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International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development

Available online on http://www.rspublication.com/ijeted/ijeted_index.htm

Issue 4, Vol.5 (Aug.- Sep. 2014)


ISSN 2249-6149

A REVIEW ON POWER QUALITY PROBLEMS AND ITS


SOLUTION AT DISTRIBUTION END USING DIFFERENT
INTERFACING DEVICES AND DISTRIBUTED GENERATION
Yamini Arora
PG scholar, Department of Electrical Engineering,
Jabalpur Engineering College, Jabalpur
ABSTRACT-In this paper first the Power quality (PQ), the reasons for its increased concern and
different types of PQ issues are discussed. Then it is shown that voltage sag and swell are the
most occurring issues at the distribution end. Second the different solutions for mitigating
voltage sag and swell issues at distribution end are discussed.
KEYWORDS- Power quality (PQ), Flexible A.C. Transmission System Facts, Distributed
Generation

INTRODUCTION: POWER QUALITYPOWER QUALITY is a term that mean different to different people. Institute of Electrical and
electrical engineers (IEEE) standard IEEE 1100 defines power quality as the concept of
powering and grounding sensitive electronic equipment in a manner suitable for the equipment.
In a simpler words PQ is a set of electrical boundaries that allows a part of equipment to work in
an intended manner without loss of performance or life expectancy. In recent years power
engineers are increasingly concerned over PQ due to following reasons:
REASONS FOR INCREASED CONCERN REGARDING POWER QUALITY
1. The most responsible reason is the newer-generation load equipment with
microprocessor-based controls and power electronic devices. Such loads are more
sensitive to power quality variations than the equipment used in the past.
2. The another reason is the increased use of power electronics devices such as electrical
drives ,fact devices, static relays etc due to the increased emphasis on improving overall
power system efficiency . This is resulting in increasing harmonic levels on power
systems and has concerned about the future impact on system capabilities.
3. Increased awareness of power quality issues among the end users.
4. Most of the systems are now interconnected in a network. Hence the processes are
integrated in which the failure of any component can results into important consequences.

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International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development


Available online on http://www.rspublication.com/ijeted/ijeted_index.htm

Issue 4, Vol.5 (Aug.- Sep. 2014)


ISSN 2249-6149

5. The globalization of industries has increased the awareness about deficiencies in power
quality around the world.
6. The economic value of power quality is also one important reason for its increased
concern. There is a big money associated with these power quality disturbances.
Many efforts have been taken by the utilities to meet the consumers PQ requirements. Hence
FACT devices and various other custom power devices are introduced in the electrical system to
improve the PQ of the electrical power.
TYPES OF POWER QUALITY PROBLEMS
1. Voltage sag (or dip)
It is a dip of .1 to .9 p.u. in rms voltage or current at the power frequency, for interval of 0,5
cycle to 1 minute.
Causes: Whenever a load end draws a heavy current suddenly. Thats why it is associated with
faults on the transmission or distribution network, faults in consumers installation , sudden
connection of heavy loads and start-up of large motors.
Consequences: Malfunction of microprocessor-based control systems (PCs, PLCs, ASDs, etc),
that may cause false tripping of contactors and electromechanical relays. Maloperation of
electric rotating machines.

Fig.1-Voltage sag
2. Very short interruptions
It is a total interruption or decrease of supply voltage or load current to less than .1 p.u. for few
milliseconds to one or two seconds.
Causes: It occurs due to failure of protecting devices, insulation failure, control malfunction.
Also due to delayed reclosing of the protecting devices.
Consequences: False tripping of protection devices, loss of information results in malfunction of
data processing equipment. Sensitive equipment stops working.

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International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development


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Issue 4, Vol.5 (Aug.- Sep. 2014)


ISSN 2249-6149

Fig.2- Very short interruptions


3. Long interruptions
Total interruption of electrical supply for duration greater than 1 to 2 seconds
Causes: Equipment failure in the power system network, storms and objects (trees, cars, etc)
striking lines or poles, fire, human error, bad coordination or failure of protection devices.
Consequences: Stoppage of all equipment.

Fig.3- Long interruptions


4. Voltage spike
It is the very fast variation of the voltage for durations from a several microseconds to few
milliseconds. These variations may reach thousands of volts, even in low voltage.
Causes: Lightning which is a natural cause, switching of lines or power factor correction
capacitors, sudden removal of heavy loads.
Consequences: Damage of components (particularly electronic components) and of insulation
materials, data processing errors, electromagnetic interference or information loss.

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International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development


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Issue 4, Vol.5 (Aug.- Sep. 2014)


ISSN 2249-6149

Fig.4- Voltage Spike


5. Voltage swell
Momentary increase of the voltage, at the power frequency, outside the normal tolerances, with
duration of more than one cycle and typically less than a few seconds.
Causes: Start/stop of heavy loads, badly dimensioned power sources, badly regulated
transformers (mainly during off-peak hours).
Consequences: Data loss, flickering of light and screens, stoppage or damage of sensitive
equipment, if the voltage values are too high.

Fig.5- Voltage swell


6. Harmonic distortion
These are periodically distorted voltage or current waveform . The waveform corresponds to the
sum of different sine-waves with different magnitude and phase, having frequencies that are
multiples of power-system frequency.
Causes: Arc furnances electric machines working above the magnetic saturation, welding
machines, rectifiers, and DC brush motors. All non-linear loads, such as power electronics
equipment including ASDs, switched mode power supplies, high efficiency lighting, data
processing equipments.
Consequences: Probability of occurrence severe resonance increases, neutral overloading in 3phase systems, overheating of all cables and equipment, loss of efficiency in electric machines,
electromagnetic interference with communication systems, errors in measures when using
average reading meters, nuisance tripping of thermal protections ,can induce visual flicker in arc
lighting.
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International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development


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Issue 4, Vol.5 (Aug.- Sep. 2014)


ISSN 2249-6149

Fig.-6 Harmonic distortion


7. Voltage fluctuation
It is a series of random voltage variations or systematic variations of voltage envelop but the
variation does not exceeds the voltage ranges of 0.9 to 1.1 p.u. . Oscillation of voltage value,
amplitude modulated by a signal with frequency of 0 to 30 Hz.
Causes: Frequent start/stop of electric motors (for instance elevators), oscillating loads, arc
furnaces
Consequences: The most perceptible consequence is the flickering of lighting and screens,
giving the impression of unsteadiness of visual perception and the rest effects are similar to
under voltages.

Fig.-7 Voltage fluctuation


8 . Noise
It is the Superimposing of high frequency unwanted signals on the waveform of the powersystem frequency.
Causes: Electromagnetic interferences provoked by microwaves, television diffusion, and
radiation due to welding machines, arc furnaces, and electronic equipment. Improper grounding
may also be a cause.
Consequences: Disturbances on sensitive electronic equipment, usually not destructive. May
cause some data related errors.
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International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development


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Issue 4, Vol.5 (Aug.- Sep. 2014)


ISSN 2249-6149

9. Voltage Unbalance
A maximum voltage variation in a three-phase system in which the three voltage magnitudes or
the phase angle differences between them are not equal.
Causes:, Incorrect distribution of all single-phase loads by the three phases of the system (this
may be also due to a fault). Large single-phase loads (induction furnaces, traction loads)
Consequences: It mostly affects three-phase induction machines. Unbalanced systems imply the
existence of a negative sequence that is harmful to all three phase loads.
It has found that among all the PQ issues voltage sag and swell are the most occurring problems
at the distribution end as shown in fig.8-

Fig.-8 Showing the occurring percentage of various PQ issues.


From fig.8 we can see that the voltage sag swell issues cover almost 89% of the graph area. That
means they are the most responsible issues for decreasing power quality.
Solutions to power quality problems at the distribution end using developed interface
devices/ Custom power devices:
DG systems can be used solve the power Quality problems but besides energy storage systems
and DG, some other devices are discussed here which can be used to solve PQ problems .Using
proper interface devices, one can isolate the loads from disturbances deriving from the grid
.
A. Dynamic Voltage Restorer
A dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) acts like a voltage source connected in series with the load.
The output voltage of the DVR is kept approximately constant voltage at the load terminals by
using a step-up transformer and/or stored energy to inject active and reactive power in the output
supply through a voltage converter.The new technologies are developing for making it more
efficient.
.
B. Transient Voltage Surge suppressors (TVSS)
These are used as interface between the power source and sensitive loads, so that the transient
voltage is clamped by the TVSS before it reaches the load. TVSSs usually contain a component

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International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development


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Issue 4, Vol.5 (Aug.- Sep. 2014)


ISSN 2249-6149

with a nonlinear resistance (a metal oxide varistor or a zener diode) that limits excessive line
voltage and conduct any excess impulse energy to ground.
C. Constant Voltage Transformers
Constant voltage transformers (CVT) were one of the first PQ solutions used to mitigate the
effects of voltage sags and transients. To maintain the voltage constant, they use two principles
that are normally avoided : resonance and core saturation. Constant voltage transformer. When
the resonance occurs, the current will increase to a point that causes the saturation of the
magnetic core of the transformer. If the magnetic core is saturated, then the magnetic flux will
remain roughly constant and the transformer will produce an approximately constant voltage
output. If not properly used, a CVT will originate more PQ problems than the ones mitigated. It
can produce transients, harmonics (voltage wave clipped on the top and sides) and it is inefficient
(about 80% at full load). Its application is becoming uncommon due to technological advances in
other areas.

Fig.9-Constant Voltage Transformer


D. Noise Filters
These are used to avoid unwanted frequency
current or voltage signals (noise) from reaching sensitive equipment. The above can be
accomplished by using a combination of capacitors and inductances that creates a low impedance
path to the fundamental frequency and high impedance to higher frequencies, that is, a low-pass
filter. They should be used when noise with frequency in the kHz range is allowable.
E. Isolation Transformers
These are used to isolate sensitive loads from transients and noise deriving from the mains. In
some cases (Delta-Wye connection) isolation transformers keep harmonic currents generated by
loads from getting upstream the transformer. The particularity of isolation transformers is a
grounded shield made of nonmagnetic foil located between the primary and the secondary. Any
noise or transient that come from the source in transmitted through the capacitance between the
primary and the shield and finally on to the ground and does not reach the load. This is also one
of the effective methods.

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International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development


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Issue 4, Vol.5 (Aug.- Sep. 2014)


ISSN 2249-6149

Fig.10-Fig.10-Isolation Transformer
F. Thyristor Based Static Switch and FACTS devices: The static switch is a very efficint
device for switching a new element in to the circuit when the voltage support is needed. It has a
dynamic response time of about one cycle. To correct quickly for sags or interruptions, voltage
spikes the static switch can used to switch one or more devises such as capacitor, filter, alternate
power line, energy storage systems etc. The static switch can be used in the alternate power line
applications [20].
FACTS devices such as DSTATCOM and UPFC with their highly efficient control
scheme are found to be versatile in improving the power quality at distribution end as they can
control the reactive power by generating and absorbing the reactive power without using any
moving device such as motar.the UPFC can control the active power also. Hence by these we can
contol the power factor and harmonics also.
G. Distribution Statcom (DSTATCOM)
As for the Custom Power requirements [7], utility distribution networks, sensitive industrial
loads, and critical commercial operations can potentially suffer from various types of outages
and service interruptions. These can cost significant financial losses per incident based on
process down-time, lost production, idle work forces, and other measurable and non-measurable
factors. The types of interruptions that are experienced are classified as power quality problems
and are most often caused by voltage sags and swells, lightning strikes, and other distribution
system related disturbances. In many instances the use of Custom Power equipment, such as
Dynamic Voltage Restorers (DVR), Solid-State Transfer Switches (SSTS), or Distribution level
Static Compensators (D-STATCOM), can be some of the most cost-effective solutions to
mitigate these types of power quality problems. There have been numerous applications of
Custom Power technologies [9]. A D-ST A TCOM, which is schematically depicted in Fig. 2
consists of a two level voltage source converter (VSC), a dc energy storage device, a coupling
transformer connected in shunt to the distribution network through a coupling transformer [4].
Such configuration allows the device to absorb or generate controllable active and reactive
power. The D-STATCOM has been utilized mainly for regulation of voltage, correction of
power factor and elimination of current harmonics.

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International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development


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Issue 4, Vol.5 (Aug.- Sep. 2014)


ISSN 2249-6149

H. Distributed Generation (DG). Distributed Generation units are small sources of energy
located at or near the point of use. DG technologies typically include photovoltaic (PV), wind,
fuel cells, micro turbines, and reciprocating internal combustion engines with generators. These
systems may be powered by either fossil or renewable sources. Some types of DG can also
provide combined heat and power by recovering some of the waste heat generated by the source
such as the micro turbine. This can significantly increase the efficiency of the DG unit [11, 12].
Most of the DG technologies require a power electronics interface in order to convert the energy
into grid compatible ac power. The power electronics interface contains the necessary circuitry to
convert power from one form to another. These converters may include both a rectifier and an
inverter or just an inverter. The converter is and contains the necessary output filters. The power
electronics interface can also contain protective functions for both the distributed energy system
and the local electric power system that allow paralleling and disconnection from the electric
power system. These power electronic interfaces provide a unique capability the DG units and
can enhance the operations of a grid [13, 14].

CONCLUSION:
It was observed through the literature that the power quality issues and custom power devices
plays an important role in power system efficient operation. Distributed generation is one of the
custom power device can be used in distribution system for better improvement of power quality;
its controls can be optimized using various method like genetic algorithms and particle swarm
optimization.
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International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development


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Issue 4, Vol.5 (Aug.- Sep. 2014)


ISSN 2249-6149

[7] John J. Paserba Greogory F.Reed Masatoshi Takeda & Tomohiko Aritsuka, FACTS &
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