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International Journal of Advanced Scientific and Technical Research

Available online on http://www.rspublication.com/ijst/index.html

Issue 6 volume 3, May June 2016


ISSN 2249-9954

On The Numerical Solution of Nonlinear Volterra-Fredholm


Integral Equations by Variational Iteration Method
Ahmed Abdullah Hamoud,Kirtiwant P Ghadle.
Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University,Aurangabad,431004,India.

Abstract: In this paper,we used the variational iteration method (VIM) to give the approximate
solution of nonlinear volterra-fredholm integral equations of the second kind. The method
constructs a convergent sequence of functions,which approximates the exact solution with few
iterations.Some numerical examples are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of
the proposed technique.
Keywords:Variational iteration method ; Volterra-Fredholm integral equations ; Exact solution
; Approximate Solution.

1 Introduction
We consider the Volterra-Fredholm integral equation of the second kind
x

( x) 1 K1 ( x, y ) N1 ( ( y ))dy 2 K 2 ( x, y ) N 2 ( ( y ))dy = f ( x)

(1)

where f (x ) and the kernels K1 ( x, y) and K 2 ( x, y) are assumed to be in L2 ( R) on the


interval 0 x, y 1 . . The variational iteration method is a new method for solving nonlinear
problems and was introduced by a Chinese mathematician,[1]. The variational iteration method
is effective and easy for linear problem because exact solution can be given by only iteration
[2]. This method is used to solve Burger and coupled Burger equations in [3], (VIM) is used
for solving Fokker-Planck equations in [4]. Lane-Emden equations that are kind of Poisson
equations for the gravitational potential of a self-gravitating are solved by using (VIM) in [5].
Application of (VIM) to nonlinear Volterra integrodifferential equations is investigated in [6].
This method is used for solving nonlinear Helmholtz equation in [5]. Exact solution of integral
equations is approximated by (VIM) in [7]. Abbasbandy and Shivanion (2009) used VIM to
solve systems of nonlinear Volterras Integrodifferential equations. Biazar et al (2010)
employed VIM to solve linear and nonlinear system of IDEs. A new perturbation method
called Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) was proposed by He in 1997 and description in
2000, which is, in fact, coupling of the traditional perturbation method and homotopy in
topology. The method has equally been applied successfully to many situations. For example,
Mirzaei (2011) employed HPM and VIM to solve Volterra integral equations. Biazar and
Eslami (2010) applied HPM to solve nonlinear Volterra-Fredholm integro-differential
equations [8]. Also in [9], (VIM) is applied for solving nonlinear system of ordinary
differential equations. In this paper we use the variational iteration method for solving the
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International Journal of Advanced Scientific and Technical Research


Available online on http://www.rspublication.com/ijst/index.html

Issue 6 volume 3, May June 2016


ISSN 2249-9954

Volterra-Fredholm integral equations. Moreover,the method gives the solution in a series form
that converges to the closed form solution if an exact solution exists. The obtained series can
be employed for numerical purposes if exact solution is not obtainable in most linear
problems,on determining the exact Lagrange multiplier,the approximate solution turns into the
exact solution and is available with just one iteration. The variational iteration method is used
to address several problems, most of them well-known differential equations,which arise in
several fields of physics and engineering. A criterion for convergence of the variational
iteration method is introduced in [10] by means of the Banach fixed point theorem. For Eq.(1)
we substitute the integration of an unknown function,then we use the variational iteration
method. The article is organized as follows.In Section 2, we present and describe the basic
formulation of the variational iteration method required for our subsequent development.
Section 3, solution of the Volterra-Fredholm integral equation of the second kind by using the
variational iteration method. In section 4,we report our numerical findings and demonstrate the
accuracy of the proposed scheme by considering numerical examples.

2 Variational Iteration Method


The variational iteration method is employed to solve the time-dependent reactiondiffusion equation which has special importance in engineering and sciences and constitutes a
good model for many systems in various fields In [11]. The variational iteration method and
Adomian decomposition method are used and compared in [12],for solving a biological
population equation. The main advantage of the two methods over the mesh points methods is
the fact that they do not require discretization of the variables. Furthermore, the variational
iteration method overcomes the difficulty arising in calculating the Adomian polynomials
which is an important advantage over the Adomian decomposition method [13]. The
variational iteration method is used in [12] to solve the Fokker-Planck equation. This
technique computes the exact solution of equations using the initial condition only. It is also
important to note that the present method does not require discretization of the equation.
Therefore, it is not affected by computation round-off errors and one is not faced with the
necessity of large computer memory and time. Furthermore, using this idea we do not need
to solve any linear or nonlinear system of equations. The authors of [14] applied variational
iteration method for finding the minimum of a functional over the specified domain. Using
this technique the solution of the problem is provided in a closed form while the mesh point
techniques provide the approximation at mesh points only. The Lane-Emden equation is
solved in [15] by the variational iteration method. The results obtained show the efficiency
and applicability of this procedure for solving it. This method is employed in [16] to solve the
Klein-Gordon equation which is the relativistic version of the Schrdinger equation, which is
used to describe spinless particles. Application of variational iteration technique to an inverse
parabolic problem is described. The variational iteration method used to solve a system of
two nonlinear integro differential equations which arises in biology, describing biological
species living together. The variational iteration method is applied to find solution of an
inverse problem for the semi-linear parabolic partial differential equation. Authors of [17]
modified the variational iteration method to solve a system of differential equations. The
variation iteration procedure is employed in [18] to solve the wave equation subject to an
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Issue 6 volume 3, May June 2016


ISSN 2249-9954

International Journal of Advanced Scientific and Technical Research


Available online on http://www.rspublication.com/ijst/index.html

integral conservation condition. The generalized pantograph equation is investigated and the
Hes variation iteration technique is employed to solve it. The parabolic integro differential
equations arising in heat conduction in materials with memory is studied and the variational
iteration method is used to find the solution of the problem, and used this method to solve
several classes of variational problems. The interested reader can see [17-23] for some other
applications of the method. Consider the following general nonlinear problem:

L( (t )) N ( (t )) = g (t )
(2)
where L is a linear operator, N is a nonlinear operator,and g (t ) is a known analytical function.
The variational iteration method constructs an iterative sequence called the correction functional
as:
t

n 1 (t ) = n (t ) ( L( n ( s)) N ( n ( s)) g ( s))ds


0

(3)

where is the general Lagrange multiplier which can be identified optimally via the variational
theory[19], n ( s) is considered as the restricted variation [7], i.e. n ( s) = 0 , and the index n
denotes the n th iteration.

3 Solution of the Volterra - Fredholm Integral Equation of the Second Kind


Consider the Volterra - Fredholm integral equation of the second kind given in Eq. (1).
For Eq.(1) first we take the partial derivative,or we can take ' ( x) = ( x) for the VolterraFredholm integral equation of the second kind in (1), we have:
x

' ( x) 1 K1 ( x, y ) N1 ( ' ( y ))dy 2 K 2 ( x, y ) N 2 ( ' ( y ))dy = f ( x)

(4)

Consider
x

1 K1 ( x, y ) N1 ( ' ( y ))dy 2 K 2 ( x, y ) N 2 ( ' ( y ))dy


as a restricted variation,we have the iteration sequence
x

n 1 = n [ n' (t ) 1 K1 (t , y ) N1 ( n' ( y ))dy 2 K 2 (t , y ) N 2 ( n' ( y ))dy f (t )]dt


Taking the variation with respect to the independent variable n and noticing that n (0) = 0 ,
we get
x

n 1 = n (t ) n |t = x ' (t ) n dt = 0
0

Now we apply the following stationary conditions:


1 (t ) |t = x = 0, ' (t ) |t = x = 0
The general Lagrange multiplier,therefore,can be readily identified = 1 and,as a result,we
obtain the following iteration formula:
x

n 1 = n [ n' (t ) 1 K1 (t , y ) N1 ( n' ( y ))dy 2 K 2 (t , y ) N 2 ( n' ( y ))dy f (t )]dt

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(5)

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International Journal of Advanced Scientific and Technical Research


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Issue 6 volume 3, May June 2016


ISSN 2249-9954

4 Numerical Examples
We confirm our theoretical discussion with numerical example in order to achieve the
validity,the accuracy.The computations,associated with the following examples:
Example.1: In this section,we will apply the technique presented in this paper to two examples
to show the efficiency of the approach.in order to show that the method presented can be
applied.We consider the equation (1) with:
K1 ( x, y) = sin( x y), K2 (t , y) = 0, f ( x) = cos x sin x, 1 = 2
we can write equation (1)
x

( x) 2 sin( x y ) ( y )dy = cos x sin x


0

(6)

The exact solution of the above equation is given by


( x) = e x
In the view of the variational iteration method in equation(5), we get:
x
d
n 1 = n { n' ( ) sin cos 2
[sin( y ) n ( y )]dy}d
0
d 0
Starting with the initial approximation 1 = cos x sin x in Eq. (5) successive approximations

(x )s will be achieved. The plot of exact solution Eq. (6),the 5th order of approximate solution
obtained using the (VIM) and absolute error between the exact and numerical solutions of this
example are shown in figure 1.
Example.2: In this example,the method in the paper will be applied by the Mathematica 5.0
software package. The approximate solution n1 ( x) are calculated by (5). The numerical results
are presented in Table 1. We consider the nonlinear Volterra-Fredholm integral equation(1) with

K1 ( x, y ) = sin( x y ), K 2 (t , y ) = x y, f ( x) =

1
(19 28x 6 sin1cos x 6 cos1sin x 6 sin1sin x),
12

N1 ( ( x)) = cos ( x), N 2 ( ( x)) = 1 2 ( x), 1 = 2 = 1, a = 0, b = 1

Then ( x) = 1 x is the exact solution. In calculation, define n-term approximate solution can be
solved by the process (5) and 1 ( x) = f ( x) . The approximate solution n1 ( x) with n = 25 and
error are shown in Table. From the table,the results we obtained have shown speedy
convergence. It is of interest to note that the method discussed above works effectively for linear
and nonlinear models. We point out that additional conditions as linearization or unjustified
assumptions are not required for nonlinear cases.

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International Journal of Advanced Scientific and Technical Research


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Issue 6 volume 3, May June 2016


ISSN 2249-9954

Figure 1: The plots of approximate solution, exact solution and absolute error

Node

Exact solution

Approximate
solution 25

Absolute error

0.08
0.16
0.24
0.32
0.4
0.48
0.56
0.64
0.72
0.8
0.88
0.96

0.92
0.84
0.76
0.68
0.6
0.52
0.44
0.36
0.28
0.2
0.12
0.04

0.919882
0.839856
0.759834
0.679815
0.599799
0.519786
0.439775
0.369764
0.279755
0.199747
0.119737
0.039724

1.18148E-4
1.44021E-4
1.65987E-4
1.84716E-4
2.00596E-4
2.14138E-4
2.25485E4
2.36015E-4
2.45419E-4
2.52873E-4
2.63029E-4
2.75999E-4

Table 1:The absolute error of exact solution of example 2

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International Journal of Advanced Scientific and Technical Research


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Issue 6 volume 3, May June 2016


ISSN 2249-9954

5 Conclusion
In this paper the variational iteration method is used to solve the Volterra-Fredholm integral
equations. The results showed that the convergence and accuracy of the variational iteration
method for numerically analyzed the Volterra-Fredholm integral equations were in a good
agreement with the analytical solutions. We described the method,used it on two test
problems,and compared the results with their exact solutions in order to demonstrate the validity
and applicability of the method. Moreover, only a small number of iterations are needed to
obtain a satisfactory result. The given numerical examples support this claim.

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