social worker, psychology and psychiatry residencies, we are proposing to establish
a mental health nurse training program at Travis Air Force Base, California. Additionally, the Air Force has consolidated our special pay programs to optimize accession and retention incentives.
Question. What is being done to reduce the stigma and provide enough care givers
so Airmen and their families do not suffer in silence?
Answer. The effort to reduce stigma has been part of the suicide prevention program since the programs inception in 1997. We have shown, and spread the word,
that 95 percent of patients self-referring to mental health treatment experience no
adverse impact on career or military status such as occupational restrictions or discharge actions based on fitness for duty or security concerns. The numbers of mental health visits have increased steadily over the last 5 years, suggesting a greater
willingness for individuals to seek care.
In addition, the Air Force has leveraged several resources for non-medical counseling in order to decrease stigma and ease an Airmans access into less formal
counseling settings. Examples include:
Airman and Family Readiness Centers across the Air Force use Military Family
Life Counselors, who can see individuals or couples with mild problems without the need to document or come in to a clinic.
TRICARE Assistance Program is a pilot project of online counseling available
to adult family members and Airmen.
Military OneSource counselors are available for non-medical counseling by selfreferral through a toll-free number, also without medical documentation.
In a growing number of Air Force Medical Treatment Facilities, mental health
providers are available in primary care to see patients who may not otherwise
seek mental healthcare or for those with minor problems such as sleep difficulties which may not require formal mental healthcare.

160
Question. How is Air Force medicine integrated into the suicide prevention programs to ensure mental health services are getting to those who need it before its
too late?
Answer. The Air Force Suicide Prevention Program Manager falls under the Surgeon Generals office ensuring full engagement of the medical resources in preventing suicide within the service.
The Air Force has integrated behavioral health providers within our primary care
clinics, allowing our members to access initial mental health services without a separate appointment in a mental health clinic. For many Airmen these initial behavioral health interventions within primary care may be sufficient to address their
needs. For others who may require more sustained treatment, initial contacts within
primary care serve to ease their concerns and facilitate the transition to traditional
mental healthcare.
When a suicide does occur, medical providers review all care provided to the individual to look for potential improvements in the Air Force medical system that may
prevent similar incidents in the future.
Within our primary care system our Airmen complete annual personal health assessments, in addition to health assessments triggered by deployments. The assessments provide an opportunity for our medical providers to identify possible mental
health concerns and risk for suicide and refer to mental health services as necessary.
CERVICAL CANCER

Question. Cervical Cancer is preventable. In 2009 over 11,000 American women


were expected to be diagnosed with cervical cancer and over 4,000 women were expected to die from the disease. More than one-half of women who die from cervical
cancer have never been screened or have not been screened in the past 5 years.
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) testing is an approved and widely accepted test to
search for cells that have the potential of turning cancerous. Research has proven
that when performed together with cytology screening, it increases detection of abnormal cell changes by 30 percent. National medical organizations and insurance
companies have determined screening of HPV testing and cytology screening at the
same time as the standard of care, however TRICARE has deemed HPV testing authorized only after a negative cytology exam.
What is Air Force medicine doing to ensure its female patients are receiving the
highest quality of cervical cancer screening available?
What is the percentage of female patients who receive current standards of
screening within the required timeframes?
Are HPV tests available at all Air Force military treatment facilities?
What is Air Force medicine doing to increase prevention efforts of their female
patients from developing cervical cancer?
Answers: Just to clarify TRICARE does cover the assessment of women with
Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance cells detected upon initial
pap smear (Source: Tricare Policy Manual Pathology and Laboratory Chapter 6
Section 1.1. E. Human Papillomavirus testing (CPT1 procedure codes 87620
87622)). TRICARE states that human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is authorized
after a positive cytology exam.
As of December 2009, 81.99 percent of women 2464 years old (continuously enrolled in a military treatment facility (MTF)) have completed cervical cancer screening in accordance with Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set methodology and the minimum screening recommendations from the American Academy of
Family Physicians and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. The National Committee for Quality Assurance median score is 82 percent. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend
for or against the routine use of HPV testing as a primary screening test for cervical
cancer. Rationale: The USPSTF found poor evidence to determine the benefits and
potential harms of HPV screening as an adjunct or alternative to regular pap smear
screening. Trials are underway that should soon clarify the role of HPV testing in
cervical cancer screening.
Cervical cancer screening is available at all Air Force medical treatment facilities
and all Air Force medical facilities send specimens to Wilford Hall for routine
screening. HPV testing capabilities includes Reflex HPV testing for specimens showing atypical cells, i.e., ASCUS PAP, and direct HPV testing of specimens when ordered by a provider.
The Air Force Medical Service utilizes a multi-pronged approach for cervical cancer prevention. HPV vaccination is available to all eligible patients according to
Food and Drug Administration guidelines. Health risk assessments (Web HA) are

161
completed as part of the Preventive Health Assessment for Active Duty personnel.
The tool identifies individuals at potential risk for sexually transmitted infections
(e.g., HPV) and provides risk-reduction messaging alerts to patients and
healthcare teams. Education and questionnaires on risk factors are addressed during routine clinical visits for all patients. Cervical cancer screening is a focus metric
of Air Force Surgeon General Executive Global Look. Cervical cancer screening surveillance/outreach is provided with use of the Military Health System Population
Health Portal and provides MTFs provider level reports for cervical cancer screening
rates and women overdue. MTFs are able to use this data to encourage patients to
remain current on screening guidelines. Cervical cancer screening with availability
of HPV testing is available at all MTFs.

QUESTIONS SUBMITTED

BY

SENATOR PATTY MURRAY

MENTAL HEALTH AWARENESS

Question. The Army has partnered with the National Institutes of Mental Health
(NIMH) to conduct long-term study of risk and protective factors to inform health
promotion and suicide prevention efforts in late 2008.
What is the Air Force doing to promote mental health awareness?
Answer. The Air Force has implemented wide-ranging efforts to promote mental
health awareness and decrease stigma in our service. Many of these efforts have
roots in our suicide prevention program, which was launched in 1996. At this time,
we marshaled the capabilities of all our helping agencies, mental health, family advocacy, chaplains, family support centers and others within what we called an Integrated Delivery System (IDS). The goal continues to be to provide comprehensive
efforts at the base level to meet the needs of our communities. Our suicide prevention program created a way for these IDS members to get into our units and talk
about issues that stress the force. By bringing these discussions to the units and
focusing community efforts in reducing stressors we enhanced awareness of these
issues. We integrated suicide prevention within our professional military education
to help leaders understand the mental health factors that may contribute and leaders roles in addressing these. We have continued to build on these efforts with our
personal health assessments, which regularly ask our Airmen about potential mental health needs, and we review responses that indicate risk and make appropriate
referrals for care as necessary.
The Air Force has published a Leaders Guide for Managing Personnel in Distress,
which provides straightforward guidance to supervisors and other leaders how to assist their subordinates in accessing the appropriate services. This tool helps leaders
see their role in helping to manage the personal needs of their subordinates, and
to discuss these issues in a productive manner.
We have also developed specific programs for Airmen throughout their careers.
The Air Force Landing Gear Program was designed to help Airmen cope with the
stressors of deployment and redeployment. This program, which is currently being
revised to encompass enhancing resilience for all our Airmen, has been complemented by the creation of Deployment Transition Programs to facilitate the
smooth reintegration of our Airmen who have experienced the most stressful deployment experiences. Air Force leadership continues to explore new ways to ensure our
Airmen understand that their mental health is as vital to the success of our mission
as their physical health.
Question. Is the Air Force conducting long-term studies similar to that of the
Army and NIMH?
Answer. The Air Force has been conducting research on suicide prevention for
many years. When the Air Force initiated its comprehensive suicide prevention program in 1996, we partnered with the University of Rochester and Dr. Kerry Knox
to carry out research on the effectiveness of these efforts. The first findings of this
project were published in the British Medical Journal in 2003 and showed the effectiveness of our suicide prevention initiatives. The results demonstrated that our
broad community-based efforts were not only associated with a 33 percent decrease
in suicides, but also with decreases in a wide range of other problematic behaviors
such as domestic violence, accidental death and homicide. This research led to the
AF program being included in the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administrations list of the only 10 Evidence Based Practices for the prevention of suicide.
The Air Force suicide prevention program has continued this partnership with Dr.
Knox, who has another study in press that will show continued compliance with the

162
Air Force suicide prevention program, is associated with continued lower rates of
suicide.
The Air Force Suicide Prevention Program is also engaged in a number of other
studies with researchers at the Uniformed Services University of the Health
Sciences to examine case data on past suicides, including data collected through our
Suicide Event Surveillance System, and the Department of Defense Suicide Event
Report and Personal Health Assessment data to look for factors that may allow us
to better identify those at risk for suicide. Recent efforts in this area have allowed
us to identify career fields that appear to be at greater risk for suicide, allowing
leadership to target additional prevention efforts at these groups.
The Air Force has also been collecting data on new recruits entering the Air Force
regarding their past behavioral history. This appears to show promise in allowing
us to identify, from a recruits earliest days in the Air Force, those Airmen who may
be at higher risk for a variety of problems. The Air Force is now exploring ways
to reach out to these Airmen to improve their ability to cope with the rigors of military life.
Finally, the Air Force is in discussion with the Army and National Institutes of
Mental Health to see how the Air Force may be able participate in this important
study as it moves forward.
FAMILY READINESS AND SUPPORT

Question. Family Readiness and support is crucial for the health of the Services.
The health, mental health, and welfare of military families, especially the children,
has been a concern on mine for many years. This also includes education, living conditions, and available healthcare.
Are you meeting the increased demand for healthcare and mental health professionals to support these families? If not, where are the shortfalls?
Answer. The Air Force has had an increase in utilization of mental health services
over the past 5 years both at the military treatment facilities and through the
TRICARE network. In response to this growing use of mental health services, Military and Family Life Consultants were added at the Airmen and Family Readiness
Centers to provide additional non-medical counseling resources for Airmen and their
families to address issues such as stress management and relationship issues. In
addition, the Air Force added 97 clinical mental health billets to perform clinical
duties under the Director of Psychological Health. The Air Force also has hired 32
full time Behavioral Health providers to embed in primary care clinics to facilitate
mental health treatment in the primary care setting.
Question. What improvements have been made with respect to the children of Airmen and meeting their special requirements?
Answer. In fiscal year 2009, 1,926 Air Force families received Family Advocacy
Strength-Based Therapy Service (FAST Service). FAST is a family maltreatment
prevention service for families who do not have a maltreatment incident but have
risk factors for domestic/child maltreatment. Also, the New Parent Support Program
(NPSP) services focus on providing education and support to military families related to pregnancy, infant/toddler care, growth and development, and safety. Guidance in the areas of parenting, couple communication and conflict management are
provided. Emphasis is placed on assisting families with young children to deal with
military lifestyle challenges, with particular emphasis on support before, during and
after deployment. The Air Force NPSP screened 13,766 military families for risk of
child and/or partner maltreatment in fiscal year 2009. During fiscal year 2008,
13,561 families were screened. During 2009, 18,608 home visits by Registered
Nurses and Medical Social Workers were provided to NPSP families, an increase
from the 17,470 home visits provided during fiscal year 2008. Services are provided
with the goal of preventing child and partner maltreatment. In 2009, 97 percent of
families who were at high risk for family maltreatment and received home visitation
services did not have a substantiated child maltreatment case in the year following
closure.
The Air Force Medical Operations Agency is in the process of standing up a cell
to coordinate medical support to families with special needs across the Air Force.
The Special Needs Cell will track families with special needs and focus on their
medical support during permanent change of station moves.
Question. What programs have you implemented to assist the children with coping
with frequent deployments, re-integration, and other stresses of military families?
Answer. Air Force Family Readiness Centers provide assistance to families before,
during and after deployments. The programs include advice for parents on talking
to their children about deployment and anticipating the concerns of children during
deployment. The centers also provide video communication with deployed family

163
members and other support services. The three Services have established the Uniformed Services Chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). Their
website contains an entire section devoted to support of military families. The AAP
Military Youth Deployment Support Website has been designed to support military
youth, families, and the youth-serving professionals caring for this population
(http://www.aap.org/sections/uniformedservices/deployment/index.html). Videos, patient handouts, provider information, blogging website and many more resources are
devoted to this area. There are many additional websites and services helpful to
military families. A short list is provided below.
Resources for Parents include the following Web Sites: Military OneSource, National Military Family Association, Military Homefront, Military Child Education
Coalition, Zero to Three Organization, Hooh4Health, USA4militaryfamilies.org, and
Stompproject.org.
WOUNDED WARRIOR CARE

Question. In the recently released Department of Defense budget guidance, it


states that caring for our wounded warriors is our highest priority: through improving health benefits, establishing centers of excellence, and wounded warrior initiatives.
What systems do you have to ensure the transition of wounded warriors from Department of Defense to the Department of Veterans Affairs is completed without unnecessary problems?
Answer. The Air Force has created the Warrior and Survivor Care office which
oversees the Air Force Survivor Assistance Program, the Air Force Recovery Coordination Program, and the Air Force Wounded Warrior program in order to maintain
continual contact with the wounded, ill or injured Airman and his or her family
throughout the entire recovery, rehabilitation, and reintegration process. Professional staff from these programs provides oversight during the members transition
to ensure the recovering service member receives all military and external agencies
benefits and entitlements. The Air Force Survivor Assistance Program (AFSAP) is
designed to marshal all available resources in support of family needs when an Airman becomes seriously wounded, ill or injured, or when an Airman dies while on
active duty.
At the same time, the AFSAP also provides a systematic structure through which
offers of assistance, information and support are made available on the familys
terms. The Recovery Coordination Program was designed to address reforms to existing processes within the Department of Defense and the Department of Veterans
Affairs (VA). It improves the uniformity and effectiveness of care, management and
transition across the Military Departments, as well as transfers to VA Medical Centers, Polytrauma Rehabilitation Centers and civilian providers, through the use of
standardized policies, processes, personnel programs and tools.
The Air Force Wounded Warrior Program, through the base-level Airman and
Family Readiness Centers, provide enhanced transition assistance services that include one-on-one pre-separation counseling, one-on-one VA benefits and Disabled
Transition Assistance Program, and personal assistance in completing and submitting a VA disability claim. Approximately 70 percent of our Air Force Wounded
Warrior Program participants suffer from post traumatic stress disorder or other
mental health conditions. Many of them also have residual physical problems. We
provide ongoing needs assessments pre and post separation to ensure they receive
the benefits, entitlements and care they earned. An Information Sharing Initiative
is being designed for the sole purpose of ensuring flawless transition and exchange
of data between DOD entities and the VA. The DOD-mandated working group is
in the early stages of requirements development, and will provide a significant improvement to the Air Forces tracking of wounded, ill, and injured service members.
This will result in a refined and simplified transition with uninterrupted medical
and non-medical care and support to our Airmen and their families.
Question. What do you consider a successful transition and do you follow-up with
the Service members to ensure there are no problems even after they have been released from Active Duty?
Answer. We consider a successful transition when several factors converge to stabilize the wounded, ill or injured Airman and his or her family. This includes continuum of medical care for the member, with no interruptions in care, including continuation of medication; stabilization of family finances, to include receipt of Department of Veterans Affairs disability compensation, military retired pay if retired, or
accurate severance pay, if separated. Awareness of benefits and entitlements, and
timely and accurate receipt of those benefits plays a big role in the psychological
health and perception of the member and his or her family.

164
Transition is also considered successful when the member and family receive and
act on the information provided to meet their personal goals, whether it is to continue working or pursue higher education. We believe that the most successful transitions start at the beginning of the Medical Evaluation Board process and continue
through the transition process. The key factor is to keep the member and family
informed of what to expect and to normalize their experiences as much as possible.
Family integration into the transition process is an important ingredient for a successful transition.
The Air Force Wounded Warrior Program staff is in continual contact with Airmen and their families during the entire process. During the transition process, the
wounded warrior counselors coordinate all transition actions between the Air Force
and the Department of Veterans Affairs, including disability compensation. Ongoing
contacts with the member and family provide the counselors with needs reassessments to ensure all benefits and entitlements are on track even after discharge.
RESERVE COMPONENTS

Question. The Reserves and particularly the National Guard have unique concerns
while deployed. It would seem as though there are no near term plans to discontinue the use of our Reserve Component in Iraq and Afghanistan.
How are you determining budget requirements to accommodate the Reserve Component as they need Department of Defense healthcare well into the future?
Answer. Medical care for deployed personnel, to include Reserve Component members, is a joint effort, and the Total Force receives the full spectrum of care to ensure members remain healthy and resilient. As a part of the Joint Team, the Air
Force contributes comprehensive medical capabilities at both home station and in
the deployed environment. Defense Health Program budget requirements for the Air
Force Medical Service are coordinated with and resourced by the TRICARE Management Activity. Key drivers for resourcing include population projections and expected workload. Healthcare workload attributed to Reserve Component members
and dependents is accounted for by the Air Force Medical Service. In addition, the
fiscal year 2010 Presidents budget and fiscal year 2011 Presidents budget requests
provided additional resources for wounded, ill, and injured and other enduring
healthcare requirements resulting from Overseas Contingency Operations.
MENTAL HEALTH CARE

Question. General Casey recently stated the number of Army soldiers who feel
there is a stigma for seeking mental healthcare has been reduced from 80 to 50 percent. This is a significant improvement, but there is more work to be done.
Despite the reduced number of those who feel there is a stigma, are more service
members coming forward to seek treatment?
Answer. The Air Force believes that we have seen some success in efforts to decrease the stigma of seeking mental health services. Despite a slight decrease in the
strength of our force since 2003 the Air Force has seen a steady increase in the utilization of our of uniformed mental health services. Since 2003 the number of active
duty visits to our mental health clinics has increased from 226,000 visits to over
300,000 visits annually. While some of these visits may be associated with
screenings for activities such as deployments and security or special duty clearances, the overall trend indicates a greater willingness in our Airmen to seek mental healthcare within our system.
Question. What actions are the Services taking to continue to reduce the stigma
and encourage Service members to seek treatment?
Answer. Major steps the Air Force has taken include:
Actively working to decrease stigma through statements from senior leaders encouraging all Airmen to seek help when needed and through efforts to counter
myths related to mental health treatment within the Air Force. As part of the annual suicide prevention training, Airmen are presented with data showing that the
vast majority of those who self-refer to mental health experience no adverse outcome
and their confidentiality is maintained. This is presented to encourage Airmen to
seek help early before stress or mental health problems increase to the point that
a command directed referral maybe necessary.
Conducting an annual Wingman Day at each base. These activities focus on the
role all Airmen play in being a Wingman, that is, caring for their fellow Airmen.
Wingman day is an opportunity to review the importance of teamwork and helping
fellow Airmen perform their best. This includes helping Airmen realize when they
may need help and facilitating access to that care.
Integrating behavioral health providers within our primary care clinics, allowing
our members to access initial mental health services without a separate appoint-

165
ment in a mental health clinic. For many Airmen, these initial behavioral health
interventions within primary care may be sufficient to address their needs. For others who may require more sustained treatment, initial contacts within primary care
serve to ease their concerns and facilitate the transition to traditional mental
healthcare.
Publishing a Leaders Guide for Managing Personnel in Distress provides
straightforward guidance to supervisors and other leaders on how to assist their
subordinates in accessing the appropriate services.
Establishing Directors of Psychological Health at each base to serve as a consultant to leaders at the base level in addressing the mental health needs present in
the community.
Establishing policy to provide greater confidentiality to those Airmen under investigation who are also at risk for suicide. This limited privilege suicide prevention
program ensures Airmen under investigation and deemed to be at risk for suicide
are protected from information shared in the context of their mental health treatment being used against them in court or in the characterization of discharge.
Question. Does your plan include the mental health of families, and if so what
is that plan?
Answer. The mental health of families is of significant concern to the Air Force
as family support is essential for effective functioning of our service members. In
response to this need for family services, the Air Force added Military and Family
Life Consultants at the Airmen and Family Readiness Centers to provide additional
non-medical counseling resources for Airmen and their families to address issues
such as stress management and relationship issues.
In addition, the Air Force added 97 clinical mental health billets to perform clinical duties under the Director of Psychological Health allowing increased access to
care services at the military treatment facilities. The Air Force has also hired 32
full-time behavioral health providers to embed in primary care clinics to facilitate
mental health treatment in the primary care setting. In addition to traditional mental health clinic services, the Air Force Family Advocacy program offers Family Advocacy Strength-Based Therapy Service (FAST Service). FAST is a family maltreatment prevention service for families who do not have a maltreatment incident but
have risk factors for domestic/child maltreatment. Also in Family Advocacy, the New
Parent Support Program services focus on providing education and support to military families related to pregnancy, infant/toddler care, growth and development, and
safety.
Guidance is provided in the areas of parenting, couple communication and conflict
management. Emphasis is placed on assisting families with young children to deal
with military life-style challenges, with particular emphasis on support before, during and after deployment. Military One Source and the Web-based TRICARE Assistance Program are also available for families to utilize for support.
QUESTION SUBMITTED

BY

SENATOR THAD COCHRAN

JOINT VENTURE KEESLER-BILOXI MEDICAL SYSTEM

Question. General Green, the Department of Defense and the Department of Veterans Affairs are establishing joint ventures in hospitals that are co-located around
the country, in hopes to achieve efficiencies with combined personnel and shared resources, thus eliminating duplication. Currently, as you know, the Navy and the VA
are working on a joint venture in North Chicago, where the plan is to operate the
facility with a single civilian staff under the VA, operating out of one combined facility.
The Air Force and the VA are also working toward a joint-venture between
Keesler and Biloxi, but have adopted a different model than the North Chicago
model. I understand the Air Force has stated that not every joint venture will be
applicable to every location, and thus the Air Force is not inclined to follow the
North Chicago model. One of these reasons might be due to the different mission
focus between the two locales. For example, the North Chicago facility supports
mostly non-deployable personnel (Navy recruits) and serves as a schoolhouse for
medical trainees. In Keesler, many of the medical Airmen deploy in their respective
Air Expeditionary Force rotations (AEF) and for humanitarian missions, as needed.
General, can you please give your thoughts on the other reasons as to why the
current model at Keesler-Biloxi has been so successful and why it is the best model
for the Gulf Coast region? Also, are there other Air Force-VA joint venture locations
where you think this model is more applicable to improve treatment efficiency and
provide quality care?

166
Answer. The joint venture between the 81st Medical Group, Keesler AFB, Mississippi, and the Gulf Coast Veteran Affairs Health Care System, Biloxi, Mississippi,
is relatively new and not yet complete, so assessing their successes at this time is
difficult. However, despite the fact they are still in the process of integrating and
moving some services, their centers of excellence model is already showing signs of
success. Success for this joint venture, as well as any other joint venture model, is
largely based on a willingness to work together to ensure the organization keeps the
patients needs as priority one. Communication and commitment to success is essential at all levels of the organization, especially with senior leadership. This commitment is very obvious at the Keesler/Biloxi joint venture as the leaders from both
sites are very involved in the operation of the joint venture. Another key factor to
success is a commitment to provide services for the other partner that they need
for their patient population in the facility vice sending them out to the network
this is true for all partners in the joint venture. An excellent example is the Department of Veterans Affairs providing inpatient mental health services for Department
of Defense beneficiaries, and Department of Defense providing womens health services for Department of Veterans Affairs beneficiaries.
QUESTION SUBMITTED

BY

SENATOR ROBERT F. BENNETT

CHIROPRACTIC CARE

Question. Im pleased that TRICARE has worked over the past few years to expand chiropractic care for service members. Indeed, I have heard one of the top complaints of returning soldiers has been the type of neck and back pain chiropractic
care would seemingly address. Unfortunately, our servicemen and women from Utah
(particularly Hill AFB) are not able to receive this beneficial service that they have
been promised because of the lack of approved providers.
Shouldnt all soldiers have an opportunity to receive promised care? What alternatives for chiropractic care are available to airmen and soldiers, such as allowing
them to receive private care, the cost of which would be reimbursed for those who
are not within 50 miles of such a center, or are unable to be seen within 30 days?
Answer. The Chiropractic Health Care Program is available to Active Duty service
members (including activated National Guard and Reserve members) at designated
military treatment facilities (MTFs) throughout the United States. This program is
currently offered at 60 designated MTFs throughout the United States. There is currently no expansion set for 2010. The Department of Defense considers this program
fully implemented, however, if directed to expand by Congress, the Air Force would
certainly consider places such as Hill AFB, Utah.
Alternatives to chiropractic care are non-chiropractic healthcare services in the
Military Health System (e.g., physical therapy or orthopedics), referred care when
care not available in a timely fashion at the MTF, or to seek chiropractic care in
the local community at their own expense. Chiropractic care received outside of the
designated locations is not covered under the Chiropractic Health Care Program.
Major Air Force locations offering chiropractic care are listed below:
Andrews Air Force Base
Luke Air Force Base
Barksdale Air Force Base
MacDill Air Force Base
Davis-Monthan Air Force Base
Maxwell Air Force Base
Eglin Air Force Base
McGuire Air Force Base
Elmendorf Air Force Base
Offutt Air Force Base
Hurlburt Field
Scott Air Force Base
Keesler Air Force Base
Tinker Air Force Base
Kirtland Air Force Base
Travis Air Force Base
Lackland Air Force Base
U.S. Air Force Academy
Langley Air Force Base
Wright Patterson Air Force Base
QUESTIONS SUBMITTED

TO

QUESTIONS SUBMITTED

REAR ADMIRAL KAREN FLAHERTY

BY

CHAIRMAN DANIEL K. INOUYE

BEHAVIORAL HEALTH PROVIDERS

Question. Admiral Flaherty, what innovative, multidisciplinary efforts has the


Navy implemented to increase access to behavioral health providers?
Answer. Increasing access to care for Behavioral Health remains a top priority for
Navy Medicine. Prior innovations that have now become the norm include oper-

167
ationally embedded mental health providers, integration of Mental Health Care into
primary care, Psychological Health Outreach Coordinators and use of our Deployment Health Centers as destigmatizing portals of care. Current innovation efforts
are focusing on the use of intensive, outpatient, multidisciplinary group sessions for
the treatment of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and combat related mental
health issues. One example of this type of innovative program is the Back on
Track program at Naval Hospital Camp Lejeune. This 2 week program is built on
the foundation of our Operational Stress Control (OSC) curriculum and outcome
measures from the program are demonstrating statistically significant decreases in
depression symptoms. Another innovative program is the multidisciplinary team assessment of every patient that is medically evacuated from theater to identify potential cognitive and mental health issues. Access is increased in a non-stigmatizing
manner by providing this assessment to all patients without need for consult or selfreferral. Follow on care is provided as indicated utilizing all members of the multidisciplinary team.
DEPARTMENT-WIDE NURSE RESIDENCY PROGRAM

Question. Admiral Flaherty, I understand that the civilian nursing community


has established nurse residency programs in order to better prepare new graduates
and novice nurses to care for more complex patients. I am also aware that each military service has implemented similar nurse intern and transition programs. Has
there been any consideration on the development of a Department wide Nurse Residency Program?
Answer. The Navy Nurse Corps has Nurse Intern Programs designed to mentor
and train new graduates at our three largest medical centers (Naval Medical Center
Portsmouth, Naval Medical Center San Diego, and the National Naval Medical Center) and at Naval Hospital Jacksonville. These programs are designed to orient recent graduate and registered nurses with limited clinical experience to the role of
professional nursing. Training consists of classroom lectures, simulation lab, seminars, and hands on clinical experience. Classroom subject matter includes physical
assessment, pathophysiology, diagnosis, nursing interventions, and general military
training. Participants have direct patient care contact in the hospital setting. As
medical treatment facilities within DOD merge, I think it is wise for the services
to compare core curriculum and outcomes of their programs and blend best practice
into a standardized program across the Department of Defense, while allowing for
local leeway of program specifics based on individual needs of the local facility.
NAVY NURSE CHALLENGES AT FHCC

Question. Admiral Flaherty, what are the major challenges facing Navy nurses as
we move to a joint medical facility with the VA in Chicago, Illinois and how are
the two Departments coordinating efforts to eliminate them before this facility becomes operation in the fall of 2010?
Answer. The nursing leadership in both communities has held multiple joint
meetings over the past 18 months to communicate information and ideas on issues
surrounding the Veterans Administration (VA)Navy merge of the joint facility in
Chicago, Illinois. Action items have focused on credentialing and privileging, the setting of nursing standards, and staff education and training. We are educating the
VA about the skill set of Hospital Corpsman and have joined each others Executive
Committee of the Nursing Staff (ECONS), and are merging toward a joint committee. Last, we are merging the Plan for Provision of Nursing Care between the
VAs plan while adding Navy specific components. We are excited about the future
possibilities and look forward to sharing our success with others.
NAVY NURSE RECRUITING MECHANISMS

Question. Admiral Flaherty, what are some of the best mechanisms that the Navy
has instituted for recruitment and retention that might be beneficial for all services?
Answer. Retaining Navy Nurses is one of my top priorities. Key efforts that have
positively impacted retention include the Registered Nurse Incentive Specialty Pay
(RNISP), a targeted bonus program for undermanned clinical nursing specialties
and highly deployed Nurse Practitioners, graduate education programs through
Duty Under Instruction (DUINS), and the Health Professions Loan Repayment Program (HPLRP) for baccalaureate nursing education, which assists nurses in reducing their student loan debt.
The Navy Nurse Corps includes both uniformed and civilian professionals. In recent years, we have implemented two very exciting programs to incentivize our civilian nurses to work and stay working as Navy Nurses. Civilian nurses are now allowed to attend the Perioperative Nurse Training Program which will train them

168
for a new career as Operating Room Nurses. We also introduced the Graduate Program for Federal Civilian Registered Nurses. This program provides opportunities
for civilian nurses to obtain a graduate degree in nursing while receiving full pay
and benefits of their permanent nursing position. Nurses selected for this program
must have served at least 3 years in the Federal civilian service at a Navy Medicine
activity prior to applying. While in graduate school they work a compressed work
schedule while participating in full-time graduate education. We are confident that
these two innovative programs will work to both recruit and incentivize civilian
nurses to stay employed as Navy Nurses.
NAVY NURSE CORPS COLLABORATION WITH VA

Question. Admiral Flaherty, has the Navy Nurse Corps engaged in any collaborative nursing research efforts with the Veterans Administration?
Answer. Yes, one of my Nurse Researchers, Captain Patricia Kelley, is the Principal Investigator on a study titled Clinical Knowledge Development: Continuity of
Care for War Injured Service Member. The purpose of this research study is to
gather first person accounts of how nurses learn to care for wounded service members along with service members memories of their care. This study will obtain
interviews from over 250 nurses and 50 injured service members at military hospitals and Veterans Administration Medical Centers. From this study we hope to
expand the nurses understanding of care for the wounded warrior. I am pleased to
report that this study was funded by the TriService Nursing Research Program
(TSNRP).
QUESTION SUBMITTED

BY

SENATOR THAD COCHRAN

RESILIENCY IN THE FORCE

Question. Admiral Flaherty, the Navy is in the process of rebalancing the force
to reduce battle fatigue from multiple deployments and give service members a
chance to reset mentally and physically in a time of high operational tempo. Specific programs within the Navy include FIT for right-sizing the force and the Operational Stress Control Program.
These programs require a great deal of support from medical units within each
respective Service. The concern is that while implementing these programs, the high
demand, low density medical career fields will remain stressed and unable to reset,
as well.
Admiral, can you please comment on if these programs have increased the demand on your nursing corps? Can you also comment on if these same programs are
effective in helping medical personnel reset, also?
Answer. The Navys Operational Stress Control (OSC) program and the United
States Marine Corps Combat Operational Stress Control (COSC) programs are lineowned and line-led programs. They focus on leaders responsibilities for building resilient Sailors, Marines, units, and facilities, mitigating the stigma association with
seeking psychological healthcare, and promote early recognition of troublesome
stress reactions before they develop into stress injuries or illness. Navy Medicine,
to include the Navy Nurse Corps, plays a supporting role. Both programs are built
on the time-proven leadership continuum and have formal curriculum being delivered at various points throughout a Sailors or Marines career. Navy Fleet and
Family Support Centers and Marine Corps Community Services are contributing
heavily to the Family OSC/COSC modules.
Stress unique to our caregivers, such as compassion fatigue and burnout, requires
a more dedicated approach. Navy Medicine has developed the Caregiver Occupational Stress Control (CgOSC) program with the core objectives of early recognition
of caregivers in distress; breaking the code of silence related to occupational stress
reactions and injuries, and engaging caregivers in early help as needed to maintain
mission and personal readiness. The concept of caregiver in this context refers to
medical personnel (from corpsmen to physicians), clinically and non-clinically
trained chaplains, religious program specialists, and family service professionals
working within Navy Medicine. The Navy OSC, COSC and CgOSC programs actually enhance Navy Nurses as clinical leaders by leveraging a common framework
for recognizing and responding to operational and occupational stress injuries. The
increased demand by these programs on the Navy Nurse Corps is negligible because
of the foundation of patient and staff education that is a core competency for all
Navy Nurses. Anecdotally, we have seen our mid-grade nurses and Hospital Corpsmen rapidly integrate the principles of stress first-aid into their cores skills in a way
that enhances their ability to address patient, family, and peer psychological dis-

169
tress. Their increased competency and skill used when providing complex and challenging care contributes to compassion satisfaction which buffers the adverse effects
of compassion, fatigue and burnout.
QUESTIONS SUBMITTED

TO

MAJOR GENERAL KIMBERLY SINISCALCHI

QUESTIONS SUBMITTED

BY

CHAIRMAN DANIEL K. INOUYE

O7 AIR FORCE NURSE CORPS BILLET

Question. Major General Siniscalchi, how would the addition of a O7 billet benefit the Air Force Nurse Corps?
Answer. It would provide an additional force development opportunity for the Air
Force Nurse Corps. However, all five Corps within the Air Force Medical Service
have general officer billets for force development. An added star for the Nurse Corps
should not be at the expense of another Corps.
NURSE RESILIENCY

Question. Major General Siniscalchi, as nurses continue to deploy in support of


service members world-wide, what efforts has the Nurse Corps made to ensure that
we are also caring for our caregivers and instilling resiliency in our nurses?
Answer. The Air Force has continued to monitor the well-being of all Airmen
through multiple measures. Among these measures are our Post-Deployment Health
Assessments (PDHAs) and Post-Deployment Health Reassessments (PDHRAs) administered following a deployment. Medical career groups (including nurses) are
among the top three career groups for self-reported symptoms of post-traumatic
stress on PDHA/PDHRA. Air Force leadership supported Lt. Gen. Greens plans to
provide targeted, tiered Resiliency Training for higher-risk career groups including
the formation of a Deployment Transition Center (DTC) in United States Air Forces
in Europe. The DTC is a 2-day resiliency training and decompression stop on a deploying Airmans way home. Included in the 2-day training are JET Airmen and
other medics who participate in outside-the-wire missions. In addition to the DTC,
plans are underway for enhanced pre and post deployment resiliency training for
these groups and targeted interventions for high risk groups, with enhanced small
group or face to face training. Finally, medics at both Bagram and Balad have a
high exposure rate to injury and death, and plans are to implement a resiliency program based on the mortuary affairs model at Dover Air Force Base, Delaware integrating physical, spiritual, social, and psychological resiliency across their deployment.
CIVILIAN NURSE TRANSITION PROGRAMS

Question. Major General Siniscalchi, I understand that the Air Force has established collaborative agreements with several civilian nurse transitions programs.
Has any consideration been given to partnering with the Army or Navy Transition
programs?
Answer. Consideration has been given; however, we have not formally partnered
with the Army or Navy nurse residency/transition programs. We have chartered a
working group to evaluate our Air Force Nurse Transition Program platform and
compare and contrast our program with the Army, Navy and civilian nurse
residencies/transition programs. We have an ongoing study to evaluate the performance and effectiveness of our Nurse Transition Programs and to identify potential
opportunities for Tri-Service nurse training consolidation efforts.
JOINT MEDICAL POLICIES

Question. Major General Siniscalchi, as the military moves toward more joint
medical treatment facilities among the tri-services and the Department of Veterans
Affairs, do you see a future in merging Nurse Corps policies for governance, education, training, and the provision of nursing care?
Answer. At those locations that have tri-service and Department of Veterans Affairs nursing, there are opportunities to establish tri-service/Veterans Affairs nursing teams to collaborate efforts for governance, policy development, education and
training and the plan for the provision of nursing care. It is, as always, important
to note that patient care and advocating for the patient and their family remain a
key nursing focus in whatever uniform or setting. There are many similarities in
providing nursing care and the emphasis the Services place on the use of Professional Organization policies, education/training and nursing care guidance is a key

170
link to those similarities. Currently we have tri-service teams in Joint Task Force
National Capital Region Medical which are working toward a collaborative approach
in providing standardized orientation, education and training of our enlisted medics.
NURSE CORPS RETENTION

Question. Major General Siniscalchi, despite well known shortages in the nursing
profession, I see that all three corps expects to meet or exceed their recruiting goals
this year. How does the Air Force plan to retain these nurses for follow on tours
as the economy improves?
Answer. For those nurses joining the Air Force due to the current economy, we
are confident the reasons that made the Air Force an attractive option will also be
the reasons they would continue to serve as the economy improves. Initial accessions for fiscal year 2010 consistently speak in positive terms about the benefits of
funded graduate education opportunities, professional and collegial relationships
within the healthcare team, retirement pension, and continuity for seniority with
assignment moves, opportunity for travel and the Air Force as great way of life for
their families and children. As we look at retention of our current Air Force nurses,
the number of nurses leaving the Air Force in 2009 was the lowest since 2002. Additionally, of the nurses who separate from the Air Force, over one-half are separating
to retire after reaching retirement eligibility. In 2009, 59 percent of the nurses who
left active duty did so after serving at least 20 years in uniform. With special pay
programs such as the Nurse Corps Incentive Special Pay started in fiscal year 2009
to recognize advanced clinical and educational preparation, we hope to see an added
benefit of increased retention.
AIR FORCE NURSING RESEARCH INITIATIVES

Question. Major General Siniscalchi, what are some of the Air Force Nursing Research Initiatives that focus on the specific needs of combat veterans?
Answer. Areas of research conducted by the U.S. military in Afghanistan and Iraq
have led to advancements in combat casualty medical care and therapies to include
tourniquet application, combat gauze, life-saving interventions, en-route care, resuscitation, blood product administration, burns, wound care, post traumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury and infectious diseases.
QUESTIONS SUBMITTED

BY

SENATOR PATTY MURRAY

NURSE CORPS CONTRIBUTIONS

Question. Nurses significantly contribute to the healthcare of our Service members and their families. It is important that we maintain appropriate levels of highly
trained nurses capable of performing a wide range of healthcare functions.
With the maintained high operations tempo of combat in Iraq and Afghanistan,
and the increasing requirements for healthcare for the Service member and their
families, are you able to maintain the required level of nurses?
Answer. Recruiting fully qualified nurses continues to be a challenge. Historical
and current statistics tell us this will be an issue for years to come. In fiscal year
2009, we accessed 284 nurses against our total accession goal of 350 (81 percent),
down 12 percent from what I reported the previous year. Currently, the recruiting
of novice nurses has been successful. At present our recruitment of novice nurses
is at 166 percent of our projected fiscal year 2010 goal. While the recruitment of
novice nurses is going well, the limiting factor is their depth of clinical experience.
Our Nurse Transition Program advances the clinical skills of these new nurses
through direct patient care under the supervision of seasoned nurse preceptors.
Question. Are there enough nurses entering the military to ensure quality of care
for the Service members and to maintain the legacy of superb leadership in the future?
Answer. Recruiting fully qualified nurses continues to be a challenge. Historical
and current statistics tell us this will be an issue for years to come. In fiscal year
2009, we accessed 284 nurses against our total accession goal of 350 (81 percent),
down 12 percent from what I reported the previous year. Currently, the recruiting
of novice nurses has been successful. At present our recruitment of novice nurses
is at 166 percent of our projected fiscal year 2010 goal. While the recruitment of
novice nurses is going well, the limiting factor is their depth of clinical experience.
Our Nurse Transition Program advances the clinical skills of these new nurses
through direct patient care under the supervision of seasoned nurse preceptors.
Question. What are you doing to prepare nurses for senior leadership roles and
responsibilities?

171
Answer. We grow our future leaders through professional military education, encouraging certification in clinical specialties, advanced academic preparation and deliberate force development.
QUESTION SUBMITTED

BY

SENATOR THAD COCHRAN

RESILIENCY OF THE FORCE

Question. General Siniscalchi, the Air Force continues to rebalance the force to
reduce battle fatigue from multiple deployments and give service members a chance
to reset mentally and physically in a time of high operational tempo.
The Air Force continues to work toward Total Force Integration (TFI) to provide
the best support possible in a variety of missions world-wide. Multiple deployments,
however, do increase the mental and physical stress on the Airman, and many programs have been created in a short time to address these concerns.
However, these programs require a great deal of support from medical units within each respective Service. The concern is that while implementing these programs,
the high demand, low density medical career fields will remain stressed and unable
to reset, as well.
General Siniscalchi, can you please comment on if these programs have increased
the demand on your nursing corps? Can you also comment on if these same programs are effective in helping medical personnel reset, also?
Answer. At this time we have not experienced an increased demand on the Air
Force Nurse Corps as a result of current programs. However, we will continue to
assess requirements as new initiatives such as Deployment Transition Centers come
to fruition.
SUBCOMMITTEE RECESS

Chairman INOUYE. Our next hearing of the Defense Appropriations Subcommittee will be on Wednesday, March 17, at 10:30 a.m.,
and at that time well receive testimony from the Navy and Marine
Corps.
And well stand in recess.
[Whereupon, at 12:18 p.m., Wednesday, March 10, the subcommittee was recessed, to reconvene at 10:30 a.m., Wednesday,
March 17.]

DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE APPROPRIATIONS


FOR FISCAL YEAR 2011
WEDNESDAY, MARCH 17, 2010

U.S. SENATE,
APPROPRIATIONS,
Washington, DC.
The subcommittee met at 10:28 a.m., in room SD192, Dirksen
Senate Office Building, Hon. Daniel K. Inouye (chairman) presiding.
Present: Senators Inouye, Kohl, Cochran, Bond, and Shelby.
SUBCOMMITTEE

OF THE

COMMITTEE

ON

DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE
DEPARTMENT
OFFICE

OF THE

OF THE

NAVY

SECRETARY

STATEMENT OF HON. RAY MABUS, SECRETARY OF THE NAVY


OPENING STATEMENT OF CHAIRMAN DANIEL K. INOUYE

Chairman INOUYE. The hearing will come to order.


The subcommittee meets this morning to receive testimony on
the fiscal year 2011 budget request for the U.S. Navy and Marine
Corps.
And Im pleased to welcome the Secretary of the Navy, Mr. Ray
Mabus, the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO), Admiral Gary
Roughead, and the Commandant of the Marine Corps, General
James Conway. And I look forward to their testimony.
The Presidents request includes $160.6 billion to pay for the personnel, operation and maintenance, and acquisition programs of
the Navy and Marine Corps. The request also includes $18.5 billion
to pay for operations in Iraq and Afghanistan in 2011, and $3.8 billion to cover the additional costs of the surge in Afghanistan this
year. The subcommittee will hold a separate hearing on March 25
to examine the 2010 surge supplemental request in more detail.
The Navy and Marine Corps continue to be standard-bearers in
this countrys ability to project power and maintain regional stability. Today, sailors and marines are serving on the front lines in
Iraq and Afghanistan. Every day, these men and women are working to support our troops in harms way, train foreign security
forces, and carry out dangerous combat missions.
In addition, our forward presence in the Asia Pacific, the Middle
East, and Caribbean and elsewhere, serves to assure our friends
and our allies, as well as deter possible adversaries. Our forward
(173)

174
bases and ships at sea keep trade routes secure, ease regional tensions, and respond to humanitarian emergencies.
I particularly commend the lifesaving efforts of our military personnel after the devastating earthquake in Haiti.
As the subcommittee reviews the fiscal year 2011 budget request,
it is clear that the Navy and Marine Corps will continue to deal
with a number of challenges, particularly with the expensive acquisition programs. Delays in programs like the Joint Strike Fighter
(JSF), the CH53K helicopter, and the expeditionary fighting vehicle can force modernization funds to be used for sustaining older
capabilities, in addition to the increased development and procurement costs. Congress will continue to exercise close oversight on
balancing the investment in future capabilities with the demand to
sustain current equipment.
The subcommittee will also have important questions about the
plans for shipbuilding. The Navy has initiated work on the nextgeneration ballistic missile submarine, which includes a major research and development program and a per-ship cost of approximately $7 billion. But, long-range estimates of the shipbuilding
budget expect it to average $16 billion over the next 30 years.
Many are concerned about the pressure the submarine will place
on shipbuilding budgets beginning 10 years from now.
Also in shipbuilding, the Navy is committed to a new acquisition
strategy for the littoral combat ship (LCS) that emphasizes competition to bring down costs while providing the best capability.
With all the recent criticism of earmarks in the newspapers, it is
important to know that the Navy would not be able to pursue the
new acquisition strategy this year if the Appropriations Committee
had not added $60 million in unauthorized funds to last years
budget. I believe, when the history of this program is written, these
additional funds by Congress will result in substantial savings to
the U.S. taxpayer.
Finally, Id like to commend the witnesses on their commitment
to supporting the needs of sailors and marines who serve our country. Both the Navy and Marine Corps are experiencing very strong
rates of recruiting and retention, and I would hope that our witnesses will elaborate, in their opening statement, on the initiatives
to take care of our men and our women in uniform.
And the full statements of each of the witnesses will be made
part of the official record.
And now, I am pleased and honored to turn to the vice chairman
of the subcommittee, Senator Cochran.
STATEMENT OF SENATOR THAD COCHRAN

Senator COCHRAN. Mr. Chairman, thank you very much.


Im pleased to join you in welcoming this distinguished panel of
witnesses to discuss the budget request for the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps in the next fiscal year.
Its particularly good to see my friend Secretary Ray Mabus, Secretary of the Navy, who is serving with distinction in that capacity
and served as our Governor of Mississippi and is a good friend.
Were glad to see him in this very important position.
And we look forward to hearing your testimony and assure you
that we want to do what we need to do here to provide the funding

175
so that we maintain a strong, mobile, and effective Navy and Marine Corps team to protect the security interests of our great country.
Chairman INOUYE. Senator Bond, would you care to read a statement?
STATEMENT OF SENATOR CHRISTOPHER S. BOND

Senator BOND. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman, Senator


Cochran.
And thank you, Mr. Chairman, for your concise description of
how this subcommittee has provided vitally needed assistance to all
branches of the service; and without it wed have had many shortfalls.
But, we welcome Secretary Mabus, Admiral Roughead, General
Conway, for appearing before this subcommittee today.
Im particularly interested in our Nations carrier fleet, the backbone of our militarys ability to project power and peace around the
world. As we all know, the F/A18 Hornets and Super Hornets are
the backbone of the carrier-based strike fighter aviation fleet.
These aircraft are providing support for our warfighters, to close
air-support mission, to ground forces, with an unmatched deterrent
capability. The F/A18 continues to be the Navys only strike fighter with advanced air-to-ground and air-to-air operational capability; and the continued procurement of these aircraft is, I believe,
very necessary to address the Navy shortfall.
In other words, to apply Secretary Gatess statement, I think procuring F/A18s is absolutely necessary. Secretary Gates said that
he was advocating a shift away from 99 percent exclusive servicecentric platforms that are so costly and so complex that they take
forever to build, and only then, in very limited quantities. With the
pace of technological and geopolitical change and the range of possible contingencies, we must look more to the 80 percent solution,
a multiservice solution that can be produced in time, on budget,
and in significant numbers. As Stalin once said, quantity has a
quality all of its own .
I think Secretary Gates has hit it on the head. Keeping Americans, whether our troops fighting overseas or our families at home,
safe from current and emerging threats is a difficult challenge in
an uncertain and dangerous world. America must have the right
tools to meet this challenge. And I believe having a Super Hornet
in our arsenal is an important part of the strategy.
I applaud the efforts of the Department of the Navy for considering a multiyear procurement. This prudent move would prevent
the Navy from having empty carrier decks, save hundreds of millions of valuable taxpayer dollars, and maintain the strength of the
United States industrial defense base, a very important objective
for the Navy, for the marines, and for the peace and security that
this Nation advocates and promotes, here and abroad.
Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
Chairman INOUYE. I thank you very much.
Senator Shelby.
Senator SHELBY. Mr. Chairman, Ill be brief.
I ask that my written statement be made part of the record.
Chairman INOUYE. Without

176
Senator SHELBY. And, Secretary
Chairman INOUYE [continuing]. Objection.
Senator SHELBY. Thank you.
Secretary Mabus, General Conway, Admiral Roughead, we look
forward to being with you this morning and hearing your testimony
and also have a chance to question you on some very important
issues.
Thank you.
Chairman INOUYE. Thank you.
Senator KOHL. No statement.
Chairman INOUYE. Then Ill begin with the questioning, if I may.
But, first, well call upon the Secretary.
SUMMARY STATEMENT OF HON. RAY MABUS

Mr. MABUS. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Vice Chairman, members of the


subcommittee, its a real pleasure to be here with you today. The
CNO, the Commandant, and I are particularly grateful to the commitment that the members of this subcommittee have shown to our
men and women in uniform in the Navy and the Marine Corps.
Were exceptionally proud to be representing the sailors, marines,
civilians, and their families that are with the Department of the
Navy.
The Navy and the Marine Corps remain the most formidable expeditionary fighting force in the world, capable of global operations
across the entire spectrum of warfare. Today, 40 percent of our
forces are deployed and over one-half of our fleet is at sea.
In Helmand Province, Afghanistan, more the 16,000 marines are
engaged in major combat, counterinsurgency, and engagement operations. Theyre supported there by naval aircraft flying close air
support from Eisenhower and from our forward-deployed expeditionary aviation assets. A total of 12,000 sailors are on the ground
in Iraq, Afghanistan, and across the greater Middle East, and another 9,000 sailors and marines are embarked on our ships at sea.
Off the coast of Africa, our ships are protecting international
commerce and operating as a partnership station with regional allies. Off the coast of South America, other ships are stemming the
flow of illegal narcotics into the United States.
Our ballistic missile defense forces are ready to defend against
any threat to international peace in Europe, the Middle East, and
the Pacific Rim. Our forward-deployed forces continue their role as
a strategic buffer and deterrent against rogue regimes and potential competitors, alike. In Haiti, as the chairman mentioned, the
Bataan and 1,000 marines from the 22d Marine Expeditionary
Unit continue to provide humanitarian aid, medical assistance, and
disaster relief.
The Navy and Marine Corps are flexible, responsive, and everywhere our Nations interests are at stake. Our global presence reduces instability, deters aggression, and allows us to rapidly respond to any crisis that borders the sea.
I believe that the Presidents fiscal year 2011 budget for the Department of the Navy is a carefully considered request that gives
us the resources we need to conduct effective operations and meet
all the missions we have been assigned.

177
Our shipbuilding and aviation requests concur with the findings
of the Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR) and its objective of prevailing in todays wars, preventing conflict, preparing for future
wars, and preserving the force. With this budget, the Navy and
Marine Corps will continue to maintain the maritime superiority of
our forces, sustain a strong American shipbuilding industrial base,
and ensure our capacity for rapid global response.
Across the Future Years Defense Program (FYDP), weve requested funds to build an average of 10 ships per year, including
1 carrier, 1 big deck amphibious ship, 10 Virginia-class submarines, and 17 littoral combat ships.
Well leverage the technologies captured from canceled programs
like the CG(X) and the truncated DDG 1000 program into what
will become our Flight III Burke-class DDGs. These technologies
include SPY-3 and the air and missile defense radar. Through the
submitted shipbuilding plan, we will increase the size of our fleet
to approximately 320 ships by 2024.
In our shipbuilding program, I think weve made the most costeffective decisions to achieve the most capable force, one that
achieves equal flexibility to confront missions, across the spectrum
of conflict, from the technologically complex, like ballistic missile
defense and integrated air defense, to low-intensity humanitarian
response and regional engagement.
In aircraft procurement, weve requested just over 1,000 aircraft
across the FYDP, including both fixed and rotary wing.
Over the next year, the Navy and Marine Corps will continue to
move ahead with changes to our acquisitions process. In compliance with the Weapons Systems Acquisitions Reform Act, we are
aggressively developing our acquisition strategies to ensure that
on-time and on-budget is the standard for Navy and Marine Corps
programs.
Im grateful for the support of this subcommittee for the decision
to recompete the LCS Program when it failed to meet program
standards. I assure you that we will not hesitate to recompete or
cancel other programs whenever substandard performance demands change.
Change is also required to address the way in which the Navy
and Marine Corps use and produce energy. Energy reform is an
issue of national security, and its essential to maintaining our
strategic advantage, warfighting readiness, and tactical edge. By
2020, Ive committed the Navy to generate over one-half the energy
we use from alternative sources. This is an ambitious goal, but one
which can be met.
Forty years ago, I stood watch on the deck of the U.S.S. Little
Rock as a young junior officer. Today, I have the solemn privilege
of standing watch on behalf of our Navy and Marine Corps in a
time of war. I am honored by the trust the President and the Congress have placed in me, and fully recognize the solemn obligation
I have to those who defend us.
I, along with the CNO and the Commandant, look forward to
hearing your thoughts and answering any questions you may have
concerning this budget, any specific programs or policies.

178
PREPARED STATEMENT

I also look forward to working with you as we move forward to


sustain the Navy and Marine Corps as the most formidable expeditionary fighting force in the world.
Thank you.
Chairman INOUYE. Thank you very much, Mr. Secretary.
[The statement follows:]
PREPARED STATEMENT

OF

HON. RAY MABUS

Chairman Inouye and Senator Cochran, it is a pleasure to be here today with the
House Armed Services Committee as the representative of the nearly 900,000 Sailors, Marines, and civilians that make up the Department of the Navy. The Chief
of Naval Operations, the Commandant of the Marine Corps and I are privileged to
lead some of the best men and women in the country, who are selflessly serving the
United States all around the world in support of our safety, our security, and our
national interests.
The Navy and Marine Corps remain the most formidable expeditionary fighting
force in the world. We are Americas Away Team. The mission and experience of
our team is well matched to the multiple and varied challenges that threaten our
nations security and global stability.
Today the Navy and Marine Corps are conducting operations across the spectrum
of military operations, from major combat and ballistic missile defense to humanitarian assistance and disaster relief.
Fifteen thousand Marines are at the forefront of our nations defense, serving in
and around Helmand Province, Afghanistan. By spring this number will grow to almost 20,000. It is a testament to the responsiveness and combat capability of the
Marine Corps that the first troops to depart for Afghanistan in the wake of the
Presidents December 1 announcement were 1,500 Marines from Camp Lejuene,
North Carolina. The new arrivals, who deployed before the end of last year, joined
the Second Marine Expeditionary Brigade already in place. Together they are taking
the fight to the Taliban and al-Qaeda in their sector and assisting the Afghan Provincial Government in reestablishing control. General Conway describes their capability as a two-fisted fighter, capable of simultaneously combating an adaptive and
insidious insurgency among the Afghan civilians while maintaining the skill set to
conduct major combat operations.
The Navy in Afghanistan is contributing Special Operations Forces, Explosive
Ordnance Disposal Teams, Seabee civil engineering assets, all of the airborne expeditionary tactical Electronic Warfare capability, medical and intelligence professionals, and logistical support. From our carriers operating in the Indian Ocean, we
are launching a significant percentage of the close air support that watches over our
Marines and Soldiers on the ground. The Navy has over 12,000 Sailors on the
ground in Central Command supporting joint and coalition efforts in both Iraq and
Afghanistan and another 9,000 Sailors at sea supporting combat operations.
The Navy and Marine Corps today are globally engaged in a host of other security
and stability operations. In our cruisers and destroyers, the Navy has built a strong
ballistic missile defense force. These multi-mission ships routinely deploy to the
Mediterranean, the Arabian Gulf, and the Western Pacific and extend an umbrella
of deterrence. Across the Future Years Defense Program we will expand this mission and operationally implement the Presidents decision in September 2009 to
focus on sea-based ballistic missile defense.
That capability is complemented by the continued preeminence of the ballistic
missile submarines in our strategic deterrent force, who operate quietly and stealthily on station every day of the year.
In the Gulf of Aden and Western Indian Ocean, Combined Task Force 151 is leading the international effort to combat piracy in the Gulf of Aden. They are coordinating their operations with forces from the European Union, NATO, and a total
of 24 nations contributing ships, aircraft, and staff personnel as well as operational
and intelligence support.
Our ships and maritime patrol aircraft in the Caribbean and off South America
are working with the Coast Guard-led Joint Interagency Task ForceSouth, which
ties together information and forces from 13 nations to stem the flow of illegal narcotics into the United States. In 2009 alone they contributed to the seizure or disruption of almost 220,000 kilograms of cocaine with a street value of over $4 billion.
Both the Navy and Marine Corps routinely conduct training exercises and multilateral operations with nations all around the world to solidify our relationships

179
with traditional allies and forge partnerships with new friends. Global Partnership
Stations in Africa, South America, and the Pacific are training hundreds of Sailors,
Marines, and Coast Guardsmen from dozens of nations and are supporting regional
diplomatic and humanitarian engagement efforts, like those of the hospital ship
USNS Comfort and the Fleet Auxiliary USNS Richard E. Byrd in the summer of
2009. The two ships together treated over 110,000 patients in the Caribbean, South
America, and Oceania, and the USNS Comfort furthered an existing partnership
with numerous civilian aid organizations.
The Navy-Marine Corps team remains on the front-line of response to natural disasters. In 2009 we provided humanitarian assistance to Indonesia, the Philippines,
and American Samoa, and delivered thousands of tons of food, water, and medical
supplies to those affected by devastation. After the January 12 earthquake in Haiti,
the Navy and Marine Corps responded immediately. Within a week of the earthquake, 11 Navy ships, including the carrier U.S.S. Carl Vinson, the big-deck amphibious ship U.S.S. Bataan, and the hospital ship USNS Comfort were on station
off the coast of Haiti. These ships embarked 41 Navy and Marine Corps helicopters
and approximately 2,000 Marines of the 22nd Marine Expeditionary Unit. On station, our units treated patients, provided helicopter lift capability, and delivered
hundreds of tons of relief aid. Additional personnel and capabilities continued to
flow in over the next weeks. Our mission there will continue as long as required.
The Navy and Marine Corps are flexible, responsive, and everywhere that our nations interests are at stake. The Navy and Marine Corps global presence reduces
instability, deters aggression, and allows for rapid response to a wide range of contingencies.
In order to ensure our continued global mobility, the Department of the Navy
strongly supports accession to the Law of the Sea Convention (UNCLOS). The
United States must continue to take maximum advantage of the navigational rights
contained in the Convention. Ratification would enhance stability for international
maritime rules and ensure our access to critical air and sea lines of communication.
I have now been the Secretary of the Navy for 9 months, and in that short period
of time I have met thousands of our Sailors and Marines serving on the front lines
at sea and ashore. I have been constantly inspired by the high morale, courage, and
commitment to serving our country displayed by every one of them as they conduct
our missions. In return, I have continually expressed to them the appreciation of
the American people for the sacrifices they and their families are making every day.
I have met our operational commanders and seen first-hand the warfighting readiness of our Fleet and our Marine Forces. I have inspected the facilities of our industry partners who are building the Navy and Marine Corps of tomorrow. With the
advice and support of my leadership team, I have made some initial decisions to better prepare the Navy and Marine Corps for the challenges of the future. These observations and our initial actions have given me a good picture of the Navy and Marine Corps, and from this vantage I can report to Congress and the President the
current state of the Services, the budgetary requirements we need to successfully
perform our mission, and the future direction I believe we must take.
The Department of the Navys fiscal year 2011 budget request reflects the Presidents priorities, Secretary Gates strategic and fiscal guidance, and fundamentally
aligns with the 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR) priorities: Prevailing in todays wars; preventing and deterring conflict; preparing for a wide range of future
contingencies; and preserving and enhancing the All-Volunteer Force.
This budget request of $160.7 billion will maintain across the Future Years Defense Program our commitment to a strong industrial base. The fiscal year 2011 request of $18.5 billion for contingency operations includes incremental costs to sustain operations, manpower, equipment and infrastructure repair as well as equipment replacement to support our focus on increasing threats in Afghanistan and
elsewhere.
In the fiscal year 2011 budget request, we have included funds for 9 ships, including 2 additional Virginia class submarines, 2 destroyers in the restarted Arleigh
Burke line, a lower-cost commercial variant of the Mobile Landing Platform, the
multi-role Landing Helicopter Assault Replacement, a Joint High Speed Vessel and
2 Littoral Combat Ships, which will be constructed under the terms of the downselect we will conduct this fiscal year. In aviation, we have requested 206 aircraft
in fiscal year 2011, including 20 F35 Joint Strike Fighters for both the Navy and
Marine Corps, 24 MH60R and 7 P8As to begin replacing our aging ASW and maritime patrol squadrons, 18 MH60S for logistics support, 28 H1 variant helicopters
and 30 MV22 for the Marine Corps, 22 F/A18E/F and 12 F/A18G to continue replacing the EA6B. For Marine Corps ground operations, we have requested funding
for an additional 564 LVSR and HMMWV tactical vehicles. The fiscal year 2011
budget request also contains development funding for the Navy Unmanned Combat

180
Aerial System and continues development of the Broad Area Maritime Surveillance
UAV. And we have continued our support of the Naval Expeditionary Combat Command, including funding for a fourth Riverine Squadron.
The Departments long-range shipbuilding and aviation intentions are designed to
sustain our naval superiority and they achieve a balance of capability and affordability that both wins todays wars even while preparing for the challenges of the
future.
There are four strategic, tactical, and personnel management imperatives I believe the Department of the Navy must also address to maintain preeminence as
a fighting force and successfully address whatever comes in the future. These four
areas reinforce the strategic framework of the QDR and address the areas of risk
it identifies. They are: Taking care of our Sailors, Marines, Civilians, and their
Families; treating energy in the Department of the Navy as an issue of national security; creating acquisitions excellence; and optimizing unmanned systems.
They underpin the development of our fiscal year 2011 budget request, execute
Presidential policy, and comply with and respond to Congressional direction.
TAKING CARE OF SAILORS, MARINES, CIVILIANS, AND THEIR FAMILIES

Sailors and Marines are the fundamental source of our success. They are our most
important asset, and they must always come first in our minds and in our actions.
One of my most important responsibilities as Secretary is to ensure adequate compensation, medical care, and family support services are provided to our Sailors,
Marines, civilians, and their families.
The Navy and Marine Corps will continue to recruit and retain the same high
quality individuals we brought into and kept in the service in 2009. We remain committed to providing a competitive pay and benefits package to aid recruiting. The
package includes not only basic pay and housing allowances, but also provides incentives for critical specialties in healthcare, explosive ordnance disposal, and nuclear propulsion.
Beyond compensation, we recognize that quality of life programs are crucial to retention and the military mission. We are providing expanded career opportunities,
opportunities for life-long learning, and a continuum of care and family support. The
Department continues to support a wide array of readiness programs, including deployment support services, morale and welfare services, and child and teen programs. Our innovative personnel management and human resource programs were
in fact recognized by civilian experts as among the best in the country when, in October 2009, the Navy was named by Workforce Management Magazine as the winner of the Optimas Award for General Excellence.
Since the attacks of September 11, 2001, over 10,000 Marines and Sailors have
been wounded in action. Their service has been exemplary and unselfish, and in
their sacrifice they have given so much of themselves for our country. The Department of the Navy, through the Wounded Warrior Regiment and the Navy Safe Harbor Program, provides support and assistance to our wounded, ill, and injured service members and their families throughout recovery, rehabilitation, and reintegration. And we continue to provide encouragement and support for wounded Sailors
and Marines, in partnership with the Department of Veterans Affairs, long after
they have left the Service.
Our medical community has continued to strive for excellence in the care of our
Sailors and Marines. Navy Medicine has reached out to its civilian colleagues, and
we have established partnerships with civilian hospitals to improve our understanding and care for those affected by traumatic brain injuries, mental health
issues, amputation, and disfiguring injuries. I had the opportunity last fall to see
this first-hand, when I witnessed groundbreaking pro-bono work in reconstructive
surgery on behalf of Wounded Warriors at the UCLA Medical Center.
We will continue to aggressively address the issues of sexual assault prevention
and response. Sexual assault is a criminal act that is corrosive to the readiness and
morale of a professional military organization. In the fiscal year 2011 budget request, we have requested funds to support a reinvigorated program under the supervision of a new Office of Sexual Assault Prevention and Response, which I created
within the Secretariat to focus attention on the issue, develop effective training, and
coordinate prevention and response programs across the Navy and Marine Corps.
In 2010, the Department will move forward on expanding the opportunities for
women in the Navy. We will establish a process to integrate women into the submarine force, beginning with nuclear-trained and Supply Corps officers on our ballistic and guided missile submarines.
After 8 years of continuous combat operations, the Navy and Marine Corps people
remain strong, and the CNO, CMC, and I are very focused on maintaining the over-

181
all health of the force. The fiscal year 2011 budget request reinforces these goals
and is designed to provide the fiscal support necessary to sustain the force. The visible support of Congress to our personnel programs is deeply appreciated and has
been vital in maintaining overall readiness.
ENERGY REFORM

The way in which we use and produce energy is an issue of national security and
is essential to maintaining our warfighting capabilities. At present, we simply rely
too much on fossil fuels, which are susceptible to both price and supply shocks
caused by events in volatile areas of the world largely outside the scope of our control. Those potential shocks have, in turn, strategic, operational, and tactical effects
upon our forces. In addition, fossil fuel emissions are the root cause of many of the
impending security challenges of tomorrow, and the QDR has correctly identified
that climate change and its effects: rising sea levels, pressure on natural resources,
and changes to the polar regions, will increasingly affect our force structure and the
global security environment as the 21st century progresses. In order to improve our
long-term strategic and fiscal position, I have set the Navy and Marine Corps on
a path to change the way in which we use and produce energy.
In October 2009, I issued five energy targets. They are ambitious in their scope,
but I firmly believe that little will be accomplished without bold, innovative, and
timely action. The most important of the targets commits the Navy and Marine
Corps to generating half of all the energy we use, including that used by the operational fleet, from alternative sources by 2020. I have also committed the Navy and
Marine Corps to consider energy as a mandatory evaluation factor in contracting,
and to consider as an additional factor in our business dealings, the energy footprint
of the companies that sell to the Navy and Marine Corps.
America is a world leader precisely because of our willingness to not just embrace
change, but to create it. The U.S. Navy has always been a technological leader. We
moved from wind to coal in the 19th century, coal to oil early in the 20th century,
and to nuclear power in mid-century. In every transition there were opponents to
change, but in every case the strategic and tactical position of naval forces improved. In this century, I have asked the Navy to lead again by pioneering technological change through use of alternative energy. But I want to reiterate that every
action and program we undertake must and will have as an effect improved
warfighting capability. And we will strive in every case to improve energy efficiency
and reach cost-neutrality over the life of the program.
Many of our initiatives are already doing this. We conducted a ground test of an
F/A18 Hornet jet engine this fall running on a biofuel blend and we intend to conduct an airborne test of the Green Hornet later this year. In late 2010, the Navy
will also conduct tests of a more efficient F/A18 engine, which will increase the aircrafts range. Afloat, the U.S.S. Makin Island, the first ship constructed with a hybrid-electric drive that dramatically lowers fuel consumption at lower speeds, saved
approximately $2 million in a single transit to her new homeport in San Diego. Over
the life of the ship, we estimate the savings will be up to $250 million using todays
fuel prices. Writ large across the Navy, as we begin to retrofit our DDG fleet with
similar propulsion systems, the potential fuel savings will only grow.
In addition to these tactical applications, we have implemented a number of energy projects at our facilities ashore, and numerous other efficiency initiatives
throughout the Fleet. As the President clearly stated in Copenhagen, changing the
way we use and produce energy is a national security imperative.
ACQUISITION EXCELLENCE

The ships and aircraft of the Navy and Marine Corps are unmatched at sea and
over land. Our precision munitions, networked targeting systems, armored vehicles,
stealth technology, and unmanned vehicles are advanced systems that define the
leading edge of warfare in all domains.
These truths have been brought home to me during my visits with the defense
industry. I have had the opportunity to visit shipyards, aircraft manufacturers, factories, and depots; and I applaud the hard work and dedication of this countrys
skilled workforceAmericans who take as much pride in their patriotism as they
do in their craftsmanship.
The issue before us all, however, is affordability. Acquisition costs are rising faster
than our budgets top-line, and without deliberate, sustained action to reverse this
trend, we put the size and capability of the future force at risk. In accordance with
the Weapons System Acquisition Reform Act passed by Congress in 2009, the Navy
and Marine Corps will aggressively pursue additional ways to make the acquisitions
process more rigorous; we will prudently safeguard the resources entrusted to us by

182
the American taxpayer, and we will fully meet the obligation we hold to our Sailors
and Marines.
This requires close examination of the way we do business in our policies, practices, priorities, and organization, with a clear focus on controlling cost. The Navy
and Marine Corps will continue initiatives to raise standards, to improve processes,
to instill discipline in procurement, and to strengthen the professional corps that
manages our major defense acquisition programs.
We are pressing forward with key initiatives that promise to improve our ability
to affordably deliver combat capability to the fleet.
We are improving the quality of our cost estimates, which underpin our investment decisions. We are strengthening our cost estimating group, requiring independent cost estimates, and incorporating Departmental best practices in the formulation of our Service Cost Position for all major programs. We are using these realistic cost and schedule estimates to drive difficult decisions at the front end of the
requirements process.
We are developing our acquisition strategies with the intent of expanding the use
of fixed price contracts, leveraging competition, and tightening up on the use of incentive and award fees to ensure quality systems are delivered consistently on budget and on time to our Sailors and Marines. When we could not achieve these objectives this past year on the Littoral Combat Ship program, we rewrote the programs
acquisition strategy to improve performance through competition. I thank the Committee for its strong support of this revised strategy, and I assure you that I will
not hesitate to re-compete or cancel programs when sub-standard performance demands change.
We are demanding strict discipline in the execution of our contracts. Before commencing production on new start ship programs, I have reported to you the results
of reviews conducted to ensure that designs are mature. We are specifically clamping down on contract changes, the most-often cited reason for cost growth, through
improved policies and increased oversight.
Our goals for modernizing todays force and recapitalizing the fleet affordably cannot be accomplished without a healthy industrial base and strong performance by
our industry partners. We have worked hard to procure our ships, aircraft, and
weapon systems at a rate intended to bring stability to the industrial base and enable efficient production. The Navys long-range shipbuilding plan was developed
with particular regard for maintaining the unique characteristics and strength of
the base and our efforts support the QDRs emphasis on maintaining the defense
industrial base with appropriate levels of competition, innovation, and capacity. The
Future Years Defense Program outlines construction of a balanced force of 50 ships,
an average of 10 ships per year, which requires the full breadth of capabilities and
services provided by our major shipbuilders and vendors.
In the end, industry must perform. We will work with our shipyards, aircraft
manufacturers, and weapon systems providers to benchmark performance, to identify where improvements are necessary, to provide the proper incentives for capital
investments where warranted, and to reward strong performance with terms and
conditions that reflect our desire for a strong government-industry partnership.
To meet our objectives, we must be smart buyers. The acquisition workforce has
been downsized over the past 15 years and in truth our professional acquisition
corps has been stretched too thin. Accordingly, and with your strong support, we
are rebuilding the acquisition workforce through a number of parallel efforts. We
must both increase the number of acquisition workers and restore to the government the core competencies inherent to their profession. The Department has added
800 acquisition professionals in the last year towards the goal of increasing the community by 5,000 over the Future Years Defense Program. This represents a 12 percent growth in our workforce.
UNMANNED SYSTEMS

The complex nature of todays security environment, as well as current and future
anti-access threats faced by the United States require that the Navy and Marine
Corps investigate the contributions unmanned systems can make to warfighting capability. Unmanned systems are unobtrusive, versatile, persistent, and they reduce
the exposure of our Sailors and Marines to unnecessary threats. They perform a
vast array of tasks such as intelligence collection, precision target designation,
oceanographic reconnaissance, and mine detection, and that array will grow exponentially year to year.
Navy and Marine Corps unmanned systems have already made key contributions
to operations in Afghanistan, Iraq, and in the counter-piracy effort off the coast of
Africa. Unmanned aircraft systems have flown thousands of flight hours in support

183
of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. Unmanned ground
vehicles employed by the Marine Corps have conducted thousands of missions detecting and/or neutralizing improvised explosive devices. And unmanned maritime
systems have provided improved port security.
We continue to support research and development activities to improve these capabilities and increase the level of autonomy in unmanned systems. Over the Future Years Defense Program we will continue to focus on transitioning from research and development and limited deployments, through test and evaluation, to
full fleet integration and operations. In order to best direct our research and harness the capabilities of unmanned systems, I am tasking the Department to develop
a comprehensive roadmap for unmanned system development, to include a coordinated strategy for air, ground, surface, and subsurface systems focused on integration and interoperability with our existing platforms and capabilities.
The initiatives and investments contained in the fiscal year 2011 budget request
will move us onto this path. I look forward to reporting continued progress throughout the year.
CLOSING

In this statement, I have discussed the strategic and tactical imperatives that
guide the Department and influence the future decisions we will make. Specific programmatic requests are reflected in the fiscal year 2011 budget request, which I believe incorporates the difficult trade-offs and disciplined decisionmaking that you
and the American taxpayer expect of us. We have carefully weighed risks and made
proposals to you that will ensure we retain a ready and agile force capable of conducting the full range of military operations. And we will continue to work hard to
be effective stewards of the resources you allocate to us.
Forty years ago I stood watch on the deck of the U.S.S. Little Rock as a young
junior officer. Today I have the solemn privilege of standing watch on behalf of our
Navy and Marine Corps in a time of war and national challenge. I am honored by
the trust the President and Congress have placed in me and I fully recognize the
solemn obligation I have to those who defend us.
That obligation fueled my desire to observe our people up close in their varied and
often dangerous jobs. Ive seen first hand the courage of our young Marines in
Helmand, the determination of a wounded SEAL to walk despite losing two legs,
the pride of a young Sailor in a hot engine room, the selfless dedication of corpsmen,
nurses and doctors caring for the fallen.
Sacrifice and service created and preserve the freedom and opportunity that we
enjoy as Americans. Although we aspire to create a world in which violence and aggression have been eliminated, we understand that peace and stability are often secured only when strong nations and good people are willing and prepared to use decisive force against those who threaten it. The Navy and Marine Corps stand ready
to do so.
Your commitment to the service of our country and your recognition of the sacrifice of our Sailors, Marines, civilians and their families has been steadfast and is
fully reflected in the support of this Committee for our key programs and our people.
I, along with my partners, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Roughead, and
the Commandant of the Marine Corps, General Conway, look forward to hearing
your thoughts and answering any questions you may have about our budget request
or specific programs of interest. I also look forward to working closely with Congress
as we move forward to sustain the Navy and Marine Corps as the most formidable
expeditionary fighting force in the world.
Thank you and Godspeed.

Chairman INOUYE. And now, may I call upon the Chief of Naval
Operations, Admiral Roughead?
STATEMENT OF ADMIRAL GARY ROUGHEAD, CHIEF OF NAVAL OPERATIONS

Admiral ROUGHEAD. Chairman Inouye, Senator Cochran, and


members of the subcommittee, its my honor to appear before you
again today, representing more than 600,000 sailors and Navy civilians and our families. Sixty-five thousand of them are deployed,
12,000 on land in the Central Command area of operations, and 55
percent of our fleet is underway, carrying out our maritime strat-

184
egy, a prescient precursor to the 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review. They are projecting power into Afghanistan, building partnerships in Africa, delivering relief in Haiti, and providing ballistic
missile defense in the Arabian Gulf and the eastern Mediterranean, with pride and determination.
Theyre even deployed in the first littoral combat ship, 2 years
ahead of schedule. And in the first weeks of that ships deployment,
theyve already seized approximately 4 tons of cocaine with a street
value of $89 million.
It is our sailors and Navy civilians who make all things possible;
and thanks to your support, weve made important progress in
building tomorrows Navy, remaining ready to fight today, and supporting our sailors, Navy civilians, and families this year. This
years budget submission will take us even further.
As the high demand for our Navy continues apace, we have stabilized end strength, and the tone of the force remains positive. We
will continue to aggressively improve wellness programs and medical and social services for our wounded warriors; indeed, all who
serve.
Our fleet, unlike other services, is a continuously deployed force
that we reset in stride. Conducting routine, indeed regular, maintenance and training is how our ships and aircraft reach their expected service lives. We increased our base budget and overseas
contingency operation, or OCO, funding requests for operation and
maintenance in fiscal year 2011 over our levels of last year. Our
operation and maintenance requests are focused tightly on meeting
increased OPTEMPO requirements, sustaining ships and aircraft
to reach expected service lives, sustaining flying-hour readiness requirements, and funding price increases. I strongly request your
support for full funding of our operation and maintenance accounts.
While we reset, we must also procure ships and aircraft to reach
our requirement of more the 313 ships. Last year, we commissioned
9 ships, and over the next decade our plan procures an average of
10 ships per year; significant growth for the near term. For aviation, I remain committed to bringing new capabilities onlinethe
Joint Strike Fighter and unmanned aircraftand to maintaining
the readiness of our current Naval Air Force, all of which give our
Nation flexibility and response unencumbered by overseas basing.
Affordability for all our plans will remain fundamental to our decisions. The effectiveness of our unmanned systems, ships, and aircraft is a feature of the systems which connect them. Last year, I
brought information capabilities and resources under a single information dominance directorate within the Navy staff, and commissioned Fleet Cyber Command/10th Fleet. I see the benefits of this
already.
Im proud of our Navys accomplishments last year, and Im confident we can achieve even more with this years budget submission. Our risk continues to trend toward significant, and achieving
the right balance within and across my priorities remains critical
to mitigating it. But, I remain optimistic because of our outstanding sailors and Navy civilians and the spirit of our Nation.
We have seen more challenging times, and have emerged prosperous, secure, and free.

185
PREPARED STATEMENT

I ask that you support our fiscal year 2011 budget request, and
I thank you for all you do to make the United States Navy a global
force for good, today and into the future.
Thank you, sir.
Chairman INOUYE. I thank you very much, Admiral Roughead.
[The statement follows:]
PREPARED STATEMENT

OF

ADMIRAL GARY ROUGHEAD

Chairman Inouye, Senator Cochran, and members of the Committee, it is my


honor and pleasure to appear before you, once again, representing the more than
600,000 Sailors and civilians of the United States Navy. Every day, our dedicated
Navy men and women are forward deployed protecting the global commons in every
domain: sea, land, air, space, and cyberspace. I appreciate your continued support
for them as our Navy protects our Nation and our national interests.
When I signed our Maritime Strategy with General Conway and Admiral Allen
more than 2 years ago, I was confident that the strategy would prepare us well for
the current and future security environments. Since then, it has guided our operations and investments, and I am further convinced of its relevance to our operations today and of its enduring attributes. The 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review
(QDR) validated the underlying principle articulated in the Maritime Strategy that
preventing wars is as important as winning wars. The QDR also declared that U.S.
security and prosperity are connected to that of the international system, that deterrence is a fundamental military function, and that partnerships are key to U.S.
strategy and essential to the stability of global systems. These themes reinforce the
tenets of our Maritime Strategy and the six core capabilities it identified for our
maritime Services: forward presence, deterrence, sea control, power projection, maritime security, and humanitarian assistance and disaster response (HA/DR).
My priorities for the Navy remain unchanged: to build tomorrows Navy, to remain ready to fight today, and to develop and support our Sailors, Navy civilians,
and their families. We are making progress in these areas thanks to your continued
support. Some highlights follow.
We added nine new ships to our Fleet in 2009, including U.S.S. Freedom (LCS
1), currently on its first deployment, and U.S.S. Independence (LCS 2), our second
Littoral Combat Ship. We delivered three DDG 51 destroyers and restarted the
DDG 51 line to increase surface combatant capacity for maritime security, deterrence, and anti-submarine warfare. We are adapting our force to meet the Presidents demand for sea-based ballistic missile defense (BMD) of Europe while sustaining our current BMD missions in the Arabian Gulf and Western Pacific. Our
Virginia class submarine program continues to excel with the delivery of U.S.S. New
Mexico (SSN 779) 4 months ahead of schedule. We rolled out our first carrier variant of Joint Strike Fighter (F35C) aircraft, the timely delivery of which remains
essential to fulfilling our strike fighter requirements. We are conducting the first
deployment of our Vertical Take Off and Landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
(VTUAV) and we expect the first test flight of our Navy Unmanned Combat Aerial
System demonstrator this year.
In the information and cyberspace domain, I established Fleet Cyber Command/
U.S. Tenth Fleet as the global operator of Navys cyber, networks, cryptology/signals
intelligence, information, electronic warfare, and space operations. I restructured
the Navy staff to bring all Navy information capabilities and resources under our
new Information Dominance Deputy Chief of Naval Operations and created the
Navy Information Dominance Corps, integrating more than 45,000 Sailors and civilians from our existing intelligence, information professional, information warfare,
meteorology/oceanography, and space communities. About 1,400 of these Sailors are
deployed globally as individual augmentees (IAs) today, most supporting operations
in the Central Command (CENTCOM) area of responsibility.
More than 40 percent of our Fleet is underway daily, globally present and persistently engaged. Our forward presence enabled the rapid response of our aircraft carrier U.S.S. Carl Vinson and numerous other surface and USNS ships, helicopters,
and personnel to Haiti to provide humanitarian aid after the devastating earthquake in January. We remain engaged in operations in Afghanistan and in the
drawdown of U.S. forces in Iraq. Navy has more than 21,000 active and reserve
Sailors on the ground and at sea in CENTCOM. This includes a doubling of our construction battalion (SEABEE) presence in Afghanistan and ongoing IA support to
both operations. I recently issued our Navy Vision for Confronting Irregular Chal-

186
lenges to shape how our Navy will plan for, resource, and deliver a wide range of
capabilities to confront irregular challenges associated with regional instability, insurgency, crime, and violent extremism at sea, in the littorals, and on shore.
Our Navy continues to support our people and their families. We are in the process of expanding opportunities for service at sea to women in the Navy by opening
to them assignments on submarines for the first time in history. Our Navy has received 19 national awards in the past 18 months for its workforce planning, lifework integration, diversity, and training initiatives. Most notably, Workforce Management magazine awarded Navy the 2009 Optimas Award for General Excellence,
which recognized the U.S. Navy as an employer of choice among the ranks of previous distinguished recipients such as Google, Intel, and Hewlett-Packard. We have
met or exceeded overall officer and enlisted (active and reserve) recruiting goals for
2009 and we are on track to achieve similar success in 2010. I appreciate the support of Congress for our Fleet and its dedicated Sailors, Navy civilians, and their
families that serve our nation every day.
I continue to focus on ensuring our Navy is properly balanced to answer the call
now and in the decades to come. Last year, I stated our risk was moderate trending
toward significant because of the challenges associated with Fleet capacity, increasing operational requirements, and growing manpower, maintenance, and infrastructure costs. This risk has increased over the last year as trends in each of these areas
have continued. We are able to meet the most critical Combatant Commander demands today, but I am increasingly concerned about our ability to meet any additional demands while sustaining the health of the force, conducting essential maintenance and modernization to ensure units reach full service life, and procuring our
future Navy so we are prepared to meet the challenges of tomorrow.
The costs to own and operate our Fleet continue to rise due to increasing operational demands, higher maintenance requirements, and growing manpower costs.
Over the last decade, the overall size of our active Fleet decreased by more than
30 ships, about 10 percent, and our active duty end strength decreased by about 13
percent, while operational demands globally have grown. Our Navys high tempo of
operations has placed additional stress on our smaller Fleet of Sailors, ships, and
aircraft and we are consuming the service life of our Fleet at a higher than expected
rate. We are implementing force management measures in the near term to stretch
the capacity of our 286-ship force to meet increasing global requirements. Through
our Fleet Response Plan, we are tailoring our training and maintenance cycles to
generate ready forces, allowing us to meet the most critical Combatant Commander
requirements today. The impact of these measures on our Fleet has been felt in
longer deployments and shorter dwell times, which increase stress on our Sailors
and drive up maintenance requirements and costs for our ships and aircraft. Regular maintenance of our ships and aircraft, and training and certification of our
crews between deployments, is essential to our ability to sustain our force. It is how
we reset. This reset in stride is different from other Services. It ensures our ships
and aircraft maintain the required continuous forward presence whether supporting
coalition troops in Afghanistan, deterring North Korea and Iran, or providing humanitarian aid in Haiti. For our Navy, continuous reset translates into decades of
service for each ship and aircraft, a significant return on investment.
Our reset and readiness are tied directly to our operations and maintenance
(O&M) funding. Over the last decade, we have relied upon a combination of base
budget and overseas contingency operations (OCO) funding to operate and maintain
our Navy. Our fiscal year 2011 OCO request for O&M is tightly focused on supporting our ongoing and increased operations in CENTCOM. Our fiscal year 2011
base budget request for O&M is focused on properly sustaining our ships and aircraft so they reach their expected service life; funding enduring readiness requirements, particularly in aviation; and funding price increases, most notably in fuel,
to support our enduring operations. Together, our OCO and base budget O&M requests reflect our commitment to resource current operations while preserving our
Fleet for future operations. I ask for your full support of this years O&M request.
Our fiscal year 2011 budget request achieves the optimal balance among my priorities to build tomorrows Navy, to remain ready to fight today, and to develop and
support our Sailors, Navy civilians, and their families. It supports our Maritime
Strategy and the 2010 QDR and continues us on the path we started in fiscal year
2010 to support our forces forward, take care of our people, continue rebalancing
our force to meet current and future challenges, and reform how and what we buy.
Highlights follow.

187
BUILD TOMORROWS NAVY

Since the release of our Maritime Strategy, I have stated that our Navy requires
a minimum of 313 ships to meet operational requirements globally. This minimum,
a product of our 2005 force structure analysis, remains valid. We are adjusting our
requirement to address increased operational demands and expanding requirements,
as outlined in the QDR, for ballistic missile defense, intra-theater lift, and forces
capable of confronting irregular challenges. Our shipbuilding plan addresses these
operational needs by growing our Fleet to 315 ships in 2020 and peaking at 320
ships in 2024. Per the Presidents direction, we will improve our capacity to conduct
sea-based ballistic missile defense of Europe by increasing our inventory of Aegiscapable ships through our restarted DDG 51 production line and modernization of
our existing cruisers and destroyers. The funding for these upgrades will deliver the
capability and capacity of ships required to perform this mission while maintaining
sustainable deployment ratios for our Sailors. To fulfill Combatant Commander requirements for intra-theater lift, we will increase the number of Joint High Speed
Vessels (JHSV) in our Fleet; the large payload bays, speed, and shallow draft of
these versatile ships make them capable of supporting a wide range of naval missions, including security cooperation, security force assistance, and logistics support.
To provide forces capable of confronting irregular challenges, we will continue to
pursue the planned number of Littoral Combat Ships, providing a flexible and modular ship optimized for operations close to shore. We are moving from developing
a Maritime Prepositioning Force (Future) squadron optimized for high-end, forcible
entry operations to augmenting our three existing Maritime Prepositioning Squadrons (MPS) with enhanced sea basing capabilities that are useful across a wide
range of military operations. The augmented MPS will support our amphibious warfare force, which we will build to a minimum of 33 ships to increase our capacity
to conduct theater security cooperation, sustain combat and assistance operations
from the sea, and hedge against future conflict.
We have improved the balance among capability, capacity, affordability, and
executabilty in our procurement plans by developing a shipbuilding plan that procures our most needed capabilities, increases Fleet capacity in the near-to-mid-term,
and is fiscally executable within the FYDP. It carefully manages increasing levels
of operational and institutional risk, recognizing that, for as much as our Navy does
to protect our national security and prosperity, the overall economy of our nation
undoubtedly does more. I am confident our near-term plan provides the capability
and capacity we need to conduct contingency operations and build partner capacity
while retaining our ability to deter aggressors, assure allies, and defeat adversaries.
Beyond 2024, I am concerned about the decrease in Fleet capacity that will occur
as our legacy cruisers, destroyers, submarines, and amphibious ships reach the end
of their service lives. Many of these ships were brought into service during the
1980s, when we procured some ship classes at a rate of four to five ships per year.
While economic and security conditions are sure to change between now and then,
it takes 10 to 15 years to design and build our ships, which then remain in service
for 20 to 50 years. A long view is necessary to ensure our Navy has sufficient capacity to protect Americas global national interests in the future.
As directed by the QDR, we are working with the Air Force and Marine Corps
on an Air Sea Battle concept that will identify the doctrine, procedures, training,
organization, and equipment needed for our Navy to counter growing military
threats to our freedom of action. This joint effort will help us inform investments
and identify future opportunities to better integrate naval and air forces across the
entire range of operations. We are already moving forward with the Air Force to
streamline capabilities, manpower, and resources related to our unmanned aviation
systems. We continue to pursue our unique maritime aviation capabilities in carrierbased strike, anti-submarine warfare, and naval special warfare missions.
Underpinning the capacity and capability of our Fleet is a highly technical and
specialized industrial base. A strategic national asset, our shipbuilding and aviation
industrial base is essential to sustaining our global Fleet and remains a significant
contributor to our nations economic prosperity. Our shipbuilding industrial base directly supports more than 97,000 uniquely-skilled American jobs and indirectly supports thousands more through second and third tier suppliers. The highly specialized skills in our shipbuilding base take years to develop and, if lost, cannot be easily or quickly replaced. Level loading and predictable ship procurement allow industry to stabilize its workforce and retain the critical skills essential to our national
security.
I am committed to reducing the total ownership cost of our Fleet so that what
we buy today does not pressurize our ability to operate tomorrow. Significant cost
drivers for our Fleet include increasing technical and design complexity, changes in

188
requirements, reductions in the number of ships procured, and higher labor costs.
To reduce these costs, we are pursuing common hull forms and components, open
architecture for hardware and software, and increased modularity. Moreover, we are
considering total ownership costs in procurement decisions. We are exploring new
ways to design our ships with greater affordability throughout their lives, including
reducing costs of fuel consumption, maintenance, and manpower and by increasing
the efficiency of our maintenance and support processes and organizations. We are
leveraging open production lines to deliver proven and required capabilities, such
as in our DDG 51 and EA18G programs. We are promoting longer production runs
with our Virginia class SSNs, EA18G and F/A18E/F, P8A, BAMS, and DDG 51
programs. We are capitalizing on repeat builds to control requirements creep and
increase predictability with our aircraft carrier, destroyer, and submarine programs.
Finally, we are pursuing evolutionary instead of revolutionary designs to deliver required future capabilities. Our future missile defense capable ship, for example, will
be developed by spiraling capability into our DDG 51 class ships, instead of designing and building a new cruiser from the keel up.
I remain committed to delivering a balanced and capable Fleet that will meet our
national security requirements. I seek your support for the following initiatives and
programs:
AVIATION PROGRAMS

Aircraft Carrier Force Structure


The Navy remains firmly committed to maintaining a force of 11 carriers for the
next three decades. With the commissioning of U.S.S. George H.W. Bush (CVN 77)
and inactivation of the 48-year-old U.S.S. Kitty Hawk (CV 63), our last conventionally powered aircraft carrier, we now have an all nuclear-powered carrier force. Our
carriers enable our nation to respond rapidly, decisively, and globally to project
power, as we have done in Iraq and Afghanistan, or to deliver humanitarian assistance, as we have done in Haiti, while operating from a small, yet persistent, footprint that does not impose unnecessary political or logistic burdens on other nations.
Our carriers remain a great investment for our nation.
Our eleven-carrier force structure is based on worldwide presence and surge requirements, while also taking into account training and maintenance needs. I thank
Congress for granting us a waiver to temporarily reduce our force to ten carriers
for the period between the inactivation of U.S.S. Enterprise (CVN 65) and the delivery of Gerald R. Ford (CVN 78). We will continue to meet operational commitments
during this 33-month period by managing carefully carrier deployment and maintenance cycles. After the delivery of CVN 78, we will maintain an eleven-carrier force
through the continued refueling program for Nimitz class ships and the delivery of
our Ford class carriers at 5-year intervals starting in 2020.
CVN 78 is the lead ship of our first new class of aircraft carriers in nearly 40
years. Ford class carriers will be our nations premier forward-deployed asset capable of responding to crises or delivering early decisive striking power in a major
combat operation. These new carriers incorporate an innovative new flight deck design that provides greater operational flexibility, reduced manning requirements,
and the ability to operate current and future naval aircraft from its deck. Among
the new technologies being integrated in these ships is the Electromagnetic Aircraft
Launch System (EMALS), which will enable the carriers increased sortie generation
rate and lower total ownership costs. EMALS is on track for an aircraft demonstration later this year and is on schedule to support delivery of CVN 78 in September
2015.
Strike Fighter Capacity: Joint Strike Fighter and F/A18 E/F
Our Navy remains committed to the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program. The
timely delivery of the F35C carrier variant remains critical to our future carrier
airwing strike fighter capacity. Our Navy has the necessary tactical aircraft capacity
in the near term to support our nations strategic demands; however, a January
2010 assessment forecasts a decrease in our carrier-based strike fighter capacity
that peaks in 2018. We have a plan to address this capacity decrease that involves
several management and investment measures.
Our force management measures are targeted at preserving the service life of our
existing legacy strike fighter aircraft (F/A18AD). We will reduce the number of
aircraft available in our squadrons during non-deployed phases to the minimum required. We will reduce our Unit Deployed squadrons (UDP) from twelve aircraft to
ten aircraft per squadron to match the corresponding decrease in Marine Corps expeditionary squadrons. We are accelerating the transition of five legacy F/A18C
squadrons to F/A18 E/F Super Hornets using available F/A18E/F aircraft and will

189
transition two additional legacy squadrons using Super Hornet attrition reserve aircraft. These measures make our legacy strike fighter aircraft available for High
Flight Hour (HFH) inspections and our Service Life Extension Program, which together will extend their service life and manage to some extent the decrease in our
carrier-based strike fighter capacity through 2018. These measures expend the service life of our Super Hornets earlier than programmed, so we are refining our depot
level production processes to maximize throughput and return legacy strike fighter
aircraft to the Fleet expeditiously. Our fiscal year 2011 budget procures 22 additional F/A18E/F aircraft.
Our investment measures are targeted at extending the service life of our F/A
18AD aircraft and procuring Joint Strike Fighter (JSF). HFH inspections, which
have been in place for 2 years, provide the ability to extend the service life of our
legacy F/A18AD aircraft to 8,600 flight hours, while engineering analysis is underway to determine the SLEP requirements necessary to reach the service life extension goal of 10,000 flight hours. The HFH and SLEP programs increase our institutional risk by diverting investment and maintenance funds from other accounts,
but they are necessary measures to address our strike fighter decrease while preserving our investment in JSF.
I remain committed to the JSF program because of the advanced sensor, precision
strike, firepower, and stealth capabilities JSF will bring to our Fleet. While the
overall system demonstration and development schedule for JSF has slipped, we
still plan for our squadrons to receive their first JSF airplanes in 2014 and we have
not reduced the total number of airplanes we plan to buy. We are monitoring the
JSF program closely and managing our existing strike fighter capacity to meet
power projection demands until JSF is delivered. Procurement of an alternate engine for JSF increases our risk in this program. The Navy does not have a requirement for an alternate engine, and its additional costs threaten our ability to fund
currently planned aircraft procurement quantities, which would exacerbate our anticipated decrease in strike fighter capacity. Our fiscal year 2011 budget request
procures seven F35C aircraft.
EA18G Growler
The proliferation of technology has allowed state and non-state actors to use the
electromagnetic spectrum with increasing sophistication. Airborne Electronic Attack
(AEA) provides one of the most flexible offensive capabilities available to the joint
warfighter and it remains in high demand in traditional, irregular, and hybrid conflicts. The Navy continues to provide extensive AEA support from our carriers afloat
and from our expeditionary EA6B Prowler squadrons deployed currently to Iraq
and Afghanistan.
We are leveraging the mature and proven F/A18E/F airframe production line to
recapitalize our aging EA6B aircraft with the EA18G Growler. As directed in the
QDR, we are planning to procure an additional 26 EA18G Growler aircraft across
the FYDP to increase joint force capacity to conduct expeditionary electronic attack.
Our program of record will buy 114 total EA18G aircraft, recapitalizing 10 Fleet
EA6B squadrons and four expeditionary squadrons. The program continues to deliver as scheduled. In September, our first EA18G transition squadron, based at
NAS Whidbey Island, reached Initial Operational Capability and it will deploy as
an expeditionary squadron later this year. Our fiscal year 2011 budget requests
funding for 12 EA18Gs.
P3 Orion and P8A Poseidon Multi-Mission Maritime Aircraft
Your continued support of the P3 and P8A force remains essential and is appreciated greatly. Our P3 Orion roadmap focuses on sustainment and selected modernization until it is replaced by the P8A Poseidon. These aircraft provide capabilities ideally suited for regional and littoral crises and conflict, and are our pre-eminent airborne capability against submarine threats. Our P3s are in high demand
today for the time-critical intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance they provide
to the joint force on the ground in CENTCOM and for their direct contributions to
our maritime domain awareness in key regions across the globe.
P3 Zone 5 wing fatigue has resulted in the unplanned grounding of 49 aircraft
between 2007 and 2009, with more expected. Mitigation measures include a combination of targeted Zone 5 modifications and outer wing replacements. As of December, we have returned 12 aircraft to service after completing Zone 5 modification
and 32 aircraft are currently being repaired. As part of our sustainment program,
we have included $39.6 million in our fiscal year 2011 budget request to conduct
outer wing installations on nine of our P3 aircraft. P3 sustainment and modernization programs are critical to ensuring successful transition to the P8A, while
preserving essential maritime and overland battle space awareness.

190
The P8A completed its first Navy test flight this past October and will resume
integrated flight testing in March of this year. The P8A will achieve initial operating capability and begin replacing our aging P3 aircraft in 2013. Our fiscal year
2011 budget request procures seven P8A aircraft.
MH60R/S Multi-Mission Helicopter
The MH60R and MH60S successfully completed their first deployment together
this past summer with the U.S.S. John C. Stennis carrier strike group. The MH
60R multi-mission helicopter replaces the surface combatant-based SH60B and carrier-based SH60F with a newly manufactured airframe and enhanced mission systems. With these systems, the MH60R provides focused surface warfare and antisubmarine warfare capabilities for our strike groups and individual ships. Our fiscal
year 2011 budget request procures 24 MH60R helicopters. The MH60S supports
surface warfare, combat logistics, vertical replenishment, search and rescue, air ambulance, airborne mine counter-measures, and naval special warfare mission areas.
Our fiscal year 2011 budget request procures 18 MH60S helicopters.
SURFACE SHIP PROGRAMS

Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)


LCS is a fast, agile, networked surface combatant that is optimized to support
naval and joint force operations in the littorals and capable of supporting openocean operations. It will operate with tailored-mission packages to counter quiet diesel submarines, mines, and fast surface craft. The modular and open architecture
design of the seaframe and mission modules provides the inherent flexibility to
adapt or add capabilities beyond the current Anti-Submarine, Mine Countermeasures, and Surface Warfare missions. These ships will employ a combination of
manned helicopters and unmanned aerial, surface, and undersea vehicles.
U.S.S. Freedom (LCS 1) has completed her post-delivery testing, trial, and shakedown periods and commenced her maiden deployment in February to Southern
Command and Pacific Command. Her deployment 2 years ahead of schedule will
allow us to incorporate operational lessons more quickly and effectively as we integrate these ships into our Fleet. U.S.S. Independence (LCS 2) completed builders
trials in October 2009 and acceptance trials in November 2009. We accepted delivery of Independence on December 18, 2009, and commissioned her January 16, 2010.
In March 2009, fixed price contracts were awarded for U.S.S. Fort Worth (LCS 3)
and U.S.S. Coronado (LCS 4) which are now under construction by Lockheed Martin
and General Dynamics respectively.
I am impressed and satisfied with the capabilities of both LCS designs and am
committed to procuring 55 of these ships. Affordability remains the key factor in acquiring LCS in the quantities we require. After careful review of the fiscal year
2010 industry proposals, consideration of total program costs, and ongoing discussions with Congress, we made the decision to cancel for affordability reasons the
Phase II requests for proposals for three fiscal year 2010 LCS ships and adjust our
acquisition strategy. In fiscal year 2010, we will conduct a competition among the
existing LCS industry participants to down-select to a single LCS design. The winner of the down-select will be awarded a block buy contract for up to 10 ships, to
be procured from fiscal year 2010 through fiscal year 2014 at a rate of two ships
per year, built in one shipyard. To sustain competition and increase capacity, the
winner of the down-select will be required to deliver a Technical Data Package to
the Navy to support competition for a second contract source. We plan to award up
to five ships to a second source beginning in fiscal year 2012 with one ship and continuing with an additional two ships per year through fiscal year 2014. The winner
of the down-select will provide combat systems equipment, up to 15 ship sets, for
the ships built by the two contract sources: 10 sets for the 10 ships under contract
with the winner of the down-select and up to five additional sets for the five ships
being procured by the second contract source. The five additional sets will later be
provided as government-furnished equipment to support the second source LCS contract. We intend to procure all future LCS ships within the fiscal year 2010 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) revised cost cap. Our down-select strategy
leverages competition to the maximum extent practical, provides for economic procurement quantities, improves learning curve and commonality opportunities, and
ultimately provides for program stability. We recently issued the requests for proposals for this contract and expect industry bids in March of this year.
Consistent with our new strategy, our fiscal year 2011 budget requests two LCS
seaframes and an additional $278 million to secure an LCS block buy, which is essential to lowering unit costs. I request your support as we acquire LCS in the most

191
cost-effective manner and deliver its innovative capability in sufficient capacity to
our Fleet.
Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD)
Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) incorporates all aspects of air defense
against ballistic, anti-ship, and overland cruise missiles. IAMD is vital to the protection of our force, and it is an integral part of our core capability to deter aggression
through conventional means. The demand for sea-based ballistic missile defense
(BMD) is increasing significantly. The Navys mature and successfully demonstrated
maritime BMD capability will play a primary role in the first phase of our nations
plan to provide for the missile defense of Europe. Aegis BMD counters short, medium, and some intermediate range ballistic missiles through active defense and is
able to pass target information to other BMD systems, thereby expanding the BMD
battlespace and support of homeland defense. Currently, 20 ships (four cruisers and
16 destroyers) have this capability and are being used to perform maritime BMD.
All of the Arleigh Burke class destroyers and nine of the Ticonderoga class cruisers
are planned to receive BMD capability through our modernization program.
DDG 51 Restart and Future Surface Combatant
To address the rapid proliferation of ballistic and anti-ship missiles and deepwater submarine threats, as well as increase the capacity of our multipurpose surface ships, we restarted production of our DDG 51 Arleigh Burke class destroyers
(Flight IIA series). These ships will be the first constructed with IAMD, providing
much-needed Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) capacity to the Fleet, and they will
incorporate the hull, mechanical, and electrical alterations associated with our mature DDG modernization program. We will spiral DDG 51 production to incorporate
future integrated air and missile defense capabilities.
We are well underway with restarting DDG 51 production. We awarded advance
procurement (AP) contracts for DDG 113 and 114, and expect to award an AP contract for DDG 115 in the coming months, to support the long lead items necessary
for production of these ships. I thank Congress for supporting our fiscal year 2010
budget, which funded construction of DDG 113. We anticipate a contract award for
DDG 113 production this Spring. Our fiscal year 2011 budget requests funding for
the construction of DDG 114 and DDG 115 as part of our plan to build a total of
eight DDG 51 ships through the FYDP.
The Navy, in consultation with the Office of the Secretary of Defense, conducted
a Radar/Hull Study for future surface combatants that analyzed the total ship system solution necessary to meet our IAMD requirements while balancing affordability and capacity in our surface Fleet. The study concluded that Navy should integrate the Air and Missile Defense Radar program S Band radar (AMDRS), SPY
3 (X Band radar), and Aegis Advanced Capability Build (ACB) combat system into
a DDG 51 hull. While our Radar/Hull Study indicated that both DDG 51 and DDG
1000 were able to support our preferred radar systems, leveraging the DDG 51 hull
was the most affordable option. Accordingly, our fiscal year 2011 budget cancels the
next generation cruiser program due to projected high cost and risk in technology
and design of this ship. I request your support as we invest in spiraling the capabilities of our DDG 51 class from our Flight IIA Arleigh Burke ships to Flight III ships,
which will be our future IAMD-capable surface combatant. We will procure the first
Flight III ship in fiscal year 2016.
Modernization
As threats evolve, we must modernize our existing ships with updated capabilities
that sustain our combat effectiveness and enable our ships to reach their expected
service life, which in the case of our destroyers and cruisers, is more than three decades. Our destroyer and cruiser modernization program includes advances in standard missiles, integrated air and missile defense, open architecture, and essential
hull, mechanical and electrical (HM&E) upgrades. Maintaining the stability of the
cruiser and destroyer modernization program is critical to achieving relevant future
Navy capability and capacity.
Our Navy plans to conduct DDG modernization in two 6-month availabilities. The
first availability is focused on HM&E modifications, while the second availability,
conducted 2 years later, is focused on combat systems modernization. The program
will commence in fiscal year 2010 and focuses on the Flight I and II DDG 51 ships
(hulls 5178). All ships of the class will be modernized at midlife. Key tenets of the
DDG modernization program include: an upgrade of the Aegis Weapons System to
include an Open Architecture (OA) computing environment, an upgrade of the SPY
radar signal processor, the addition of Ballistic Missile Defense capability, installation of the Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile (ESSM), an upgraded SQQ89A(V)15 antisubmarine warfare system, integration with the SM6 Missile, and improved air

192
dominance with processing upgrades and Naval Integrated Fire Control-Counter Air
capability.
The Cruiser Modernization Program will modernize all remaining cruisers (Baseline 2, 3, and 4). The first fully modernized cruiser, U.S.S. Bunker Hill (CG 52), was
completed in June 2009. The key aspects of the CG modernization program include:
an upgrade to the Aegis weapons system to include an OA computing environment,
installation of an SPQ9B radar, addition of the Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile
(ESSM), an upgrade to Close In Weapon System (CIWS) Block 1B, an upgraded
SQQ89A(V)15 anti-submarine warfare system, and improved air dominance with
processing upgrades and Naval Integrated Fire Control-Counter Air capability. Six
Baseline 4 cruisers will receive the Ballistic Missile Defense upgrade.
Our fiscal year 2011 budget requests funding for the modernization of three cruisers and three destroyers.
DDG 1000
The DDG 1000 Zumwalt guided missile destroyer will be an optimally crewed,
multi-mission surface combatant designed to fulfill long-range precision land attack
requirements. In addition to providing offensive, distributed and precision fires in
support of forces ashore, these ships will serve as test-beds for advanced technology,
such as integrated power systems, dual band radars, and advanced survivability features, which can be incorporated into our other ship classes. The first DDG 1000
is under construction and approximately 20 percent complete. We recently notified
Congress of a Nunn-McCurdy breach in this program as a result of our decision to
reduce the number of DDG 1000s in the original program. DDG 1000 will be a
three-ship class. It is scheduled to deliver in fiscal year 2013 with an initial operating capability in fiscal year 2015.
Joint High Speed Vessel (JHSV)
Intra-theater lift is key to enabling the United States to rapidly project, maneuver, and sustain military forces in distant, overseas operations. The Joint High
Speed Vessel (JHSV) program is an Army and Navy joint program that will deliver
a high-speed, shallow draft surface ship capable of rapid transport of medium payloads of cargo and personnel within a theater to austere ports without reliance on
port infrastructure for load/offload. In addition, the Navy JHSV will be capable of
supporting extensive Security Force Assistance and Theater Security Cooperation
operations, including the hosting of small craft for training. A JHSV Production
Readiness Review was completed in October 2009 and the first vessel construction
began this past December with an anticipated delivery to the Army in fiscal year
2012. The second ship, a Navy vessel, is scheduled to be delivered in 2013. Our fiscal year 2011 budget includes funds for the construction of Navys third JHSV. Navy
continues oversight of JHSV procurement for the five Army-funded vessels in this
program. The Army assumes full responsibility for these five vessels following acquisition.
SUBMARINE PROGRAMS

Virginia Class SSN


The Virginia class submarine is a multi-mission submarine that dominates in the
littorals and open oceans. Now in its 13th year of construction, the Virginia program
is demonstrating that this critical undersea capability can be delivered affordably
and on time. Thanks to Congress, these ships will begin construction at a rate of
two a year in 2011, with two ship deliveries per year beginning in 2017. The Navy
continues to realize a return from investments in the Virginia cost reduction program and construction process improvements through enhanced shipbuilder performance on each successive ship. These submarines are under budget and ahead
of schedule, and their performance continues to exceed expectations with every ship
delivered. Three of the five commissioned ships completed initial deployments prior
to their Post Shakedown Availabilities, a first for the Navy. I am pleased with the
accomplishments of the combined Navy-Industry team and look forward to even
greater success as we ramp up production to two submarines next year.
SSGN
Our Navy has four guided missile submarines that provide high-volume strike
and irregular warfare capabilities in support of operations and missions across the
broad spectrum of conflict. SSGNs are performing well on deployment, and we are
learning valuable lessons from each mission. Combatant Commanders value the
long-range strike capability they provide and we are investigating options to sustain
this capability in the most operationally and cost effective manner, to include options for expanding the long-range strike capacity of the submarine fleet.

193
SSBN and OHIO Replacement
Our Navy supports the nations nuclear deterrence capability with a credible and
survivable fleet of 14 Ohio class ballistic missile submarines (SSBN). Originally designed for a 30-year service life, this class will start retiring in 2027 after more than
42 years of service.
The United States needs a reliable and survivable sea-based strategic deterrent
for the foreseeable future. To ensure there is no gap in this critical capability, our
fiscal year 2011 budget requests research and development funds for the Ohio Replacement to support the start of construction of the first ship in fiscal year 2019.
The Ohio Replacement will be a strategic, national asset with the endurance and
stealth to enable our Navy to provide continuous, survivable strategic deterrence
into the 2080s. Appropriate R&D investment is essential to design a reliable, survivable, and adaptable submarine capable of deterring all potential adversaries. We
completed our Analysis of Alternatives study in 2009, and Milestone A is planned
for April 2010. The Ohio replacement program will leverage the many successes of
the Virginia SSN program to achieve acquisition and total ownership cost goals. The
United States will realize significant program benefits as a result of our close partnership with the United Kingdoms Vanguard SSBN replacement program, particularly in the design and construction of a common missile compartment. Our cooperation with the U.K. mitigates technical risk and shares design costs.
AMPHIBIOUS WARFARE SHIPS

Our amphibious warfare ships provide essential capabilities for the full range of
military operations, including theater security cooperation, humanitarian assistance,
conventional deterrence, and forcible entry as part of major combat operations. With
the unique capability to move hundreds of personnel and substantial material
through complementary surface and air capabilities, these ships are key to our ability to overcome geographic, political, and infrastructure impediments to access. The
Commandant of the Marine Corps and I have determined that a minimum of 33 amphibious assault ships represents the limit of acceptable risk in meeting the 38-ship
requirement for supporting a forcible entry operation conducted by an assault echelon of two Marine Expeditionary Brigades (MEB). Our 33-ship force would be comprised of 11 LHA/D amphibious assault ships and a mix of 11 LPD 17 amphibious
transport dock ships and 11 LSD dock landing ships. At this capacity, we are accepting risk in the speed of arrival of the combat support elements of the MEB. The
QDR and our 30-Year Shipbuilding Plan account for 2931 amphibious warfare
ships within the FYDP. We plan to procure the 11th LPD 17 in 2012, which will
allow us to realize a 33-ship minimum amphibious force in about fiscal year 2016.
We continue to review options to achieve and sustain the minimum 33 amphibious
ship assault echelon force.
LPD 17 Class Amphibious Warfare Ship
The LPD 17 class amphibious warfare ships represent the Navy and Marine
Corps commitment to an expeditionary Fleet capable of power projection, security
force assistance, and theater security cooperation in diverse operating environments.
These ships have a 40-year expected service life and will replace four classes of
older ships: the LKA, LST, LSD 36, and the LPD 4. Two LPD 17 class ships have
completed their initial deployments, and U.S.S. New York (LPD 21), forged with
steel from the World Trade Center, delivered in November 2009. We continue to
apply the lessons learned during construction and initial operation of the early ships
to those under construction. Quality is improving with each ship delivered as we
continue to work closely with the shipbuilder to address cost, schedule, and performance concerns.
LHA Replacement (LHA(R))
LHA(R) is the replacement for our aging Tarawa class ships, which will reach the
end of their already extended service life between 20112015. LHA(R) will provide
us flexible, multi-mission amphibious capabilities by leveraging the LHD 8 design
and increasing aviation capacity to better accommodate the Joint Strike Fighter,
MV22, and other aircraft that comprise the future Marine Corps Air Combat Element. We laid the keel of the lead ship, U.S.S. America (LHA 6), in April 2009 and
our fiscal year 2011 budget includes one LHA(R) which is split-funded in fiscal year
2011 and fiscal year 2012.
Mobile Landing Platform (MLP) and Future Maritime Preposition Force (MPF(F))
The MPF(F) program was envisioned as a forward-deployed squadron of ships capable of at-sea assembly and rapid employment of forces in an area of interest during a crisis. Our requirement for amphibious and joint forcible entry operations was

194
reevaluated during the QDR and, as a result, we have adjusted our approach to augment our three existing Maritime Prepositioning Squadrons (MPS) instead of developing an MPF(F) squadron. MPF(F) was optimized for high-end, forcible entry operations, while the augmented MPS will provide enhanced sea basing capabilities
across a wide range of contingency operations. Each existing MPS will be augmented by one Large Medium-Speed Roll-on/Roll-off (LMSR) cargo ship (transferred
from the Army), a TAKE combat logistics ship, and a new Mobile Landing Platform
(MLP). The MLP will be based on existing designs for commercial ocean-going tankers and will meet most of the mission requirements envisioned for the original MLP
design. The three augmented MPS reflect the QDRs emphasis on day-to-day deterrence and partner capacity building, while continuing to meet forcible entry needs.
Our fiscal year 2011 budget request procures one MLP.
INFORMATION DOMINANCE PROGRAMS

Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)


We are investing in unmanned aircraft to meet an increasing warfighter demand
for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR), and we are making technology investments to expand UAS operations to other mission areas. The Broad
Area Maritime Surveillance (BAMS) UAS will enhance our situational awareness
and shorten the sensor-to-shooter kill chain by providing persistent, multiple-sensor
capabilities to Fleet and Joint Commanders. The Vertical Take-off and Landing Tactical Unmanned Air Vehicle (VTUAV) Fire Scout is on its first deployment aboard
the U.S.S. McInerney (FFG 8). We are developing a medium endurance maritimebased UAS and a Small Tactical Unmanned Aerial System (STUAS) that will support a variety of ships, Naval Special Warfare and Navy Expeditionary Combat
Command units, and Marine Corps elements.
The Navy Unmanned Combat Aircraft System demonstration (UCASD) is designed to prove carrier suitability of an autonomous, unmanned, low observable, carrier-based aircraft. This effort includes maturing technologies for aircraft carrier
catapult launches and arrested landings, as well integration into carrier-controlled
airspace. Initial flight tests to demonstrate carrier suitability are scheduled to start
later this year and autonomous aerial refueling demonstrations are planned for
2013. We will leverage the lessons learned from operating the demonstrator in developing a low-observable unmanned carrier-launched airborne strike and surveillance system.
Mobile User Objective System (MUOS)
Our Maritime Strategy demands a flexible, interoperable, and secure global communications capability that can support the command and control requirements of
highly mobile and distributed U.S. and coalition forces. Satellite communications
give deployed forces a decisive military advantage and often offer the only communication means to support on-going operations. Rapidly expanding joint demand for
more access at ever-higher data rates requires moving beyond our current legacy
Ultra High Frequency (UHF) satellite capabilities. The Mobile User Objective System (MUOS) will satisfy those demands when initial operational capability is
reached in fiscal year 2012. I request your continued support of MUOS and the critical UHF satellite communication capability it will provide to the joint warfighter
as the aging UHF Follow-On (UFO) constellation degrades.
Next Generation Enterprise Network (NGEN)
The Navy is continuing its transition from disparate independent computer networks to a single secure network environment. We are currently evolving our ashore
network from the Navy Marine Corps Intranet (NMCI), the largest intranet in the
world, to the Next Generation Enterprise Network (NGEN). NGEN Increment 1 is
the follow-on to the existing NMCI contract, which expires at the end of fiscal year
2010. NGEN will sustain the services currently provided by NMCI, while increasing
government command and control of our network and enabling secure, reliable, and
adaptable global information exchange. Future NGEN increments will expand on
services currently provided by NMCI and support seamless transition between
afloat and ashore environments. A continuity of services contract is expected to be
awarded this spring and NGEN Initial Operating Capability is scheduled for the
summer of 2012.
E2D Advanced Hawkeye
The E2D Advanced Hawkeye aircraft, which replaces the E2C, will improve
nearly every facet of tactical air operations and add overland and littoral surveillance to support theater Integrated Air and Missile Defense against air threats in
high clutter, complex electro-magnetic and jamming environments. The airborne

195
radar on the E2D, with its improved surveillance capability, is a key pillar of the
Navy Integrated Fire Control concept. The E2D is scheduled to begin operational
test and evaluation in 2012. The first Fleet squadron transition is planned for 2013,
with deployment planned for October 2014. Our fiscal year 2011 budget requests
four E2D Hawkeye aircraft.
REMAIN READY TO FIGHT TODAY

Our Navy continues to operate at a high tempo. We are filling new Combatant
Commander requirements for ballistic missile defense, electronic attack, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR), combat support, combat service support, and maritime security force assistance, in addition to conducting ongoing deployments in support of our maritime and national strategies.
In CENTCOM alone, we have more than 9,000 Sailors at sea, including a U.S.
Navy aircraft carrier and air wing dedicated to providing 24/7 air support to U.S.
and coalition forces on the ground. Navy Riverine forces are on their sixth deployment to Iraq, conducting interdiction patrols and training their Iraqi counterparts.
Our surface ships in the region are providing ballistic missile defense and conducting counter-terrorism, counter-piracy, maritime security, theater security cooperation, and security force assistance operations. On the ground in CENTCOM,
we have more than 12,000 active and reserve Sailors supporting Navy, joint force,
and coalition operations. Navy Commanders lead seven of the 13 U.S.-led Provincial
Reconstruction Teams in Afghanistan. We have doubled our construction battalions
(SEABEEs) in Afghanistan, increasing our capacity to build forward bases for U.S.
forces and improve critical infrastructure in that country. Our Naval Special Warfare Teams continue to be engaged heavily in direct combat operations and our Explosive Ordnance Disposal teams continue to conduct life-saving counter-Improvised
Explosive Device operations on a daily basis. As we shift our effort from Iraq to Afghanistan, demand for Navy individual augmentees (IAs) has grown. We are providing IAs to support the increase of U.S. forces in Afghanistan while our IAs in
Iraq remain at current levels to support the withdrawal of U.S. combat troops,
maintain detention facilities and critical infrastructure, and assist coalition efforts
until they can be turned over to Iraqi forces. During my recent trip to CENTCOM,
I met with many of our dedicated Navy men and women supporting these efforts
and I could not be more proud of their contributions. Their expert skill, ingenuity,
competence, and drive are impressive and unmatched.
Our high tempo will likely continue as combat forces draw down in Iraq and Afghanistan. Navy enabling forces will remain in CENTCOM to provide protection,
ISR, and logistics support to our troops and partner forces in the region, while we
will continue to maintain a forward-deployed presence of about 100 ships around the
world to prevent conflict, increase interoperability with our allies, enhance the maritime security and capacity of our traditional and emerging partners, and respond
to crises. Global demand for Navy forces remains high and continues to rise because
of the unequalled and unique ability of our naval forces to overcome diplomatic, geographic, and military impediments to access while bringing the persistence, flexibility, and agility to conduct operations from the sea.
Reset in stride is how our Navy prepares our Fleet to deploy again. Lifecycle
maintenance and training between deployments is essential to our reset and to the
ability of our ships and aircraft to reach their expected service lives. Although we
are on pace to grow our Fleet for the next 10 years, our Fleet reduced in size over
the past decade. As a result, while we continue to maintain the same number of
ships at sea assigned to Combatant Commanders, we have a historically low number of ships available for at-sea training, exercises, and surge operations. Our fiscal
year 2011 budget request balances the need to meet increasing operational requirements, sustain our Sailors proficiency, and conduct the maintenance required to ensure our ships and aircraft reach their full service lives. Highlights follow of initiatives that ensure our Navy remains ready to fight today.
Depot Level Maintenance
Our ships and aircraft are capital assets that operate in challenging physical and
security environments. Keeping these assets in acceptable operating condition is
vital to their ability to accomplish assigned missions and to reach their expected
service lives. Timely depot level maintenance, performed in a cycle determined by
an engineered assessment of expected material durability and scoped by actual
physical condition, will preserve our existing force structure and ensure it can meet
assigned tasking. Continued investment in depot level maintenance is essential to
our efforts to achieve and sustain the force structure required to implement the
Maritime Strategy.

196
Last year, I established the Surface Ship Life Cycle Management (SSLCM) Activity to address deficiencies in our ship class maintenance plans that could prevent
our ships from reaching their full service life. SSLCM has established an engineered
approach to surface ship maintenance that optimizes existing maintenance availability work packages and better tracks ship material condition through robust inspections and corrosion control tasks. We accelerated our review of the requirements
for certain ship classes, significantly improving the accuracy of our surface ship
maintenance requirements in fiscal year 2011 over prior years. We are committed
to a full review of all surface ship class maintenance plans, which will take several
years. The value of investing in an engineered approach to maintenance is evident
in our submarine force, where we have successfully extended the time between
scheduled availabilities based on demonstrated material conditions and verification
of engineering analysis. Because we have invested in this engineering and planning
effort, we have been able to safely recover additional operational availability and reduce the overall depot level maintenance requirement for our submarines. This significant step has provided some of the resources needed to make additional investments in surface ship maintenance.
Our combined fiscal year 2011 budget funds 99 percent of the projected depot ship
maintenance requirements necessary to sustain our Navys global presence. Our
budget funds aviation depot maintenance to provide 100 percent of the airframes
for deployed squadrons and 96 percent of the non-deployed airframes. I request that
you fully support our baseline and contingency funding requests for operations and
maintenance to ensure the effectiveness of our force, safety of our Sailors, and longevity of our ships and aircraft.
Shore Readiness
Our shore infrastructure is a fundamental enabler of our operational and combat
readiness and is essential to the quality of life and quality of work for our Sailors,
Navy civilians, and their families. As I described last year, rising manpower costs
and growing operational demands on our aging Fleet have led our Navy to take risk
in shore readiness. This risk increases our maintenance, sustainment, restoration,
and modernization requirements and continues our reliance on old and less efficient
energy systems. These factors increase the cost of ownership of our shore infrastructure and outpace our efforts to reduce costs through facilities improvements and energy upgrades. At our current investment levels, our future shore readiness, particularly the recapitalization of our facilities infrastructure, is at risk.
To manage our risk in shore infrastructure, our fiscal year 2011 budget request
prioritizes funding for our most critical needs, including Navy and Joint mission
readiness, nuclear weapons security and safety, and improving our bachelor quarters through sustained funding for our Homeport Ashore initiative. To guide investment in other areas ashore, we continue to pursue our capabilities-based Shore Investment Strategy, which targets our investment in shore infrastructure to where
it will produce the highest return on investment and have the greatest impact on
achieving our strategic and operational objectives, such as in areas that enable critical warfighting capabilities, improve quality of life, and fulfill Joint requirements.
We have made essential progress and improvements in nuclear weapons security,
child care facilities, and bachelors quarters. Thank you for funding all our requested military construction projects in 2010, as well as 19 additional projects and
our Reserve program. Your support allowed us to address ship, aircraft, systems, infrastructure, and training requirements, while enhancing the quality of life and
quality of service for our Sailors and their families. Your similar support and assistance through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 was also very
helpful. As you requested, we identified Military Construction projects for Child Development Centers and barracks and prioritized them according to operational need
and the ability to obligate funds quickly. We selected infrastructure and energy
projects based on mission requirements, quality of life impact, environmental planning status, and our ability to execute quickly. Our aggressive execution schedule
is on track; we have awarded all but one of our 85 initial projects and construction
outlays are ramping up swiftly.
Training Readiness
Our Fleet Synthetic Training (FST) program provides realistic operational training with seamless integration of geographically dispersed Navy, Joint, Interagency
and Coalition forces. Using virtual and constructive training environments has allowed us to reduce our energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions while providing the level of sophistication necessary to prepare our Sailors for operational
and tactical mission proficiency. We continue to evolve FST to provide our Sailors
with exposure to a multitude of warfare areas. Last year, we conducted our first

197
BMD Fleet Synthetic Training event, proving the viability and effectiveness of integrated Navy, Joint and partner-nation BMD training.
The proliferation of advanced, stealthy, nuclear and non-nuclear submarines continues to challenge our Navys ability to guarantee the access and safety of joint
forces. Effective Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) training with active sonar systems
is vital to meeting potential threats. The Navy remains a world leader in marine
mammal research and we will continue our robust investment in this research in
fiscal year 2011 and beyond. Through such efforts, and in full consultation and cooperation with other Federal agencies, Navy has developed effective measures that
protect marine mammals and the ocean environment from adverse impacts of midfrequency active (MFA) sonar while not impeding vital Navy training. We continue
to work closely with our interagency partners to further refine our protective measures as scientific knowledge evolves. It is vitally important that any such measures
ensure the continued flexibility necessary to respond to future, potentially unforeseen national security requirements.
Over the last year, we completed environmental planning for seven existing and
proposed at-sea training and combat certification areas. We expect to complete planning for another six areas by the end of 2010 as we continue to balance our responsibility to prepare naval forces for deployment and combat operations with our responsibility to be good stewards of the marine environment.
Conducting night and day field carrier landing practice (FCLP) prior to at-sea carrier qualifications is a critical training requirement for our fixed-wing carrier-based
pilots, who must develop and maintain proficiency in the fundamentals necessary
to conduct safe carrier-based flight operations. We continue to seek additional airfield capacity in the form of an outlying landing field (OLF) that will enhance our
ability to support FCLP training for fixed-wing, carrier pilots operating from Naval
Air Station Oceana and Naval Station Norfolk. The additional OLF will allow Navy
to meet training requirements and overcome challenges related to capacity limits,
urban encroachment, and impacts from adverse weather conditions at existing East
Coast facilities. In August 2009, the Navy announced that the release of the draft
environmental impact statement (EIS) for construction and operation of an OLF
would be delayed. This delay was necessary to ensure Joint Strike Fighter noise
analysis is included in the OLF draft EIS. The Navy is committed to developing,
with local, state, and Federal leaders, a plan to ensure the OLF provides positive
benefits to local communities while addressing Navy training shortfalls.
Energy and Climate
Energy reform is a strategic imperative. The Secretary of the Navy and I are committed to changing the way we do business to realize an energy-secure future. In
alignment with the Secretary of the Navys five goals, our priorities are to advance
energy security by improving combat capability, assuring mobility, lightening the
load, and greening our footprint. We will achieve these goals through energy efficiency improvements, consumption reduction initiatives, and adoption of alternative
energy and fuels. Reducing our reliance on fossil fuels will improve our combat capability by increasing time on station, reducing time spent alongside replenishment
ships, and producing more effective and powerful future weapons. Most of our
projects remain in the demonstration phase; however, we are making good progress
in the form of hybrid-electric drive, delivered last year on the U.S.S. Makin Island
(LHD 8), bio-fuel engines, advanced hull and propeller coatings, solid state lighting,
and policies that encourage Sailors to reduce their consumption through simple
changes in behavior.
Thanks to your support, the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA)
funded Navy energy conservation and renewable energy investment in 11 tactical
and 42 shore-based projects totaling $455 million. Tactical projects included alternative fuel, drive, and power systems, while ashore projects included alternative energy (wind, solar and geothermal) investments in ten states and the installation of
advance metering infrastructure in three regions. Our fiscal year 2011 budget continues to invest in tactical and ashore energy initiatives, requesting $128 million for
these efforts.
In our Maritime Strategy we addressed maritime operations in an era of climate
change, especially in the ice diminished Arctic. In May 2009, I established the
Navys Task Force on Climate Change (TFCC) to develop policy, investment, and
force-structure recommendations regarding climate change in the Arctic and globally
over the long-term. Our focus will be to ensure Navy readiness and capability in
a changing global environment.

198
Second East Coast Carrier-capable Port
Hampton Roads is the only nuclear carrier capable port on the East Coast. A catastrophic event in the Hampton Roads Area affecting port facilities, shipping channels, supporting maintenance or training infrastructure, or the surrounding community has the potential to severely limit East Coast Carrier operations, even if the
ships themselves are not affected. Consistent with todays dispersal of West Coast
aircraft carriers between California and Washington State, the QDR direction to
make Naval Station Mayport a nuclear carrier-capable homeport addresses the
Navys requirement for a capable facility to maintain aircraft carriers in the event
that a natural or manmade disaster makes the Hampton Roads area inaccessible.
While there is an upfront cost to upgrade Naval Station Mayport to support our nuclear aircraft carriers, Mayport has been a carrier homeport since 1952 and is the
most cost-effective means to achieve strategic dispersal on the East Coast. The national security benefits of this additional homeport far outweigh those costs.
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
The Law of the Sea Convention codifies navigation and overflight rights and high
seas freedoms that are essential for the global mobility of our armed forces. It directly supports our national security interests. Not being a party to this Convention
constrains efforts to develop enduring maritime partnerships, inhibits efforts to expand the Proliferation Security Initiative, and elevates the level of risk for our Sailors as they undertake operations to preserve navigation rights and freedoms, particularly in areas such as the Strait of Hormuz and Arabian Gulf, and the East and
South China Seas. By becoming a party to the Convention, the United States will
be able to expand its sovereign rights to the increasingly accessible outer continental shelf areas of the resource rich environment of the Arctic, as well as in other
locations where technological advances are opening up previously unobtainable resources. Accession to the Law of the Sea Convention remains a priority for our
Navy.
DEVELOP AND SUPPORT OUR SAILORS, NAVY CIVILIANS AND THEIR FAMILIES

Our Sailors, Navy civilians, and their families underpin our Maritime Strategy
and are the foundation of our nations global force for good. We have great ships,
aircraft, weapons, and systems, but it is our skilled and innovative Sailors who turn
these ships, aircraft, and technologies into capabilities that can prevent conflict and
win wars. In January 2010, we released the Navy Total Force Vision for the 21st
century to guide our efforts to attract, recruit, develop, assign, and retain a highlyskilled workforce and reaffirm our commitment to supporting our uniformed and civilian people wherever they serve and live.
We have transitioned from reducing end strength to stabilizing our force through
a series of performance-based measures. Our stabilization efforts remain focused on
maintaining a balanced force in terms of seniority, experience, and skills while supporting growth in high-demand areas such as cyber and special operations. We recognize the importance of retaining the talent and experience of our Sailors after
they complete their active duty obligation so we are actively removing barriers associated with the transition between active and reserve careers to allow for a continuum of service over a lifetime. Our fiscal year 2011 budget requests authorization
and funding for 328,700 active end strength and 65,500 reserve end strength. We
continue to request OCO funding for our individual augmentees that are performing
non-core Navy missions in support of contingency operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. OCO funding remains critical to our ability to meet these missions without
adversely impacting Fleet readiness or Sailor dwell time.
We continue to provide support to our Sailors and their families, including those
who are wounded, ill and injured, through expanded Fleet and Family Support services, Navy Safe Harbor, and our Operational Stress Control program. We are addressing aggressively the recent rise in suicide rates by implementing new training
and outreach programs for Fleet commanders, Sailors, and Navy families to increase
suicide awareness and prevention. We are focused on reducing sexual assaults in
our Navy through our new Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Office and initiatives that emphasize our intolerance for sexual assault and related behavior in
our Navy. We remain committed to helping our Sailors balance work and family
commitments through initiatives such as 12-month operational deferments for new
mothers (the most comprehensive policy of all military services), 21 days of administrative leave for adoptive parents, 10 days of paternity leave, a Career Intermission
pilot program, and flexible work options. I continue to emphasize diversity outreach
and mentorship to ensure we attract, leverage, and retain the diverse talent of our
nation. Diversity among U.S. Naval Academy and Navy Reserve Officer Training

199
Corps (NROTC) applicants and graduates continues to grow each year. Through our
Naval War College and Naval Postgraduate School, we are providing Joint Professional Military Education and world-class higher education and training to our Sailors. We continue to build our Foreign Area Officer program to strengthen existing
and emerging international partnerships.
Our fiscal year 2011 budget request represents a balanced approach to supporting
our Sailors and their families, sustaining the high tempo of current operations, and
preserving Fleet and family readiness. I request the continued support of Congress
for our fiscal year 2011 manpower and personnel initiatives.
Recruiting and Retention
Our Navy has attracted, recruited and retained a highly-skilled workforce over
the past several years, and we expect this success to continue into fiscal year 2011.
Fiscal year 2009 marked the second consecutive year Navy achieved its aggregate
officer and enlisted recruiting goals in both the active and reserve components. At
the forefront of this effort is our highly trained and professional recruiting force,
which has postured us to respond to changing trends. We continue to attract the
highest quality enlisted recruits in our history. We are exceeding DOD and Navy
standards for the percentage of non-prior service enlisted recruits who have earned
a high school diploma and whose test scores are in the upper mental group category.
We met the Navy standard of 95 percent of recruits with a high school diploma in
fiscal year 2009 and are currently at 96 percent this fiscal year. We exceeded the
Navy standard of 70 percent of recruits in the upper mental group category in fiscal
year 2009 (77 percent tested into this group) and we are currently at 78 percent
this fiscal year.
Navy will remain competitive in the employment market through the disciplined
use of monetary and non-monetary incentives. Using a targeted approach, we will
continue our recruiting and retention initiatives to attract and retain our best Sailors, especially those within high-demand, critical skill areas that remain insulated
from economic conditions. Judicious use of special and incentive pays remains essential to recruiting and retaining these professionals in the current economic environment, and will increase in importance as the economic recovery continues. Our goal
remains to maintain a balanced force, in which seniority, experience, and skills are
matched to requirements.
Diversity
Our Navy draws its strength and innovation from the diversity of our nation. We
continue to aggressively expand our diversity. We are committed to implementing
policies and programs that foster a Navy Total Force composition that reflects
Americas diversity. We have increased diverse accessions through targeted recruiting in diverse markets, developed relationships with key influencers in the top diverse metropolitan markets, and are aligning all Navy assets and related organizations to maximize our connection with educators, business leaders and government
officials to increase our influencer base. Recruiting and retaining a diverse workforce, reflective of the nations demographics at all levels of the chain of command,
is a strategic imperative, critical to mission accomplishment, and remains focus area
for leaders throughout our Navy.
We continue to expand our relationships with key influencers and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM)-based affinity groups to inform our
nations youth about the unique opportunities available in our Navy. To increase our
accessibility to diverse markets, we established NROTC units at Arizona State University and Tuskegee University. Tuskegee University accepted students in the fall
of 2009, and ASU will accept students in the fall of 2010. Our diversity outreach
efforts have contributed to our 2013 U.S. Naval Academy and NROTC classes being
the most diverse student bodies in our history. In the years ahead, we will continue
to focus our efforts on retaining this talent by building and sustaining a continuum
of mentorship approach that reaches out and engages Sailors throughout their career. This approaches includes social networking, strong relationships with affinity
groups, and various programs offered by our Sailors immediate commands and associated leadership in addition to their respective enterprises and communities.
Women on Submarines
The Secretary of the Navy and I are in the process of changing the Navy policy
that restricts women from serving aboard our submarines. This move will enable
our Navy and, specifically, our submarine force to leverage the tremendous talent
and potential of our female officers and enlisted personnel. Initial integration will
include female officers assigned to ballistic missile (SSBN) and guided missile
(SSGN) submarines, since officer accommodations on these submarines have more
available space and appear to require less modification. The plan also integrates fe-

200
male supply corps officers onto SSBNs and SSGNs at the department head level.
We are planning the first female submarine officer candidate accessions into the
standard nuclear training and submarine training pipelines this year, making it
possible to assign the first women to submarines as early as fiscal year 2012. Integration of enlisted females on SSBNs and SSGNs and integration of officer and enlisted female personnel on attack submarines (SSNs) will occur later, once the extent of necessary modifications is determined. This initiative has my personal attention and I will continue to keep you informed as we integrate these highly motivated
and capable officers into our submarine force.
Sailor and Family Continuum of Care
We remain committed to providing our Sailors and their families a comprehensive
continuum of care that addresses all aspects of medical, physical, psychological, and
family readiness. Our fiscal year 2011 budget request expands this network of services and caregivers to ensure that all Sailors and their families receive the highest
quality healthcare available. Navy Safe Harbor, Navys Operational Stress Control
Program, Reserve Psychological Health Outreach Program, Warrior Transition Program, and Returning Warrior Workshop are critical elements of this continuum.
Navy Safe Harbor continues to provide non-medical support for all seriously
wounded, ill, and injured Sailors, Coast Guardsmen, and their families through a
network of Recovery Care Coordinators and non-medical Care Managers at 16 locations across the country. Over the past year, Safe Harbors enrollment has grown
from 387 to 542. Over 84,000 Sailors have participated in Operational Stress Control (OSC) training, which is providing a comprehensive approach designed to actively promote the psychological health of Sailors and their families throughout
their careers while reducing the traditional stigma associated with seeking help.
The Warrior Transition Program (WTP) and Returning Warrior Workshops (RWW)
are essential to post-deployment reintegration efforts. WTP, established in Kuwait
and expanded via Mobile Care Teams to Iraq and Afghanistan, provides a place and
time for individual augmentees to decompress and transition from life in a war zone
to resumption of life at home. The RWW identifies problems, encourages Sailors to
share their experiences, refers family members to essential resources, and facilitates
the demobilization process.
Stress on the Force
As we continue to operate at a high operational tempo to meet our nations demands in the Middle East and around the world, the tone of the force remains positive. We continue to monitor the health of the force by tracking statistics on personal and family-related indicators such as stress, financial well-being and command climate, as well as Sailor and family satisfaction with the Navy. Recent results indicate that Sailors and their families remain satisfied with command morale,
the quality of leadership, education benefits, healthcare, and compensation.
Suicide affects individuals, commands and families. We continue efforts at suicide
prevention through a multi-faceted approach of communication, training, and command support designed to foster resilience and promote psychological health among
Sailors. Navys calendar year 2009 suicide rate of 13.8 per 100,000 Sailors represents an increase from the previous year rate of 11.6 per 100,000 Sailors. Although this is below the national rate of 19.0 per 100,000 individuals for the same
age and gender demographic, any loss of life as a result of suicide is unacceptable.
We remain committed to creating an environment in which stress and other suiciderelated factors are more openly recognized, discussed, and addressed. We continue
to develop and enhance programs designed to mitigate suicide risk factors and improve the resilience of the force. These programs focus on substance abuse prevention, financial management, positive family relationships, physical readiness, and
family support, with the goal of reducing individual stress. We continue to work towards a greater understanding of the issues surrounding suicide to ensure that our
policies, training, interventions, and communication efforts are meeting their intended objectives.
Sexual assault is incompatible with our Navy core values, high standards of professionalism, and personal discipline. We have reorganized our efforts in this critical
area under the Navy Sexual Assault Prevention and Response (SAPR) program,
which takes a multi-faceted approach to raise awareness of effective prevention
methods, victim response and offender accountability. Recent program reviews undertaken by the Government Accountability Office, the Defense Task Force on Sexual Assault in the Military Services, and the Navy Inspector General will help us
to identify program gaps and refine our program so we can continue to promote a
culture that is intolerant of sexual assault.

201
Learning and Development
Education and training are strategic investments that give us an asymmetric advantage over our adversaries. To develop the highly-skilled, combat-ready force necessary to meet the demands of the Maritime Strategy and the Joint Force, we have
15 learning centers around the country providing top-notch training to our Sailors
and Navy civilians. We continue to leverage civilian credentialing programs to bolster the professional qualifications of Sailors in all ratings and increase Sailor equity in their own professional advancement. We are balancing existing education
and training requirements with growth in important mission areas such as cyber
warfare, missile defense, and anti-submarine warfare. Cultural, historical, and linguistic expertise remain essential to the Navys global mission, and our budget request supports expansion of the Language, Regional Expertise, and Culture (LREC)
program for NROTC midshipmen, as well as implementation of the AFPAK Hands
Program. We recognize the importance of providing our people meaningful and relevant education, particularly Joint Professional Military Education (JPME), which
develops leaders who are strategically-minded, capable of critical thinking, and
adept in naval and joint warfare. Our resident courses at Naval War College, nonresident courses at Naval Postgraduate School and Fleet Seminar program, and distance offerings provide ample opportunity for achievement of this vital education.
I appreciate the support of Congress in the recent post-9/11 GI Bill. We have led
DOD in implementing this vital education benefit and continue to carefully balance
our voluntary education investments to further develop our force.
CONCLUSION

Our Sailors are performing brilliantly, providing incredible service in the maritime, land, air, space, and cyberspace domains around the world today. I am optimistic about our future and the global leadership opportunities that our Navy provides for our nation. Our fiscal year 2011 budget request continues the progress we
started in fiscal year 2010 to increase Fleet capacity, maintain our warfighting readiness, and develop and enhance the Navy Total Force. I ask for your strong support
of our fiscal year 2011 budget request and my identified priorities. Thank you for
your unwavering commitment to our Sailors, Navy civilians, and their families, and
for all you do to make our United States Navy an effective and enduring global force
for good.

Chairman INOUYE. Now, may I call upon the Commandant of the


Marine Corps, General Conway.
STATEMENT OF GENERAL JAMES T. CONWAY, COMMANDANT, MARINE
CORPS

General CONWAY. Mr. Chairman, Senator Cochran, and distinguished members of the subcommittee, thank you for the opportunity to report to you on the posture of your Marine Corps. My
pledge, as it has been over the years, is to provide you, today, with
a candid and honest assessment.
Having recently returned from a trip to theater, Im pleased to
report to you on the magnificent performance of marines and sailors in combat. If you count a 4-year enlistment as a generation of
marines, we are now experiencing our third generation of great
young patriots since our Nation was provoked on 9/11. The first
generation broke trail, leading the strikes into Afghanistan and
Iraq. The second generation quelled a once-volatile province of
Anbar. Today, there are less than 130 marines in Iraq, but our
third generation has more than 16,000 serving in Afghanistan.
Your marines are fighting a skilled and determined enemy, but,
with the Afghan Security Forces, they are once again proving that
they are the strongest tribe in the Taliban stronghold of Helmand.
Let me assure you from what the sergeant major and I witnessed
firsthand, the highest morale in the Corps resides in those units
posted in Afghanistan.

202
My written statement to the subcommittee provides a snapshot
of the Corps and describes our near-term focus, long-term priorities, and our vision of the future. That vision matches closely the
results of the Quadrennial Defense Review. The Secretary of Defense seeks to create a U.S. Military more closely focused on hybrid
threats, yet capable of responding to a major-level contingency.
That combination essentially describes the Marine Corps that we
have built today, a Corps we call a two-fisted fighter, able to perform equally well in a counterinsurgency or in a high-intensity
combined-arms fight.
Our resource expenditures, moreover, reflect our dual or swing
capacity. That is to say that 100 percent of our Marine Corps
equipment can be used in a hybrid conflict or in a major fight.
Equipment procurement is, indeed, our primary concern, as we
look at the fiscal year 2011 budget and beyond. Our requirements
for equipment density in Afghanistan and our resolve to reestablish
our maritime pre-positioned squadrons have driven equipment
stocks to an all-time low in our operating forces at home station.
The ability to properly train for deployment, and certainly the ability to respond to an unexpected contingency, is at significant risk,
based on this increasing shortfall.
Congress has promised us resources for reset and reconstitution.
But, increasingly, we cannot wait for the guns to fall silent in Afghanistan for such an effort to begin. We ask for your help in this
critical area.
Our military construction accounts in the fiscal year 2011 budget
and the FYDP are sufficient to help maintain a promise we have
made to our marines, that they will have quality living spaces
while theyre home between deployments. One need only visit some
of our major bases and stations to realize that we waited too long
to begin this effort.
Similarly, we believe that, even in wartime, we must continue a
heavy emphasis on education of our officers and our staff noncommissioned officers. A strong reservoir of strategic and operational thinkers is a must on sophisticated joint and combined battlefields. Therefore, a quality Marine Corps university with facilities to match our already world-class student body, faculty, and
curriculum is a major priority. We trust we will receive your full
support on our military construction investments that will repay
huge dividends in the years to come.
Ladies and gentlemen of the subcommittee, I must admit my
own surprise that our Marine Corps and their families have remained so resilient over these 9 years of conflict. They have been
incredibly determined, loyal, and courageous in an effort to see
these two wars to a successful close. Much of the credit goes to you,
in the Congress, for providing them with the finest, in terms of
equipment, warrior care, quality of life for families, and compensation. The number one question in the minds of our troops is always,
Is the country behind us? The Members of Congress have answered
that question in spades, both by your apportionment of the Nations
precious resources, but also through personal efforts to visit both
troops in theater and our wounded at Bethesda and Walter Reed.
As a result of all the above and the natural tendency of marines
to stick around for a fight, our recruitment and retention are at all-

203
time highs. I predict that, for the second year in a row, we will
close out reenlistment for both the first-term and career force halfway through the fiscal year. Clearly, such a phenomenon would not
be possible if marines and their families were not happy in the
service of their country.
One day this long war with terrorists and Islamic extremists will
be over. Your Marine Corps will cease being a second land army
and will gladly rejoin our Navy brothers aboard amphibious ships
in order to project Americas global presence, demonstrate American goodwill, and, if need be, protect Americas vital interests.
Until that day comes, however, your Corps will continue, as we
say, to do windows. That is, we will continue to take aboard the
indomitable youth of America and make them marines, with the
absolute conviction that, as a result, they will one day be better
citizens. We will be trained and equally as prepared to route
Taliban fighters in Marjah as we are to feed beleaguered Haitians
outside Port-au-Prince. With your continued support, and that of
our loyal countrymen, we will do whatever the Nation asks us to
do, and do it exceedingly well.
PREPARED STATEMENT

Thank you, sir, and I look forward to your questions.


Chairman INOUYE. I thank you very much, General.
[The statement follows:]
PREPARED STATEMENT

OF

GENERAL JAMES T. CONWAY

Chairman Inouye, Senator Cochran, Members of the Subcommittee, thank you for
the opportunity to provide a written report for the record on the current posture
of the Marine Corps. My pledge, as always, is to provide you with a candid and honest assessment. On behalf of all Marines, their families, and our civilian employees,
I want to thank you for your concern and continued support.
This brief statement contains a summary of our near-term focus and enduring priorities, an update on your Marine Corps today, a discussion of the challenges we
see ahead, and our vision of the future. In addition to any testimony you wish to
receive from me, I have directed the Deputy Commandants of the Marine Corps to
meet with you as individuals and members of your respective subcommittees, and
to provide you any other information you require. Our liaison officers will also deliver copies of 2010 U.S. Marine Corps Concepts and Programs to the offices of each
member of the committee. This almanac and reference book contains detailed descriptions of all our major programs and initiatives. We hope you will find it useful.
YOUR MARINE CORPS

We believe that Americans expect their Marines to be ready to respond when our
country is threatened; to arrive on the scene on short notice anywhere in the world
via the amphibious ships of the United States Navy, as was necessary when a disastrous earthquake recently struck Haiti; and to fight and win our Nations battles.
The public invests greatly in the Marine Corps. In turn, our commitment is to uphold their special trust and confidence and provide them the best return on their
investment.
Characteristics.Your Marine Corps is a young force that provides great value to
the Nation.
The average age of a Marine is 25 years old.
Almost half of the enlisted force84,830 Marinesis between the ranks of private and lance corporal (pay grades E1E3).1

1 As

of December 23, 2009.

204
Almost 70 percent of your Marines are on their first enlistment, and some
30,000 have been in uniform for less than 1 year.2
The ratio of officers to enlisted Marines is 1:9the lowest of all the services.3
More than 136,000 Marines (67 percent) are in deploying unitswhat we call
the Operating Forces. Nearly 30,000 Marines are forward deployed, forward
based, or on training exercises around the world.
For 6.5 percent 4 of the baseline 2010 Defense budget, the Marine Corps provides: 17 percent of the Nations active ground combat maneuver units; 12 percent of the Nations fixed wing tactical aircraft; and 19 percent of the Nations
attack helicopters.
Expeditionary.The Marine Corps is the Nations naval expeditionary, combinedarms force-in-readiness. To Marines, expeditionary connotes fast, austere, and lethal.
Expeditionary means rapid deployment by air or sea to respond to crises of temporary duration. For example, within 24 hours of the speech by the President
of the United States in December announcing the current strategy in Afghanistan, the lead elements of 1st Battalion, 6th Marines from Camp Lejeune, North
Carolina were en route to Afghanistan.
Expeditionary means being efficient and effective while operating in an austere
environmenta task-organized force that is manned and equipped no larger or
heavier than necessary to accomplish the mission.
Expeditionary means being prepared for decisive actionto be lethal, if necessarybut also possessing the lesser-included capabilities for security cooperation, humanitarian assistance, or disaster relief.
In summary, the term expeditionary to Marines goes to the very heart of our
service culture, core values, and warrior ethos. Service as part of an expeditionary force means embracing a Spartan way of life and regular deployments
on foreign soil in furtherance of our Nations interests.5
Organization.The Marine Corps is the only general-purpose force in the Department of Defense that is trained and equipped as the Nations first responders.
We organize in Marine Air-Ground Task Forces (MAGTFs). Under a single command element, the MAGTF integrates three major subordinate elements: (1)
Ground Combat Element, (2) Aviation Combat Element, (3) Logistics Combat
Element. Each element of the MAGTF is complementary, and Marine Corps
forces are most effective and best employed as MAGTFs within the joint or multinational command structure.
MAGTFs are adaptive, general-purpose rapid response forces. They are multicapable, transitioning seamlessly from fighting conventional and hybrid threats
to promoting stability and mitigating conditions that lead to conflict. For example, in 2003, after completing a conventional, 350-mile attack over land from
Kuwait to Baghdad, I Marine Expeditionary Forcea 60,000 Marine-plus
MAGTFwas able to transition quickly to security and stability operations.
Near-Term Focus.We understand the economic challenges facing our country
and the hard decisions Congress must make. We thank you for your unwavering
support. This report discusses the near-term focus of the Marine Corps:
The current fight in Afg