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PoliceandtheLiberalState
MarkusD.DubberandMarianaValverde
Printpublicationdate:2008
PrintISBN13:9780804759328
PublishedtoStanfordScholarshipOnline:June2013
DOI:10.11126/stanford/9780804759328.001.0001

Gotopage:

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LoiteringintheCityThatWorks
OnCirculation,Activity,andPoliceinGoverningUrbanSpace
RonLevi

DOI:10.11126/stanford/9780804759328.003.0010

AbstractandKeywords
ThischapterfocusesontheChicagoordinanceanditsadjudicationinthecaseofChicagov.Moralesandthetensionsthat
wereproducedwhenrevivingthisnineteenthcenturyprojectduringthelatetwentiethcentury.Itbeginsbyemphasizingthe
importanceofcirculationandmovementtounderstandingthepoliceprojectasafundamentallyurbangovernmentality.The
policeregulationoftrafficiscriticaltothebroaderregulationofurbanlife.Thislinkbetweenpolice,mobility,andthecity
hasbeendrawnoutindetailbyFoucault's1978lecturesonpolice,inwhichhearguesthatthevisiblecirculationofpeople
andgoodsisintegraltotheverypossibilityofthecityandthatinturn,urbanmobilityisthelinchpinofpoliceitself.Atone
level,thisprovidesaconceptualbackdropforunderstandingtheChicagoordinanceasnotmerelyananticrimemeasureora
toolofsocialcontrol,butalsoaspartofanarrayoftechniquesforgoverningtheurbanitself.Havingdoneso,Foucault's
lecturesthenprovideakeylensthroughwhichtoexaminetheunnoticedtensionsinthelegalhistoryofthisordinance.
Keywords:Chicagoordinance,Chicagov.Morales,police,urbangovernmentality,Foucault,urbanmobility

Ilyadesvillesparcequ'ilyalapolice.
MICHELFOUCAULT,Leondu5avril1978

Introduction
TheHaussmannianreconstructionofParis,conductedwithgreatfervorthroughoutthesecondhalfofthenineteenth
century,isidentifiedasacriticalmomentinthegeographicreworkingofcitygovernance. 1Theexpansionofcitystreets,the
promotionofpublicmonumentsandspaces,thecentralizingofcommerce,andtheredesignoftheflowofurbanlifewere
centraltoHaussmann'sproject.ThisParisreconstructionismostoftendescribedasfacilitatingmilitarycontroloftheurban
population,bymakingthecitymorelegibletostateauthorities.Andindeed,thisadministrativeachievementwassoon
borneout:thesuccessfulandbloodyrepressionoftheParisCommunardsmadethelinkbetweenurbandesignandsovereign
controlunmistakablyapparent. 2

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Givenitsviolentoutcome,itisattimesdifficulttorememberthatthisredesignofPariswasnotexclusivelymeanttoforcefully
controlthecity'spopulation.Quitetothecontrary,itwassteepedinthelogicandlanguageofpolicescience,welfare,and
goodadministrationandrepresentsazenithofurbanplanningmeanttoensurethesalubrityofcityresidents.Whatperhaps
distinguishestheParisprojectisitsemphasisononecomponentofthepoliceprojectnamely,promotingtheeasy
circulationofpeopleandobjectswithinthecity. 3Encouragingmovementandmobilitywastheresurrectionofanolder
Parisianambition,whentherevolutionaryCommissiondesArtistespioneeredanurbanregenerationplantorecreatethe
cityfromthestreetlevelitself. 4This1793PlandesArtistesemphasizedmovementasthecentralorganizingprinciplefor
ParisandisechoedbyHaussmann'sfamousplana(p.179) centurylater. 5Indeed,Haussmannwasovertlycontemptuous
ofthesecurityfocusofhisdayandspokeintermsofmilitarysecurityonlywhenseekingsupportfromotherpublicofficials. 6
InhisanalysisofFrenchModern,PaulRabinowsuggeststhattheParisredesignwassignificantbecausestateandsociety
metatthestreet,sothaturbanspacewasintegrallyconcernedwithorder,publichealth,andthepopulation'swelfare. 7This
wascertainlythecase:improvingcirculationwaseverywherecentraltotheContinentalpoliceproject.Indeed,
contemplatingawellregulatedsocietyinthenineteenthcenturycouldsimplynotignorepublicmobility.Circulation,asa
good,wasunderwrittenthroughcommercial,moral,aesthetic,andpublichealthrationalesandtherebyunderstoodto
promotetheavailabilityofair,light,andwaterflow,aswellasimprovecommerceandtraffic. 8Continentalpolicetexts
extolledmobilityandcirculationasindispensableelementsofalladvancinghumanity9andmoregenerallyasan
inherentlyvaluablesocialresource.10Itisnotsurprising,then,thatdrawingalinkbetweenmobility,salubrity,andurban
designwasequallytheleitmotifoftheParisreconstruction.
ThisemphasisoncirculationwasbynomeansuniquetoParis.Inhiscompellingsocialhistoryoftheliberalcity,Patrick
JoycedemonstratestheemergenceoffreecirculationincitiessuchasManchester,wherethe1893municipalcode
anathematisesanythingthatpreventsfreecirculation,whetheritbepeople,goods,animals,traffic,ortrash. 11Withinthe
historyofpolice,however,Haussmann'sPariswascertainlyuniqueingivingthethemeofcirculationareputationalboost.
ThissoonmadeitswayacrosstheAtlantic,tobeinstantiatedinBurnhamandBennett's1909PlanofChicago,wherethe
U.S.basedCityBeautifulmovementequallytookupthecloselinkbetweencirculationandurbansalubrity. 12Thiswasnot
merelyapracticalresponsetotheneedsofaboomingChicagoanpopulation.AdoptingitsContinentallegacyinpolice
scienceratherthanmerelyitspragmaticbenefits,urbancirculationwasherealsoseenasrootedinadeeplyaestheticvision
ofhealth,order,andpeacefulnesswhetheritsobjectwastorelievetrafficcongestion,modernizestreetsystems,orenforce
zoningandbuildingregulations.AsHessconcludes,transportationimprovementsweregenerallybyproductsofcivic
leaders'desirestoimproveurbanlife,createcohesivecommunities[and]raisecivicpride,13sothatahallmarkoftheCity
Beautifulmovementlayintheveryfactthatitcombinedurbanlandscapedesignwithcivicimprovement.14
YetifcirculationthroughurbandesignwaskeytotheturnofthecenturyimaginationofChicagoandParis,bytheendof
thetwentiethcenturyconcernsovercirculationinChicagopersisted,ifwithadifferenttone.Rather(p.180) thanseekingto
widentheboulevards,rearrangethestreets,ordesignurbanparkwaysthatmightenhancethecityscape,ChicagoCity
Councilin1992wasfocusedontheproblemsproducedbythelackofmobilityamongurbanyouth,whowereinterferingwith
residentialmobilityandcommerce.Afteranexplosionofconcernamongcityaldermen,thecitycouncilheldpublichearings
inwhichitdeterminedthattheuseofthecitystreetsbylawabidingresidentswasbeingimpededbyyoungmenwhowere
loiteringonthepublicway. 15InformingthisconclusionwasanunderlyingconcernvoicedbyChicagopoliticiansand
takenupbyacademicsandcommunityorganizersthatthroughsuchloiteringgangmemberswereintimidatingother
residentsandgainingcontroloverurbanspacewithoutcommittinganyovertcriminalactivity. 16AsMayorDaleyvividly
describedtheproblem,It'sthefrustrationofpeoplesaying,Hey.There's30,40peopleonthiscorner.Iliveonthisblock.I
can'tevenwalkaroundthecorner.17
AsIdiscussbelow,tounderstandthisconcernoverloiteringitiscriticaltohighlightthatintheearly1990sChicagowasin
themidstofadramaticincreaseindrugdealing,violence,andgangwarfare.August1991wasrecordedasthedeadliest
monthinChicagohistory:theNewYorkTimesproclaimedthathomicidesweresurpassingtherateduringthebloodyyears
oftheAlCaponeera,andbesiegedbypoliticaloppositionandmediareports,MayorDaleysoonadmittedthatChicagowas
becominglikeColombia.18AfterholdingpublichearingswithChicagoresidents,thecity'sresponsewastoenactagang
loiteringordinance,whichmadeitanoffenseforapparentgangmemberstoremaininanyoneplacewithnoapparent
purposeandtorefusetomovealongwheninstructedtodosobyapoliceofficer. 19EnactedintheChicagoMunicipalCode,
theoffensetherebyfocusedattentiononthevisiblelackofactivityandcirculationengagedinbyyoungmen.Itisworth
notingthat,atleastformally,thisshiftedlegalattentionawayfromanexclusivefocusondrugdealingandviolence:indeed,

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theordinancewouldostensiblynotapplyifindividualswerevisiblycommittingothercrimesoractivelyharassing
neighborhoodresidents,beinginsteadrestrictedtowhentheywereapparentlydoingnothingatall. 20
AlthoughthisChicagoordinancewasfoundunconstitutionalbytheU.S.SupremeCourtfiveyearslater,Isuggestthatits
adjudicationandlegacyprovideauniqueconjunctureforreexaminingtheimportanceofmobilityandcirculationtothe
policeproject.Thereisamoraldimensiontothisproductionofcirculationthatisbeingnegotiated,namely,theextentto
whichcitiesarenottobespacesofwhatJoyceidentifiesasamoralcirculation,orascirculationuntamed,sothatpublic
spaces(andindividualswithinthem)arecontemplatedasneedingsocialordering. 21
(p.181) Inthischapter,IfocusontheChicagoordinanceanditsadjudicationinthecaseofChicagov.Morales 22andthe
tensionsthatwereproducedwhenrevivingthisnineteenthcenturyprojectduringthelatetwentiethcentury.Tobesure,there
hasalreadybeensignificantlegalattentiongiventotheChicagoordinanceanditsadjudication,focusingmainlyonthe
constitutionalquestionsraisedandthelikelyefficacyofthismeasuretopreventcrime. 23Thetermsofthedebateareasone
wouldexpect:eithertheordinanceissaidtoundulyinterferewithcivilliberties,ortheordinanceisextolledasabenign
methodofrespondingtoapressingsocialproblem.Therehasotherwisebeenlittletheorizationorexplorationofthe
ordinance. 24AndalthoughtheChicagoordinancehasbeendrawnintobroaderdiscussionsofloiteringlaws, 25therehas
indeedbeenlittleanalysisofhowitgrappleswiththequestionofurbancirculation.Thisisnotsurprising:within
criminological,legal,andsociolegalstudies,studiesofloiteringandvagrancyhavelongbeencapturedbydebatesovertheir
constitutionality,theirefficacy,ortheirroleincontrollingundesirablepopulations. 26
Beforemovingontotheordinanceanditsadjudication,thenextsectionofthischapterbeginsbyemphasizingthe
importanceofcirculationandmovementtounderstandingthepoliceprojectasafundamentallyurbangovernmentality.As
AlanHuntdemonstrates,thepoliceregulationoftrafficiscriticaltothebroaderregulationofurbanlife. 27Thislinkbetween
police,mobility,andthecityhasbeendrawnoutindetailbyFoucault's1978lecturesonpolice,inwhichhearguesthatthe
visiblecirculationofpeopleandgoodsisintegraltotheverypossibilityofthecityandthatinturn,urbanmobilityisthe
linchpinofpoliceitself. 28Atonelevel,thisprovidesaconceptualbackdropforunderstandingtheChicagoordinanceasnot
merelyananticrimemeasureoratoolofsocialcontrolthoughsurelyitisboththesethingsbutalsoaspartofanarrayof
techniquesforgoverningtheurbanitself.Havingdoneso,Foucault'slecturesthenprovideakeylensthroughwhichto
examinetheunnoticedtensionsinthelegalhistoryofthisordinance.

Circulation,Splendor,andtheHeartofPolice
MichelFoucault'slecturesonScurit,Territoire,Populationprovideadetailedhistoricalanalysisofthedevelopmentof
policegovernanceinFrance. 29Thisputsitincompanywithotherrecenthistoricalwork,whichhassoughttorecoverthe
legacyofpoliceasanorganizingdimensionoftheFrenchstate,stemmingfromtheancienregimetothepresentday. 30
WhatFoucaultuniquelydemonstratesintheselectures,however,isthatFrenchpolicedid(p.182) notmerelyextendto
producingwealthandhappinessforthepopulation,alongthesocialpolicylinethathasgenerallyinformedU.S.police
science. 31Instead,Foucaultemphasizesthatpoliceismostpreciselyalogicforgoverningcitiesandbecauseitsgoalisto
produceaspecificallyurbansalubrity,Foucaultdemonstratesthatpolicerequiresthecirculationandactivityoftheurban
population.
FoucaultbeginshislectureofMarch29,1978afterbeingironicallydelayedbyatrafficjambyintroducingpoliceasaform
ofgovernmentthatexplicitlyseekstoimprovethesplendorofthestate. 32Thisterminologyisitselfimportantto
understandingurbangovernance,sinceitsimultaneouslyreferstothestrengtheningofthestate'sproductivecapacity
(l'utilittatique)andtheensuringofitsinternalorderandsecurity. 33Everythingisharnessedtoproducethissplendor,so
thatinthepolicetradition,evenaestheticelements,suchascitydesign,aremeanttoenhancetheorderandsecurityofthe
state. 34
How,then,isthissplendororinanothervocabulary,thisprosperityproduced?35Tounderstandtheworkingsofpolice,
wemustrealizethatsplendorisnotdirectlyproducedbythestate'sowncapacities.Tothecontrary,itisachievedby
harnessingmen'sactivity,namelybyensuringthattheurbanpopulationisrenderedactiveandkeptproductive.Charged
withachievingthissplendorofthestate,policeadministratorsweretocloselymonitorandinstructyouthtoensuretheir
workandactivityandabovealltopreventtheiridleness36andthiscanincludeawholeseriesofpoliceadministratorsto
ensurethatyoungpeopleidentifyandsuccessfullypursueanoccupation. 37Indeed,ensuringthatindividualsareactively
engagedintheirstatedoccupationis,onFoucault'sreading,attheveryheartofpolice,becauseitisthoughttoincrease
theresources,capacities,andinternalorderofthestateitself. 38Itisimportanttonotethatinthepostfeudaleconomy,the

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state'ssplendordoesnotdependonitscitizensparticipatinginaspecifichierarchyoftradesbutinsteadontheveryfactof
activityitself:thecreationofpublicutilitythroughmen'soccupation,theiractivity,andtheirverydoing.39
Ifthegoalofpoliceisthecontrolandtakingchargeofmen'sactivity,40itispreciselyforthisreasonthatadministrators
worktoenhancegeneralwellbeing:ensuring,forinstance,thatthepopulationishealthy,thatitenjoyslife'snecessities,
andislargeenoughtobeproductive. 41Itisherethatoneperceivesthecloseanddirectlinkbetweenthegoalsofactivityand
ofcirculation:policemustensurethatindividualsarenotidleandthattheyaswellasthecommercialgoodstheyproduce
indeedcirculatefreelywithinandbeyondthestate. 42Roadsandnavigationbecomecriticaltocommercialandsocial
interaction.Whatemergesisagovernmentalconcernwithmovementinallitsforms:idlenessistobeprevented,
commercialcirculation(p.183) promoted,vagabondspoliced,workers'movementmonitored,andsoon. 43Itisnot,then,
thatcirculationisitselfalwaysencouragedbut,mostimportantly,thatitbecomesafielduntoitself:itisthiswholefieldof
circulationthatwillbecometheobjectofpolice.44Thelaterlegacyofthisfocusonmovementiswellknown:bythelate
eighteenthcenturytravelersanditinerantswereincreasinglypoliced,vagrancyincreasinglycriminalized,and
documentationformobility(suchaspassports)increasinglycommon. 45
Itisthroughitsconcernwithactivityandcirculation,then,thatpolicegovernmentalitybecomescloselytiedtotheurban
itselfenhancingactivity,circulation,andmovementallowsforthegovernanceofdenselypopulatedterritoriesandcanmeet
thecommercialdemandsofcities. 46Itisinthiswaythatpolice,work,circulation,andcommercebecomeaclosely
connectedseries.Andtheresultingpoliceregulationsincludingtheproperuseofroads,publicspace,andthe
encouragementofactivitybecomethemannerthroughwhichurbanizationitselfisconceived.Cityregulationsthereby
concernthemselveswiththeeveryday,withthemundane,andwithdetails,seekinginparticulartoallowandtointerdict
flowandmovement.Therearecitiesbecausethereispolice,Foucaultconcludes,sothattopoliceandtourbanizemean
thesamething.47

LoiteringintheCityThatWorks
ItisthisfieldofmobilityandcirculationthatbecameofcentralconcerntoChicagointheearly1990s.Thecoreproblemwas
aspikeingangviolence,thoughttobebroughtonbythesaleofcrackcocaine.WhileotherU.S.citieshadbeenwitnessing
theemergenceofcracksincetheearly1980s,Chicago'sgangshad,perhapsironically,workedtogethertoavoiditssalein
thecity'score,soastopreserveestablishednetworksofdrugdealingandprotectprofits.Thisstrategyappearstohave
workeduntil1991andonceintroduced,themarketfordrugsinChicagoturnedmoreviolentthaneverbefore. 48Therateof
violentcrimesskyrocketed,thehomicideratehititsdeadliesthighever,andsomeofthepoorestneighborhoodsechoedwith
gunfirealmostnightly.49Accountsofhowprecariouslifehadbecomeforneighborhoodresidentsproliferatedinthe
Chicagomedia:asoneresidentpoignantlystated,Peopleareinagony.Peoplearebeingheldhostageintheirown
neighborhoods,withanotherasking,Whatdowehavetodo?Dowehavetogetonourkneestostopthis?50Apollon
Chicago'sWestSideindicatedthat96percentofresidentswouldnotobjecttobringingintheNationalGuardtofightcrime,
withtheward'saldermanaddingthatwhenyouliveincrimeandaregrosslyinhibitedbycrimeactivity,andpeopleinfront
ofyourhouse(p.184) areshooting,thenyoulookatthisthingdifferentlythansomeoneontheoutside.51Andincityhall,
aldermanicvoicesreachedoratoricalheightsincryingoutagainsttherisingcrimerate,withcityandpoliceofficials
agreeingthatdrasticstepsneededtobetaken. 52
Decidingwhattodoaboutthisviolencewasanothermatter.ConcernedthatChicagowouldfacealong,violentsummer,
thepolicesuperintendentadvocatedincreasedfundsforfootpatrolsandraisedthepossibilityofanantiloiteringordinanceto
policegangmembersthatareoutthereintimidatingpeople.53Thestateattorney,concernedovertheconstitutionalityofa
loiteringordinance,advocatedtougherprosecutionsandharsherpenalties,includingmoreprisonsandmoreprison
beds.54Andinthemayor'soffice,athirddimensionwasbrewing:ontheadviceofaninternationalmanagementconsulting
firm,thecitywasdevelopingacommunitypolicingprogram,toallaycrimefearswithoutspendingadditionalfundsand
withoutalienatingminoritycommunities. 55Thisbecamethemayor'sbibleofpoliceadministration.56
Withtheseoptionsintheair,fourChicagoaldermensubmittedproposedordinancestoCityCouncil,includingaproposal
writteninconjunctionwithacommunitygroupfromapredominantlywhiteareaforagangcongregationordinance. 57
AldermanWojcik,whosewardhadaheavyconcentrationofseniorcitizensandnewimmigrants,explainedthatthiswasa
struggleovertheuseofpublicspaceandthemobilityofcitizenswithinit:
Theproblemhereisgangsstakingoutturf.They'llstakeoutagrocerystore,forinstance,andthenputmaybetwo
peopleoneachcornerandstandthere,orsitwiththeirlegsout,orsaythingstopeople.Afterawhile,thepeoplein
thecommunitygetscaredandstayaway,andthegangmembershavesucceededinmakingthattheirturf. 58

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thecommunitygetscaredandstayaway,andthegangmembershavesucceededinmakingthattheirturf. 58
Insupportingtheordinance,MayorDaleyfurtheremphasizedthisconcernoverspaceandcirculation,byreferringto
communityresidentswhofeltundersiegeandwhocan'tevenwalkaroundthecorner.59
Thisconcernoverurbanmobilitywasalsoreportedinthelocalpress.Followingaweekenddrugraid,representativesof
localcommunitygroupscomplainedthatwearebeingoverwhelmed.Youarehamperedwalkingdownthestreetbecause
somanypeopleareinvolvedinloiteringandstandingaroundsellingdrugsinthewideopen,andthatit'sleftresidents
unabletocomeoutoftheirownhomesbeingalmostbesiegedbygangbangersanddrugdealers.60Acoalitionof
neighborhoodorganizationslatercametodefinetheissueastheabilitytoliveinthecityitself,arguingthatalthough
(p.185) criminalgangshavelongbeenpartoftheurbanlandscape,theyhavetakenadramaticnewdirectioninrecent
years,awayfromsmallscaleandlocalizedactivitiestohighlyorganizedtakeoversofentireneighborhoods.61
SixmonthsafterthisproposalwassubmittedtoCityCouncil,Chicago'sCommitteeonPoliceandFire62heldapublic
meetingtodiscusstheordinanceandresidents'concernsovercrime.HeldinMay1992,thetwodaysofhearingswere
chairedbyAldermanWilliamBeavers,a21yearpoliceveteran,whoworkedonnarcotics,gambling,prostitution,andgang
crime. 63Thesehearingswerelaterdescribedasanoutpouringofthepublic'sneedforrelieffromgangloitering,with
residents'testimoniescontinuallymarshaledinpoliticalforumsandintroducedineverytrialcaseheardregardingthe
ordinance. 64Yetmoreprecisely,thesehearingsweredesignedtoprovidethecity'sLawDepartmentwithtestimonial
evidencetounderwritetheloiteringordinance.AsAldermanBeaversnotedonthefirstdayofthehearings,
It'snotagainstthelawtostandonthecorner.It'snotagainstthelawtostandonthecornersanywhereintheCityof
Chicago.It'snotagainstthelawsothepolicecannotarrestthem,andthisiswhyweareheretodaytotrytoseecan
wegetsomesupportforthisordinance,andhopefullythatwewill,andmaybewewillbeabletoalleviatesomeofthe
problems. 65
Whileacloserstudyofthetranscriptsrevealsabroadersetofresidents'concernsovertheirneighborhoodsandcity
services, 66residentsdidtestifyastotheproblemsofgangloiteringaswell.Thisincludesaseniorcitizenworriedabout
individualshangingonthecorner,especiallybecausetherearejustgobsofthemabusinessownerconcernedabout
cornersloadedwithgangsandaresidentfrustratedsinceanypersonwhohasanytypeofbusinessisnotgoingto
congregateinagrouponacornerandhangoutallday.67Astoreownerwassimilarlyconcernedbecausetoloiteratthe
entranceofabusinesscanrestrictpassagetocustomers,andresidentswereconcernedwiththeeffectsontheircapacityto
gooutsideandforneighborhoodlifemoregenerally(asoneresidentnoted,onanygivennight30to40gangbangershung
outattheintersectionandestablishedthestreetastheirown). 68Overall,properuseofthecitystreetscametobeseenas
thecoreproblemrevealedbythesetestimonies:
Manyconcernedcitizenstestifiedpoignantly.Amotheroffour,forinstance,assertedthatinherneighborhood,
childrennolongerplayedhopscotchorjacksinthestreet:Iwishyoucouldseetherustthathasaccumulated
(p.186) becausetheycannotride[their]bikes.EightyeightyearoldSusanMaryJacksonspokeforcefullyofthe
fearshe[experienced]inpublicspaces:Weusedtohaveaniceneighborhood.Wedon'thaveitanymore.Iam
scaredtogooutinthedaytimeyoucan'tpassbecausetheyarestanding.Iamafraidtogotothestore.69
Itisinthiscontextthatloitering,apartfromanyovertlyaggressiveactivity,wasitselfperceivedasharmfultocommunity
orderandtoresidents'abilitytoparticipateinciviclife. 70
Finally,itisimportanttonotethatthegangloiteringordinancewasnotpassedinisolationbutwasechoedbyothersecurity
strategiesenactedduringthesameperiod.Allofthesehadasimilarflavor.Thisincludedacitywidebanontheretailsaleof
spraypaint,ajuvenilecurfewordinance,andatighteningofrestrictionsonoutdoorpayphones,particularlyinhighcrime
neighborhoodswheretheywerethoughttobemonopolizedbylocaldrugdealers. 71Whatlinksalloftheseisafocusoncity
designandtheregulationofthepublicstreets,includingthechannelingofflowandactivitywithinthem.Thesestrategiesall
resonatedwiththemayor'sbroaderagendaforthecity:ifinyearspastChicagohadcometobeknownforinvestmentin
largescaleinfrastructureprojectsandasthecitythatworks,MayorDaleynowsoughttorebuildthecitypiecebypieceand
tofocushisattentiononcivicimprovementandurbanrevitalizationstrategies. 72Withthisasakeygoalofhis
administration,itisnotsurprisingthatthefieldofmobilitysoonbecameacenterpieceofthecity'ssecuritystrategy.

TheGangLoiteringOrdinance:PoliceandthePublicWay

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Relyingonthesepublichearings,ChicagoCityCouncilapprovedtheGangCongregationOrdinanceinJune1992,witha
voteof3111. 73Debatewashighlyacrimonious,withsomealdermencomparingittoSouthAfricanPassLawsandto
restrictionsonJewsinNaziGermanyandChicagourbanpoliticswereverymuchintheairwhenMayorDaleyretortedthat
thePoliceDepartmentmightnotenforcethenewlawinthewardsofthosealdermenwhovotedagainstit.74
Fromapolicescienceperspective,itisimportanttonotethattheordinancewasnotdesignedmerelytopreventfuturecrimes.
Whileitsurelyhadapreventivedimension,theordinanceaddressedapresentharmthatcenteredontheproperuseofpublic
spaceandensuringthedesiredmobilityofneighborhoodresidents.Accordingtothecity,visiblepublicloiteringintimidates
residents,whobecomeafraideventoleavetheirhomes,andthisresults(p.187) inapalpabledetrimentaleffectona
family'ssenseofwellbeing,onthewillingnessofparentstoallowtheirchildrenoutside,andonthewillingnessofChicago
residentstoremainintheCity.75Followingonthislogic,thetextoftheordinancebeganwithninewhereasclauses,which
linkthecity'sincreasedrateofviolence,homicides,anddrugcrimestothepresenceofstreetgangsandthengoonto
highlightthatgangmembersgainandmaintaintheircontrolbyloiteringonthepublicway.Inthisway,thepreambledid
notemphasizetheneedtoaddressgangviolencedirectlybutrathertoactonthisproblemthroughthelogicofmobilityand
thegovernanceofpublicspace.Theproblemtobeactedonwasthattheburgeoningpresenceofstreetgangmembersin
publicplaceshasintimidatedmanylawabidingcitizens,suchthataggressiveactionisnecessarytopreservethecity's
streetsandotherpublicplacessothatthepublicmayusesuchplaceswithoutfear.76
Indeed,thispreambleisparticularlyimportantforunderstandingtheordinancewithinthecontextofpolicescienceandthe
municipalregulationofmobility.Inaddressingamunicipaloffense,theordinancedoesnot,strictlyspeaking,dealwith
criminalbehavior.77Thisisapointoftenignoredbycommentators,whofocusinsteadontheChicagoordinanceasyet

anotherinstrumentofthecriminallawandignoretheuniqueoriginsandlegacyofmunicipalgovernance. 78Butitisthe

preamblethatindeedunderwrotethemunicipality'sjurisdictiontorespondtothissurgeinviolence,preciselybyacting
throughthelensofmobility,theuseofthestreets,andtheinvocationofthepublicway.AsLawrenceRosenthal,deputy
corporationcounselfortheCityofChicago,statedbeforetheCommitteeonPoliceandFire,whatisimportantaboutthis
ordinancearethewhereasclauses[if]membersofcriminalstreetgangsusetheiraccesstothepublicwayinorderto
engageincriminalactivity[that]isafactconjoinedwithcriminalactivityandappropriatelyregulatedbythe
municipality.79Andquitetellingly,sixofthesenineclausesexplicitlydeploythegeographictermsidentifiableareasand
publicplaces.Keepingthisinmindtheordinanceaspartofatraditionthatregulatesurbanspaceandmobilityratherthan
crimedirectlywillbeofparticularinterestinconsideringthelateradjudicationoftheordinancebeforetheU.S.Supreme
Court.
Followingthepreamble,theordinancemadethefollowinganoffense:
84015.(a)Wheneverapoliceofficerobservesapersonwhomhereasonablybelievestobeacriminalstreetgang
memberloiteringinanypublicplacewithoneormoreotherpersons,heshallorderallsuchpersonstodisperseand
removethemselvesfromthearea.Anypersonwhodoesnotpromptlyobeysuchanorderisinviolationofthissection.
(p.188) Whilemuchofthesectionthenturnstodefiningwhatismeantbyacriminalstreetgang,80ofparticular
importanceforananalysisofmobilityarethetermsloiterandpublicplace:
(c)AsusedinthisSection:
(1)Loitermeanstoremaininanyoneplacewithnoapparentpurpose.
(5)Publicplacemeansthepublicwayandanyotherlocationopentothepublic,whetherpublicly
orprivatelyowned.
Atonelevel,thesedefinitionsremarkablyexpandthepotentialforpolicing.First,loiteringisdefinedasremaininginany
oneplacewithnoapparentpurpose,basedontheperceptionofthepoliceofficerratherthanonanyobjectivemeasuresof
inactivity,andsecond,therequirementthattheloiteringbeinapublicplaceisunderminedbyincludingpubliclyor
privatelyownedlocations,therebyincludingthecitystreets,commercialenterprises,andmunicipallymanagedhousing
developments.
Butbeyondthis,whatisimmediatelyapparentistheordinance'semphasisonregulatingmovement,ratherthanona
strategyofcriminalization.Onceorderedtodisperse,individualsmustremovethemselvesfromthearea,anditisindeeda
refusaltodosothatviolatesthesection(itisworthnotingthatevenifoneoftheindividualsbeingpolicedisnotagang

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member,heorshemuststilldisperse).ThisbearsstrikingresemblancetotheconcernssketchedoutbyFoucault'slectures
onpolice,byensuringmovementandpreventingvisibleidlenessindeed,solongasmovementismaintained,individuals
canresumetheir(in)activityatanotherlocation,untilorderedtodisperseoncemore.Inshort,becausethereisnounderlying
activitycriminalized(suchasloiteringwhilesellingdrugs)andnostatustargeted(suchasbeingahabitualloafer81)the
ordinanceisfocusedsolelyonensuringaseeminglycontinualmovement.
Thisemphasisonmovementistwinnedwiththeregulationofpublicspace.Thestruggleformunicipalcontroloverthe
publicwayandensuringthatindividualscouldnottakeoverthepublicwayfortheirownpurposescontinuesalongpolice
traditionofconstitutingandidentifyingthepublicitself. 82ThisreacheditsheydayinnineteenthcenturyU.S.strategiesto
ensurethepublicwelfaretoremoveandabatenuisancesandencroachmentsonhighwayswasacrucialinstrumentof
sovereignty.83Atitscore,then,whatwasbeingaddressedbytheChicagoordinancenamely,theapparentcontroland
usurpationofthepublicwaybyprivateindividuals,therebyremovingitfromenjoymentbythepublicitselfreflectsthevery
essence(p.189) ofthepoliceenterprise.AsNovakconcludes,itispreciselystateregulationofpublicspacethatreflected
theabsolutenatureofpublicrightsinthewellregulatedsociety,sothatanyprivateclaimsoverspacewouldbetrumpedin
favorofpublicobjectivesofmovement,communication,circulation,andthelike. 84

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Inclassicsaluspopulifashion,theChicagoordinanceexplicitlysetsasidethelegaldistinctionbetweenpublicandprivate
andasaresultprovidesagenerousdefinitionofwhatconstitutesthepublicspacetobeprotected.Bydefiningpublicplaceto
includeprivatelyownedlocations,theordinanceappliesnotonlyonthepublicstreetsbutalsoinparks,coffeeshops,
shoppingmalls,stores,movietheaters,publictransitstops,municipallyownedlocations,andsoon. 85Defeatingthe
distinctionbetweenpublicandprivate,inthenameofpreservingthepublic'srighttocirculatefreely,demonstratesabroad

policeconcernwithgoverningpublicorderthatextendsbeyondthecitystreets. 86

Finally,thegoalofpreventingprivate(individualorgroup)controloverpublicspacebypreventingidlenesswasmadefurther
apparentbythepracticesandguidelinesoftheChicagopoliceinenforcingtheordinance.AccordingtotheChicagoPolice
Department'sGeneralOrder924, 87onlyaspecifiedgroupofofficerscouldmakearrestsundertheordinancebutwithno
restrictiononwhichpoliceofficersmayorderpeopletomovealong,suggestingthatmovingalongandpreventingidleness
wasinandofitselfakeygoalbeingpursued.Inaddition,theguidelineslimitedenforcementoftheordinancetospecified
urbanspaces,ratherthanitbeingapplicabletoloiteringwhereveritoccurredalthoughnotdisclosedtothegeneralpublic,
theseenforcementareasweredesignatedonthebasisofawidearrayofinformation,includingcrimepatterns,citizen
complaints,policeobservations,andtheviewsofcommunitymembers.Theveryheterogeneityofinformationbeingreliedon
commonknowledge,experience,tradeknowledge,andstatisticalinformationfurtherreflectstheEuropeanpolice
traditionofseekingtoimprovethepublicwelfarethroughadministration. 88
Theupshotoftheseguidelineswasaveryactivepoliceprogram.Withinthreeandahalfyearsafteritsinitialadoption,
approximatelyfortytwothousandindividualswerearrested,withyetanotherfortythreethousandorderstodisperse. 89Asa
crimepreventionstrategy,however,theordinanceappearstohaveenjoyedlittlesuccess.Indeed,gangrelatedcrimes
increasedinthoseareasofthecitywheretheordinancewasmostenforced,andcrimedeclinedwhereitwasleast
enforced. 90Yetinovereightythousandinstances,peoplewerekeptfromappearingidleandwerekeptmovingalong,even
ifbriefly.

(p.190) AdjudicatingPolice:MobilityandtheCityintheU.S.SupremeCourt
InitsadjudicationintheIllinoiscourtsfollowingthismassivenumberofarrests,thirteendifferenttrialjudgesruledonthe
constitutionalityoftheChicagoordinancewithelevenfindingtheordinanceunconstitutional. 91By1993fourteen
defendantsinChicagov.Youkhana92successfullychallengedtheordinanceasbeingunconstitutionalonitsface,thereby
leadingtoareversalofdozensofconvictionsandleadingtoasuccessfulconstitutionalchallengebeforetheU.S.Supreme
CourtinChicagov.Morales 93(1999),inwhichamajorityoftheCourtfoundtheChicagoordinanceunconstitutional. 94
Doctrinally,theMoralesdecisiontreatsawiderangeofdueprocessconcerns. 95Forourpurposes,thedecisioncanbe
parsedasfollows.Themajorityconsistsofsixjudgesfindingthattheordinanceisvoidforvagueness,sinceitprovides
policewithunlimiteddiscretionindecidingwhethertoissueanordertodisperse.Inaddition,apluralityoftheCourtfound
thattheordinanceisvoidforvaguenessbecauseitprovidesinadequatenoticetocitizensregardinghowtheyoughtto
conformtheirconducttolegalrequirements,withthispluralityalsofindingthatthefreedomtoloiterisaconstitutionally
protectedliberty.Finally,JusticesScalia,Thomas,andRehnquistdissentedfromthemajoritydecision,findingthatloitering
isnotaconstitutionallyprotectedrightandthattheordinanceisnotvoidforvagueness.

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TherehasbeennoshortageofanalysisoftheMoralesdecision.ThevastmajorityofthesefocusontheCourt'sconcernsin
Moraleswiththebroaddiscretiongrantedtopoliceofficers,withsomeattentiontothebroaderquestionsofvaguenessanda
potentiallibertyinterestinloitering. 96Yetwhathasreceivedcomparativelylittleattentionisthat,underlyingthelegal
debateswithintheMoralesdecision,thereisabroaderquestionregardingthecityitself,mostnotablytherelationshipof
policingtotheurban.IfasFoucaultsuggests,topoliceandtourbanizemeanthesamething97andthehallmarkofpolice
istheemphasisonflow,mobility,andcirculationtheSupremeCourtdecisioninMoralesrepresentsaprofounddebatenot
onlyoverthescopeofconstitutionalrightsbutalsoovertherolethatpolicelogicsoughttoplayinshapingurbanspace. 98
MobilityandtheTargetedCity

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Themajoritydecisionbeginsbyarguingthattheordinancedoesnotprovideminimalguidelinestogovernlawenforcement
becauseofficersaretorelyonpeople'sapparentpurpose,withouthavingtoinquireintowhattheirpurposemaybe. 99Asa
result,theordinanceconfersabsolutediscretionto(p.191) policeofficerstoissueanordertodisperse,andrunsafoulof
theConstitutionbecauseitentrustslawmakingtothemomenttomomentjudgmentofthepolicemanonhisbeat.100
WhilesomeofthisislimitedbytheChicagopoliceGeneralOrder,themajoritydismissestheseadministrativelimits,since
theycouldnotconstituteadefenseforsomeonearrestedundertheordinance. 101
Yetalthoughthemajoritydecisionarguesthattheordinanceisunconstitutionalbecauseitfailstoprovideminimal
guidelinestogovernlawenforcement102andalthoughlawreviewcommentaryhasfocusedonthispoint,unbridledpolice
discretionisnottheonlyconcernmotivatingthemajority.Rather,JusticeStevens'swrittenopinionisoftenconcernedwith
howtheCityofChicagohasimplicitlyimaginedthepolitythroughtheordinanceandthedegreetowhichthepolice
emphasisonmobilityiscloselyconnectedwiththeurbanimaginary.Indeed,whileframedinthelanguageofpolice

discretion,JusticeStevens'smajorityopinionappearsmostconcernedwithwhenmobilityisenforcedbroadly,toeveryone
acrossthecitybutwouldappeartohavenotroublewiththediscretiontheordinancecontemplates,solongasitwould
focusonparticulargroups,inparticularspaces,atparticulartimes.Thisliesincontrasttotheconstitutionaldecisionsofthe
U.S.SupremeCourtinthe1960swherepolicediscretion(includinginvagrancycases)wasbeinglimitedparticularlywhen
specificgroupswerebeingtargeted. 103
Themajority'sconcernscomethroughinitsresponsetothecity'sargumentthatpolicediscretionwassufficientlycontained,
sinceanofficercouldissueanordertodisperseonlywhenheorshereasonablybelievedsomeoneinthegrouptobea
criminalstreetgangmember:
Itistrue,asthecityargues,thattherequirementthattheofficerreasonablybelievethatagroupofloitererscontainsa
gangmemberdoesplacealimitontheauthoritytoorderdispersal.Thatlimitationwouldnodoubtbesufficientifthe
ordinanceonlyappliedtoloiteringthathadanapparentlyharmfulpurposeoreffect,orpossiblyifitonlyappliedto
loiteringbypersonsreasonablybelievedtobecriminalgangmembers.Butthisordinanceappliestoeveryoneinthe
citywhomayremaininoneplacewithonesuspectedgangmemberaslongastheirpurposeisnotapparent. 104
Thereare,then,twopossibilitiesexpressedforwhenthisordinancemightbeconstitutional:eithertheordinancewould
applyonlytoindividualsloiteringwithanapparentlyharmfulpurposeoreffect,oritwouldapplyonlytothoseloiterers
whoarereasonablybelievedtobegangmembers.
NeitheroftheselimitationswouldinfactminimizethediscretionofpoliceofficersbutwhatIwanttostresshereisthatboth
resistthepromotionof(p.192) mobilityandactivityasageneralurbanmatterandresisttreatingidlenessasageneric
problemtobepoliced.Thefirstsuggestionthattheordinancebelimitedtoloiteringwithanapparentlyharmfulpurposeor
effectdoeslittletocabinpolicediscretion,especiallygiventheproblemsthatwouldariseoverhowanapparentlyharmful
standardmightbeinterpreted.Yetwhatthemajorityisheredoingisimplicitlyrejectingthecity'spremisethatidlenessisa
problemtobeaddressedinandofitself. 105Morecentrally,themajoritysuggeststhatthecurrentordinancemightbe
constitutionalifitweresimplylimitedtoloiteringbythosereasonablybelievedtobegangmembers.Yetthiswouldsurelyfail
tocabinpolicediscretion,sinceitwouldcontinuetoreachasubstantialamountofinnocentconductandvestpolice
officerswiththesamescopeofdiscretionthoughlimitedtoanarrowersetofpeople. 106Takentogether,however,itwould
seemthattheCourt'sconcernmightbelesswiththescopeofpolicediscretionthanwithwhetheridleness(anditseffectson
otherresidents)isalegitimateproblemtobeaddressedbythecity,expressingatanotherpointitsconcernthatfriends,
relatives,teachers,counselors,oreventotalstrangersmightunwittinglyengageinforbiddenloiteringiftheyhappento
engageinidleconversationwithagangmember.107

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Howcanweunderstandtheconcernwithpolicingidlenesshereperhapsacceptableiflimitedtothosebelievedtobegang
membersbutnotacceptableifitreachesbeyondthatgroup?Acluemightbefoundinthelanguagethatthemajority
interspersesthroughoutitsopinion:
InanypublicplaceinthecityofChicago,personswhostandorsitinthecompanyofagangmembermaybeordered
todisperse.
Itmattersnotwhetherthereasonthatagangmemberandhisfather,forexample,mightloiternearWrigleyFieldis
torobanunsuspectingfanorjusttogetaglimpseofSammySosaleavingtheballpark.

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Itappliestoeveryoneinthecitywhomayremaininoneplacewithonesuspectedgangmember.
Thatthepolicehaveadoptedinternalruleslimitingtheirenforcementtocertaindesignatedareasofthecitywouldnot
provideadefensetoaloitererwhomightbearrestedelsewhere.Norcouldapersonwhoknowinglyloiteredwitha
wellknowngangmemberanywhereinthecitysafelyassumethattheywouldnotbeorderedtodisperse. 108
Whilethemajoritynowhereindicatesthatlimitingtheordinancegeographicallymightpreserveitsconstitutionality,its
citywideapplicabilityseemsaforemostconcern.Whilearticulatingthisasaconcernwithpolicing(p.193) individualswho
arenotgangmembers,itslanguagesuggeststhataconcernwithspaces,ratherthanindividuals,ismotivatingitsdecision.
JusticeStevenshimselffromChicagoseemstohavewrittenthemajorityjudgmentthroughalensskepticalofenforcing
mobilityasageneralurbanmatter,ratherthanlimitingthisgoaltocrimeriddenneighborhoods(orhotspots).Thisis
furtherreflectedinthemajority'sanalysisofthepolicedepartment'sGeneralOrder.Althoughthegeneralorderpurportsto

limitpolicediscretioninawiderangeofareasrelatingtotheordinance'senforcement,themajorityfocusesexclusivelyon
thegeographiclimitationsitimposesandinterrogateswhetherthesesufficientlylimitpolicediscretion. 109Thisisfurther
evidenceofthemajority'sconcernovertheordinance'scitywideapplicability.
Perhapsonewayofunderstandingthisconcernisthatthetargetingofspecificneighborhoodsispartandparcelofnew
directionsincitygovernance:asValverdestates,Thereseemstobeasensethatthecityorthenationasawholecannotor
shouldnotbepoliced:instead,thereshouldbearationalselectionofhighriskspaces.110Thereisaneoliberalqualityto
thisanalyticmovethatfracturesthesocialthroughgeography111andthatisparticularlysurprisinggiventhatapplicability
acrossthecityisgenerallyconceivedofasthesinequanonofmunicipalordinances. 112Inthemajorityopinion,thepolicing
ofidlenesswhichatadifferenttimewasregardedasaunifyingprincipleforbuildingcities,asexemplifiedinHaussmann's
Parisiscircumscribedandtargetedgeographically,perhapsrearticulatingtheacceptablepolicingofmobilitywithinthe
contextofneoliberalapproachestourbanlife. 113
FairNoticeandtheFreedomtoLoiter
Beyondthemajorityopinion,apluralityofthecourtdeterminedthattheordinanceisunconstitutionalbecauseloiteringisa
constitutionallyprotectedlibertyandtheordinanceprovidescitizenswithinadequatenoticeregardinghowtheyoughtto
conformtheirconducttolegalrequirements.
Whileprovidinglittleanalysisofthispoint,thepluralitylocatesafreedomtoloiterforinnocentpurposeslargelyby
assimilatingloiteringtothefreedomoflocomotionandtravelwithintheUnitedStates. 114Havingdoneso,itdeterminesthat
theordinanceisunconstitutionallyvague,sinceitinfringesonthisfreedomwithoutgivingpeoplefairnoticeastohowto
conformtheirconducttothelaw.Withloiteringdefinedastoremaininanyoneplacewithnoapparentpurpose,it
becomesimpossibletoknowwhetheranypurposeonemighthaveisapparenttoanofficer. 115Importantly,theplurality
thenrejectstheargumentthatthepoliceordertodisperse(which,ifcompliedwith,incursnosanction)providestherequired
notice:because(p.194) anofficermayissueanorderonlyafterprohibitedconducthasalreadyoccurred,itcannotprovide
thekindofadvancenoticethatwillprotecttheputativeloitererfrombeingorderedtodisperse.116Andindeed,becausean
officer'snoticetodispersemayitselfbevague(whatdistance,forinstance,wouldaloitererhavetogoinordertocomply?),
thepluralityfindsthatthisonlycompoundsthevaguenessoftheordinanceitself. 117
Theplurality'sassimilationofafreedomtoloiterwiththefreedomsoftravelingandmovementobviouslyresonateswiththe
majority'sconcernsoverthegeneralizedregulationofidleness.Itsdiscussionoffairnotice,however,bearsadditional
reflection.Aspresentedbytheplurality,individualsmustreceivenotonlynoticebeforefacingpossiblesanctionbutsufficient
noticesoastoavoidpoliceinteractionaltogether.Thisisanextensionofwhatfairnoticewouldusuallyrequireand
highlightsatensioninapplyingthepolicepowerinamoderncontextofurbancitizenship.

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Thequestionofnotice,ofcourse,hasalonghistorywithinthepolicecontext.AsNovakdemonstratesinthecontextof
privateproperty,thepolicepoweroftendispenseswithnoticerequirementsaltogether(suchasinthecontextoffire
regulations). 118Itisnotsurprisingthenthatduringoralarguments,counselforthecitysoughttoanalogizetotheregulation
oftraffic,suggestingthatwhenapoliceofficerrefusestoletcarsgodownastreet,weknowofnoprincipleofconstitutional
lawthatsaysthepoliceofficermustexplainwhythatstreethasbeenclosed.119Thus,althoughthepluralitytreatsthe
questionofnoticeasuniquelyoneofcivilliberties,asthecity'slawyerimplicitlypointsoutitisinsteaddeeplyconnectedto
whetheroneviewsthepolicingofidlenessfromthelensofthecriminallaworinsteadaspartofthepoliceregulationofflow,
mobility,andtraffic. 120

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Incontrasttothispolicelegacy,ensuringadequatenoticehaslongbeenaconstitutiveelementofproceduraldueprocess.In
thisway,thepluralityopinionmerelydrawsoutanexistingtensionbetweenlawandpoliceasmodalitiesofrule121oras
Dubberasks,Howcanobjectsofpoliceremainlegalsubjects?122Aswithconstitutionaldecisionsofyearspast,underlying
questionsregardingthescopeofthepolicepowerareignored,infavorofanalysesthatseekmerelytoensureproceduraldue
process. 123Yetitistheplurality'sstaunchviewsonwhatconstitutesfairnoticethatvividlydemonstratethedifferenturban
subjectthanthatcontemplatedbypolicescience.Byrequiringthatindividualsbeabletomanagetheirconductsoastoavoid
anordertodisperse(evenifnosanctionisattached),thepluralityhereseemstobeworkingwithanimageofHomoprudens
whomustbeprovidedwiththecapacitytosuccessfullyplantheiractivities. 124Aswewillseenext,itistheveryoppositeview
onethatfocusesontheloiteringordinanceastheurban(p.195) regulationofcirculationandmobilitythatanimatesthe
decisionsofthedissentingjudges.
Mobility,Police,andCitizenship

ItisthedissentingjudgesJusticesScaliaandThomasandChiefJusticeRehnquist,themostconservativemembersofthe
CourtwhomostexplicitlytakeupthepolicelegacyoftheChicagoordinance.Insodoing,thedissentingjudgmentsshift
thedebateawayfromindividualpoliceencounterswithcitizens,insteadfocusingontheregulatoryaspectsofsociallifethat
havebeenprevalentthroughoutU.S.history.Perhapssurprisingly,however,thedissentingjudgesviewthispolicepoweras
inherentlydemocraticandindeedasconstitutiveofdemocraticpolities.

Incontrasttothemajoritydecision,JusticeScalia'sjudgmentpresentsamoreunifiedviewofthepolity.Hebeginsbyrelying
onsomeofthemostmundaneformsofmunicipalregulationandinparticular,trafficlawsandregulationofthepublic
streetsandelevatestheseclassicpoliceconcernswithmobilityasthemselvesevidenceofasocialcontractthatunites
Chicagocitizens:
ThecitizensofChicagowereoncefreetodriveaboutthecityatwhateverspeedtheywished.Atsomepoint
Chicagoans(orperhapsIllinoisans)decidedthiswouldnotdo,andimposedprophylacticspeedlimitsdesignedto
assuresafeoperationbytheaverage(orperhapsevensubaverage)driverwiththeaverage(orperhapseven
subaverage)vehicle.Thisinfringeduponthefreedomofallcitizens,butwasnotunconstitutional.
Similarly,thecitizensofChicagowereoncefreetostandaroundandgawkatthesceneofanaccident.Atsomepoint
Chicagoansdiscoveredthatthisobstructedtrafficandcausedmoreaccidents.Theydidnotmakethepractice
unlawful,buttheydidauthorizepoliceofficerstoorderthecrowdtodisperse..Again,thisprophylacticmeasure
infringeduponthefreedomofallcitizens,butwasnotunconstitutional.
Untiltheordinancethatisbeforeustodaywasadopted,thecitizensofChicagowerefreetostandaboutinpublic
placeswithnoapparentpurposetoengage,thatis,inconductthatappearedtobeloitering.Onceagain,
Chicagoansdecidedthattoeliminatetheproblemitwasworthrestrictingsomeofthefreedomthattheyonce
enjoyed.Theminorlimitationuponthefreestateofnaturethatthisprophylacticarrangementimposeduponall
Chicagoansseemedtothem(anditseemstome)asmallpricetopayforliberationoftheirstreets. 125
(p.196) AlthoughlikelyoverstatingthehistoricalfreedomsofChicagoresidents,whatisimportanttonotehereisthat
JusticeScaliaelevatesthepolicegovernanceofurbanlifeandinparticular,concernoverthestreetsandmobilitytoa
democraticunitingofthecitizensofChicago.Thoughtheywouldbothsurelyresistthecomparison,thereisperhapsabit
ofFoucaultheretherearepolities,onemightconclude,becausethereispolice.Andindeed,thisconflatingofpolice
governancewithaunited,democraticpolityiswhatJusticeScaliareliesontocriticizethemajority'sviewthattheordinance
mightbeconstitutionalifappliedsolelytoapparentgangmembers,concludingthatsurelygangmemberscannotbedecreed
tobeoutlaws,subjecttothemerestwhimofthepoliceastherestofusarenot.126

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IfJusticeScaliabeginswithtrafficlaws,hisviewofthecloseconnectionbetweenmobility,police,andurbancitizenship
continuesthroughoutthetextofhisdecision.Whenrespondingtotheplurality'sviewthatanofficer'sdispersalorderwould
itselfbevague,JusticeScaliarespondsthatnomodernurbansocietyandprobablynonesinceLondongotbigenoughto
havesewerscouldfunctionundersucharule.127ThoughneglectingtheearlyParisianadoptionofsewers,theunified
politythatJusticeScaliapresentsislinkedtogetherthroughmundanepoliceregulationthroughmentionofsewers,speed
limits,andtheflowofhighwaytrafficratherthanthroughanytranscendentmoralrelationship.Indeedtheheterogeneous
listthatJusticeScaliaproduces,inwhichsewage,traffic,andindividualsareseeminglyinterchangeableobjectsfor
ensuringflowandmotion,mirrorsPatrickJoyce'sanalysisofhowtheregulationofthesesamematerialobjectsproduced
theliberalismofEnglishcitiesinthenineteenthcentury. 128

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Inthisway,forJusticeScaliatheloitererappearsassimplyoneotheraspectoftraffictobecontrolled.Havingnoapparent
purpose,inhisview,relatestosomeonewhoremainsinanyoneplaceandhasnoapparentreasontomovefromthere,so
thatinhisviewthelackofmovementiswhatisbeingpoliced,ratherthanthosewhoaremobile(evenifaimless). 129He
causticallyconcludesthatthisisvisibleonitsface:
TheOrdinancedoesnotapplytostanding,buttoremainingatermwhichinthiscontextobviouslymeans[to]
endureorpersist.
ChicagopoliceofficersenforcingtheOrdinancearenotlookingforpeoplewithnoapparentpurpose(whoare
regrettablyinoversupply)theyarelookingforpeoplewhoremaininanyoneplacewithnoapparentpurposethat
is,whoremaintherewithoutanyapparentreasonforremainingthere.Thatisnotdifficulttoperceive. 130

(p.197) Indeed,JusticeScaliaconcludesthatthepointofregulatingloiterersherehaslittletodowithseekingcriminalacts
orintentionsandthataswithotherregulatedaspectsoflife,suchasridingamotorcycle,harmlessconductcanbe
regulatedpreciselybecauseoftheriskitposes. 131

JusticeScalia'slinkbetweenthestreets,mobility,andthedemocraticintentionsofthecitizensofChicagoisechoedin
justiceThomas'sopinion,inwhichbothJusticeScaliaandChiefJusticeRehnquistjoin.JusticeThomas'sopinionequally
turnstobroadernotionsofpolice,citingamongothersErnstFreund's(1904)classictextonthepreventivedimensionofthe
policepowerandTiedeman's(1886)analysisofthelimitsofthepolicepower. 132Yetratherthanfocusingonthemore
regulatorydimensionsofpolice,readcloselyJusticeThomasturnshisconstitutionalanalysisondemonstratingthat
ensuringmobilityisalsocoretothepolicegoalsofpoliceandsecurity.
JusticeThomasequallybeginsbyinvokingthecitizensofChicago,whoinenactingtheordinancesensiblydecidedto
returntobasics133andrefutesapossibleconstitutionalfreedomtoloiterbynotingthelonghistoryofmunicipalandstate
actstoregulatetheidleanddisorderly. 134Hethenplacestheordinancewithinthehistoryofpolice,indicatingthat
achievingsecurityhaslongbeenapolicegoalthatrunsfarbeyondcrimeandisinsteadrelatedtothepowertomaintainthe
publicpeace135andquotingFreundforthepropositionthatthispolicepowerneedsnospeciallegalauthorityandthat
policeandthecriminallawareseparatemodalitiesforachievingsecurity. 136Dispersal,forJusticeThomas,isacentral
aspectofthispowertoensurepublicpeaceandsecurity,quoting,forinstance,anineteenthcenturyNewYorkpolicemanual
thatemphasizesthedutytodisperseunlawfulordangerousassemblages,andassemblagesthatobstructthefreepassageof
publicstreets,sidewalks,parksandplaces.137ForJusticeThomas,loiterersandvagrantssimplyfallwithinthisgeneral
policepowerwhichsitsapartfromthecriminallawentirelyandlandsinsteadwithinthepeacekeepingroleofpolice. 138
Ifthefieldofmobilityis,forJusticeThomas,coretothepeacekeepingfunctionofpolice,healsoappearstotakea
Haussmannianviewofmobilityascriticaltourbancitizenship.JusticeThomasconcludeshisdecisionwiththefollowing
passage:
Thepeoplewhowillhavetolivewiththeconsequencesoftoday'sopiniondonotliveinourneighborhoods.They
aregood,decentpeoplewhomuststruggletoovercometheirdesperatesituation,againstallodds,inordertoraise
theirfamilies,earnaliving,andremaingoodcitizens.Asoneresidentdescribed,Thereisonlyaboutmaybeoneor
twopercentofthepeoplein(p.198) thecitycausingtheseproblemsmaybe,butit'skeeping98percentofusinour
housesandoffthestreetsandafraidtoshop.TheCourttodayhasdeniedourmostvulnerablecitizensthevery
thingthatJusticeStevenselevatesaboveallelsethefreedomofmovement.139

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IfJusticeThomasadoptsaviewofsecurityhere,itislinkedwiththeabilitytocirculate,toworkandtoshop,andto
participateinthepublicdimensionsofcitylife.Inadditiontoechoingthemedievalprinciplethatcityairmakesone
free,140mobility,police,andurbancitizenshipareherewrappedalltogetherandindeed,JusticeThomasreturnsustoa
theoryofmobilitythatrepresentsitasasinequanonofsalubrityandgoodcitizenship.

Conclusion
Letusreturn,then,tothequestionsmotivatingthischapter.BychroniclingtheriseandfalloftheChicagoordinanceasnot
solelyanaccountofcrimecontrolbutinsteadasamomentinthegovernanceofurbanmobility,weatonelevelseethe
persistenceofpolicelogicswithincontemporarypoliticalandlegalstruggles.Thisisnosmallpoint.AsDubberdiscussesin
hisanalysisofvagrancyandthepolicepower,policeoftenfocusesontheeliminationofthreatsandpreciselyinsodoing,
hasoftenmanagedtostaybeyondthereachoflegalregulation. 141

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Yetthefocusonmobilitywithwhichwebeganalsoprovidesaseparatesourceofinsight.Thehistoricalemphasisplacedon
ensuringactivityandcirculation,aprinciplethatinformedthedesignofcitiessuchasChicagoandParisandwasidentified
astheheartofpolicebyFoucault,remindsusthaturbancrimecontrolinitiativesarecloselylinkedwithanimaginationof
thecityitself.Theproductionofurbansplendor,asFoucaultrecounts,surelyreliedonanaestheticrationaleregarding
movementandactivitybutalsoconceivedofsuchactivityasinherentlyproductiveforthestateanditsresidents.Patrick
Joycebuildsonthissetofinsightstodemonstratehow,throughthefieldofcirculation,citydesignandurbanordering
producedpedestrianswhowouldproductivelymoveinthecityandforwhomwalkinginpublicwascivilizingfor
pedestriansandonlookersalike. 142

Althoughenactedovertwocenturieslater,Isuggestthatthe1992Chicagoordinancecarriedmuchofthesamerationaleand

flavor.StemmingfromsomeofthemostviolentmonthsinrecentU.S.urbanhistory,theordinancewasdesignedtopolice
the(apparent)doingofnothing,notonlytopreventthedoingofsomethingbuttoaddressconcernsoverthelimited
circulation(p.199) oflawabidingresidentspursuingrecreational,familial,andcommercialactivity.Asaresult,although
underwrittenthroughresidents'fearofviolence,theordinancewasexplicitlyarticulatedtoinsteadresonatewithregulating
streets,mobility,andcirculationapointthat,whenenacted,fitwiththelocalpoliticalwindsbyemphasizingurban
developmentbutwasalsoperceivedaspotentiallyinsulatingitfromlegalchallenge. 143Therewasperhapsacynicismtothis
extensivepolicingofspatialimmobility,preciselyinacitywhereeconomicimmobilityandthepunitiveeffectsofcriminal
justicepoliciesarethemselvesspatiallyconcentrated. 144

Whileextensivelyusedoverabriefthreeandahalfyearperiod,theSupremeCourtfoundtheordinanceunconstitutionalin
1999.Dependingonone'ssideofthenormativefence,thiswasperceivedeitherasatriumphofcivillibertiesorasan
anachronisticdefeatofinnovativepolicingthatcouldrespondtoincreasinglydangerouscities. 145Yetincontrasttomost
researchontheordinancetodate,thepointofthischapterisneithertodefendnordenounceitsusebutinsteadtodrawout
thegovernmentalrationalitiesandtechniquesthatanimateitandtotherebydevelopananalysisthathighlightstheoften
overlookedrelationshipbetweenloiteringlawsandthecontemporaryproductionofstatesplendor.Readfromthislens,the
differentjudgmentsoftheCourtequallysuggestthattheconstitutionalityoftheordinancewasnotsolelyoneofdefiningthe
limitsofcivillibertiesbutwaswrappedupwithideasabouturbancitizenship,citylife,andtheimportanceofmobilitywithin
thoselogics.Ifthecontestcontinuestobeoverwhetherpoliceregulationcanbesetapartfromthedemandsofthecriminal
law,itisacontestthatcannoteasilybedivorcedfromhowwecontemplateurbanlifeitselfandindeed,howwecontemplate
thesubjectsoflawandofpolice. 146
FollowingtheSupremeCourtdecision,ChicagoCityCouncilintroducedarevisedordinanceinFebruary2000. 147The
ordinanceisnowlimitedtothosecircumstanceswherethereisareasonablybelievedharmfulpurposeoreffectpolice
officersaredirectedonhowtoorderindividualstodisperseandhowfartheymustgoanditislimitedinoperationto
specifiedenforcementareas,ratherthanapplyingtothecityatlarge.Theimportanceofmovingalong,however,takeseven
greaterprideofplaceinthisnewordinance:inanefforttomeetconstitutionaldueprocessdemands,theordinancenow
specifiesthatindividualsaretoremovethemselvesfromwithinsightandhearingoftheplaceforthreehours. 148Thelogic
ofpoliceandwithit,whatFoucaultcallsthefieldofcirculationthatisatitscorecontinuesapace.(p.200)
Notes:
(1.)JohnMerriman,TheMarginsofCityLife:ExplorationsontheFrenchUrbanFrontier,18151851(NewYork:Oxford
Univ.Press,1991) FinditinyourLibraryJamesScott,SeeingLikeaState:HowCertainSchemestoImprovetheHuman
ConditionHaveFailed(NewHaven,Conn.:YaleUniv.Press,1998) FinditinyourLibrary.

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(2.)Scott,supranote1 FinditinyourLibrary.
(3.)MichelCarmona,Haussmann(Paris:Fayard,2000) FinditinyourLibraryHowardPayne,ThePoliceStateofLouis
NapoleonBonaparte,18511860(Seattle:Univ.ofWashingtonPress,1966) FinditinyourLibraryPatrickJoyce,TheRule
ofFreedom:LiberalismandtheModernCity(London:Verso,2003),p.149 FinditinyourLibraryScott,supranote1
FinditinyourLibrary,pp.5363.
(4.)JeannePronteau,EdmeVerniquet,17271804(Paris:CommissiondesTravauxHistoriques,VilledeParis,1986)
FinditinyourLibraryAnthonySutcliffe,Paris:AnArchitecturalHistory(NewHaven,Conn.:YaleUniv.Press,1996),
pp.6769. FinditinyourLibrary

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(5.)DavidP.Jordan,TransformingParis:TheLifeandLaborsofBaronHaussmann(NewYork:FreePress,1995),pp.34
37 FinditinyourLibraryPaulRabinow,FrenchModern:NormsandFormsoftheSocialEnvironment(Chicago:Univ.of
ChicagoPress,1995),p.75. FinditinyourLibrary
(6.)Carmona,supranote3 FinditinyourLibraryFranoiseChoay,LesMmoiresd'Haussmann(Paris:Seuil,2000),pp.
1920. FinditinyourLibraryCirculation,forHaussmann,isalsowhatunderwroteandguaranteedpoliticalsupportforthe
projectfromthepopulationitselfandNapoleonIIIwasequallyenamoredwithmovement,anditscentralitytoahealthy
andsalubriouscity.SeeJordan,supranote5 FinditinyourLibrary,pp.171,295.
(7.)Jordan,supranote5 FinditinyourLibrary,p.74Rabinow,supranote5 FinditinyourLibrary.
(8.)Carmona,supranote3 FinditinyourLibrary,pp.52023.

(9.)FrancisLieber,OnCivilLibertyandSelfGovernment,2ded.(Philadelphia,Pa.:J.B.Lippincott,1891),p.87.
FinditinyourLibrary
(10.)SeeWilliamNovak,ThePeople'sWelfare:LawandRegulationinNineteenthCenturyAmerica(ChapelHill:Univ.of
NorthCarolinaPress,1996),pp.11718. FinditinyourLibrary
(11.)Joyce,supranote3 FinditinyourLibrary,pp.3556,8687.
(12.)CarlSmith,ThePlanofChicago:DanielBurnhamandtheRemakingoftheAmericanCity(Chicago:Univ.ofChicago
Press,2006) FinditinyourLibraryDanielHess,TransportationBeautifulDidtheCityBeautiful:MovementImprove
UrbanTransportation?JournalofUrbanHistory32(2006):51145 FinditinyourLibraryChristopherTunnard,ACity
CalledBeautiful,JournaloftheSocietyofArchitecturalHistorians9(1950):3136. FinditinyourLibrary
(13.)Hess,supranote12 FinditinyourLibrary,p.535.
(14.)Ibid. FinditinyourLibrary,p.531.
(15.)CityofChicago,CommitteeonPoliceandFire.1992a.MeetingHeldonMay15,1992,appendix1ofCityofChicago's
MemoranduminOppositiontoDefendant'sMotiontoDismissinChicagov.Avilar,No.93MC1376001(filedMay10,
1993)CityofChicago,CommitteeonPoliceandFire.1992b.MeetingHeldonMay18,1992,appendix2ofCityofChicago's
MemoranduminOppositiontoDefendant'sMotiontoDismissinChicagov.Avilar,No.93MCI376001(filedMay10,
1993).
(16.)DebraLivingston,PoliceDiscretionandtheQualityofLifeinPublicPlaces:Courts,Communities,andtheNew
Policing,ColumbiaLawReview97(1997):551672 FinditinyourLibraryRichardSchragger,TheLimitsofLocalism,
MichiganLawReview100(2001):371472 FinditinyourLibrary.
(17.)FranSpielman,DaleyEndorsesAntigangLawRodriguezWary,ChicagoSimTimes,May20,1992,p.14.
FinditinyourLibrary
(18.)WesleySkogan&SusanHartnett,CommunityPolicing,ChicagoStyle(NewYork:OxfordUniv.Press,1997),p.22
FinditinyourLibraryFranSpielman&RayLong,WhatWillStoptheKilling?Daley'sFingerPointsNowhereIssues

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Can'tBeDodgedAnyLonger,ChicagoSunTimes,October18,1992 FinditinyourLibraryIsabelWilkerson,CrackHits
Chicago,AlongWithaWaveofKilling,NewYorkTimes,September24,1991,p.A1. FinditinyourLibrary
(19.)CityofChicago,SubstituteOrdinance,amendingtheMunicipalCodeofChicagobyaddinganewSection84015(June
17,1992).
(20.)MarianaValverde&RonLevi,Gobernandolacomunidad,gobernandoatravsdelacomunidad,DelitoySociedad:
RevistadeCienciasSociales22(2006):530. FinditinyourLibrary

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(21.)Joyce,supranote3 FinditinyourLibrary,pp.147,155.Onthepoliceprojectinthiscontext,seeMarkusD.Dubber,
TheVictiminAmericanPenalLaw,BuffaloCriminalLawReview3(1999):331 FinditinyourLibraryMarkusD.
Dubber&MarianaValverde,PerspectivesonthePowerandScienceofPolice,inTheNewPoliceScience:ThePolice
PowerinDomesticandInternationalGovernance,MarkusD.Dubber&MarianaValverde,eds.(Stanford:StanfordUniv.
Press,2006),pp.116 FinditinyourLibraryJohnMerriman,PoliceStories:BuildingtheFrenchState,18151851(New
York:OxfordUniv.Press,2006) FinditinyourLibraryNovak,supranote10 FinditinyourLibrary.
(22.)Chicagov.Morales,527U.S.41(1999).
(23.)E.g.,DavidCole,DiscretionandDiscriminationReconsidered:AResponsetotheNewCriminalJusticeScholarship,
GeorgetownLawJournal87(1999):105993 FinditinyourLibraryDanKahan&TraceyMeares,TheComingCrisisof
CriminalProcedure,GeorgetownLawJournal86(1998):115384 FinditinyourLibraryTraceyMeares&DanKahan,
TheWagesofAntiquatedProceduralThinking:ACritiqueofChicagov.Morales,UniversityofChicagoLegalForum1998

(1998):197214 FinditinyourLibraryDebraLivingston,GangLoitering,theCourt,andSomeRealismaboutPolice
Patrol,SupremeCourtReview1999(1999):141202 FinditinyourLibraryDorothyRoberts,Race,Vagueness,andthe
SocialMeaningofOrderMaintenancePolicing,JournalofCriminalLaw&Criminology89(1999):775836.
FinditinyourLibrary
(24.)Cf.MarthaNussbaum,HidingfromHumanity:Disgust,Shame,andtheLaw(Princeton,N.J.:PrincetonUniv.Press,
2004),pp.27177. FinditinyourLibrary
(25.)Dubber,supranote21 FinditinyourLibraryMarkusD.Dubber,TowardaConstitutionalLawofCrimeand
Punishment,HastingsLawJournal55(2004):50971 FinditinyourLibraryMarkusD.Dubber,TheNewPolice
ScienceandthePolicePowerModeloftheCriminalProcess,inTheNewPoliceScience:ThePolicePowerinDomesticand
InternationalGovernance,MarkusD.Dubber&MarianaValverde,eds.(Stanford,Calif.:StanfordUniv.Press,2006),pp.
10744 FinditinyourLibraryErikLuna,TheModelsofCriminalProcedure,BuffaloCriminalLawReview2(1999):
389535 FinditinyourLibraryErikLuna,ConstitutionalRoadMaps,JournalofCriminalLawandCriminology90
(2000):112550,1125 FinditinyourLibrarySchragger,supranote16 FinditinyourLibrary.
(26.)E.g.,WilliamChambliss,ASociologicalAnalysisoftheLawofVagrancy,SocialProblems12(1964):6777
FinditinyourLibraryCalebFoote,VagrancyTypeLawandItsAdministration,UniversityofPennsylvaniaLawReview
104(1956):60350 FinditinyourLibraryBernardHarcourt,IllusionofOrder:TheFalsePromiseofBrokenWindows
Policing(Cambridge,Mass.:HarvardUniv.Press,2001) FinditinyourLibraryJoeHermer&JanetMosher,Disorderly
People:LawandthePoliticsofExclusioninOntario(Halifax:Fernwood,2002) FinditinyourLibraryGaryStewart,
BlackCodesandBrokenWindows:TheLegacyofRacialHegemonyinAntiGangCivilInjunctions,YaleLawJournal107
(1998):224979. FinditinyourLibrary
(27.)AlanHunt,PoliceandtheRegulationofTraffic:PolicingasaCivilizingProcess?inTheNewPoliceScience:The
PolicePowerinDomesticandInternationalGovernance,MarkusD.Dubber&MarianaValverde,eds.(Stanford:Stanford
Univ.Press,2006),pp.16884. FinditinyourLibrary
(28.)MichelFoucault,Scurit,Territoire,Population:CoursauCollgeDeFrance,19771978(Paris:Seuil,2004),pp.
333,344. FinditinyourLibraryAlltranslationsfromScurit,Territoire,Populationaremine.
(29.)Ibid. FinditinyourLibrary
(30.)PaoloNapoli,NaissancedelaPoliceModerne:Pouvoir,Normes,Socits(Paris:LaDcouverte,2003).
FinditinyourLibrary

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(31.)MarkNeocleous,SocialPoliceandtheMechanismsofPrevention:PatrickColquhounandtheConditionofPoverty,
BritishJournalofCriminology40(2000):71026 FinditinyourLibraryNovak,supranote10 FinditinyourLibrary.
(32.)Foucault,supranote28 FinditinyourLibrary,p.321.
(33.)Ibid. FinditinyourLibrary,pp.31921,330.
(34.)Ibid. FinditinyourLibrary,pp.321,326.

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(35.)IamgratefultoMarianaValverdeforpointingouttheconnectionbetweensplendorandprosperityasitwouldbe
conceivedofintheworkofAdamSmith.
(36.)SeealsoMarkNeocleous,TheoreticalFoundationsoftheNewPoliceScience,inTheNewPoliceScience:ThePolice
PowerinDomesticandInternationalGovernance,MarkusD.Dubber&MarianaValverde,eds.(Stanford:StanfordUniv.
Press,2006),pp.1741. FinditinyourLibrary
(37.)Foucault,supranote28 FinditinyourLibrary,pp.32728.
(38.)Ibid. FinditinyourLibrary,pp.32830(emphasisadded).
(39.)Ibid. FinditinyourLibrary,p.330(emphasisadded).
(40.)Ibid. FinditinyourLibrary,p.330.

(41.)Ibid. FinditinyourLibrary,pp.33032.
(42.)Ibid. FinditinyourLibrary,pp.33033.
(43.)Ibid. FinditinyourLibrary,pp.333,343seealsoJoyce,supranote3 FinditinyourLibrary.
(44.)Ibid. FinditinyourLibrary,p.333.
(45.)Merriman,supranote21 FinditinyourLibrary,pp.11840.Cf.Foucault,supranote28 FinditinyourLibrary,p.
343.
(46.)Foucault,supranote28 FinditinyourLibrary,pp.34243.
(47.)Ibid. FinditinyourLibrary,pp.344349.
(48.)JaneGross,ANew,PurifiedFormofCocaineCausesAlarmasAbuseIncreases,NewYorkTimes,November29,
1985,p.A1 FinditinyourLibraryJulieJacobs,Don'tRelyonGangs'Promises,ChicagoSunTimes,October29,1992,p.
37 FinditinyourLibraryWilkerson,supranote18 FinditinyourLibrary.
(49.)Skogan&Hartnett,supranote18 FinditinyourLibrary,p.22.
(50.)Wilkerson,supranote18 FinditinyourLibrary.
(51.)DonHayner,LawsMultiplyasNeighborhoodFearsRise,ChicagoSunTimes,August30,1992,p.26.
FinditinyourLibrary
(52.)RobertDavis&WilliamRecktenwald,AngryAldermenTargetGangs:DaleyBacksCityCouncilCallforExtraPolice
Powers,ChicagoTribune,October24,1991,p.1. FinditinyourLibrary
(53.)JimCasey,CitytoPutMoreCopsontheStreet:KillingsBringPledgetoBoostFootPatrols,ChicagoSunTimes,April
9,1991,p.1. FinditinyourLibrary
(54.)RayHanania,O'MalleyRejectsMartin'sCalltoBanLoitering,ChicagoSunTimes,April13,1991,p.36.
FinditinyourLibrary

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(55.)JohnKass&SharmanStein,DaleyWeighsRacialPoliticsinPickingPoliceChief,ChicagoTribune,April12,1992,
p.1 FinditinyourLibrarySkogan&Hartnett,supranote18 FinditinyourLibrary,pp.2037Spielman&Long,supra
note18 FinditinyourLibrary,p.29.
(56.)Kass&Stein,supranote55 FinditinyourLibrary.
(57.)AlbertAlschuler&StephenSchulhofer,AntiquatedProceduresorBedrockRights?AResponsetoProfessorsMeares
andKahan,UniversityofChicagoLegalForum1998:21544 FinditinyourLibraryDavis&Recktenwald,supranote52
FinditinyourLibrary.

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(58.)Davis&Recktenwald,supranote52 FinditinyourLibrary,p.1.
(59.)Ibid. FinditinyourLibraryTheimportanceattachedtostreetcornersthroughouttheordinance'shistoryis
noteworthyandechoesafascinationwithcornersandurbanlifethathasequallyoccupiedChicagoSchoolsociology.See
mostnotablyWilliamFooteWhyte,StreetCornerSociety:TheSocialStructureofanItalianSlum(Chicago:Univ.of
ChicagoPress,1943) FinditinyourLibraryandElliotLiebow,Tally'sCorner:AStudyofNegroStreetcornerMen(Boston:
Little,Brown,1967) FinditinyourLibrary,andmorerecentlypickedupinElijahAnderson,APlaceontheCorner
(Chicago:Univ.ofChicagoPress,1978) FinditinyourLibrary.
(60.)PhilipFranchine,W.SideRaidsJusttheStart,OfficialsSay,ChicagoSunTimes,October20,1991,p.20.
FinditinyourLibrary

(61.)ChicagoNeighborhoodOrganizations,BriefAmicusCuriaeoftheChicagoNeighborhoodOrganizationsinSupportof

PetitionerinChicagov.Morales,No.971121(filedJune1998)(1997)U.S.Briefs1121,Lexis(Briefs),p.20.
(62.)Seesupranote15.
(63.)CatePlys,LeaveIttoBeaverstoShakeUptheStatusQuo,ChicagoSunTimes,June11,1999,p.43.
FinditinyourLibrary
(64.)Livingston,supranote23 FinditinyourLibrary.
(65.)CommitteeonPoliceandFire,1992a,supranote15,p.148.
(66.)RonLevi,TheConstitutionofCommunityinLegalSites:AStudyofLaw,CrimeanditsControl(SJDdiss.,2003),
FacultyofLaw,Univ.ofToronto. FinditinyourLibrary
(67.)CommitteeonPoliceandFire,1992a,supranote15,pp.105,65,67.
(68.)Ibid.,pp.76,50.
(69.)Livingston,supranote23 FinditinyourLibrary.
(70.)Schragger,supranote16 FinditinyourLibrary.
(71.)Spielman,supranote17 FinditinyourLibrarySpielman&Long,supranote18 FinditinyourLibrary.
(72.)KurtAndersen,TheCityThatNoLongerWorks,Time,December17,1984 FinditinyourLibraryJohnLorinc,The
CityThatReallyWorks,TorontoLife34,no.14(2000):7276,78ff FinditinyourLibraryGeraldSuttles,TheManMade
City:TheLandUseConfidenceGameinChicago(Chicago:Univ.ofChicagoPress,1990) FinditinyourLibrary.
(73.)RobertDavis,NewPoliceArrestPowerLightsCityCouncilFuse,ChicagoTribune,June18,1992,p.1
FinditinyourLibraryLivingston,supranote23 FinditinyourLibrarySpielman,supranote17 FinditinyourLibrary.
(74.)Davis,supranote73 FinditinyourLibraryRobertDavis,SpecialUnitstoPoliceLoiterers:CityWantstoMakeNew
AntiGangLawHoldUpinCourt,ChicagoTribune,June19,1992,p.3 FinditinyourLibrarySpielman,supranote17
FinditinyourLibrary.

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(75.)CityofChicago,PetitionforaWritofCertioraritotheSupremeCourtofIllinoisinChicagov.Morales(filedJanuary2,
1998),pp.3,8.
(76.)ChicagoPoliceDepartment,GeneralOrderNo.924,AntiGangLoiteringOrdinance,August7,1992,appendixGof
PetitionforaWritofCertioraritotheSupremeCourtofIllinoisinChicagov.Morales(filedJanuary2,1998).
(77.)WayneLaFave&AustinScottJr.,SubstantiveCriminalLaw,updatedbythe2003pocketpart(St.Paul,Minn.:West,
1986) FinditinyourLibrary,1.7WayneLogan,TheShadowCriminalLawofMunicipalGovernance,OhioStateLaw
Journal62(2001):140972. FinditinyourLibrary

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(78.)E.g.,ShawnNapier,AmericaRespondstoCriminalGangActivityTakingBackOurStreets:ACriticalAnalysisofCity
ofChicagov.Morales,CapitalUniversityLawReview29(2002):71959 FinditinyourLibraryKimStrosnider,Anti
GangOrdinancesafterCityofChicagov.Morales:TheIntersectionofRace,VaguenessDoctrine,andEqualProtectionin
theCriminalLaw,AmericanCriminalLawReview39(2002):10144. FinditinyourLibraryButseeLogan,supranote77
FinditinyourLibrarySchragger,supranote16 FinditinyourLibrary.
(79.)CommitteeonPoliceandFire,1992b,supranote15,pp.2001.
(80.)Levi,supranote66 FinditinyourLibrary.
(81.)Cf.MarkusD.Dubber,PolicingPossession:TheWaronCrimeandtheEndofCriminalLaw,JournalofCriminal
LawandCriminology91(2001):829996 FinditinyourLibraryStewart,supranote26 FinditinyourLibrary,pp.2249

79.

(82.)Novak,supranote10 FinditinyourLibrary.
(83.)Ibid. FinditinyourLibrary,pp.12324.
(84.)Ibid. FinditinyourLibrary,p.120.
(85.)Cf.JenniferCoffin,TheUnitedMallofAmerica:FreeSpeech,StateConstitutions,andtheGrowingFortressofPrivate
Property,UniversityofMichiganJournalofLawReform33(2000):61549. FinditinyourLibrary
(86.)RonLevi&MarianaValverde,KnowledgeonTap:PoliceScienceandCommonKnowledgeintheLegalRegulationof
Drunkenness,Law&SocialInquiry26(2001):20128 FinditinyourLibraryNovak,supranote10
FinditinyourLibrary.
(87.)Supranote76,s.3(c).Thisrestrictiononpoliceofficersappearstohavesoongivenway.Alschuler&Schulhoferreport
thatby1995itseemsthatallChicagopoliceworkinginthedesignatedenforcementareasconsideredthemselvesauthorized
toarrestindividualsundertheordinance.Alschuler&Schulhofer,supranote57 FinditinyourLibrary,p.244,n.108.
(88.)Levi&Valverde,supranote86 FinditinyourLibrary.Thisknowledgeheterogeneityisparalleledbytheguidelineson
whatconstitutesacriminalstreetgang.Referringtospecific,documentedandreliableinformation,theGeneralOrder
liststhefollowingaspotential,thoughnotexclusive,formsofknowledgethatcanbereliedon:analysisofcrimepattern
informationobservationsofdepartmentmemberswitnessinterviewsinterviewsofadmittedcriminalstreetgangmembers
andinformationreceivedfrominformantswhohaveproventobereliable.Thiscarriesthroughtothecriteriafordefining
gangmembership,whichprivilegespoliceofficers'onthejobknowledgebyrequiringthatgangmembershipmustbe
substantiatedbythearrestingofficer'sexperienceandknowledgeoftheallegedoffenders(ChicagoPoliceDepartment,
1992,supranote76).Formoreontheintersectionbetweenpolicescience,law,andknowledgeseeLevi&Valverde,supra
note86 FinditinyourLibrary.
(89.)Alschuler&Schulhofer,supranote57 FinditinyourLibrary,p.233ChicagoPoliceDepartment,MayorDaleyHails
PassageofGangLoiteringOrdinance,pressrelease,February16,2000 FinditinyourLibraryChicagov.Morales,supra
note22,pp.4950Harcourt,supranote26 FinditinyourLibrary,p.51.
(90.)Harcourt,supranote26 FinditinyourLibrary,pp.1046.

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(91.)PeterPoulos,Chicago'sBanonGangLoitering:MakingSenseofVaguenessandOverbreadthinLoiteringLaws,
CaliforniaLawReview83(1995):379417,p.384n.26. FinditinyourLibrary
(92.)Chicagov.Youkhana,No.93MC1293363(IllinoisCir.Ct.,29September1993),appendixEofPetitionforaWritof
CertioraritotheSupremeCourtofIllinoisinChicagov.Morales(filedJanuary2,1998).
(93.)Chicagov.Morales,supranote22.
(94.)WithsuccessfulchallengesbothattrialandinthesupremecourtofIllinois,thedecisionsinChicagov.Youkhana
(1993,1995)resultedinareversaloftheconvictionofsixotherindividualsoriginallyconvictedinChicagov.Morales(1995)
andareversaloftheconvictionoffiftyotherindividualsinChicagov.Ramsey(1995seeChicagov.Youkhana[1993]No.
93MC1293363[IllinoisCir.Ct.,September29],appendixEofPetitionforaWritofCertioraritotheSupremeCourtof
IllinoisinChicagov.Morales[filedJanuary2,1998]Chicagov.Youkhana[1995],277Ill.App.3d101Chicagov.Morales
[1995],No.1934039[IllinoisApp.,December29],appendixCofPetitionforaWritofCertioraritotheSupremeCourtof
IllinoisinChicagov.Morales[filedJanuary2,1998]Chicagov.Ramsey[1995],No.1934125[IllinoisApp.,December
29],appendixDofPetitionforaWritofCertioraritotheSupremeCourtofIllinoisinChicagov.Morales[filedJanuary2,
1998]).AllthedefendantsinYoukhana,Morales,andRamseywerethenconsolidated,70defendantsinall,beforethe
supremecourtofIllinoisinChicagov.Morales(1997,177Ill.2d440[Sup.Ct.]).ThesupremecourtofIllinoisfoundthatthe
ordinancewasanunconstitutionalviolationofdueprocess,anditisthisdecisionthatwaslaterappealedtotheU.S.
SupremeCourtinMorales(1999),supranote22.

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(95.)Strosnider,supranote78 FinditinyourLibrary,pp.11226.

(96.)E.g.,RobertDelchin,TheGang'sAllHere:AntiLoiteringLawsintheFaceofCityofChicagov.Morales,Cleveland
StateLawReview48(2000):21533 FinditinyourLibraryAaronMann,APluralityoftheSupremeCourtAssertsaDue
ProcessRighttoDoAbsolutelyNothinginCityofChicagov.Morales,CreightonLawReview33(2000):579641
FinditinyourLibraryStrosnider,supranote78 FinditinyourLibraryMattWawrzyn,Chicagov.Morales:
ConstitutionalPrinciplesatLoggerheadswithCommunityAction,DePaulLawReview50(2000):371419.
FinditinyourLibrary
(97.)Foucault,supranote28 FinditinyourLibrary,p.344.
(98.)SeealsoJoyce,supranote3 FinditinyourLibrarySchragger,supranote16. FinditinyourLibrary
(99.)Chicagov.Morales,supranote22,p.60.
(100.)Ibid.,pp.6062.
(101.)Ibid.,pp.6364.
(102.)Ibid.,p.60Kolenderv.Lawson,461U.S.352(1983).
(103.)MortonHorwitz,TheWarrenCourtandthePursuitofJustice,WashingtonandLeeLawReview50(1993):513
FinditinyourLibraryDavidLuban,TheWarrenCourtandtheConceptofaRight,HarvardCivilRightsCivilLiberties
LawReview34(1999):737 FinditinyourLibraryRobertWeisberg,Foreword:CriminalProcedureDoctrine:Some
VersionsoftheSkeptical,JournalofCriminalLawandCriminology76(1985):83255. FinditinyourLibrary
(104.)Chicagov.Morales,supranote22,pp.6263.
(105.)Wecaninferthatwhatthemajorityisrequiringareindividuallydiscernibleharms,whichmustbevisibletoan
individualpoliceofficerandwhichasaresultmustbebothgeographicallyandtemporallyproximatetotheloiteringthatis
takingplace.Thequestionofwhichharmscountistherebycriticaltothemajorityopinion,thoughneverarticulatedassuch.
See,generally,BernardHarcourt,TheCollapseoftheHarmPrinciple,JournalofCriminalLawandCriminology90
(1999):10994 FinditinyourLibraryMarianaValverde,TheHarmsofSexandtheRisksofBreasts:Obscenityand
IndecencyinCanadianLaw,SocialandLegalStudies8(1999):18197. FinditinyourLibraryThisstemsfromthe
majoritydecision'spurportedfocusoncivilliberties,whichleadsittoneglectthepossibilityofacommunityharmby
focusingsolelyonatemporallydefinedpolicecitizenencounter.Localcommunities,then,arenotauthorizedtomake

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decisionsregardingharm,norisharmamatterofscientificexpertisealsoinkeepingwithpoliceepistemology.SeeLevi&
Valverde,supranote86 FinditinyourLibrary.
(106.)Chicagov.Morales,supranote22,p.60.
(107.)Ibid.,p.63.
(108.)Ibid.,pp.6064(emphasisadded).
(109.)Ibid.,pp.6364.

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(110.)MarianaValverde,TargetedGovernanceandtheProblemofDesire,inRiskandMorality,RichardEricson&Aaron
Doyle,eds.(Toronto:Univ.ofTorontoPress,2003),pp.43858, FinditinyourLibraryatp.438.
(111.)NikolasRose,PowersofFreedom:ReframingPoliticalThought(NewYork:CambridgeUniv.Press,1999),p.271.
FinditinyourLibrary
(112.)Strosnider,supranote78 FinditinyourLibrary.
(113.)Thisemphasisongeographictargetingisgainingevengreatersignificancethroughtheemergenceofgeographic
profilingwithincrimepreventionprogramse.g.,NationalInstituteofJustice,GeographicProfilingNIJ'sMAPSProgram:
CrimeMapping&AnalysisResearch,availableathttp://www.ojp.usdoj.gov.scihub.cc/nij/maps/gp.html(accessed

February11,2007).

(114.)Chicagov.Morales,supranote22,pp.5354.
(115.)Ibid.,pp.5657.
(116.)Ibid.,p.59.
(117.)Ibid.,pp.5960.
(118.)Novak,supranote10 FinditinyourLibrary,p.78.
(119.)OyezProject,Chicagov.Morales,527U.S.41(1999),http://www.oyez.org.scihub.cc/cases/case?case=1990
1999/1998/1998_97_1121(accessedFebruary11,2007).
(120.)Hunt,supranote27 FinditinyourLibrary.
(121.)ChristopherTomlins,Law,Labor,andIdeologyintheEarlyAmericanRepublic(NewYork:CambridgeUniv.Press,
1993) FinditinyourLibrary.
(122.)MarkusD.Dubber,ThePolicePower:PatriarchyandtheFoundationsofAmericanGovernment(NewYork:
ColumbiaUniv.Press,2005),p.211. FinditinyourLibrary
(123.)Ibid. FinditinyourLibrary,pp.13738.
(124.)PatO'Malley,RiskandResponsibility,inFoucaultandPoliticalReason:Liberalism,NeoLiberalismand
RationalitiesofGovernment,AndrewBarry,ThomasOsborne,&NikolasRose,eds.(Chicago:Univ.ofChicagoPress,
1996),pp.189208. FinditinyourLibrary
(125.)Chicagov.Morales,supranote22,pp.7374(emphasisadded).
(126.)Ibid.,p.97.ThepoliticaltheoryunderwritingJusticeScalia'sinvocationofpoliceregulationsisexplicitlyresistedby
thepluralityjudges.Inresponse,theynotethatwhentheIllinoisspeedlimitwasenacted,therewerenearly1.7million
citizensofChicago,butonlybetween8,000and80,000cars,concludingthatitseemsquiteclearthatitwaspedestrians,
ratherthandrivers,whowereprimarilyresponsibleforIllinois'decisiontoimposeaspeedlimit.Ibid.,p.54,n.21.
(127.)Ibid.,p.87.

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(128.)Joyce,supranote3 FinditinyourLibrary,p.98(andseeespeciallychap.2,pp.6297,TheWaterandtheBloodof
theCity).OntheParissewers,seeDonaldReid,ParisSewersandSewermen:RealitiesandRepresentations(Cambridge,
Mass.:HarvardUniv.Press,1991) FinditinyourLibrary.
(129.)Chicagov.Morales,supranote22,pp.9293.
(130.)Ibid.,p.93(Scalia'sbracketsandemphasis).
(131.)Ibid.,pp.9798.

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(132.)JusticeThomasquotesFreundforthepropositionthatthecriminallawdealswithoffensesaftertheyhavebeen
committed,thepolicepoweraimstopreventthem.Theactivityofthepoliceforthepreventionofcrimeispartlysuchasneeds
nospeciallegalauthority,Ibid.,pp.1067,andTiedeman'sconclusionthatthevagranthasbeenveryappropriately
describedasthechrysalisofeveryspeciesofcriminal.Awandererthroughtheland,withouthometies,idle,andwithout
apparentmeansofsupport,whatbutcriminalityistobeexpectedfromsuchaperson?Ifvagrancycouldbesuccessfully
combatedtheinfractionsofthelawwouldbereducedtoasurprisinglysmallnumberanditisnottobewonderedatthat
aneffortissogenerallymadetosuppressvagrancy.Ibid.,p.104,n.4.
(133.)Ibid.,p.101.
(134.)Ibid.,pp.1026seealsoDubber,supranote122 FinditinyourLibrary,p.136.
(135.)Chicagov.Morales,supranote22,pp.1012.

(136.)Ibid.,p.107seealsoDubber,supranote122 FinditinyourLibrary,p.137.
(137.)Chicagov.Morales,supranote22 FinditinyourLibrary,pp.1078.
(138.)Ibid. FinditinyourLibrary,p.109Dubber(2006),supranote25 FinditinyourLibrary,pp.108,118.
(139.)Chicagov.Morales,supranote22,pp.11415(emphasisadded,internalcitationsomitted).
(140.)MaxWeber,TheCity(DonMartindale&GertrudNeuwirth,eds.andtrans.,Glencoe,Ill.:FreePress,1958),p.94.
FinditinyourLibrary
(141.)Dubber,supranote122 FinditinyourLibrary,pp.13038.
(142.)Joyce,supranote3 FinditinyourLibrary,pp.21030.
(143.)Cf.Ibid. FinditinyourLibrary,pp.13738.
(144.)Seee.g.,LocWacquant&WilliamJuliusWilson,TheCostofRacialandClassExclusionintheInnerCity,Annals
oftheAmericanAcademyofPoliticalandSocialScience501(1989):825. FinditinyourLibraryOntheeffectsof
incarcerationandthepunitivemobilityitgenerates,see,e.g.,ToddClear,DinaRose,ElinWaring,&KristenScully,
CoerciveMobilityandCrime:APreliminaryExaminationofConcentratedIncarcerationandSocialDisorganization,
JusticeQuarterly20(2003):3364 FinditinyourLibraryDorothyRoberts,TheSocialandMoralCostofMass
IncarcerationinAfricanAmericanCommunities,StanfordLawReview56(2004):1271306 FinditinyourLibrary
(especiallypp.127576).
(145.)Cf.Alschuler&Schulhofer,supranote57 FinditinyourLibraryColesupranote23 FinditinyourLibraryHarcourt,
supranote26 FinditinyourLibraryMeares&Kahan,supranote23 FinditinyourLibrary.
(146.)Dubber,supranote122 FinditinyourLibrary,pp.21117.
(147.)CityofChicago,AmendmentofTitle8,Chapter4ofMunicipalCodeofChicagobyRepealofSection015andCreation
ofNewSections015and017whichProhibitLoiteringinPublicPlacesbyCriminalStreetGangMembers,Journalof
ProceedingsoftheCityCouncil2570511(February16,2000) FinditinyourLibraryErnestoPalomo,TheSheriffKnows
WhotheTroublemakersAre.JustLetHimRoundThemUp:Chicago'sNewGangLoiteringOrdinance,Universityof

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IllinoisLawReview2002:72960 FinditinyourLibraryLawrenceRosenthal,GangLoiteringandRace,Journalof
CriminalLawandCriminology91(2000):99160 FinditinyourLibraryGregoryWashburn&EricFerkenhoff,City
Targets86HotSpotsforGangs,KeepsListSecret,ChicagoTribune,August23,2000,p.1. FinditinyourLibrary
(148.)CityofChicago,2000,supranote147 FinditinyourLibrary,at1.

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