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# STUDY OF THERMOCOUPLE AND RTD

TEMPERATURE TRANDUCER
OPERATING MANUAL

To Study various Temperature Measuring Instruments using thermocouple & RTD and read the
temperature on the digital voltmeter.
Thermocouple setup trainer
Theory:
BLOCK DAIGRAM OF THERMOCOUPLE MEASUREMENT TRAINER
THERMOCOU
PLE- J TYPE
0-400 DEG

2 STAGE OP
AMP
AMPLIFIER

ANALOG TO
DIGITAL
CONVERSIO
N

DISPLAY

Above block diagram shows the block diagram of the thermocouple trainer.
The inputs is sensed by the appropriate thermocouple , and it is converted into the electrical
signal .then it is sufficient amplified by the 2 stage operation amplifier for sufficient
electrical signal that can again converted into the analog to digital converter and directly
displayed on the LED seven segment display.
The trainer directly indicates the temperature on the display.this trainer easily simulate the
process.
THERMOCOUPLE:
If two different metals are joined together, a potential difference occurs across one of the
junction, if another junction is heated. The potential difference depends on the metals
used and the temperature difference between the junctions. If both the junctions are at
same temperature then there will not be net emf produced. Thermocouples are most
important temperature sensors used in industries. Thermocouples are generally
mounted on a sheath to give them mechanical and chemical protection. The type of
sheath used depends on the temperature, at which the thermocouple is to be used. The
best metal thermocouples are E, J, K & T; these are relatively cheap but deteriorate with
the age.
LAWS OF THERMOCOUPLE
LAW OF INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURE: The emf generated in a thermocouple
with junctions at temperatures T1 & T3 is equal to the sum of emf generated by similar

## thermocouples one acting between T1 & T2

and other between T2 & T3, when T2 lies
between T1 & T2.
LAW OF INTERMEDIATE MATERIAL: If a third
wire introduced in between two
conductors, the emf generated remains
unaltered if the two new junctions are at
same
temperature.
Working diagram of thermocouple.
Signal sensed from the thermocouples are
very low, in order of micro-volts per degree
rise in temperature. We cannot drive the
measuring devices to read the temperature.
It needs to be amplified accurately with the
helps of 1-2 stages of operation amplifiers.
THERMOCOUPLE AMPLIFIER

This circuit converts the temperature signals into the analog electrical sinal. This analog electrical
signal is measured here 200mV DPM meter.
Circuit description: The thermocouple signal applied at the input of tc+, tc- . its is a low signal
amplified by the OP-07. Gain is controlled by the gain potentiometer. Then applied to the buffer
amplifer , same output signal to be read at the 200MV DPM.

Description.
The circuit given here is of a very useful and accurate digital voltmeter with LED display
using the ICL7107 from Intersil. The ICL7107 is a high performance, low power, 3.5 digit
analog to digital converter. The IC includes internal circuitry for seven segment decoders,
display drivers, reference voltage source and a clock. The power dissipation is less than
10mW and the display stability is very high.
The

below

circuit

diagram

show

the

200mV

DPM.

The working of this electronic circuit is very simple. The voltage to be measured is converted
into a digital equivalent by the ADC inside the IC and then this digital equivalent is decoded
to the seven segment format and then displayed. The ADC used in ICL7107 is dual slope
type ADC. The process taking place inside our ADC can be stated as follows. For a fixed
period of time the voltage to be measured is integrated to obtain a ramp at the output of the
integrator. Then a known reference voltage of opposite polarity is applied to the input of the
integrator and allowed to ramp until the output of integrator becomes zero. The time taken
for the negative slope to reach zero is measured in terms of the ICs clock cycle and it will be
proportional to the voltage under measurement. In simple words, the input voltage is
compared to an internal reference voltage and the result is converted in a digital format.
The resistor R2 and C1 are used to set the frequency of ICs internal clock. Capacitor C2
neutralizes the fluctuations in the internal reference voltage and increases the stability of
the display.R4 controls the range of the voltmeter. Right most three displays are connected
so that they can display all digits. The left most display is so connected that it can display
only 1 and -.The pin5(representing the dot) is connected to ground only for the third
display and its position needs to be changed when you change the range of the volt meter by
altering R4. (R4=1.2K gives 0-20V range, R4=12K gives 0-200V range ).
Circuit diagram.

Procedure :
1. Connect the thermocouple sensor to the input of the thermocouple amplifier the socket
provided for the input signal.
2. The output signal can be read at the 200Mv DPM provided on the trainer.
3. Connect the output of the amplifier to the dpm directly.
4. Connect the electrical kettle with filled with water to the ac mains input..
5. Insert the thermocouple sensor to the electrical kettle into the hole provided. Connect the
yellow to the positive terminal and other to the ground.
6. Insert the thermometer to the electrical kettle as well.
7. Note the observation table note down the readings
8. Switch on the trainer.
9. Make the potentiometer to zero set to maximum & adjust the gain make the millivolts nears to
20MV on display.
10. Now switch on the electrical kettle
11. Note down the readings at the every rise in temperature on display and the thermometer
12. Plot the graph between the temperature and the voltage display at the output.
Observation table
Sno.

millivolts

## RTD TEMPERATURE TRANSDUCER :

CIRCUIT
Rtd

RTD transducer is used to measure the temperature. It is a resistive transducer, used to transduce
the temperature signal into the electrical signal. The RTD sensor as the temperature increases its
resistance increases with increase in temperature . as the temperature changes the input electrical
signal changes across the sensor. This sensed electrical signal is buffered by the one amplifier and
the amplified by the difference amplifier applied to the DPM for measurement in millivolts . the
another amplifer is used to set the temperature to any room temperature .
Procedure :
1. Connect the thermocouple sensor to the input of the RTD amplifier the socket provided for the
input signal.
2. The output signal can be read at the 200Mv DPM provided on the trainer.
3. Connect the output of the amplifier to the dpm directly.
4. Connect the electrical kettle with filled with water to the ac mains input..
5. Insert the RTD sensor to the electrical kettle into the hole provided. Connect the red to the red
socket and black socket to the white terminal of RTD sensor.
6. Insert the RTD to the electrical kettle as well.
7. Note the observation table note down the readings
8. Switch on the trainer.
9. Make the potentiometer to zero set to maximum & adjust the gain make the millivolts nears to
20MV on display.

## 10. Now switch on the electrical kettle

11. Note down the readings at the every rise in temperature on display and the thermometer
12. Plot the graph between the temperature and the voltage display at the output.
Observation table
Sno.