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- Intro to Quantum Mechanics
- EMTP simul(11)
- Seven Plus or Minus Two2
- Chemistry 2016
- James Scott Prize Lecture. Security, Insecurity, Paranoia and Quantum Mechanics. Full Lecture
- Operators on a Linear Space
- QRPA - Simkovic, Faessler, Muenther, Rodin, Stauf
- Pres_EE_724_intro_2018.pdf
- Helicity of Neutrinos
- Many Body Quantum Mechanics
- Exercises Week 3
- The Electron Magnetic Dipole Moment Theory
- Detailed Syllabus
- Guan-Fang Wang, Li-Bin Fu and Jie Liu- Spin tunnelling dynamics for spin-1 Bose–Einstein condensates in a swept magnetic field
- 4-5-10
- 1504.07963v3.pdf
- Numpy.linalg.eig — NumPy v1.11 Manual
- NMR final
- exam-mc-2011s-1_en
- Linear Algerbra.pdf

Anda di halaman 1dari 45

591)

Version 1.4

Kirill Tuchin1

1

(Dated: September 22, 2016)

Contents

II. Schr

odinger equation

2

7

10

18

VI. Angular momentum

VII. Motion in magnetic field

VIII. Stationary perturbation theory

26

31

38

41

2

I.

X

k (r 0 )k (r) = (r 0 r) .

(1.1)

where k (r) =

1

V

eikr .

Solution

Denote the left-hand-side of (1.1) by f :

X

f (r r 0 ) =

k (r 0 )k (r) =

1 X ik(rr0 )

e

.

V

k

The right-had-side coincides with expansion of f into Fourier series with Fourier coefficients fk = 1/V , where

V = L3 is boxs volume. On the other hand, the Fourier coefficients can be computed as

1

fk = 3

L

L/2

f (r r 0 )eik(rr ) d3 r =

L/2

1

,

V

Therefore, f (r r 0 ) = (r r 0 ).

(x) = A exp

ip0 x (x x0 )2

~

2a2

,

(1.2)

where

p0 ,

x0 , a are

real parameters, find the average coordinate hxi, momentum hpi and their fluctuations

(x)2 , (p)2 .

(b) Suppose now that (1.2) with x0 =

at t = 0. Determine the wave function at

0 describes

a free particle

t > 0 and calculate hx(t)i, hp(t)i, (x(t))2 , (p(t))2 . Interpret the results.

Solution

(a) Normalization condition gives |A| = (a2 )1/4 . Using hF i =

hxi = x0 ,

hpi = p0 ,

2 a2

x =

+ x20 ,

2

2

~2

p = 2 + p20 ,

2a

F d3 r we derive

a2

(x)2 =

,

2

~2

(p)2 = 2 ,

2a

Notice that

p

h(x)2 i h(p)2 i =

Z

0 (x) = ap p (x)dp ,

~

.

2

p (x) =

1

eipx/~

2~

3

Z

ap =

aA

(p p0 )2 a2

0 (x)p (x) dx = exp

2~2

~

Time dependence:

Z

ip2 t

ap e 2m~ p (x)dp

A

ma2 ~2 (x v0 t)2 + i~3 x3 t + ia4 m2 v0 ~(2x v0 t)

=q

exp

2m(a4 ~2 + t2 ~4 /m2 )

i~t

1 + ma

2

(x, t) =

where v0 = p0 /m.

2

0 t)

a|A|2 (xv

a(t)

,

|(x, t)| =

e

a(t)

a (t) = a

~2 t 2

1+ 2 4

m a

Z

a2

~2 t2

hx(t)i = x|(x, t)|2 dx = a(t) ,

(x(t))2 =

1+ 2 4

2

m a

Z

hp(t)i =

p|ap |2 dp = p0 ,

~2

(p(t))2 = 2

2a

Note, that hp(t)i and (p(t))2 are time-independent as it should be for a free particle.

3. Find the relation between the average values of coordinate and momentum in two states with wave functions

1 and 2 satisfying

(a) 2 (x) = 1 (x + a),

(b) 2 (x) = eip0 x/~ 1 (x).

Solution

(a)

Z

Z

hxi2 =

2 (x) x 2 (x) dx =

1 (x + a) x 1 (x + a) dx

Z

1 () 1 () d a = hxi1 a ,

=

where = x + a.

Z

hpi2 =

2 (x)(i~)

2 (x) dx =

x

1 ()(i~)

1 () d = hpi1 .

(b)

hxi2 = hxi1 .

Z

hpi2 =

i

h

1 (x)eip0 x/~ dx = hpi1 + p0 .

x

4

B

C]

and [AB,

C]

through [A,

B],

[A,

C],

[B,

C].

are Hermitian, L

is an arbitrary linear operator. Prove that the following operators

(b) Operators A and B

AL

, AB

+B

A,

i(AB

B

A).

(c) Determine eigenvalues F of a Hermitian operator F satisfying

i. F 2 = c2 ,

ii. F 2 = cF ,

iii. F 3 = c2 F ,

where c is a real non-zero number.

Solution

(a)

B

C]

= AB

C B

C A = AB

C B

AC + B

AC B

C A = [A,

B]

C + B[

A,

C]

.

[A,

=B

A and (A ) = A,

for arbitrary linear operators.

(b) You should use (AB)

(c) (a) Eigenvalue equation F = F . Applying F to both sides:

F 2 = F 2

(1.3)

(b) F 2 = cF = cF . Using (1): cF = F 2 . Solutions: F = 0 and F = c.

(c) F 3 = F 3 . Also F 3 = c2 F = c2 F . Thus, F 3 = c2 F , which has these solutions: F = 0, F = c.

5. (a) Orbital angular momentum operator can be represented as L

i, L

j ] = i~ijk L

k,

symbol and summation over the repeated index is implied (see lecture notes). Prove that [L

2

2

(b) Prove that components of the angular momentum operator in spherical coordinates are given by

z = i~

+ cot cos

cot sin

, Ly = i~ cos

, L

Lx = i~ sin

Solution

(a) Let f be a function of x, y, z.

x, L

y ]f = ~2 [yz zy , zx xz ]f = ~2 {[yz , zx ] + [zy , xz ]}f

[L

= ~2 {yz (zx f ) zx (yz f ) + zy (xz f ) xz (zy f )}

zf .

= ~2 {xy yx }f = i~L

2 ] = 0.

i , r2 ] = [L

i, L

[L

P

i , rj ] = ~

[L

l,m ilm [xl m , xj ] = i~ijl rl .

5

(b) Spherical coordinates:

x = r sin cos ,

y = r sin sin ,

z = r cos

or

r 2 = x2 + y 2 + z 2

cos =

z

,

r

tan =

y

x

We have

r

r

r

= cos ,

= sin sin

= sin cos

z

y

x

sin

cos sin

cos cos

=

,

=

,

=

z

r

y

r

x

r

cos

sin

= 0,

=

,

=

z

y

r sin

x

r sin

Therefore,

y

=

Lz = i~ x

y

x

r

r

i~ r sin cos

+

+

+

+

r sin sin

y r y

y

x r x

x

= i~ .

Other components of L

6. Consider the following operators defined on the entire real axis < x < :

(a) Inversion P : P (x) (x);

(b) Translation: Ta : Ta (x) (x + a);

c: M

c (x) c (cx), c > 0 ;

(c) Scale transformation: M

K(x)

(x);

(e) Permutation of coordinates of two particles: P12 : P12 (x1 , x2 ) (x2 , x1 ).

Which of these operators are linear? Find the corresponding Hemitian conjugated and inverse operators.

Solution

are linear.

All operators, except K

To calculate the operator Hermitian conjugated of Ta use its definition

Z

Z

(x)Ta (x)dx (x)(x + a)dx

Changing variables x x a and employing the definition of Hermitian conjugation we get

Z

Z

Z

(x)Ta (x)dx = (x a)(x)dx = (Ta (x)) (x)dx

Therefore, Ta (x) = (x a) = Ta (x), i.e. Ta = Ta .

c = M

1/c , P = P12 . K

does not exist, since K

is not linear.

By the same token, P = P , M

12

c1 = M

1/c , K

1 = K,

P 1 = P12 .

Inverse operators: P 1 = P , Ta1 = Ta , M

12

6

P

7. Let F (z) be a function of z that can be expanded in series F (z) = n cn z n . Define operator F = F (f), such

P

P

n

c

that F = n cn fcn . (For example, ebx = n xn! ). Using this definition find the explicit form of the following

operators

n

o

(a) exp iaP ,

d

(b) Ta = exp a dx

,

d

a = exp ax

a xk = (ea x)k ),

(c) L

(Hint: prove first that L

dx ,

where a is a real number, P is the inversion operator.

Solution

(a) By definition

eiaP =

X

(ia)n cn

P

n!

n=0

eiaP =

X

(ia)2n X (ia)2n1

1+

P = cos a + iP sin a

(2n)!

(2n 1)!

n=1

n=0

Thus,

(b)

d

Ta = ea dx =

X

an dn

(x) = (x + a)

n! dxn

n=0

a xk =

L

n

X

1

d

ax

xk

n!

dx

n=0

d k

x = akxk

dx

2

d

= a2 k 2 xk

ax

dx

...

n

d

ax

= (ak)n xk

dx

ax

Thus,

a xk =

L

X

1

(ak)n xk = eak xk

n!

n=0

a (x) = L

a

L

X

dk (0) xk

k=0

dxk

k!

X

dk (0) 1 a k

(e x) = (ea x) .

dxk k!

k=0

7

II.

SCHRODINGER

EQUATION

= pF

1. For a particle moving under the action of a constant force F , prove that G

t is an operator of a conserved

quantity. Explain.

Solution

dG

i

= G

+ [H,

G]

dt

t

~

Using

2

= p F r

H

2m

we get

i

dG

=0

= F [(F r), p]

dt

~

Therefore hGi = const.

2. Given the following one-dimensional systems: (i) particle in constant field U = F x, (ii) harmonic oscillator.

(a) Find Heisenberg representations of the coordinate x

and momentum p operators using two methods: (A)

(B) by direct solution of equations of motion for Heisenberg operators.

(b) Suppose that systems (i),(ii) are in a state described by the wave function

ip0 x (x x0 )2

(x) = A exp

.

~

2a2

Using the Heisenberg operators calculate hx(t)i, hp(t)i, (x(t))2 , (p(t))2 .

(c) Calculate [

p(t), x

(t0 )] for each system. Interpret the value of this commutator in case (ii).

Solution

(a) (i) Particle in a constant field.

(A) First, calculate the commutators

x

[H,

] =

1 2

i~

[

p ,x

] =

p ,

2m

m

[H,

x

[H,

]] =

i~

~2

(F )[

x, p] = F

m

m

p] = F [

[H,

x, p] = F i~ .

Now

x

H = eiHt/~ x

S eiHt/~ = x

S +

it

(it)2

pS

F 2

[H, x

] +

[H, [H, x

]] . . . = x

S +

t+

t .

~

2~2

m

2m

pH = eiHt/~ pS eiHt/~ = pS +

Ft

~

8

(B) Equations of motion

d

i

pH

x

H = [H,

x

H ] =

,

dt

~

m

d

i

pH = [H,

pH ] = F t

dt

~

Integrating the second equation and substituting to the first one yields the same result.

= p2 /(2m) + m 2 x2 /2. Repeating the steps of (A,B) we get

(ii) Harmonic oscillator. H

x

H = x

S cos t +

pS

sin t ,

m

Z

hx(t)i = (x)

xH (x)dx ,

pH = pS cos t m

xS sin t

(x)

pH (x)dx ,

hp(t)i =

etc.

H , pH from (a) and integrating we get the result. Actually, you did all these

integrals in a previous assignment. Namely,

h

xS i = x0 ,

a2

,

x

2S = x20 +

2

h

pS i = p0 ,

~2

p2S = p20 + 2 ,

2a

h

xS pS + pS x

S i = 2x0 p0

We have for (i)

hx(t)i = x0 +

a2

(x(t))2 =

2

p0 t F t2

+

,

m

2m

hp(t)i = p0 +

~2 t 2

1+ 2 4 ,

m a

Ft

,

m

~2

(p(t))2 = 2

2a

For (ii)

hx(t)i = x0 cos t +

p0

sin t ,

m

a2

~2

2

2

(x(t)) =

cos t + 2 2 4 sin t ,

2

m a

2

~

m2 2 a4

2

2

2

(p(t)) = 2 cos t +

sin t

2a

~2

(2.1)

(2.2)

(i)

[

p(t), x

(t0 )] = i~ ,

(ii)

[

p(t), x

(t0 )] = i~ cos (t t0 )

0

Notice

Suppose that at t = 0

2

(x) is small so that the oscillator is in a state with almost definite x. Then, at t0 = (n + 1/2)/ the value

of momentum is almost definite (see e.g. (1),(8.2) with a 0).

3. Consider a Hermitian operator F () that depends on a real parameter . Let n () be its discrete eigenstates

and Fn () the corresponding eigenvalues. Denote hF in the average value of F in state n. Prove the following

theorem

*

+

Fn ()

F

=

.

9

Solution

Using the fact that F is Hermitian: F = F and hence Fn = Fn we have

+

*

Z

Z

Z

Z

F

n

n

F

= n

n dq =

(n F n ) dq

F n dq n F

dq

n

Z

Z

Fn

n

n

=

F n dq

F n dq

Z

Z

Fn

n

n

=

Fn

n dq Fn n

dq

Fn

Fn

Fn

||2 dq =

.

=

10

III.

MOTION IN ONE-DIMENSION

1. Calculate the transmission and reflection coefficients for the barrier U (x) = 0 if x 0, and U (x) = U0 if x > 0.

Investigate special cases E U0 and E .

Solution

Suppose that a particle is incident from the left with E > U0 . Denote

p

p

k = 2mE/~2 > 0 , k 0 = 2m(E U0 )/~2 > 0

The corresponding wave functions are

1 = eikx + Beikx ,

x<0

0

3 = Ceik x ,

x>0

for the outgoing (transmitted) wave. Continuity of the wave function and its first derivative at x = 0 implies

the following matching conditions:

1+B =C,

k(1 B) = k 0 C

Solution:

B=

k k0

,

k + k0

C=

2k

k + k0

Thus,

2

R(E) = |B| =

!2

E E U0

E + E U0

p

4 E(E U0 )

k0

2

T (E) = |C| =

k

( E + E U0 )2

Evidently, R + T = 1.

At E : R(E) U02 /16E 2 0 .

p

At E U0 : T (E) 4 (E U0 )/U0 0.

2. Consider a particle in an infinitely deep potential well:

(

0, 0 x a,

U (x) =

, x < 0, x > a ,

(a) Find energy spectrum.

(b) What is the symmetry of the Hamiltonian? Specify the corresponding operator P and its spectrum. Classify

energy levels with respect to the eigenvalues P.

(d) Assume that at t = 0 the particle is in a state described by the wave function

(

Cx(x a) , 0 x a ,

(x, 0) =

0,

x < 0, x > a ,

where C is a constant.

i. What is the wave function (x, t) at t > 0?

ii. What is the probability to find the particle in the nth stationary state at t = 0?

11

iii. What is the probability to find the particle in the nth stationary state at t > 0?

iv. Calculate hx(t)i, hx(t)i,

hp(t)i.

Solution

(a) Schr

odinger equation:

r

00

0 x a,

+ k = 0,

k=

2mE

.

~2

General solution:

(x) = A cos kx + B sin kx .

Boundary conditions

(0) = (a) = 0

are satisfied by A = 0 and kn a = (n + 1), n = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .. The corresponding spectrum is

(n + 1)x

~2 (n + 1)

n (x) = B sin

, En =

.

a

2ma

p

Normalization: B = 2/a.

(b) The Hamiltonian commutes with the operator of inversion with respect to the center of the potential well:

P(x)

(a x). Since P 2 =

1, its eigenvalues are P = 1. Now

(n + 1)x

(n + 1)x

n (x a) = B sin (n + 1)

= B cos((n + 1)) sin

= (1)n n (x) .

a

a

Thus, states with even n are even, i.e. P = 1, while states with odd n are odd, i.e. P = 1.

(c)

a

hxin = ,

2

(x)

hpin = 0 ,

(d) Normalization of (x, 0) gives C =

=a

(p)2

1

1

12 2 2 (n + 1)2

= 2 (n + 1)2

.

~2

.

a2

30/a5 . Write

(x, 0) =

an B sin

n=1

(n + 1)x

a

.

r

an =

60

a6

x(x a) sin

(n + 1)x

a

dx =

240 1 + (1)n

.

3 (n + 1)3

At t > 0:

(x, t) =

X

n=1

an B sin

(n + 1)x

a

eiEn t/~ .

12

Z

hx(t)i =

=

0

X

n=1 n0 =1

X

a2

=

|an |2 B 2

4

n=1

a

a

= + 2

2

sin

(n + 1)x

a

sin

(n0 + 1)x

a

"

xdx

1 (1)nn

1 (1)n+n

+

B e

(n + n0 + 2)2

(n n0 )2

n,n0 =1

"

#

0

n+n0

X

1 (1)nn

i(En En0 )t/~ 1 (1)

an an0 e

.

(n + n0 + 2)2

(n n0 )2

0

an an0

a2

2 2

n,n =1

hp(t)i is calculated in a similar way. hx(t)i

= hp(t)i /m.

3. A particle of mass m is confined to a one-dimensional square potential:

0, 0 x a;

U (x) =

, otherwise .

At t = 0 its normalized wave function is

r

(x, t = 0) =

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

8

[1 + cos(x/a)] sin(x/a) .

5a

Is the spectrum discrete, continuous or a combination of both? What is its degeneracy?

What is the wave function (x, t) of the particle at t > 0?

What is the probability that the particle is in the first excited state?

What is the probability that the particle is found in the left half of the box, i.e. in the region 0 x a/2

at t > 0?

Solution

(a) Schr

odinger equation

~2 00

= E ,

2m

0 < x < a.

In terms of

k2 =

2mE

~2

the solution is

(x) = A sin(kx) + B cos(kx)

Boundary conditions (0) = (a) = 0 imply that B = 0 and ka = n. The corresponding wave functions

r

nx

2

n (x) =

sin

a

a

and energy levels

En =

n2 2 ~2

,

2ma2

n = 1, 2, . . .

n (x, t) = n (x)eiEn t/~

13

(b) The spectrum is discrete and non-degenerate (its degeneracy is one).

(c) Expand

r

r

X

8

2

x

2x

(x, 0) =

An n =

sin

+

sin

.

5a

a

5a

a

n

The only two non-vanishing coefficients are

1

A2 = ,

5

2

A1 = ,

5

Thus,

r

(x, t) =

r

8

x

2

2x

i 2 ~t

2i 2 ~t

sin

sin

exp

+

exp

5a

2ma2

a

5a

ma2

a

(d)

P1 = |A1 |2 =

1

5

(e)

Z

P =

a/2

|(x, t)|2 dx =

8

5a

a/2

sin2

2

x

3 ~t

x

x

1 + cos2

+ 2 cos

cos

dx

a

a

a

2ma2

1

16

= +

cos

2 15

3 2 ~t

2ma2

(x, 0) = N

cn n (x) ,

n=0

where n (x) are the stationary states of the harmonic oscillator and c is a complex parameter.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Find the wave function of the system at a later time t > 0.

Calculate the probability of finding the system again in the initial state at a later time t > 0.

Compute the expectation value of energy.

Solution

(a)

Z

|(x, 0)|2 dx = N 2

|c|2n =

n=0

N2

1 |c|2

so that

N=

p

1 |c|2

(x, t) = N eit/2

X

n=0

cn eint n (x)

14

(c) The probability for finding the system again in the initial state is

2

Z

P = (x, 0)(x, t)dx .

Z

n=0

1 |c|2

1 |c|2 eit

Thus,

P = 1+

4|c|2

t

sin2

2

2

(1 |c| )

2

1

"

#

X

~

2

2n

1 + (1 |c| )

hHi = |N |

En |c| =

2n|c|

2

n=0

n=0

"

!#

X

~

~ 1 + |c|2

2

2n

1 + |c|(1 |c| )

|c|

=

=

2

|c| n=0

2 1 |c|2

2

2n

5. Using the ladder operators calculate the following expectation values for one-dimensional harmonic oscillator in

the nth stationary state:

(a) hxin , hpx in ,

(b) x2 n , p2x n ,

(c) x4 n .

(d) Prove that (

x)2 n (

px )2 n = (n + 1/2)2 ~/.

Solution

r

x

=

~

(

a + a

) ,

2m

p = i

m~

(

aa

)

2

(a)

hxin = hpx in = 0

(b)

2

En

x n=

,

m 2

2

px n = mEn

(c)

(d)

=3

~

2m

2

[1 + 2n(n + 1)]

15

6. Particle of charge q performs one-dimensional harmonic oscillations in constant electric field of strength E

directed along the oscillation axis. Find the stationary states.

Solution

Potential energy

U=

kx2

qEx ,

2

~ 00

kx2

+(

qEx) = .

2m

2

~ 00 kz 2

q2 E 2

+

= (

) .

2m

2

2k

This is mathematically equivalent to the harmonic oscillator problem without electric field. Therefore,

En = ~(n + 1/2)

q2 E 2

,

2k

p

k/m ,

n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

(a) Prove that in any state (x, t), the expectation values of kinetic and potential energies averaged over the

period 2/, satisfy the virial theorem hT it = hU it .

(b) Suppose that a thin impenetrable barrier is inserted at x = 0. What is the energy spectrum?

Solution

(a) Starting from equation

r

n =

n

n1 +

2

n+1

n+1

2

1p

1

1p

2

n =

n(n 1)n2 + n +

n +

(n + 1)(n + 2)n+2 .

2

2

2

Using this formula we have

2

x =

x2 dx =

n x2 n0 dx

n,n0 =0

~

=

m

~

=

m

+

X

n=0

n 2 n0 d

n,n0 =0

"

1

an0 +2 an0 ei2t

2

n0 =0

1

an an+2 ei2t

2

(n0

2)(n0

n=0

#

p

(n + 2)(n + 1)

+ 1) +

|an |

1

n+

2

16

Oscillating terms vanish when averaged over the period yielding

hU it =

m 2

2

~ X

1

x t=

|an |2 n +

.

2

2 n=0

2

Z

X

X

i(En0 En )t/~

n0 dx =

0

hEi =

an an e

n H

|an |2 En = 2 hU it .

n,n0 =0

Finally, hT it = hEi hU it = hU it .

(b) Inserting the barrier imposed a boundary condition (x = 0) = 0 on the wave functions n of the harmonic oscillator. This condition is satisfied by odd-parity eigenfunctions 2n+1 (x), n = 0, 1, 2, . . .. The

corresponding energy levels are En = (2n + 3/2)~.

8. Particle moves in three-dimensional harmonic oscillator U = k(x2 + y 2 + z 2 )/2. Using separation of variables

find

(a) energy spectrum;

(b) degeneracy of nth level;

(c) parity of the nth level.

Solution

Particle in three-dimensional harmonic oscillator U = k(x2 + y 2 + z 2 )/2, k = m 2 .

(a) Solution can be found in the form (x, y, z) = X(x)Y (y)Z(z). Substituting into the S.E. and doing the

same manipulations as we deed for the square well in three dimensions we obtain for each coordinate the

one-dimensional harmonic oscillator problem:

~2 00 kx2

X +

X = x X , . . .

2m

2

such that x + y + z = . Solution to the one-dimensional problem was derived in class. Eigenfunctions:

2

(x2 +y 2 +z 2 )/2

1

1

3

1

E = ~(nx + ) + ~(ny + ) + ~(nz + ) = ~(n + )

2

2

2

2

with n = nx + ny + nz .

(b) Consider first degeneracy of 2d oscillator. We need to count all states that have different nx and ny

(0 nx n, 0 ny n) but the same sum nx + ny = n. For a given nx there is only one ny that satisfies this

condition (e.g. nx = 0, ny = n; nx = 1, ny = n 1, etc). Since there are n + 1 possible nx , the degeneracy is

n + 1.

In the 3d case we need to count all states that have different nx , ny , nz but the same sum nx + ny + nz = n.

As we explained, at fixed nz there are n nz + 1 different states. Summing over all nz s we get

n

X

nz

1

1

(n nz + 1) = (n + 1)2 n(n + 1) = (n + 1)(n + 2) .

2

2

=0

(c) If n is even, then either nx ,ny , nz are all even or one of then is even and the other two are odd. In either

case, the parity of the nth state is even. If n is odd, then either nx ,ny , nz are all odd, or one of them is odd

and the other two are even, in which case the state n is odd.

17

9. Consider an arbitrary potential U (x) 0 satisfying U 0 when x . Using the integral representation of

the Schr

odinger equation show that

|En |

m

2~2

Z

2

U (x) dx

for any energy level En . (Hint: first apply S.E. to the ground state and use the oscillation theorem).

Solution

By definition, |En | |E0 |, so we need to consider only the ground state. Let x = x0 be the maximum of the ground

state wave function 0 (x). S.E in the integral form reads

Z

0

m

0 (x0 ) =

e|x0 x | |U (x0 )|0 (x0 )dx0

2

0 ~

The wave function of the ground state has no zeros, so we can choose it to be positive 0 (x) > 0 (by fixing the phase).

0

Notice, that the expression under the integral is positive. So, if we replace e|x0 x | 0 (x0 ) 0 (x0 ), the integral

will not decrease. Consequently,

Z

m

0 (x0 )

|U (x0 )|dx0 0 (x0 ) .

0 ~2

Canceling 0 (x0 ) and using 20 = 2m|E0 |/~2 we derive the required result.

18

IV.

REPRESENTATION THEORY

ip0 x (x x0 )2

,

p (x) = C exp

~

2a2

where p0 , x0 , a are real parameters. Calculate the wave function x (p) in the momentum representation.

Solution

General rule:

Z

hp|ai =

dxhp|xihx|ai

hp|xi =

1

eipx/~

2~

we obtain

Z

x (p) =

eipx/~

dx

C exp

2~

ip0 x (x x0 )2

~

2a2

i(p p0 )x0

a2 (p p0 )2

aC

= exp

.

~

2~2

~

2. Particle is in a state described by the wave function (x, y, z). What is the probability to find the particle in

the intervals z1 z z2 and p1 py p2 ?

Solution

First, calculate the wave function in momentum representation with respect to y-direction

Z

1

(x, py , z) =

(x, y, z)eipy y/~ dy

2~

The the probability to find the particle in the intervals z1 z z2 and p1 py p2 is

Z z2

Z p2

Z

w=

dz

dpy

dx |(x, py , z)|2

z1

p1

(a) Inversion P : P (x) (x);

(b) Translation: Ta : Ta (x) (x + a);

c: M

c (x) c (cx), c > 0 ;

(c) Scale transformation: M

K(x)

(x);

(e) Permutation of coordinates of two particles: P12 : P12 (x1 , x2 ) (x2 , x1 ).

Solution

(a) Consider inversion P : P (x) (x). Multiplying by hp|xi and integrating over x we have

Z

Z

1

1

P dx

eipx/~ (x) = dx

eipx/~ (x)

2~

2~

19

Changing the integration variable in the right-hand-side x x we obtain

P (p) = (p) .

By the same token:

(b) Ta (p) = eipa/~ (p) ,

c (p) =

(c) M

1 (p/c) ,

c

(d) K(p)

= (p) ,

(e) P12 (p1 , p2 ) = (p2 , p1 ).

d in x-representation,

(a) 1/p

d in p-representation.

(b) 1/x

Hint: in both cases use the general formulas connecting the x and p-representations. Given F in x-representation,

its p-representation can be calculated using

Z

Z

hp0 |bi = dphp0 |F |pihp|ai ,

hp0 |F |pi = dxhp0 |xiF hx|pi .

Conversely if you know F in the p-representation, then in x-representation

Z

Z

hx0 |bi = dxhx0 |F |xihx|ai ,

hx0 |F |xi = dphx0 |piF hp|xi .

(c) 1/r

Z

d (p) =

1/r

Solution

Suppose we know an operator F in x-representation. Then in p-representation

Z

Z

0

0

0

hp |bi = dphp |F |pihp|ai ,

hp |F |pi = dxhp0 |xiF hx|pi .

Conversely if you know F in the p-representation, then in x-representation

Z

Z

hx0 |bi = dxhx0 |F |xihx|ai ,

hx0 |F |xi = dphx0 |piF hp|xi .

(a)

Z

Z

Z

0

1

1 1

1 x

dp ip(xx0 )/~

d

eipx /~

eipx/~ =

d

x

e

hx0 |1/p|xi

= dp

p 2~

i~

2~

2~

Z

1 x

1

=

d

x (

x x0 ) = (x x0 ) ,

i~

i~

where (x) is the Heaviside (step) function defined as follows: = 1 for x > 0 and = 0 for x < 0.

Z

Z

Z

1

1

d

hx0 |bi = dxhx0 |1/p|xihx|ai

=

dx (x x0 )hx|ai =

dx hx|ai

i~

i~ x0

20

This is equivalent to:

d a (x0 ) =

b (x0 ) = 1/p

1

i~

dx a (x) .

x0

Note, that

D

E Z

d =

1/p

1

|(p)|2 dp < ,

p

Z

(x)dx = 0 .

In other words,

Z

x0

(x)dx =

(x)dx .

x0

So we can write

d a (x0 ) = 1

b (x ) = 1/p

i~

0

x0

1

dx a (x) =

i~

x0

dx a (x) .

d = 1 or (d/dx)(1/p(x))

d

This problem can be solved differently, by noting that p 1/p

= (i/~)(x). Integrating over x we get the same result as before.

(b) Similarly,

d a (p0 ) = 1

1/x

i~

dp a (p) =

p0

1

i~

p0

dp a (p) .

K1/r (r, r 0 ) =

1

(r r 0 ) .

r

Z

Z Z 1

0

1

1 i(pp0 )r/~ 3

1

1

0

d r=

dr

d ei|pp |r/~ 2r2

K1/r (p, p ) =

e

3

3

(2~)

r

(2~) 0

r

1

Z

4~

|p p0 |r

=

dr sin

(2~)3 |p p0 | 0

~

Z

|p p0 |r

4~

lim Im

dr exp i

+ i r

=

(2~)3 |p p0 | 0

~

0

4~

1

4~2

1

=

lim

Im

=

=

3

0

0

3

0

2

2

(2~) |p p | 0

i|p p |/~ + i

(2~) |p p |

2 ~|p p0 |2

where = cos , > 0.

0 i2

0

i

y = ~

0 i2

L

2

,

i

0

0

2

21

acting in the Hilbert space of three-component vectors.

Solution

Equation

i

0

i 2 i

2

2

i

0

=0

y are Ly = 0, ~.

has three solutions = 0, 1, so that eigenvalues of L

To find the eigenvector 1 = (a, b, c), corresponding to = 1, substitute = 1 in to the system of equations

y = Ly . Since only two are linearly independent we have

L

i

a b = 0 ,

2

i

bc=0

2

i2

1 = b 1 .

i

2

1 =

2i

1

2

i

2

1

2

0 = 0 ,

1

2

1 =

i

2

1

2

2i

6. Unitary operators.

c , K,

P12 (see problem sets #3 and #5)?

(a) Which of the following operators are unitary: P , Ta , M

2 = U

. What is U

?

(b) A unitary operator satisfies the equation U

, specify the values of parameter c for which operator U

0 = cU

is also unitary.

(c) Given unitary operator U

(d) Can a unitary operator (or matrix) be hermitian? Give two examples.

c in the form eiF where F is a corresponding Hermitian operator.

(e) Write operators P , Ta , M

Solution

c , P12 are unitary. For example, P = P , so that P P = 1 etc. K

is not unitary as it

(a) Operators P , Ta , M

is not linear.

(b)

U

= U

2U

= U

.

1 = U

22

(c)

0 U0 = |c|2 U

U

= |c|2 1 = 1 .

U

Therefore c = ei , where is any real number.

(d) Yes, it can if

U

= U

2 = 1.

U

2 = U 2 = , its eigenvalues are U = 1. So if the only eigenvalues of an operator are 1, it is

Since U

both hermitian and unitary. Examples: P , P12 and Pauli matrices.

(e) Inversion operator P satisfies

Choose a = /2. Using i = ei/2 we get

P = ei 2 (P 1) .

Translation operator

d

Ta = ea dx = eiap/~

.

d

(see previous assignments) with a = ln c we get

c =

M

I replaced x by x

and

d

dx

d

ln c x dx

ce

i

1

= exp ln c x

p +

~

2

by i

p/~. Substituting now 1/2 = [

x, p]/(2i~) we finally derive

c = exp ln c i (

xp + px

)

M

2~

7. Discuss bound states in the potential U = [(x a) + (x + a)] using the Schrodinger equation in momentum

representation. In particular,

(a) What is the condition (threshold) for existence of the parity-odd bound state?

(b) Calculate the bound state energy () near the threshold and for large separation a between the delta-wells.

Solution

(a) We discussed even state in class. Odd state exists if

=

1 e2a .

Denoting = 2a we can write this equation as

= 2

a .

1 e

Since the left-hand-side is not smaller than one, solution exists only if

a > 1/2

23

(b) At the threshold

a = 1/2, = 0 and hence = 0. To find a finite contribution we need to expand at small

x and small = 2

a 1 > 0:

(1 + )(

2

),

2

a 1. Substituting 2 = 2m/~2 we find

() = (2

a 1)2

~2

.

2ma2

The case

a 1 (see my or yours lecture notes):

() =

m2

1 e2a

2

2~

(a) Consider operator

= ea a ,

U

is unitary.

where a

|i = |i. Prove that U

= U

(

(b) Prove that a

U

a + ).

|0i.

(c) Show that |i = U

(d) Let us expand a coherent state in the occupation number representation:

X

|i =

Cn |ni .

n

Using the above results, compute Cn s and show that |Cn |2 satisfy the Poisson distribution. You will need

to use the following Weyl identity:

eA+B = e[A,B]/2 eA eB ,

[A,

B]]

= [B,

[A,

B]]

= 0.

provided that[A,

Solution

U

=

(a) U

1.

(b) Using [

a, a

] = 1 you can prove the following identity for an integer k:

a

(

a )k = (

a )k a

+ k(

a )k1

With its help we have

X

n

X

X

1

n

(

a a

)n = a

(

a )k ( a

)nk

n!

k

n=0

n=0 k=0

X

n

X

n

X

X

n

n k

=

(

a )k ( a

)nk a

+

k(

a )k1 ( a

)nk

k

k

n=0

n=0

= a

a

U

ea

k=0

=a

k=0

X

X

1

1

=

(

a a

)n a

+

n(

a a

)n1 = ea a a

+ ea a

n!

n!

n=0

n=0

(

=U

a + ) .

24

(c)

|0i] = U

(

|0i = [U

|0i] .

a

[U

a + )|0i = U

|0i is an eigenstate of a

|0i.

Thus, U

: |i = U

(d) Let us expand a coherent state in the occupation number representation:

X

|0i .

|i =

Cn |ni Cn = hn|i = hn|U

n

[A,

B]]

= [B,

[A,

B]]

= 0.

provided that[A,

eA+B = e[A,B]/2 eA eB ,

we get

= e||2 /2 ea e a

U

X

X

n

m m

m

|mi =

(

a ) |0i = hn|

m!

m!

n!

m=0

m=0

Finally,

2

n

Cn = e|| /2 .

n!

0, 0 x a;

U (x) =

, otherwise .

At t = 0 its normalized wave function is

r

(x, t = 0) =

8

[1 + cos(x/a)] sin(x/a) .

5a

(a) What is the probability/probability density to find the particle with momentum p = 0 and with momentum

in the interval < p < +?

(b) Calculate the wave function of the particle in the energy representation hEm |i.

(c) What is the expectation value of energy hEi at t = 0 and t > 0?

Solution

(a) Wave function in the momentum representation is

Z a

Z

(p) = hpn |i =

dxhpn |xihx|i =

0

1

eipn x/~ (x)dx ,

a

Z a

2

1

32

(x)dx =

|(p = 0)|2 =

2

5

a

0

Notice that eia~/a is not one of the momentum eigenfunctions.

X

n=

|(pn )|2 = 1

25

(b)

Z

hEn |i =

r Z a

xn

2

1

2

dxhEn |xihx|i =

dx sin

(x, t) = n1 + n2

a 0

a

5

5

(c)

hEi =

A2n En =

4

1

4 2 ~2

E1 + E2 =

5

5

5ma2

26

V.

1. Potential energy of interaction of two particles of masses m1 and m2 is U (|r1 r2 |), where r1 and r2 are their

positions.

(a) Write down the Hamiltonian of the system.

(b) Introduce new vectors r = r1 r2 and R = (m1 r1 + m2 r2 )/(m1 + m2 ). What is the physical meaning of

r and R?

=L

1 + L

2 . Write L

in terms of r, R and the corresponding

(c) Operator of orbital angular momentum is L

derivatives.

=H

1 + H

2 in terms of r and R.

(d) Write the Hamiltonian H

(e) Using the method of separation of variables seek solution of S.E. in the form (r)(R) and determine

equations satisfied by (r) and (R).

Solution

(c)

=L

1 + L

2 = ir1 1 ir2 2

L

In terms of r and R we have

1 =

m1

R r ,

m1 + m2

2 =

m2

R r

m1 + m2

Therefore,

= ir r iR R ,

L

where the first term is the operator of the orbital angular momentum in the c.o.m. frame, while the second term

is the operator of the orbital angular momentum related to the motion of the center-of-mass.

2. For the following potentials derive a condition for existence of the nth bound s-state.

(a) U (r) = r4 for r > a and U = for r < a, > 0;

0a

2

2

(b) U (r) = (r2U+a

2 )2 , U0 ,a > 0. (Hint: make a substitution w = / r + a and r = a tan .)

Solution

(a) As in the one-dimensional case, new bound states emerge at = 0. For example, this happens as the

potential becomes deeper. The corresponding equation for the radial function is

~2

r

R 4R = 0.

2

2mr r

r

r

Changing variables = 1/r we obtain

~2 2

R() R() = 0 .

2m 2

Solution:

R() = A cos() + B sin() ,

2 =

2m

~2

27

In order that the wave function be finite at r ( 0) we have to require A = 0. Boundary condition at

r = a:

m

2 n2

=

~2 a 2

2

sin(/a) = 0 ,

d2 w

+ 2w = 0 ,

d 2

2 = 1 +

2mU0 a2

.

~2

Solution:

w() = A cos() + B sin() .

Now we apply two boundary conditions at r = 0 and r . At r 0, 0 thus

w(0) =

(0)

= 0,

a

A = 0.

a

w = B sin((/2 )) B sin(/2) cos(/2)

r

At large r w coincides with R, therefore in order that the wave function be finite we have to require that

= n ,

2

1+

2mU0 a2

= 4n2 .

~2

3. Calculate the degree of degeneracy g(n ) of the three-dimensional harmonic oscillator using the solution in the

spherical coordinates.

Solution

Energy eigenvalues are n = ~(2nr + ` + 3/2), nr = 0, 1, . . ., ` = 0, 1, . . .. Energy does not depend on magnetic

number m, therefore for each n and ` there are 2` + 1 independent wave functions. For a given even n = 2nr + `,

` can take only even values (because 2nr is always even). In this case

g(n) =

n

X

(2` + 1) =

`=0,2,4,...

n/2

X

(4k + 1) =

k=0

1

(1 + n)(2 + n) .

2

g(n) =

n

X

(n+1)/2

(2` + 1) =

`=1,2,3,...

(4k 1) =

k=1

1

(1 + n)(2 + n) ,

2

(a) Derive an algebraic transcendental equation that determines the discrete energy levels for ` = 0.

(b) What is the condition for existence of at least one bound state?

(c) Repeat (a) for ` > 0.

(d) Derive an explicit expression for E(`) when ma/~2 1. Make sure to find the `-dependent term.

28

Solution

(a) Discrete spectrum corresponds to E < 0. Define

r

2m

~2

Consider first ` = 0. Solving S.E. with the appropriate boundary conditions yields at r 6= a:

= A sinh r ,

r < a,

= Ber ,

r > a.

Matching at r = a has been done before many times with the result

~2

= 1 e2a .

m

(5.1)

(b) Notice that the first solution appears only if ma/~2 1/2.

u = AI`+1/2 (r) ,

r < a,

u = BK`+1/2 (r) ,

r > a,

where we took into account the boundary conditions. I and K are the modified Bessel functions. Matching

condition at r = a (check that these matching conditions can be applied either to R or to u):

0

0

BK`+1/2

(a) AI`+1/2

(a) =

2m

AI`+1/2 (a)

~2

where prime denotes derivative with respect to z = a. Excluding coefficients A and B gives

0

K`+1/2

(a)

K`+1/2 (a)

0

2m I`+1/2 (a)

+

~2

I`+1/2 (a)

(5.2)

One can further simplify (5.2) by means of the formula (the so-called Wronskian)

0

0

K`+1/2

(a)I`+1/2 (a) K`+1/2 (a)I`+1/2

(a) =

1

.

a

The result is

I`+1/2 (a)K`+1/2 (a) =

~2

2ma

(5.3)

(d) At ma/~2 1, for ` = 0 we can neglect the exponent in (5.1) with the result:

E0 =

m2

.

2~2

(5.4)

For ` > 0 we can use either (5.2) or (5.3). I will use (5.3). On its right-hand-side is a small number. Therefore

we need to choose the right asymptotic of the Bessel functions. At a ,

I`+1/2 (a)K`+1/2 (a)

1

1,

2a

whereas at a 0 this product approach a constant. Thus, the right asymptotic is a . In order to find

the `-dependent term we need to expand the Bessel functions beyond the leading term keeping the next two

terms. The result is

I`+1/2 (a)K`+1/2 (a)

1

`(` + 1)

2a

4(a)3

29

So

~2

1

`(` + 1)

=

2a

4(a)3

2ma

If we neglect the `-dependent term we get 0 a = ma/~2 , which leads to (5.4). To find a correction write

= 0 + 1 with 1 0 . Expanding in 1 we derive:

1 = `(` + 1)

1

220 a2

Energy levels:

E(`) =

2 ~2

~2 `(` + 1)

2 ~2

0 1 ~2

m2

= 0

= 2 +

2m

2m

m

2~

2ma2

xi x

k is an integral of motion (i.e. a conserved quantity) for a particle in

2.

the spherical harmonic oscillator. Show that Tik does not commute with L

Solution

(a) hrn i, where n is integer.

(b) Average kinetic and potential energy of electron.

(c) Probability density w(p) to find the electron with momentum p.

Solution

Hydrogen atom in the ground state.

(a)

0 = (a3 )1/2 er/a

hrn i =

rn |0 |2 dV =

(n + 2)!an

2n+1

(b)

Z

hU i =

0

e2

e2

|0 |2 dV =

r

a

(c) Probability density w(p) to find the electron with momentum p:

Z

1

2 2~5/2

1

ipr/~

0 (p) =

e

(r)dV

=

0

(2~)3/2

a5/2 (p2 + ~2 /a2 )2

Therefore,

dw(p) = |0 (p)|2 d3 p

30

7. A particle is in two-dimensional potential U () = /, > 0, in a state with magnetic quantum number m

(projection of the orbital angular momentum on some axis).

(a) Derive an equation satisfied by the radial function R() using polar coordinates. Do the energy levels

depend on the sign of m?

(b) Calculate the discreet energy spectrum using the formulas on the back of this sheet.

(c) What is the degree of degeneracy of each level?

Solution

(a) Schr

odinger equation

~2 2

+ U =

2M

1

+

1 2 2M

2 [U () ] = 0

2 2

~

Since U depends only on the wave function has form (, ) = R()(). By separation of variables we

obtain for the angular part

00 + m2 = 0 ,

() = ( + 2)

The periodic boundary condition requires that m be an integer. The normalized wave functions are

1

m = eim

2

For the radial part we have

m2

2M

1

R + R0 2 R + 2

~

00

+ R=0

(b) This equation is the same as the equation for u with U = /r in the list of formulas. We only need to

replace l + 1/2 |m|. Note that depends only on |m|, i.e. it is the same for m. Using the known

formula for the spectrum in the Coulomb potential we obtain:

En |m| =

M 2

2~2 (n + |m| + 1/2)2

As in the three-dimensional case we can introduce the principle quantum number N = n + |m| + 1:

EN =

(c) Degeneracy of each level is 2N 1.

M 2

,

1/2)2

2~2 (N

N = 1, 2, . . .

31

VI.

ANGULAR MOMENTUM

2 and L

z , find the explicit matrix form of operators L

y, L

z,

1. (a) In a representation with definite values of L

+, L

for l = 1.

L

in which its z-projection had a

(b) Earlier this semester we used another representation of the operator L

(b)

non-diagonal form. Denote that representation by L , while the representation of (a) by L

representation we showed that

0 0 0

0 0 1

0 1 0

(b)

(b)

z(b) = i~ 1 0 0 .

0 0 1 ,

0 0 0,

L

L

L

x = i~

y = i~

0 1 0

1 0 0

0 0 0

that transforms (b) to (a).

Determine the unitary transformation U

Solution

(a) Non-vanishing matrix elements:

h`m|L+ |`, m 1i = ~

(` + m)(` m + 1) ,

(6.1)

(` + m)(` m + 1) ,

1p

h`m|Lx |`, m 1i = h`, m 1|Lx |`mi = ~

(` + m)(` m + 1) ,

2

1p

(` + m)(` m + 1) ,

h`m|Ly |`, m 1i = h`, m 1|Ly |`mi = i~

2

h`m|Lz |`mi = ~m .

(6.2)

(6.3)

(6.4)

(6.5)

In matrix form

(a) = ~

L

0

1

2

1

2

0

1

2

0

1

2

(a)

L

+

0 i2

1

0 i2

= ~ i2

,

i

0

0

2

0

= ~ 0

0

(a)

L

y

2 0

0

2,

0 0

(a)

L

z

1 0 0

= ~ 0 0 0 ,

0 0 1

(a)

L

0 0 0

= ~ 2 0 0

2 0

0

0 0 0

0 0 1

(b) = i~ 0 0 1 ,

(b) = i~ 0 0 0 ,

L

L

x

y

0 1 0

1 0 0

(b)

L

z

0 1 0

= i~ 1 0 0 .

0 0 0

(b)

Clearly, matrix L

z is not diagonal. A unitary matrix U that transforms (b) to (a) satisfies

(a) = U

(b) U

L

(6.6)

U

= 1 .

U

(6.7)

and

as follows:

Let us denote the matrix elements of U

a b c

=d e f ,

U

g h k

32

where a, b, . . . are complex numbers that we have to find.

(a) U

(b) . Substituting matrices L

=U

L

(a)

(b)

We can write eq. (6.6) in a more convenient form as L

and L

z

z

and multiplying them we obtain

a b

c

ib ia 0

0 0 0 = ie id 0

g h k

ih ig 0

Thus, e = d = c = k = 0, a = ib, g = ih and f is not fixed. To find the remaining coefficients a, h and

f , repeat this calculation for the y-components and apply eq. (6.7). The result is

=

U

1

2

0

12

i2 0

0 1

i2 0

2. In a state with a definite value of orbital angular momentum ` and its projection m on z-axis

(a) Prove that hLx i = hLy i = 0.

(b) Compute L2x , L2y .

(c) Let z 0 be an axis oriented at polar angle and azimuthal angle with respect to z. Prove that

hLz0 i = ~m cos ,

2

1

Lz0 = ~2 [l(l + 1) 3m2 ] sin2 + ~2 m2 .

2

Solution

:

(a) In view of properties of L

|`mi = 0 ,

h`m|L

It follows then that hLx i i hLy i = 0, so hLx i = hLy i = 0.

(b) Similarly, from

2 |`mi = 0

h`m|L

follow that

D

E

2

xL

y + L

yL

x = 0

Lx L2y i L

D

E

xL

y + L

yL

x = 0

Thus, L2x = L2y and L

On the other hand,

D

E D

E

2 L

2x + L

2y = L

2z = ~2 `(` + 1) ~2 m2

L

Therefore,

2

2 ~2

[`(` + 1) m2 ]

Lx = Ly =

2

(c) We can write

=L

z ez + L

x ex + L

y ey ,

L

33

where ex ,ey ,ez are unit vectors. Now, projection on z 0 -axis Lz0 reads

ez 0 = L

z ez ez0 + L

x ex ez0 + L

y ey ez0

Lz0 = L

z cos + L

x sin cos + L

y sin sin

=L

(6.8)

(6.9)

Averaging over a state with fixed ` and m and using the results of 2b we derive

hLz0 i = hLz i cos

Taking square of (6.9), averaging and again using the results from 2b as well as form ??:

~2

L2z0 = L2z cos2 + L2x sin2 = ~2 m2 cos2 + [`(` + 1) m2 ] sin2

2

2

2

2 2

21

= ~ [l(l + 1) 3m ] sin + ~ m .

2

(6.10)

(6.11)

3. Suppose that a particle is in a state with the orbital angular momentum l = 1 and its projection m on z-axis.

Using solution to the previous home assignment, calculate the probabilities wm0 of orbital angular momentum

projections on z 0 -axis, which is oriented at polar angle and azimuthal angle with respect to z.

Solution

From the previous home assignment:

hLz0 i = ~m cos ,

1

L2z0 = ~2 [2 3m2 ] sin2 + ~2 m2 .

2

(6.12)

hLz0 i = w2 (1~) + w0 (0~) + w2 (1~) ,

2

Lz0 = w2 (1~)2 + w0 (0~)2 + w2 (1~)2

This gives two equations for two unknowns w2 and w2 . Solving them we get

1 1

2

2

2

(2 3m ) sin + m + m cos ,

w2 =

2 2

1 1

2

2

2

w2 =

(2 3m ) sin + m m cos ,

2 2

1 1

2

2

2

w0 = 1 w2 w2 = 1

(2 3m ) sin + m

2 2

(6.13)

(6.14)

(6.15)

4. Spin-1/2 particle is in a state with definite l, m, sz . Calculate the probabilities of possible values of the total

angular momentum J = L + S.

Solution

S.

Thus

2 + S2 + 2L

There are two possible values of j: j = l 1/2. Now, J2 = L

2

1 1

J = ~2 l(l + 1) +

+ 1 + 2m .

2 2

= 21 . On the other hand

2

J = ~2 [wl+1/2 (l + 3/2)(l + 1/2) + wl1/2 (l + 1/2)(l 1/2)] ,

Solving these equations we derive

wl+1/2 =

l + 2m + 1

,

2l + 1

wl1/2 =

l 2m

.

2l + 1

wl+1/2 + wl1/2 = 1

34

= H0 + S n, where H0 and are constants. The operator S n

5. An electron is subject to the Hamiltonian H

represents the spin projection along the direction n. We can express this direction in spherical coordinate angles

as n = sin (cos ex + sin ey ) + cos ez , where ex , ey , ez are unit vectors.

(a) Find the possible values of the electron energy and prove that the corresponding spin wave functions +

and .

(b) At t = 0 the electrons spin wave function is an eigenvalue of Sz with eigenvalue +~/2. What are the

probabilities of finding the electron in the states you found in 1.

(c) Calculate the spin state of the system at later times.

(d) What is the probability of finding the electron again in the initial state?

(e) What is the probability of finding it with the inverted spin?

Solution

(a) The possible values of the electron energy are the eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian that can be written as

~

~

cos sin ei

2

2 sin ei cos

The eigenvalues of matrix

cos sin ei

sin ei cos

cos sin ei

sin ei cos

=0

= 1

values are = H0 ~/2. The corresponding normalized wave functions

energy

a

are of the form =

with a and b satisfying

b

a(cos 1) + b sin ei = 0

2

(6.16)

|a| + |b| = 1

(6.17)

1 cos = 2 sin2 (/2)

1 + cos = 2 cos2 (/2)

sin = 2 sin(/2) cos(/2)

we find from (6.16) and (6.17)

+ =

cos 2 ei

sin 2

,

sin 2 ei

cos 2

(0) =

1

0

w+ = |+

(0)|2 = cos2 (/2) ,

w = |

(0)|2 = sin2 (/2)

35

(c) {+ , } is a complete set of states. This means that spin wave function can be represented as a linear

combination of these states: (0) = c+ + + c , where c = h |(0)i. Therefore,

(0) = cos(/2) ei + sin(/2) ei

Time-evolution of the electron state:

(t) = ei+ t/~ cos(/2) ei + ei t/~ sin(/2) ei

(d) The probability of finding the electron again in the initial state is

w = | (0)(t)|2 = |ei+ t/~ cos(/2) ei cos(/2)ei ei t/~ sin(/2) ei ( sin(/2))ei |2

= |ei+ t/~ cos2 (/2) + ei t/~ sin2 (/2)|2 = |eit/2 cos2 (/2) + eit/2 sin2 (/2)|2

= | cos(t/2) i sin(t/2) cos |2 = cos2 (t/2) + sin2 (t/2) cos2

= 1 sin2 (t/2) sin2

(e)

w = 1 w = sin2 (t/2) sin2

.

A = a0 1 + ax

x + ay

y + az

z a0 + a

are Pauli matrices.

where

2a = Tr(

where Tr stands for trace, i.e. sum of diagonal elements.

A),

(a) Show that 2a0 = Tr(A),

n

n

if n is even, and (a )

n = an1 (a ),

if n ia odd.

= a 1,

(b) Prove that (a )

(c) Prove the following identities

a)(

b) = a b + i

(a b);

i. (

(

) = + i( );

ii.

Solution

(a)

.

A = a0 1 + ax

x + ay

y + az

z a0 + a

= 0 and Tr

Since Tr

1 = 2, and using the fact that trace is a linear operator

TrA = a0 Tr1 = 2a0 .

Next,

= a0 Tr()

A)

+ Tr[a

]

= aj ek Tr[

Tr(

k

j ]

= aj ek Tr[ijkl

l + jk 1] = aj ek 2jk = 2ak ek = 2a

(6.18)

2 = a2 1 ,

(

a )

(6.20)

(6.19)

2 = aj ak

(a )

j

k = aj ak (ijkl

l + jk 1) = a2 1 ,

(6.21)

36

where in the last step we used the fact that jkl is anti-symmetric in jk, while aj ak is symmetric. Assume

now that (6.20) holds for some 1

2(1) = a2(1) 1.

(a )

(6.22)

2 = (a )

2(1) (a )

2 = a2(1) a2 1 = a2 1 ,

(a )

(6.23)

The proof for odd nth is similar.

(c) The identities follow immediately from

i

j = iijk

k + ij 1.

= 2~

7. Spin-1 particle is subject to the Hamiltonian H

sz + 3

s2x . Disregard all other degrees of freedom.

(a) Calculate energy spectrum.

(b) If at time t = 0 the spin is in an eigenstate with sz = ~, calculate the expectation value of spin at time t.

Solution

= 2~

(a) H

sz + 3

s2x . Using the representation given in the list of Useful formulas we get

0 0 0

s2x = ~2 0 1 0

0 0 1

Thus,

0 2i~2 0

= 2i~2 3~2

0

H

0

0

3~2

are found from the equation

Eigenvalues of H

2i~2

0

0

det 2i~2 3~2

0

0

3~2

= 0,

(3~2 )[( 3~2 ) 4~2 ] = 0

There are three solutions: 0 = 3~2 , + = 4~2 , = ~2 .

Seek for the eigenfunctions is the form

a

=b

c

For 0 = 3~2 :

a = b = 0,

c=1

0

0 = 0

1

37

For + = 4~2

c = 0,

a=

ib

2

2

b=

5

1 i

2

+ =

5

0

For = ~2

c = 0,

a = 2ib

1

b=

5

2i

1

= 1

5

0

1 1

i

(0) =

2 0

This can be written as

(0) = 0 + + +

It is straightforward to determine the coefficients = 0, = i 310 , = i 110 . Now, the wave function at

any time t is

i t/~

i t/~

+

3e

+

2e

x

i

1

1

(t) = (3ei+ t/~ + ei t/~ ) = 6iei+ t/~ iei t/~ y .

10

5 2

5

2

0

0

Expectation value of spin at time t:

hsi = (t) s(t)

Substituting the corresponding spin matrices we get hsx i = hsy i = 0 and

i~

i~

~

18

2 5~t

hsz i =

(x y + x y ) =

2i Im (x y ) =

[16 + 9 cos(5~t)] = ~ 1

sin

50

50

25

25

2

38

VII.

1. Electromagnetic potentials A, are not observable quantities, unlike the electromagnetic fields E, B. Therefore,

Pauli equation must not change under the gauge transformation

A A0 = A + f ,

0 =

1 f

,

c t

(7.1)

with arbitrary f . On the other hand, Pauli Hamiltonian explicitly depends on electromagnetic potentials A,

. Therefore, in order that the (time-dependent) Pauli equation stays invariant under (1), the wave function,

which is also not an observable quantity, must transform concurrently with (1) as

0 = eig .

(7.2)

Determine function g for which the Pauli equation stays invariant under the transformations (1),(8.2).

Solution

Pauli equation:

i~

= H,

t

2 + e .

= 1 (p e A)

H

2m

c

(7.3)

A A0 = A + f ,

0 =

1 f

,

c t

0 = eig .

(7.4)

i~

i~

= i~eig

~ge

ig .

t

t

t

(7.5)

On the right-hand-side, a term involving the time derivative is ec feig . We expect that g is proportional to

f . Thus, we require that

e

~ge

ig = feig

c

g=

e

f.

~c

(7.6)

Now we need to check the terms involving the gradient, i.e. nabla operator :

e 0 0

e e

e

(p A

) = (p A

f )eig

(p A)

c

c

c

c

e e

ig

ig

= e (p A f ) + e (i~)ig

c

c

(7.7)

(7.8)

e

f + ~g = 0

c

which yields again g =

(7.9)

e

~c f .

(a) Compute the operator of velocity v and compare it with the classical expression.

(b) Calculate the commutators [

vi , vj ], where i, j = x, y, z and express them as a function of B. Can the three

components of v have definite values simultaneously?

39

Solution

Operator of velocity is given by

v =

d

r

1

= [

r , H]

dt

i~

(7.10)

v =

e

1

(p A)

,

m

c

(7.11)

Commutation relations:

[

vi , vj ] =

ie~

ijk Bk

m2 c

(7.12)

Because [

vi , vj ] 6= 0, components of velocity cannot have definite values simultaneously.

3. Spin-zero particle of mass M and charge e moves in constant magnetic field B = Bez .

(a) Choosing the vector potential in the symmetric gauge A = 12 (B r), calculate the energy spectrum.

2 = (

vx2 + vy2 )/ 2 . Show that

(b) Consider operators x

0 = x

vy /, y0 = y + vx /, r02 = x

20 + y02 and R

L

2

2

x

0 , y0 ] = [H,

r02 ] = [H,

R

L

L

[H,

0 ] = [H

] = [

r02 , R

] = 0,

[

x0 , y0 ] =

i~c

eB

(7.13)

2 .

(c) Find spectra of operators r02 and R

L

Solution

(a) In cylindrical coordinates the Pauli Hamiltonian reads

2

2 2

2

= p e~ B L

z + e B 2 H

+ pz .

H

2M

2M c

8M c2

2M

(7.14)

z , pz and H

all commute with each other, the eigenfunctions can be chosen in the following

Since operators L

form

Empz (, z, ) =

1

f ()ei(m+pz z/~) .

2 ~

(7.15)

Schr

odinger equation for f :

2

2M E

m2 1/4 emB

e2 B 2 2

f 00 + f 0 +

f = 0.

~2

2

~c

4~2 c2

(7.16)

This is the same equation as the one for the spherical harmonic oscillator. Denote

0 =

|e|B

,

Mc

a2 =

~

,

M 0

x=

2

.

2a2

(7.17)

(7.18)

40

where F is the hypergeometric function with

n =

1

2

2E

em

+ |m| + 1

~0

|e|

.

(7.19)

E,n = ~0 (n + 1/2),

n = 0, 1, 2, . . . ,

n = n +

|m| em/|e|

2

(7.20)

(b)

(c) We can write

2 = 2H

R

L

M 02

(7.21)

= H

p2z /(2M ). Since En = (n + 1/2)~0 + p2z /(2M ), we find

where H

2

(RL

)n =

2

(n + 1/2)~0 = a2 (2n + 1) .

M 02

(7.22)

+ 2 e 0 L

z .

M 02 r02 = 2H

|e|

(7.23)

(

r02 )k = (2k + 1)a2 ,

k =n+

em

= 0, 1, 2, . . .

|e|

(7.24)

41

VIII.

1. One-dimensional electrically charged harmonic oscillator is placed in electric field of strength E. Calculate the

first two corrections to energy levels.

Solution

(0)

element

r

hm|x|ni =

~n

m,n1 +

2m

~(n + 1)

m,n+1 .

2m

(8.1)

En(1) = Vnn = 0 .

The second correction:

En(2) =

X0 |hm|V |ni|2

m

(0)

En

(0)

Em

q2 E 2

2m 2

(a) Calculate exact energy spectrum and the degree of degeneration of each level.

(b) Treating V = xy as a perturbation find the first non-vanishing correction to the ground state energy.

Indicate the conditions for applicability of your result. Compare with (a).

(c) In the framework of the perturbation theory, calculate the splitting of the first excited level: determine

energy levels and the zeroth order eigenfunctions.

(d) Repeat (b) and (c) for V = xy(x2 + y 2 )/2 keeping only the first order in perturbation theory.

Solution

(a) We can write the potential as follows

U=

k1

k2

(x + y)2 + (x y)2

4

4

x+y

x1 = ,

2

y1 =

x + y

,

2

2

2

2

2

= ~ + k1 x21 ~ + k2 y12

H

2m x21

2

2m y12

2

r

r

k+

k

En1 n2 = ~

(n1 + 1/2) + ~

(n2 + 1/2) ,

n1,2 = 0, 1, . . .

m

m

(8.2)

42

(b) The unperturbed spectrum is given by

(0)

En(0)

EN = ~(N + 1) ,

1 ,n2

n(0)

= nosc

(x) nosc

(y)

1 ,n2

1

2

(1)

EN = 0

as in the previous problem. The second correction to the ground state:

(2)

E0

X 0 |hn1 , n2 |V |0i|2

(0)

n1 ,n2

(0)

E0 En1 ,n2

h11|V |0i =

~

2m

Thus,

(2)

E0

2 ~

8m2 3

To compare with the result of problem 1, note that the perturbation theory is valid when || m 2 = k.

Expanding (8.2) in powers of /k we obtain

p

~ p

~

2

E0 =

[ 1 + /k + 1 /k]

2 2 ,

2

2

4k

which agrees with the perturbation theory.

(c) Consider the first excited level, i.e. N = 1. It is two-fold degenerated. The corresponding unperturbed

(0)

(0)

wave functions are 10 and 01 . Now, we need to calculate

(0)

(0)

(0)

(0)

~

(0)

(0)

(0)

(0)

h10 |V |01 i = h01 |V |10 i =

2m

(8.3)

(8.4)

(1)

~/2m

E1

= 0.

~/2m E1(1)

Its solution is

(1)

E1

~

.

2m

It indicates that the degeneracy is lifted. The corresponding wave functions read

1

(0)

(0)

(10

01 )

2

(d) V = xy(x2 + y 2 )/2. The oscillator wave functions are

2

2

1

00 = e( + )/2 ,

r

2 (2 +2 )/2

10 =

xe

,

r

2 (2 +2 )/2

01 =

ye

,

(0)

E0

= ~

(8.5)

(0)

= 2~

(8.6)

(0)

= 2~ ,

(8.7)

E1

E1

43

p

p

where = x m/~, = y m/~. The first excited level is two-fold degenerated.

First order corrections:

Z Z

(1)

|00 (, )|2 xy(x2 + y 2 ) dd = 0

E0 =

2

h10|V |10i = h01|V |01i = 0 ,

Z Z

h10|V |01i = h01|V |10i =

=

~

m

3/2

10 (, )01 (, )

xy(x2 + y 2 ) dd

2

3

4

E (1) = h10|V |01i

3. Particle moves in potential U = U0 aer/a /r, such that U0 ~2 /ma2 . Using the perturbation theory, calculate

the difference between the energy levels in this potential and in the Coulomb potential U = U0 a/r. Indicate,

the region of applicability of your result.

Solution

Similar problem was discussed in class. When U0 ~2 /ma2 the perturbation is

r2

r

V = U0 1

+

,

2a 6a2

which is obtained by subtracting the Coulomb potential U = U0 a/r from U = U0 aer/a /r and expanding

at r a. Correction to the energy levels is

n2

3n2 l(l + 1)

(1)

2

+

[5n

+

1

3l(l

+

1)]

Enl = U0 1

4

12 2

where

= ma2 U0 /~2 .

4. Particle moves in one-dimensional potential U = F x for x 0 and U = for x < 0. Using the variational

method calculate the ground state energy:

(a) Argue that the following trial functions are a reasonable choice for the ground state

i. = Axex ,

2

ii. = Bxex /2 .

(b) For each trial function compute the ground state energy.

(c) Compare with the exact solution

En =

~2 F 2

2m

1/3

n+1 ,

n = 0, 1, . . .

where n are zeros of the Airy function. In particular, 1 2.338. Which trial function gives better

approximation?

Solution

44

(a) Particle moving in one-dimensional potential U = F x for x 0 and U = for x < 0 has E > 0. At x 0

Schr

odinger equation reads

~2 00

= E

2m

sin(kx) kx.

Therefore the trial function must also be proportional to x. At x the wave function must exponentially

decay. Both functions i and ii smoothly interpolate between these limits. Moreover, they do not have any

zeros between x = 0 and x = as it should be for the ground state.

(b) (i) = Axex .

Normalization:

Z

|(x)|2 dx = 1

A2 = 43

~2 d2

~2 2

3F

(x)

+

F

x

(x)dx

=

J() =

+

.

2

2m dx

2m

2

(8.8)

J 0 ()|=0 = 0

0 =

3mF

2~2

1/3

Therefore,

E0 = J(0 ) =

243

32

1/3

~2 F 2

m

1/3

1.966

~2 F 2

m

1/3

(ii) = Bxex .

Repeating the same steps for (i) we have

r

1/3

3

3~2

2F

16m2 F 2

2

B =4

, J() =

+

, 0 =

4m

9~4

2 2 1/3

1/3 2 2 1/3

~ F

~ F

81

1.861

E0 =

4

m

m

(8.9)

(8.10)

E0 = 2.338

~2 F 2

2m

1/3

= 1.856

~2 F 2

m

1/3

The variational approach gives an upper limit to the value of E0 . Therefore (ii) gives a better approximation.

5. Use the variational method to calculate the energy levels and the corresponding wave functions of the 1s and 2s

levels of the hydrogen atom.

Solution

Hamiltonian of the hydrogen atom:

2

2

= ~ 2 e .

H

2M

r

45

Since we are interested in the s-states, the corresponding wave functions are spherically symmetric, i.e. depend

only on r. For the ground state 1s we try the following wave function

1s = Aer .

This choice is motivated by: (i) large r behavior of any function satisfying the Schrodinger equation with the

above Hamiltonian (see lecture notes), (ii) the oscillation theorem that dictates that the ground state wave

function must have no zeros at 0 < r < , (iii) boundary condition at r = 0. Normalization of 1s yields

3

.

A2 =

Thus,

J1s () =

2 3 ~2

m

er (2 er )r2 dr 4 3 e2

e2r rdr =

~2 2

e2 .

2M

E1s = J1s (0 ) =

e2

,

2a

1s =

1

a3

er/a .

The wave function of the first excited state must have one zero. A reasonable choice is

r r/a

2s = B 1 +

e

.

a

Orthogonality condition:

1s (r)2s (r)r2 dr = 0

1

(1 + ) .

3

B2 =

a3 (1

35

.

+ 2 )

Z

e2

2

7 2

3

+

.

J2s () = 2s H2s d r =

a

2

6

2(2 + 1)

The result is

0 = 1/2 .

Thus,

E2s =

e2

,

8a

2s =

1

8a3

r r/2a

e

.

2a

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