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Modeling and Analysis of Full

Vehicle Suspension System

University of Waterloo
Department of Mechanical Engineering
ME 610: Analytical Vibration
Fall 2005
Ayhan Ince

Purpose

To model and analyze a full vehicle

suspension model (7 DOF)

ME 610 Presentation.

Presentation Outline

Background
Introduction
Modeling Approach
Modeling and Analysis
Results
Conclusion
Recommendations
Questions

ME 610 Presentation.

Background

Suspension System
Improve Ride Quality
Depending on
Vertical Motion (Heave) of Vehicle Body
Angular Motions (Pitch and Roll) of
Vehicle Body

ME 610 Presentation.

Introduction

Most of vehicle suspension models

are 1 DOF to 4 DOF (half vehicle)
Easier to model and implement
Large volume of technical research on topic
available
However
They ignore the roll motion of the vehicle
Incapable of determining torsional rigidness of
the vehicle

ME 610 Presentation.

Introduction

To capture the dynamic phenomenon

of heave, pitch, and roll is to model
the full vehicle suspension system.

ME 610 Presentation.

Modeling Approach

Full vehicle suspension model

ME 610 Presentation.

Modeling Approach
Full vehicle model has 7 degrees of
freedom
Vertical Motion of 4 Unsprung
masses (wheels)
Heave, Pitch and Roll Motion of
Sprung mass

ME 610 Presentation.

Modeling Approach

Assumptions are:
Suspension damping and spring
Stiffness are constant
Vehicle Body (sprung mass and rotation
inertia are concentrated about CoG)
Wheel (unsprung mass, tire spring
stiffness and damping)

ME 610 Presentation.

To create simulation model of full

vehicle suspension system:
Determine the equations of motion for 7
dof (2nd order)
Decouple the equations of motion into
14 ordinary equations (1st order)
Use numerical methods to provide
solutions from the decoupling
Animate model using the solutions

ME 610 Presentation.

Modeling and Analysis

SYSTEM
EQUATIONS

MAPLE

ME 610 Presentation.

SOLUTIONS OF
MODEL

MATLAB

SIMULATION OF
MODEL

The 7 equations of motion are:

ME 610 Presentation.

The 7 equations of motion are (cont):

ME 610 Presentation.

Modeling and Analysis

Mass Matrix

ME 610 Presentation.

Modeling and Analysis

Damping Matrix

ME 610 Presentation.

Modeling and Analysis

Stiffness Matrix

ME 610 Presentation.

Eigenvalues and Natural Frequencies

Heave
Roll
Pitch

ME 610 Presentation.

Eqigenvectors, Mode Shapes

ME 610 Presentation.

The 14 1st order equations are:

ME 610 Presentation.

Results

Parameters for results generated are:

Road input is Sinusoidal
Base Amplitude = 0.15 m
a = 1.5m
b = 1.5m
w1,2 = 1m
Velocity = 20 m/s
Delay between front and rear = (a+b)/vel
Delay between left and right = /2

ME 610 Presentation.

Results

Results generated from full vehicle

model using prescribed parameters

ME 610 Presentation.

Results

Magnitude plot for Sprung mass

motion
Magnitude Plot

0.7
0.6
0.5
heave
pitch
roll

0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

10

15

20

ME 610 Presentation.

25

30

Results

Animation of Model

ME 610 Presentation.

Conclusion
Full vehicle suspension model is
generic
The generalized parameters of the
full vehicle model allows for:

Optimization of ride quality

Optimization of handling capabilities

Current model is utilized as a vehicle

shaker table.

ME 610 Presentation.

Recommendations

Increase full vehicle suspension

model capabilities by:
Including tire lift-off and suspension
travel limits
Develop a complete road handling
capable vehicle model
Introduce control logic capabilities for
possible active and semi-active
suspension

ME 610 Presentation.

Questions

Thank you for attending

ME 610 Presentation.