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Introduction

Research in our universities has become an indispensable component of eligibility for a


degree. As a learner, research is necessary in order to develop critical, creative and problemsolving skills which are very important for students to come up with good, reasonable and sound
decisions.
In the world of academia, there are some new terms used with knowledge, such as,
knowledge economy, knowledge arts, etc. Research also comes under knowledge. Therefore,
mastering knowledge of research methods or basics of research is not only a necessity, but also
very essential and useful to universities.
In this module, you are first introduced to the concept of research along with definitions
of, the reasons for conducting research, where it is conducted, how it is done, and by whom. It is
followed by an important question 'why research' and finally it addresses the attributes of quality
research. Furthermore, you will have an overview of the kinds of research under the qualitative
and quantitative paradigm. Additionally, the research process has to adhere to some ethics that
you have to keep in mind.
Education, likewise, is a continuing process of searching for better methods and strategies
to upgrade its quality to make the youth of our country better leaders of tomorrow. Thus,
practically in every facet of human endeavor, research is an important ingredient.

Module I: Nature of Research


1. Learning Outcomes
After this session the students will be able to:
1.1 Demonstrate understanding of the importance of research in daily life; the
characteristics, processes and ethics of research; quantitative and qualitative researchers
and the kinds of research across fields;
1.2 Use appropriate kinds of research in making decisions;
1.3 Demonstrate understanding of the types, characteristics, uses, strengths and weaknesses
of qualitative research;
1.4 Demonstrate the importance of qualitative research across fields of inquiry;
1.5 Decide on suitable qualitative research in different areas of interest;
1.6 Demonstrate understanding of the range of research topics in the area of inquiry, the
value of research in the area of interest and the specific problem posed;
1.7 Formulate the statement of research problem clearly;
1.8 Demonstrate understanding of the criteria in selecting, citing and synthesizing related
literature.
1.9 Select, cite and synthesize related literature properly; use sources according to ethical
standards and present written review of related literature;
1.10 Demonstrate understanding of qualitative research designs;
1.11Describe qualitative research designs, sample and data collection and analysis
procedures.

2. Key Concepts and Content


2.1.

Key Concept: Research

Research has different meanings to different people. If you understand the concept of
research at an early stage, it would be easy for you to deal with more concepts in the research
process. The following definitions will help in understanding the research concept:
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According to Oxford English Dictionary (2002), research is defined as the systematic study
of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.
McMillan and Schumacher (1997) define research as a systematic process of collecting and
analysing information (data) for some purpose.
Kerlinger (1986) defines scientific research as, Systematic, controlled, empirical, and
critical investigation of natural phenomena guided by theory and hypotheses about the presumed
relations among such phenomena.
2.2. Why do research?
We conduct research because we want to explore ideas and find solutions that make sense. In
doing so a person thinks, constantly assesses, reassesses and makes decisions about the best
possible means of obtaining information that is trustworthy.
We may like to call this process a persons thinking game or whole brain activity and the
psychologists call it right and left brain attributes (Cherry et.al.1993).
2.3. Where does research occur?
Research is conducted in many settings: educational institutes, laboratories, classrooms,
libraries, the city streets, foreign cultures, etc. Some researches are of short duration. Other
researches are spread over a long period of time. Research is usually done at universities, in the
graduate or undergraduate levels as a required course. It can be done in various formats which
fall under the categories of qualitative and quantitative research, the details of which will follow
later in the module. Research is done by researchers, who are professors in the field of education,
natural sciences or social sciences, experts and students of graduate or undergraduate programs
in the related and multiple disciplines.
2.4. What do researchers use?

The information gathered through research recommendations provide insights to the


researchers for future course of action to be taken for better implementation and application.
Some businesses, industry and the Department of Education spend huge amount of money
for research activity for the improvement and advancement in their programs.
3. Kinds and Classification of Research
3.1.1. According to Purpose:
3.1.1.1.

Predictive or Prognostic. It has the purpose to determine the future

operation of the variables under investigation with the aim of controlling or


redirecting such for the better.
3.1.1.2.
Directive. It determines what should be done based on the findings.
3.1.1.3.
Illuminative. It is concerned with the interaction of the components of the
variable being investigated.
3.1.2. According to Goal:
3.1.2.1.
Basic or Pure. It is done for the development of theories and principles.
Basic research is often considered researching for the sake of increasing
knowledge as opposed to applied where the research is truly intended to solve
a problem. Basic Research is often called "pure" research and is considered the
foundation for applied research.
3.1.2.2.
Applied Research. The application of the results of pure research is
"hands-on", which means that the researcher is actually working on the
topic/subjects. Generally, applied research focuses on "practical problems"
such as climate change in order to come up with solutions to better or improve
an existing condition.
3.1.3. According to the Level of Investigations:
3.1.3.1.
Exploratory. The researcher does a study of the variables pertinent to a
specific situation. Exploratory research is a type of research conducted
because a problem has not been clearly defined. Exploratory research helps
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determine the best research design, data collection methods, and selection of
subjects. Given that it is fundamental in nature, exploratory research often
concludes that a perceived problem does not actually exist.
3.1.3.2.
Descriptive. The researcher does a study of the relationships of the
variables. Descriptive research is also called statistical research. The main goal
of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is
being studied. The idea behind this type of research is to study frequencies,
averages, and other statistical calculations. Although this research is highly
accurate, it does not gather the causes behind a situation.
3.1.3.3.
Experimental. The researcher does a study of the effects of the variables
on each other.
3.1.4. According to the Types of Analysis:
3.1.4.1.
Analytic Approach. The researcher attempts to identify and isolate the
components of the research situations.
3.1.4.2.
Holistic Approach. This begins with the total situation, focusing attention
on the systems first and on its internal relationships
3.1.5. According to Scope
3.1.5.1.
Action Research. This involves the application of the steps of the scientific
method in the classroom problems.
3.1.6. According to choice of answers to problems. This is concerned with the
findings that answer the problem into evaluation and developmental research.
3.1.6.1.
Evaluation. These are all possible courses of action, which are specified
and identified in which researchers try to find out the most advantageous.
3.1.6.2.
Development. This focuses on the findings or developing a more suitable
instrument or process than has been available.
3.1.7. According to Statistical Content:
3.1.7.1.
Qualitative or Statistical Research. This type of research usually includes
comparison studies and cause and effect relationships.
3.1.7.2.
Qualitative research. This type of research is undertaken to gain insights
concerning attitudes, beliefs, motivations and behaviors of individuals, to
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explore a social or human problem. Qualitative research methods include focus


groups, in-depth interviews, observation research, and case studies.
3.1.7.3.
Non-quantitative research. This type of research is used for quantity or
statistics, descriptive data are gathered rather than qualitative data.
Quantitative research. This type of research is concerned with the
measurement of attitudes, behaviors and perceptions. It includes interviewing
methods such as telephone, intercept and door-to-door interviews, as well as
self-completion methods such as mail outs and online surveys.
QUALITATIVE
QUANTITATIVE
Subjective
Objective
Research questions answer what and why Research questions answer how many or
strength of relationship or difference
Literature review may be done as the Literature review is usually done before
study progresses
the study
Develops theory
Tests theory
Interpretive
Measurable
Reports rich narrative, individual Reports statisticsl analysis
interpretation
Basic element of analysis in numbers
Basic element of analysis is words/ideas
Researcher is part of the process
Researcher is separate
Participants
Subjects
Context dependent
Context free
Reasoning is dialectic and inductive
Reasoning is logistic and deductive
Describes meaning, discovery
Establishes relationships and causation
3.1.8. According to Time Allotment
3.1.8.1.
Historical research describes what was.
3.1.8.2.
Descriptive research describes what is.
3.1.8.3.
Experimental research describes what will be.
3.1.9. According to the types of research
3.1.9.1.
Propriety research. This is conducted for a specific audience and is not
shared beyond that evidence.
3.1.9.2.
Scholarly Research. This promotes public access to knowledge.
3.1.9.3.
Behavioral Research. This is based on the belief that objective knowledge
is obtained through careful and systematic observation and measurement of
what people do.
3.1.9.4.
Phenomenological Research. This is based on the belief that what people
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do depend on what they perceive or what goes in their minds.


3.1.9.5.
Communication Research. This is an investigation of the five
communication elements where possibly, some research problems may be
analyzed such as:
3.1.9.5.1.
Control Analysis (Source). This refers to the performance of the
communicator.
3.1.9.5.2.
Content Analysis (Message). This determines the nature and
characteristics of message, manifestation of any of the scopes and themes,
slant and treatment, text or visuals and the message appeal.
3.1.9.5.3.
Media Analysis (Channel). This refers to the medias comparative
advantages, media features, and costs.
3.1.9.5.4.
Audience Analysis ( Receiver). This concerns audience behavior,
tastes, interests, and opinions.
3.1.9.5.5.
Impact Analysis (Effects). This is to know the current trends in
such areas are community media system, information diffusion, media
socialization, children and television, and media motives uses and
gratifications and can be done on an awareness, attitude, change, behavior
change and practice level.
4. Important terms used in research
4.1.1. Variable. Anything in a research situation that varies and can be measured.
4.1.2. Research design. The plan used to study a problem or issue.
4.1.3. Hypothesis. A tentative statement about how one or more variables are related.
4.1.4. Directional hypothesis.
4.1.5. Prediction
4.1.6. Statement of purpose
4.1.7. Question
4.1.8. Subject. Particular individuals used in the research.
4.1.9. Control group. The group of subjects in experimental research not receiving the
experimental conditions or treatment.
4.1.10. Correlation. A measure of the extent to which two or more variables have a
systematic relationships.
4.1.11. Dependent variable. The variable researchers make the acted upon variable.
4.1.12. Independent variable. The influencing variable in experimental research, the one
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to which researcher attributes causation which each research project is unique in


some ways, all projects involve the same stages.
4.2. The Research Process
Research has been concerned with gathering data that can help us answer questions about
the various aspects of society.
There are five major characteristics indicative of a profession whose research is
knowledge based (Berliner, 1987).
First, professionals work at verifying ideas and practices believed to be effective.
Second, professionals work at discovering new ideas and practices that are exemplified
by an idea that has been extensively researched on.
Third, professionals clarify ideas that are designated to simplify teaching. This is
illustrated by research results about learning procedures when they are applied to problem
solving in various subject areas.
Fourth, although completed, educators try to simplify teaching. They often express ideas
that may complicate everyones teaching.
Fifth, professionals discover ideas and practices that are intuitive.
Research is systematic and cyclical. This means that a step-by-step process has to be
followed to successfully conduct the research study. The following are the stages of the research
process:
Defining the Problem
Planning a Research Design
Planning a Sample
Gathering the Data
Processing and Analyzing the Data
Formulating Conclusions and Preparing the Report
Defining the New Problem
5. Ethics in Research
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Ethics are norms for conduct that distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable behavior.
Research ethics establishes the moral integrity of the researchers which is crucial as it ensures
that the research findings are valid and trustworthy.
The following are the ethical principles that researchers must observe:
1. Objectivity. Avoid or minimize bias or self-deception.
2. Integrity. Keep your promises and agreements; strive for consistency of thought and
action.
3. Carefulness. Keep good records of research activities.
4. Openness. Share data and be open to criticisms and new ideas.
5. Respect for Intellectual Property. Honor patents and copyrights. Give proper
acknowledgement or credit to all contributions to research.
6. Confidentiality. Protect confidential communications and personal information of the
respondents.
7. Social Responsibility. Strive to promote social good and prevent or mitigate social
harms through research, public education and advocacy..
8. Competence. Maintain and improve your own professional competence and expertise
through lifelong education and learning.
9. Legality. Know and obey relevant laws and institutional and governmental policies.
10. Animal Care. Show proper respect and care for animals when using them in research.
11. Human Subjects Protection. When conducting research on human subjects, minimize
harms and risks and maximize benefits; respect human dignity, privacy and autonomy
12. Honesty. Do not fabricate, falsify or misrepresent data.
6. Teaching Approaches

The introductory part of Research Methods and Skills will be delivered through the
following:

Ice breaking activity, which engages the participants

Lectures based on PowerPoint presentations designed on key points of the content

Participants discussions and activity based worksheets.

7. Learning Activities
7.1.

Activity 1: Ice-breaking Activity

Objectives of the activity:

The activity aims at making students feel comfortable about research in the Philippines in
general. Introduction to research is an entry into an alien world.

The activity will also enable the participants to see how they can relate research to their
daily lives; and help them understand that it is systematic

It is a process that involves certain steps.


Procedure:

As an ice-breaking activity, the teacher may ask the students to come up with a plan of
buying something such as a car, a dress or a television set. The teacher needs to give
directions and set the limits for this planning. For example: An amount of 500,00 is
needed. The options are as follows:
1. You can buy only one car; and have to spend all the money but cannot over spend.
2. You may buy a new or an old car.

Ask the students to treat the option based on personal and social context, personal and family
needs, likings /choices, limitations etc. and ask them to rationally do planning on the process.
Give them ten minutes to plan.
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Students do sharing on how they come up with the plan. From the sharing, the following
should be drawn or emphasizes that planning involves a complete research process and that one
has to see the problem and then the needs. One has to do literature review by gathering
information from relatives, friends, or family who have already bought car. The process also
involves research methodology. For instance, some participants will directly go to the market and
survey; some would contact a dealer in cars; and some would go for the newspaper
advertisements. Ask them in the same way how they would analyze gathered information and
share that it is their data analysis that leads to their conclusions and decision making.

8. Summary and Transition


In this introductory session of the module, you have learned about the different definitions of
research, why research is done, and where it is conducted. At the end of the section, you will
have acquired basic knowledge about research methods and skills. You can easily differentiate
among perspectives on and approaches for kinds and classification of research. The classification
will help you understand different concepts related to research described in the later sessions.
9. Assessment
Activity 2: Identify the research types of the following:
1. To conduct a study on the relationship between job satisfaction and career development of
senior high school teachers.

2. Finding out the causes of dropouts in primary schools of Liceo de Cagayan University.

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Module II: Identifying and Formulating a Research Problem


1. Learning Outcomes
After the session, the students will be able to:

Formulate a research problem using literature review as sources of information

Identify research variables

Know the diffrerent types of variables

Identify the different levels of measurement

2. Key Concepts and Content


2.1. Define a Research Problem
This is a fact that research starts from some problems. The research journey starts from the
identification of the problem. It is necessary for the researcher to define the problem in more

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practical terms. Literature review helps the researcher in defining the research problem so that it
can be measured in its true sense.
2.2. Elements of a Research Problem
2.2.1. Aim, objectives, targets, or purpose of the problem for investigation answer the
question Why?. Why is there an investigation, inquiry or study?
2.2.2. The subject matter or topic to be investigated answers the question What. What
is to be investigated or studied?
2.2.3. The place or locale where the research is to be conducted answer the question
Where?. Where will the study be done?
2.2.4. The period or time of the study during which the data are to be gathered answer
the question When?. When is the study to be carried out?
2.2.5. Population or universe from whom the data are to be collected. This answers the
questions Who? or From Whom? Who are the respondents?
2.3. Key Concept: Variables
A variable is a characteristic that takes on different values or conditions for different
individuals. Variables are of different types:

Discrete Variable. It can take on only a finite or potentially countable set of values

Continuous Variable. It can take on an infinite set of values between any two levels
of the variables. They are the results of measurement.

Independent variables often simply are classifying variables, classifying the


individuals of the research study.

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Dependent variables are the variables to determine if the independent variable has
an effect, such as science achievement. The dependent variable is what is affected by
the independent variable.

Moderate variable is related to the independent and dependent variables and has an
impact on dependent variable. In such a situation, it becomes an interacting variable
also.

Control variables are independent variables. They are controlled variables only if
their effects are determined.

Intervening Variable. This is a variable which interferes with the independent and
dependent variables, but its effects can either strengthen or weaken the independent
and dependent variables. This is an observed event or factor that is expected to affect
possibly the relation between independent and dependent variable.

2.4 Measurement of Variables


2.4.1 Nominal Scale
>The term means to name.
>The categories differ in quality rather that quantity.
>Each value belongs to only its own category but can be more than or less than the
other.
>Nominal scales are based on categories which must be mutually exclusive, exhaustive
and uni-dimensional.
>Most elaborating scale.
>There is no chance of addition, multiplication, subtraction or other mathematical
operations with the catagories
>It provides the ratio or the frequency and provides the definite information.
>Can be used to measure gender, or preferences of respondents
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2.4.2 Ordinal Scale


>The term means to order.
> In ordinal scale, the data is organized in some order (high-low or low-high).
>This scale does not specify how much different the categories are from each other.
>Categories can be presented in the form of a continuum.
>Categories are given in a logical or a rank order
>Height, weight, income and the ranks can be measured.
2.4.3 Interval Scale
>Interval scale is used to tell the order of the objects.
>It tells how much distant the categories are from each other.
>All types of mathematical operations can be performed on this data.
>Rating scales are considered the interval scales also.
2.4.4 Ratio Scale
>Ratio scale is a scale with true value 0.
>Used to get quantitative data.
>Salary, quantities purchased and market share are all expressed on a ratio scale.
>Most sophisticated scale of all.
3. Teaching Approaches
The session on identifying and formulating a research problem will be delivered through:

Lectures based on power point presentations

Participatory activities

Discussion

Practical experience through exercises

4. Learning Activities

While the participants are introduced to what a research problem is, what variables are,
and how a research problem is stated, the teacher should give the students two to three
examples of each topic at different stages in research; and should ask the students to
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apply this knowledge to practical instances. The content of the session will serve as
resources.
5. Summary and Transition
In this session you have learned what a research problem is, the different types of variables
and the levels of measurement.
6. Assessment
Answer the following:
1: Identify the following as nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio levels
1. Flavors of the frozen yogurt
2. Amount of money in savings account
3. Students classified by their reading ability: above average, below average, normal
4. Letter grades on an English essay
5. Religions
6. Commuting times to work
7. Ages (in years) of an art students
8. Ice cream preferences
9. Years of important historical events
10. Instructors classified as: easy, difficult or impossible
11. Age
12. Height
13. Gender
14. High temperature
15. Income
16. Zip code
17. GPA
18. Eye color
19. Shirt size
20. Class standing (freshmen, sophomore, junior, senior)

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2: Identify the dependent (A) and independant variables (B) of the following situations:
1. A pigeon is trained to peck a key if a green light is illuminated but not if a red light is
illuminated. Correct pecks are rewarded by access to grain and the numbers of pecks are
recorded.
A.
B.

2. A car manufacturer wants to know how bright brake lights should be to minimise the time
required for the driver of the following car to realise that the car in front is stopping and to brake
themselves. An experiment was conducted to answer this question. Car 1 was the lead car and
Car 2 the following car. Identify the variables.
A.
B.
3. A higher education (post 16 years) college (college A) has decided to offer a 20.00 reward to
its students for each AS level they achieve at grade A or A+. Another college (college B) in the
same area has decided not to give any monetary awards to its students. Both colleges are
interested to see if this incentive will increase the number of A and A+ grade passes. Identify the
variables.
A.
B.

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MODULE III: HOW TO WRITE


CHAPTER 1- THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE
1. Learning Outcomes
After the session, the students will be able to:

Know how to write the introduction and rationale of the research paper

Write a statement of the research problem

Construct the research hypothesis

2. Key Concept: The Introduction


Statement in this chapter should not only signify the importance of the topic but should also
cause an impact on the reader.
2.1. Guidelines in Writing the Introduction
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2.1.1. The intention of the first paragraph is to provide the readers a mental warm-up,
thus giving them information and readiness as to what the researcher is all about. It
should introduce the study and justify the problems.
2.1.2. The second paragraph carries the bulk of the introduction. The statement of the
problem can be best used as frame of reference to write this paragraph.
2.1.3. The third or last paragraph is a sort of closing portion that is intriguing and
challenging the readers to become interested in knowing the results of the study.
3. Statement of the Problem
An adequate statement of the research problem is one of the most important parts of the
research. Different researchers are likely to generate a variety of researchable problems from the
same situation since there are many research issues that can arise out of a general problem
situation.

3.1. Guidelines in Writing the Statement of the Problem


3.1.1. The problem should be stated both in general and in spesific terms. The general
statement of the problem is usually a reiteration of the title of the study.
3.1.2. The problem is always in an interrogatory form, hence, it must ask a question and
sub-problems must follow the main problem which are the key points for
investigation in the research.
3.1.3. The problem should be stated in the infinitive to (action words in research) such
as examine, analyze, determine, measure, assess, evaluate, recommend, find out,
among others; setting 4-5 research objectives is ideal for a research problem.

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3.1.4. Specific questions should be stated using the following guide question words:
How, Will, What
4. Constructing Hypothesis
A hypothesis is a specific statement of prediction, which is also called an academic guess. It
describes in concrete (rather than theoretical) terms what you expect will happen in the research.
Not all studies have hypotheses. Sometimes research is designed to be exploratory. In such a
case, there is no formal hypothesis.
4.1. A single study may have one or many hypotheses:
4.1.1. Null hypothesis is the hypothesis in which there is no relationship between two
or more variables. It is symbolized as H0.
4.1.2. Research hypothesis or the alternate hypothesis proposes a relationship
between two or more variables and is symbolized as H1.
4.1.3. Directional hypothesis is one tailed. You assume that by manipulating the
independent variable the dependent variable will change in a specific direction. You
can predict if this change will be positive or negative.
4.1.4. Non-directional research hypothesis is two tailed. You assume that by
manipulating the independent variable there will be a change in the dependent
variable. You cannot predict if this change will be positive or negative.
4.2. How to form a hypothesis?
Focusing on your research problem, you can create the hypothesis. Simply try to give a direct
answer to the question posed in the problem statement.
For example:
4.2.1. Research Q1: What is the relationship between motivation and achievement?

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Hypothesis1a: Motivation and achievement are positively related.


However, this is not the only possible guess you can make. You may assume that:
Hypothesis 1b: Motivation and achievement are negatively related.
Thus, a hypothesis shows some (positive or a negative) relationship between the
variables. As far as the question of structuring a hypothesis is concerned, there can be varieties of
ways for instance: Example # 2:
4.2.2. Research Q2: Do students learn more from a directive or nondirective teacher?
Hypothesis 2: Directive teachers give more effective instruction than non-directive
teachers.
It is also important here to introduce you to the Null Hypothesis. It is a small little creature
who says: I represent no relationship between the variables that you are studying.
Example: There is no relationship between motivation and achievement.
4.3. Where do hypotheses come from?
Given a problem statement- Are A and B related? A researcher can construct three
possible hypotheses:
Yes, as A increases, so does B.
Yes, as A increases, B decreases.
No, A and B are unrelated.
The number of possible hypotheses may possibly increase as the number of variables increases.
5. Theoretical and Conceptual Framework
A common tactic here is to unpack all the idea or problem thus generating a range of
possibilities before narrowing down on one or two themes.

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Following the suggestions of Punch (1998) steps could be write down the all the concepts
involved, and all the sub-questions you can think of pertaining to the issue. Reading around your
research idea will help to generate questions and information and to identify themes and potential
information sources subdivide your questions where possible; split wide general questions into
smaller ones begin to order questions and develop focus: group questions together under
common themes, separate general and specific question start to trim by selecting those questions
that you wish to deal with, consider the resources that will be available to you collate these
thoughts within a loose conceptual framework this shows how questions and themes are related
and may help guide your thinking at a later stage.
This process of thinking wide and then focusing and delimiting your questions, should
result in a handful of research questions that you wish to investigate. These may still need further
modification to render them answerable; they may need to be operationalized.

6. Teaching Approaches
The session on how to write chapter 1 will be delivered through:

Lectures based on power point presentations

Participatory activities

Discussion

Practical experience through exercises

7. Summary and Transition


In this module, you learn how to write the introduction and rationale of the research paper,
the statement of the research problem and the construction of research hypothesis.
8. Assessment
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Answer the following activities:


Activity 1: Encircle the letter of your best answer
1. Which of the following statements is phrased as a research problem? The purpose
of this study is to determine
A. whether the promotion policy should be changed.
B. the truth of the proposition that American education has encouraged a social class
system in the United States.
C. how students can overcome test anxiety.
D. whether there is a difference in the mean gain scores in reading achievement between
comparable students taught word attack skills and those taught comprehension skills.
2. The statement of the research problem provides
A. the educational context of the study.
B. the framework for reporting the results.
C. the importance of the study.
D. All of the above are correct.

3. A statement of the expected relationship or difference between two or more variables


is called a
A. concept.
B. hypothesis.
C. definition.
D. construct.
4. Which is an incorrect statement regarding a research hypothesis? A research
hypothesis
A. is supported or not supported.
B. relates variables that can be measured, manipulated, or categorized.
C. is more specific than the problem statement.
D. is the same as a statistical hypothesis.

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5. Which of the following criteria for a good research hypothesis is violated most in the
following hypothesis: Students in an exploratory vocational educational program will make more
contributions to society than those not enrolled in the program.
A. A hypothesis is concise.
B. A hypothesis is worthy of testing.
C. A hypothesis can be stated operationally.
D. A hypothesis is logically precise.
Activity 2: Answer the following questions:
1. Write a directional hypothesis for the following problem statement, and identify the type of
variables in the hypothesis. "Low-achieving students frequently respond positively to behaviour
modification programs. Is there any relationship between the type of reward (tangible or
intangible) and the amount of learning?"

2. State a hypothesis based on each of the research questions listed below:


A. What is the effect of individualized and structured social studies on high school
students?

B. Is there any difference in students' engagement in tasks when a teacher uses a positive
introduction and when a teacher uses a neutral introduction to tasks?

C. Does non-promotion of elementary pupils improve their personal adjustment?

D. Do middle school children produce more narratives when taught in an academic teacher's
class or when taught in a cognitive-development teacher's class?
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E. Do teachers' perceptions of job stress differ among teachers of mildly retarded, moderately
retarded, and non-retarded children?

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