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Securing Rice,

Reducing Poverty
Challenges and Policy Directions

Securing Rice,
Reducing Poverty
Challenges and Policy Directions

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Arsenio M. Balisacan
Leocadio S. Sebastian

In association with:
Vida Lina Espe ra nza B. Alpuerto
Donato B. Antiporta
Rodrigo B. Badayos
Randolph Barker
Jesusa c. Beltran
Flordeliza H. Bordey
Alex B. BrilianlesJr.
Filma C. Calalo
Cheryli B. Casiwa n
Sergio R. Francisco
Prudenciano U. Gordoncillo

Arlene B. Inocencio
Flordeliza A. Lantican
Gil berto M. L1anto
Ma. Concepcion C. Lizada
Nerlira M. Manalili
George W. Norton
Tirso B. Paris Jr.
Eliseo R. Ponce
Mercedita A. Sombilia
Jose Tiu Sonco II
Locel Ann C. Tumlos

The South ea:st Asian lkg io nal Cen ter for Graduate Study and Research in
Agriculture.: ! (SEARCA) is the ce ntt::!r o f excellence in agricu lture of the So utheast
Asian Ministers o f Education Organization (SEAMEO), an intergove.::!rnmental
body fou nded in 1965 to promote regiona l cooperation in education , science,
and cultufe. SEARCA's mandate is to stfengtht;;!n institutional capacities in
agricultural and fUral development in Southeast As ia through graduate
educatio n, sho rHerm train ing, rese:ilfch, and knowledge managemt:::nl.
The Philippine Rice Research Institu te ( PhiIRice), an attacht:::d agency of the
Department of Agriculture, is the nat ional lead agency for the planning,
coofdinatio n, impl ementation, and monilOring of all rice resc:arch and
development activities in the Philippines.
T he Bureau o f Agri cultura l Research ( BAR), a line agency of the Department of
Agricu lture, is mandated to ensure that agricultura l research be coordinated and
underta ken fo r maximum utility to agriculture. Tht::! BUreau taps farolers ,
fafmefs' orga niza tions, and resea rch institutio ns, especially state colleges and
unive rsities, in the conduct of fesearch for use by the Department of Agricuhure
of the Philippines and its clientele.
Securing Rice, ReduCing Poverty: Challenges and Policy Directions
Arsenio M. Balisacan
Leocad io S. Sebastian
and Associates

Published by SEARCA, PhilRice, a nd DA-BAR


Printed in the Ph ilippines
First Pfinting, November 2006
Ph ilippine Copyrig ht 2006 by SEARCA
Pans o f this publication may be quoted w ithout permis~ion by other sc ho larly
writing and in popular writing as long as credit hi g iven to the sourcc. H owever,
it may no t be reprod uced or transmiued in its entirely in any fOfm or by any
means, electron ic Of mechanic-.a l, in cluding photocopy. recording, o r any
infofmation stofage or retrieval system, wirhout permission in writing from
SEARCA.
T he opi nions exprcssed in this publication afe those of the au tho rs :l nd do not
necessarily renect the institutio ns with which they are affi liated .

ISBN 978-971-560-137-5
Printed by Cor-Asia, Inc.

Contents
vii

Preface
Challenges and Policy Directions: Overview

Arsenio M. Ba lisacan

Leocadio S. Sebastian

External Environment, Trade Regimes, and Policy O ptio ns

21

Tirso B . Paris Jr.


D ona to B . Ant/porta

39

Research and Develo pment

Leocadio S. Sebastian
Flordeliza H. Bordey
Vida Lina Speranza B. Alpuerto

\Vater Resources and Irrigation D evelopment

71

Arlene B . l nocen c io

Randolph Barker

107

Rice Extensio n

Eliseo R. Ponce

Land Reform and Pro perty Rights


Pmdenciano lj. Gordoncillo

127

Seed System , Biotechnology , and Nutrition


George W. Norton

153

Sergio R. Fra n cisco

vi

Securing Rice, Reduci ng Poverty

Huml Finance

171

Gilberta M . L1artlO
9

Local Governan ce
Alex B . Brillanlesjr.
j ose Till. SOrtCO /I

10 Marketing and Distributio n

193

213

Mercedila A . Somhilla
Flordeliza A . umlican
j esllsa C. Bellran

1 1 Supply-Cha in Perspective
Nerlita M . Manalili
Locel A nn C. Tumlos
Cheryl/ B . Caslwan

239

12 Food Safety

277

Ma . Con cepc ion C. Lizada

13 Farm Sustainability and Organic Farming

305

Rodrigo B. Badayos
Filma C. Calalo

Acronyms

337

The Authors

345

Index

347