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Tuliskan dan jelaskan simbol hukum konduksi

Sebutkan 5 hal yang dapat dilakukan untuk mempercepat heat transfer
via konduksi

we can accelerate heat transfer by:

decreasing the wall thickness (dx) Material selection: Copper vs. Steel (Heat transfer
Change the material to more conductive one, e.g. from steel to copper (k)
Increasing the contact area (A) Fin to increase heat transfer area (A)
Increasing the driving fore (dT)

Tuliskan dan jelaskan simbol hukum konveksi

Sebutkan 4 hal yang dapat dilakukan untuk mempercepat heat transfer
via konveksi

perluas area
h diperbesar , forced convection
dT diperbesar
Tcold turunin
Memperlama waktu kontak
Mempercepat laju aliran

Mengapa system pendingin di sebuah furnace diperlukan?

Most industrial production processes need cooling water for efficient, proper operation
Due to nature of heat transfer, we cannot expect all heat from heat source (e.g. Coke burning)
will go the the expected target (e.g. Iron ore in blast furnace). Some parts of heat will heat the
air inside the furnace and also will heat the furnace shell which cause problems: damage of
furnace shell. The total value of the production process will be sustained only if the cooling
system can maintain the proper process temperature and pressure
Decrease energy efficiency
Cost to install and maintenance of cooling system

Sebutkan 5 alasan kita menggunakan water sebagai media di system pedingin

It is normally plentiful, readily available, and inexpensive

It is easily handled and safe to use
It can carry large amounts of heat per unit volume, especially compared
to air (High thermal capacity Cp, much higher than air)
It does not expand or compress significantly within normally encountered
temperature ranges
It does not decompose
5. Sebutkan dan uraikan 4 masalah yang timbul dengan penggunaan water
sebagai media pendingin

Cooling water systems are an ideal environment for the reversion of the
metal to the original oxide state. This reversion process is called corrosion.
2. Scale Minerals such as calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, and
magnesium silicate are relatively insoluble in water and can precipitate
out of the water to form scale deposits when exposed to conditions
commonly found in cooling water systems.
3. Fouling The deposition of suspended material in heat exchange
equipment is called fouling. Foulants can come from external sources such
as dust around a cooling tower or internal sources such as by-products of
4. Biological contamination Cooling water systems provide an ideal
environment for microbial organisms to grow, multiply, and cause deposit
problems in heat exchange equipment. Microbial growth can strongly
influence corrosion, fouling, and scale formation, if not controlled properly.
6. Sebutkan 3 efek dari timbulnya kerak di pipa system pendingin
Decreasing pipe diameter
Decreasing cooling efficiency since it heat transfer is limited
Increasing pump load due to higher friction, pressure loss and smaller
pipe diameter
7. Sebutkan dan uraikan 4 persyaratan yang harus dipenuhi oleh water
jika digunakan sebagai media pendingin
1.Conductivity A measure of waters ability to conduct electricity. In
cooling water, it indicates the amount of dissolved minerals in the water.
The range will be dependent upon the particular cooling water systems
design, characteristics, and the type of chemical program.
2.pH Gives an indication of the relative acidity or basicity of water. In
general, metal corrosion rate increases when pH is below recommended
ranges. Scale formation may begin or increase when pH is above
recommended ranges. The effectiveness of many biocides depends on pH;
therefore, high or low pH may allow the growth and development of
microbial problems

3.Alkalinity In cooling water, two forms of alkalinity play a key role.

These are carbonate ions (CO3 2) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3 ). The
alkalinity acts as a buffer to charges acidity or basicity. Alkalinity and pH
are related because increases in pH indicate increases in alkalinity and
vice versa.
As with pH, alkalinity below recommended ranges increases the chances
for corrosion;
alkalinity above recommended ranges increases the chances for scale
formation. When corrosion and scale problems exist, fouling will also be a
problem. Therefore blow down must be more often worked out
4.Hardness Refers to the amount of calcium and magnesium ions
present in the water. The hardness in natural waters can vary from a few
parts per million (ppm) to over 800 ppm. Chemical programs designed to
prevent scale can function only when the hardness level stays within the
specified range. Some corrosion control programs require a certain
hardness level to function correctly as corrosion inhibitors, so it is
important to make sure hardness levels are not too low in these programs.

Sebutkan dan beri 9 contoh untuk 3 tipe water cooling system

1. Once-through system Example: Potable water system

2. Open recirculating system Example: Cooling tower, spray ponds,
evaporative condenser
3. Closed recirculating system Example: Car radiator, chiller system
9. Kapankah once-through system digunakan?
At many cases,, once-through system is installed as emergency water
cooling system, e.g. in case shut down of electricity
10. Sebutkan 6 faktor yang mempengaruhi operasional cooling tower

dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures of the air

temperature of warm water
area of contact between air and hot water
contact time between the air and the water
air pressure drop
desired temperature of the cooled water

11. Sebutkan 3 sumber water loss di system pendingin

1. Evaporation
2. Drift (water entrained in discharge vapor) It is estimated to be about
0.2% of water supply 3. Blow down (water released to discard solids)
12. Sebutkan 6 sifat udara yang dapat dibaca dari diagram psikrometrik.
Bagaimana caranya menggunakan diagram ini?

Information / Air properties that can be extracted from psychometric

Dry bulb temperature
Wet bulb temperature
Relative humidity
Humidity ratio
Specific volume
Only need to know 2 of these properties, then we can get the rest
of properties

13. Sebutkan dan uraikan 2 tipe dasar cooling system dilihat dari sumber
aliran udara
1. Natural draft
Natural draft towers use very large concrete chimneys to introduce air
through the media. Due to the large size of these towers, they are
generally used for water flow rates above 45,000 m3/hr. These types of
towers are used only by utility power stations.
2. Mechanical draft
Mechanical draft towers utilize large fans to force or suck air through
circulated water. The water falls downward over fill surfaces, which help
increase the contact time between the water and the air - this helps
maximise heat transfer between the two. Cooling rates of Mechanical draft
towers depend upon their fan diameter and speed of operation.
14. Sebutkan dan sketsa 3 tipe mechanical draft cooling tower
Mechanical draft CT are available in the following airflow arrangements:
1. Counter flows induced draft.
2. Counter flow forced draft.
3. Cross flow induced draft.

15. Analisa dengan lengkap mekanisme kerja dari natural draft hyperbolic tower

Stack effect increases with height.

Better and more consistent performance than atmospheric towers.
High capital cost due to size.
Close water temperature control difficult.
Used for high heat loads, large water flow rates and large approach
Common in power generation and large industrial applications.

1.Apply law of mass conservation (AV)1 = (AV)2 When A2 < A1,

then V2 > V1

2.Apply Bernouli equation P1 + V12 + gh1 = P2 + V22 +

gh2 What will hapen with P2 if V2 increases quadratically?
3. Spontaneous Process What happen when P2 is lower than P1?

16. Sebutkan minimal 4 karakteristik forced draft counterflow tower

Fan situated at air intake.

High air entry and low exit velocities.
May be susceptible to recirculation.
Generally noisier than towers with axial flow fans.
Discharge and intake air may be ducted.
Fan, drive and motor located in dry air stream so less maintenance and
corrosion is likely.
Fans located at lower level so less vibration and better access.
Less physical space required for fan.
Generally zero performance at zero fan speed.

17. Apakah definisi:



b. Range


1.Approach is the difference between the temperature of the water

leaving the tower and the Wet Bulb temperature (WBT) of the air entering
the tower. Generally its value is between 4 6K. The smaller the approach
the more efficient is the tower
2.Range is the difference between the temperature of the water entering
and the water leaving the tower. Generally its value is between 8 10K.

5. Drift is the evaporated water carried out of the tower with the air. The
amount of drift must be controlled because the microorganisms can live in
the drift and travel to and infect humans. (Legionaries Disease
18. Legionairres disease:

Apakah definisi?

b. Situasi lingkungan apa yang menimbulkan penyakit ini?

Legionnaires Disease is a form of pneumonia that can be fatal. It is

caused by the common bacteria Legionella Pneumophila Bacillus. It is
possible for anyone to catch the disease, provided the bacteria can get to
the deep parts of the lungs where the disease can grow, but certain
groups within the community are more prone to the illness that are others.
Legionella is found in moist environments such as Lakes, Rivers, Creeks,
Mud and other water sources at temperatures ranging from approximately
5 C to 55 C