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Distance Relay:

It measure and the ratio and detect the abnormalities in ratio of voltage and current at relaying point
Our main intentions are to save our transmission line, but let think why we are using distance relay not
over current relay. Now we discuss this
1st of all take one transmission network with generating sources
Our circuit in consideration:

We are using One over current relay to protect our transmission line, then after results we will analyze
why we are getting problems in using only overcurrent relay to protect our transmission lines.
We are taking 4 scenarios of same electrical circuit

Case 1:

When fault occur between CB 2 and Bus 7, now use Thevenin's Theorem.
Source impedance is 1/(1/Z-T/F-1+Z-T/F-2)
Then thevenin impedance is Zth= 1/((1/Z-T/F-1+Z-T/F-2))+Z-Line =(1/(1/18+1/18)) + 4=13.000004ohms
I-fault-case-1=VL /1.73 Zth=115000/(1.732*13.000005)=5107.477A
We must set our Relay of CB1>5107.477A and Relay of CB2 must be equal or <5107.477A, so in case of
fault between CB2 and Bus 7 ,only CB2 trip first and isolate the faulty section of Transmission line and
unfaulty section from source generator to Bus 6 remain alive
Case 2:

When fault occur between CB 1 and Cable 1(which is main transmission line) , now use Thevenin's
Theorem.
Then thevenin impedance is Zth= 1/((1/Z-T/F-1+Z-T/F-2))+Z-Line=(1/(1/18+1/18)) =9 ohms
I-fault-case-2=VL /1.73 Zth = 115000/(1.732*9)=7377.469249A
Relay-Pick up of CB 1 must be set less than or equal to 7377.469249A

Case 3:

Now One source is disconnected and fault occur between CB 2 and Bus 7, now use Thevenin's Theorem.
Then thevenin impedance is Zth= Z-T/f-1+Z-Line=18+ 4=22 ohms
I-fault-case-3=VL /1.73 Zth =115000/(1.732*22)= 3108A.
Relay Pickup of CB-1 must be greater than 3108A and Relay Pick up of CB2 must be less than or Equal to
3108 A, so only Faulty section between CB2 and Bus 7 will isolate and unfaulty section from Source to
Bus 6 remain intact.
Case 4:

When fault occur between CB 1 and Cable 1(which is main transmission line) , now use Thevenin's
Theorem. While Gen 2 is out of service.
Then thevenin impedance is Zth= Z-T/F-1=18 ohms
I-fault-case-4=VL /1.73 Zth= 115000/1.732*18= 3688.7349A
Now Relay pick up of CB1 must be less than 3688.7349A

Results:
Condition

Fault Current

When fault
occur between
CB 2 and Bus 7
When fault
occur between
CB 1 and Cable
1(which is main
transmission
line)
One source is
disconnected
and fault occur
between CB 2
and Bus 7
When fault
occur between
CB 1 and Cable
1(which is main
transmission
line)

5107.477A

CB1-Relay
Setting
>5107.477A

7377.469249A

<7377.469249A

3108A A

>3108A

3688.7349A

<3688.7349A

CB-2 Relay
Source
Setting
Impedance
=/<5107.477A 9 ohm

=/<3108A

Line
impedance
4 ohm

9 ohm

0 ohm

18ohm

4ohm

18ohm

0ohm

Now we have to answer why OC relay is not a best option for Transmission Protection.
I will compare Case 1, Case 2, Case 3 and Case 4
if we take minimum value for setting of Relay CB-1,let say 3200A, then it is ok for case 2,case 3 and case
4. But in case 1, the relay of CB1 tripped on fault between CB2 and bus 7 on same setting 3200A because
which is not desire able for line fault , so main issue in using OC relay for transmission line protection is
Selectivity , that is why we do prefer OC relay as a primary protection in Transmission line.