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TUGAS EVAPORASI, PENGERINGAN PENDINGINAN, DAN PEMBEKUAN

Review Jurnal : Freezing Point Prediction of Minimally Processed Food with Different
Sucrose Content

Siti Hanifah Nurjanah 240210130122

UNIVERSITAS PADJADJARAN
FAKULTAS TEKNOLOGI INDUSTRI PERTANIAN
DEPARTEMEN TEKNOLOGI INDUSTRI PANGAN
JATINANGOR
2015

REVIEW
Pembekuan adalah salah satu metode pengawetan makanan dengan cara
menurunkan suhu makanan ke bawah titik bekunya (Zhang, 1998). Dengan demikian,
kesegaran, warna, rasa dan nilai gizi dari produk ini dapat dipertahankan. Metode ini juga
sesuai untuk menjaga kualitas buah dalam jangka panjang penyimpanan (Ancos et al.,
2000). Bahan baku, penggunaan perlakuan pendahuluan sebelum pembekuan, metode
pembekuan dan perlakuan setelahnya seperti transportasi, distribusi dan pencairan adalah
parameter yang mempengaruhi kualitas buah beku.
Salah satu poin penting dalam proses pembekuan makanan adalah titik beku dari
bahan makanan tersebut karena komposisi bahan makanan yang bervariasi menyebabkan
titik beku produk yang berbeda satu sama lain. Apabila titik beku diketahui dengan tepat
maka suhu dapat diatur dengan benar. Selain itu, titik beku juga penting diketahui untuk
menentukan konsumsi energy pembekuan. Di sisi lain, titik beku juga memiliki peran
utama dalam menentukan suhu penyimpanan yang sesuai. Dalam kasus penyimpanan
dingin, jika suhu penyimpanan dibawah titik beku produk tersebut maka kemungkinan
produk tersebut akan rusak.
Selama beberapa tahun terakhir, pembekuan mengalami perkembangan dan metode
baru banyak diteliti untuk menjamin kualitas tinggi dan meningkatkan penerimaan produk.
Perlakuan osmosis sebelum pembekuan adalah metode baru yang tujuannya untuk
menurunkan kadar air sebelum pembekuan sehingga dapat mengurangi kerusakan yang
disebabkan oleh ekspansi es selama pembentukan es. Proses osmosis yang digunakan
sebelum pembekuan akan melindungi jaringan buah terhadap kerusakan pembekuan karena
berkurangnya kadar air atau penyerapan zat terlarut ke dalam buah yang mana kedua
fenomena ini menurunkan jumlah air untuk pembekuan (Bolin dkk., 1993; Crowe dkk.,
1998; Torreggiani, 1995).
Penelitian yang dilakukan pada jurnal ini dilakukan untuk menentukan karakteristik
blewah yang mengalami dehidrasi osmosis serta memprediksi titik bekunya. Sampel
blewah dicuci, dikupas dan dipotong menjadi ukuran 4 x 2,5 2 cm. Blewah tersebut
kemudian direndam dalam larutan sukrosa (40, 55 dan 70%) selama beberapa periode (1.5,
3 dan 4.5 jam.) pada suhu kamar (25C). Rasio antara buah dan sirup adalah 1: 3 pada
semua perlakuan. Kemudian kadar air, total padatan terlarut, titik beku, panas spesifik

produk serta energi yang diperlukan untuk proses pembekuan diukur dan dihitung. Kadar
air dari sampel diukur dengan metode AOAC (1980). Total padatan terlarut diukur
menggunakan abbe refraktometer. Selanjutnya, titik beku sampel kontrol dan yang diberi
perlakuan dehidrasi osmosis dihitung dengan persamaan berikut (Jie et al., 2003) :
Y = 0.146694-0.19555X ... (1)
Dimana Y adalah titik beku (C) dan X adalah total padatan terlarut.
Panas spesifik dari produk dapat dihitung dengan menggunakan persamaan 2 dan 3 berikut
(Alzamora et al., 2000) :
C1 = 2990 xw + 1200...(2)
C2 = 1256 xw + 837 ... (3)
Dimana C1 adalah panas spesifik atas titik beku (kJ/kgC) sedangkan C2 adalah panas
spesifik di bawah titik beku (kj / kg C), dan xw adalah fraksi air dalam makanan.
Energi yang dibutuhkan untuk mendinginkan produk dan energi diperlukan untuk
membekukan produk diperoleh dari persamaan berikut (Seid Razavi, 1997) :
Q = mc (t2-t1) ... (4)
Q = m ... (5)
Dimana, Q = energi yang diperlukan (kJ), m = massa (kg), c = panas spesifik (kJ/kgC),
= panas laten air (334 kJ/kg), t1 dan t2 = suhu awal dan akhir dari makanan (C).
Hasil penelitian dalam jurnal ini menunjukkan bahwa kadar air menurun seiring
berjalannya waktu dan derajat brix meningkat seiring meningkatnya konsentrasi sirup.
Titik beku, panas spesifik dan energi yang diperlukan untuk proses pembekuan juga
menurun sesuai dengan perubahan atas. Penurunan titik beku dari buah-buahan tersebut
diharapkan dapat menjadikan buah dapt disimpan tanpa pembekuan dengan suhu sedikit di
atas titik bekunya. Hal ini untuk mencegah kerugian dari proses pembekuan. Hal ini juga
dapat dilihat dari sudut pandang mikrobiologi dan biokimia. Proses osmosis memiliki
kelebihan yaitu mudahnya proses desain dan memiliki manfaat ekonomis.
Kelebihan dari jurnal ini yaitu penelitian yang dilakukan memecahkan satu masalah
baru. Sedangkan kekurangannya yaitu penelitian dengan metode seperti ini sudah pernah
dilakukan sebelumnya. Berikut disajikan beberapa contoh penelitian yang serupa dengan
jurnal ini :
1. Efek proses osmosis terhadap perubahan sifat mekanis kiwi

Chiralt et al. (2001) telah mempelajari efek dari proses osmosis pada sifat mekanik
dari buah kiwi dan efek perlindungannya terhadap pembekuan. Di penelitian tersebut,
irisan kiwi dengan diameter 4 cm dan ketebalan 1 cm direndam dalam larutan sukrosa pada
konsentrasi 35, 45, 55, 60 dan 65brix pada 30C sampai irisan buah kiwi mencapai total
padatan terlarut 30brix. Proses osmosis dilakukan pada tekanan atmosfer dan di bawah
vakum (50 mbar selama 5 menit pada awal proses). Setelah itu, sampel dibekukan pada 40C dimana laju pendinginannya adalah 4C/menit kemudian semua sampel disimpan
pada -18C. Sampel dianalisis setelah 24 jam dan 1 bulan. Hasil penelitian tersebut
menunjukkan bahwa waktu telah mempengaruhi sifat mekanis kemudian penerapan vakum
pada sampel memiliki efek pada sifat mekanisnya juga serta perlindungan saat pembekuan
(Chiralt et al., 2001).
2. Efek perlakuan pendahuluan sebelum pembekuan terhadap kualitas okra
Dalam penelitian lain efek dari kondisi pembekuan dilakukan dengan meneliti
kualitas okra. Sampel okra yang direndam dalam larutan natrium sulfit pada konsentrasi
0.5, 1.5 dan 2% selama 10, 20 dan 30 menit kemudian direndam dalam larutan asam sitrat
pada konsentrasi 1.5, 2.5, dan 3.5% selama 5, 15 dan 25 menit sebelum pembekuan. Proses
pembekuan dilakukan dengan menggunakan nitrogen cair untuk mencapai -25C dari 18C
selama 3 menit. Hasil penelitian tersebut menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan perendaman
larutan natrium sulfit 2 % selama 20 sampai 30 menit meningkatkan sifat dari okra dan
meningkatkan umur simpan produk beku tersebut. Perlakuan perendaman okra dengan
larutan asam sitrat 2,5% selama 15 menit juga meningkatkan warna produk (Zhang et al.,
2004).
3. Hubungan antara titik beku buah dengan kadar padatan terlarutnya
Jie et al. (2003) telah mempelajari hubungan titik beku buah dengan kandungan
padatan terlarut dari buah dan mereka juga menyediakan model untuk menentukan titik
beku buah (Jie et al., 2003). Selama dehidrasi osmotik terjadi aliran counter current antara
bahan makanan dan larutan osmosis. Kedua aliran ini menyebabkan perubahan kandungan
padatan terlarut dalam makanan (Talens et al., 2003). Di penelitian ini, melon diujikan di
berbagai konsentrasi larutan sukrosa untuk periode waktu yang berbeda. Pada akhir
percobaan sifat sampel. titik beku sampel, serta jumlah energi yang dibutuhkan untuk
proses pembekuan diukur.

LAMPIRAN

Biological Forum An International Journal (Special Issue 2015)

7(2): 15-19(2015)

ISSN No. (Print): 0975-1130


ISSN No. (Online): 2249-3239

Freezing Point Prediction of Minimally Processed Food with Different


Sucrose Content
Farid Amidi-Fazli* and Neda Amidi-Fazli**
*Young Researchers and Elite Club, Soofian Branch, Islamic Azad University, Soofian, Iran
**Young Researchers and Elite Club, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
(Corresponding author: Farid Amid-Fazli)
(Received 10 May, 2015, Accepted 01 July, 2015)

(Published by Research Trend, Website: www.researchtrend.net)


ABSTRACT: During years freezing progressed and new methods investigated which insure high quality and
increase acceptability of products. Osmosis treatment before freezing is a novel method which by lowering
water content before freezing can limit damages caused by ice expansion during ice formation. The current
study was carried out to determine osmotically dehydrated cantaloupe characteristic and introduce a model
to predict its freezing point. Samples were washed, peeled and cut into cubes of 4 2.5 2 Cm. The cubes
were submerged in sucrose syrup (40, 55 and 70%) for the periods of (1.5, 3 and 4.5 h.). At room
temperature (25 C). The fruit to syrup ratio was 1:3 in all treatments. Moisture content, total soluble solids,
freezing point, specific heat of product and required energy for freezing process were measured and
calculated. Results indicated that water content decreased with time and increased syrup concentration on
the other hand brix increased due to syrup concentration. Freezing point, specific heat and required energy
for freezing process decreased according to above changes. Perhaps by reducing the freezing point of fruits,
they can be kept without freezing at temperatures slightly above the freezing point. This prevents
disadvantage of the freezing process. If it is possible through microbial and biochemical point of view.
Keywords: Osmotic dehydration, Freezing point, Cantaloupe, specific heat
INTRODUCTION
The osmotic dehydration of fruits and vegetables is used
to process and produce a variety of products, such as
minimally processed products (Alzamora et al., 2000) Or
osmotic dehydration may be a applied as a pretreatment
before air drying (Alvarez et al., 1995; Nieto et al., 1998a;
Nieto et al., 1998b) or freezing (Forni et al., 1987;
Giangiacomo et al., 1994; Pinnavaia et al., 1988). In the
case of osmosis process used before freezing it will
protect the fruit tissues against freezing damage due to
reduced water content or solute uptake into the fruit which
bothe of these phenomena decrease the amount of water
for freezing and (Bolin et al., 1993; Crowe et al., 1998;
Torreggiani, 1995). Freezing is the One of the food
preservation methods in this way the temperature of the
food is decreased to below of freezing point freezing
(Zhang, 1998) Thus, freshness, color, flavor and
nutritional value of the product is maintained. Also the
method is an appropriate technique for maintaining of
fruit quality in their long-term storage (Ancos et al.,
2000). Raw material, the use of the pretreatments before
freezing, freezing method and after freezing treatments
such as transportation, distribution and defrosting are the
parameters that influence the quality of the frozen fruit.
Due to the benefits mentioned for the osmotic dehydration
In recent years, more attention has been paid to this
technique as a pretreatment before freezing.

Application of this method before freezing can


minimize the damages caused by frozen water during
freeze storage of foods as possibility of ice crystal
formation is reduced during freezing of foods due to
the dehydration treatment of food materials before
freezing (Robbers et al., 1997).
Chiralt et al. have studied the Effects of osmosis process
on mechanical properties of kiwi fruit and the protective
effects of the treatment against freezing. In this study,
kiwi slices with a diameter of 4 cm and thickness of 1 cm
were emerged in the solutions of sucrose at concentrations
of 35, 45, 55, 60 and 65 brix at 30C until the kiwi fruit
slices reaching the total soluble solids of 30 brix.
Osmosis process was carried out at atmospheric pressure
and under vacuum (50 mbar for 5 minutes at the
beginning of the process). After that the samples were
frozen at -40C where the cooling rate was 4 C/min then
all samples were kept at -18C. The samples analyzed
after 24 h and 1 month. The results showed that time has
affected the mechanical properties of the samples but the
application of vacuum had any effect on the mechanical
properties and protection against freezing (Chiralt et al.,
2001).

In another research the effect of freezing condition was


studied on the okra quality. The okra samples were
immersed in solution of sodium sulfite at
concentrations of 0.5, 1.5 and 2% for 10, 20 and 30
minutes and in the citric acid solutions at
concentrations of 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5% for 5, 15 and 25
minutes before freezing.

Amidi-Fazli and Amidi-Fazli


Freezing process was performed using liquid nitrogen
to reach -25 C from 18 C in during 3 minutes. The
results showed that treatment of okra samples by 2%
sodium sulfate solution for 20 to 30 minutes improved
apparent properties of okra and increased the shelf life
of frozen product. Also treating of okra by 2.5% citric
acid solution for 15 minutes improves the color of the
product color (Zhang et al., 2004).
One of the important points in the freezing process of
food is freezing point of the food materials, due to
various composition of food materials the freezing
point is vary from one product to another one. By
Knowing the exact freezing point the temperatures can
be set correctly, otherwise there is probability of
incomplete freezing of the product. In addition, it is
also important from the point of view of energy
consumption. On the other hand The freezing point has
a major role in determining the appropriate storage
temperature. In the case of cold storage if the
temperature falls to below of freezing point the product
will be frozen and will be damaged. Therefore, it is
necessary to maintain temperature of storage condition
under control. Jie et al. have studied the relationship of
fruit freezing point ant the soluble solid content of the
fruit they also have provided a model for determining
the freezing point of fruits (Jie et al., 2003).
During of osmotic dehydration there is a counter current
flow of water and solutes between food material and
osmosis solution both of these flows lead to soluble solid
content change in the food (Talens et al., 2003). In this
study, cantaloupe emerged in different concentrations of
sucrose solution for different periods of time. At the end
of the experiment the samples properties were measured
and freezing point of the samples as well as the amount of
energy required for freezing process of the product were
calculated.

16

Specific heat of the product above and below the


freezing point were calculated by Equations 2 and 3
respectively (Alzamora et al., 2000):

= 2990 xw +1200
(2)
C2 = 1256 xw + 837
(3)
C1: specific heat above the freezing point (kj/kgC),
C2: specific heat below the freezing point (kj/kgC),
xw: water fraction in food.
The energy required to cool the product and The
energy required to freeze of the product were obtained
by the below equations (Seid razavi, 1997):
1

Q = mc(t2-t1)
Q = m

(4)
(5)

Q: required energy (kj), m: foos mass (kg), c: specific


heat (kj/kgC), : latent heat of water: (334 kj/kg), t1
and t2: initial and final temperature of food repectively
(C).
The experiment was conducted in a completely
randomized design based on factorial. To obtain the
regression equations Sigmastat was used. All graphs
were drawn in the Slide write (version 2).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Total soluble solid content of control samples and treated
samples in osmotic solutions is shown in figures 1A and
1B as surface and contour plots. Regression equations
were obtained to explain the effects of treatment time and
osmotic solution concentration on total soluble solid
content of the samples.
2

Bx = -9.285 + 0.531c + 4.52t + 0.0237ct-0.00415c 2 2


0.799t R = 0.91 (6)
Bx: total soluble solids, c: concentration, t: time.
20

MATERIALS AND METHODS


Osmosis solution of sucrose at concentrations of 40, 55
and 70% (w/w) were prepared and cantaloupe cut into
pieces with dimensions of 42.52 cm. Samples were
emerged at osmosis solutions for 1.5, 3 and 4.5 h at
25C, the fruit to solution ratio was 1:3.
After the process was completed to measure the
moisture content of the samples they were dried in the
oven at 100C until the constant weight was reached
according to by AOAC (1980) method. Total soluble
solid content of samples were determine by the abbe
refractometer (Carl Zeiss Germany). For the untreated
sample the same techniques were used to determine the
moisture and total soluble solids content.
The freezing point of control sample and treated
samples by osmotic dehydration treatment was
calculated by the following equation (Jie et al., 2003):
Y = 0.146694-0.19555X

(1)

Y is the freezing point C, X is the total soluble solids.

17
14
x
i

B11
8
40
5

55

io

n(%

tr
cen

1.50
Time (h
)

3.00

70

n
o

4.50

Fig.1.
The freezing point of the product for different samples
with different soluble solids content are shown in
Figure 2, Due to the presence of dissolved solids in the
samples the freezing point of cantaloupe equals to 1.08 C and like other fruits it is vary of pure water
freezing point.

Amidi-Fazli and Amidi-Fazli


4.50

17

17.5

16.4

18.5

3.00
)

15.4

17.5

h
(

14.4

16.4

13.4
12.4

15.4

11.4

13.4

10.4

12.4

14.4

1.50
9.4

11.4

8.3

10.4
9.4

7.3

8.3

0.00 40

55
Concentration (%)

70

Fig. 1. Surface and contour plots of total soluble solids content of cantaloupe changes during osmotic dehydration.

-1.00
-1.50
-2.00
x
i

-2.50

B
-3.00
-3.50
-4.00
6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Freezing Point (c)


Fig. 2. Freezing point of cantaloupe in different soluble solid content.
As it can be seen by increasing Brix of product
freezing point decreases. The difference between the
freezing points of samples makes it obvious the need
of carefully temperature control during the freezing
process of samples. Regression equation between the
freezing point and osmotic solution concentration and
processing time according to the obtained data is as
below:
Fp=1.962-0.104c-0.883t0.00464ct+0.000812c2+0.156t2 R2=0.91 (7)
Fp: freezing point, c: concentration, t: time.
According to the above equation the effect of process
parameters on the freezing point is shown in figures 3A
and 3B. Using Equation 7 and Figures 3 (A) and (B)
predicting of freezing point is possible based on the
process parameters (concentration and time) as well as
what was said about Brix. In general, it is possible to

estimate the total soluble solids content and freezing


point of samples in associate to osmotic solution
concentration and treatment time. On the other hand it
is possible to predict and determined one of the process
parameters (concentration or time) or total soluble
solids content and freezing point of the final product if
other parameters are known or if there is a desired
amount for one of the parameters.
As it can be seen by increasing concentration of
sucrose solution and the process time Brix of samples
is increased and the highest brix value is achieved after
4.5 h in concentrations of 70%. But it should be noted
that the time does not have a significant effect on
increasing Brix. Using the plots the brix of samples
can be obtained in any combination of process
concentration and time. This is easily done using the
contour plots.

Amidi-Fazli and Amidi-Fazli


For example, at concentration of 60% sucrose solution
(concentration that has not been used in experiment) by
drawing a line from the point 60 and parallel to the axis of
time (straight line in Figure 1B) the total soluble solids of
the sample can be predicted for any process time. For
processing time of 1, 2.5 and 4 h the total

18

soluble solids content of samples are 12.4, 17.6 and


18.6 respectively As shown in Figure 1B by the
intersection of dotted and straight lines by contour
lines in the plot. Similarly, taking into account the
specific total soluble solids, the desired concentration
and time of process can be achieved.

0
-1
)c
(

-2

io
P

g
ni

-3

e
e

40

F -4

)
(

55

-5

tio

r
t

1.50
T

3.00
70

ime(h

onc

4.50

4.50

-3.3

-3.1

-3.5

3.00
)

-2.9

h
e

-3.3

-2.7

-3.1

iT
1.50

-2.5
-2.3

-2.9

-2.1

-2.5

-1.9

-2.3

-2.7

-1.7

-2.1

-1.5

-1.9
-1.7

-1.3

-1.5

0.00 40

55
Concentration (%)

70

Fig. 3. Surface and contour plots of freezing point of cantaloupe at different solution concentrations and
process time.
As it was expected the moisture content of the samples
have decreased due to water removal from the
cantaloupe and solute uptake by the cantaloupe during
osmotic dehydration process of samples. The amount
of moisture content decrease is affected by osmotic
solution concentration and process time. Final moisture
content was obtained 74.5% for samples that treated
for 4.5 h at 70% solution while the initial moisture
content of the cantaloupe was 93.5% (Table 1).
Specific heat of food is one of the important
parameters of the food products this specification will
be altered due to the changes are occurred in the
cantaloupe samples during osmotic dehydration
treatment. The amount of specific heat is different
above and below of freezing point for foods.

Specific heat values for treated samples are calculated


using Equations 2 and 3 and is reported in Table 1. This
feature is used to calculate the energy required for the
freezing process. With respect to temperature 25 C (the
temperature which experiment was done) the amount of
required energy (Q1) to reduce the temperature of samples
to the freezing point and the amount of required energy
(Q2) to reduce the temperature of samples to -20 C that is
the storage temperature of frozen products (Archer, 2004)
was calculated (Table 1). The total required energy (QT)
per mass unit was calculated regarding to the energy
required for cooling the product, freezing latent heat and
the required energy to reduce the temperature of the
product to the final temperature of storage (Table 1).

Amidi-Fazli and Amidi-Fazli

19

Table 1: Moisture content, specific heat and required energy for treated cantaloupe
samples in osmotic solutions.
Solution concentration
(%)
40

55

70

Control

Time
(h)
1.5
3
4.5
1.5
3
4.5
1.5
3
4.5

Water fraction

C1 (kJ/kgC)

C2 (kJ/kgC)

Q1 (kJ/kg)

Q2 (kJ/kg)

Q3 (kJ/kg)

0.85383
0.84179
0.82173
0.8143
0.78049
0.76702
0.79594
0.7779
0.7453
0.93479

3.752952
3.716952
3.656973
3.634757
3.533665
3.49339
3.579861
3.525921
3.428447
3.995022

1.90977
1.894648
1.869453
1.860121
1.817655
1.800737
1.837061
1.814402
1.773457
2.011456

101.713
101.2243
101.8507
101.829
99.5013
98.66097
101.2221
99.92447
97.94647
104.1956

34.18082
33.66193
32.05908
31.5935
30.61277
30.17642
30.72405
30.22801
29.1401
38.05402

469.8938
468.8862
467.9098
467.4225
464.1141
462.8374
465.9461
464.1525
461.0866
476.2496

CONCLUSION
According to the obtained data the engineering calculations of freezing process even before the osmosis
process is possible this causes easiness of process design and has economical benefits. The fruits may
be stored at temperatures slightly above the freezing point without freezing due to the reduced freezing
point of the product To prevent disadvantage freezing process as well as freezing damages if there is no
problem In the point of view of microbial and biochemical activities. Future researchs is needed to
investigate the matter. Also by fine tuning the temperature in the cold storage the temperature fall below
freezing point can be avoided and then the unwanted freezing will be prevented.
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Perbedaan

antara

pembekuan

poin

sampel

membuat

jelas

kebutuhan

hati-hati kontrol suhu selama pembekuan proses sampel. Persamaan regresi antara
titik beku dan konsentrasi larutan osmotik dan waktu pengolahan menurut data
yang diperoleh adalah sebagai di bawah:
Fp = 1.962-0.104c-0.883t-0.00464ct + 0.000812c2 + 0.156t2
R2 = 0.91 ... (7)
Fp: pembekuan titik, c: konsentrasi, t: waktu.
Menurut persamaan di atas pengaruh proses parameter pada titik beku ditunjukkan
pada angka 3A dan 3B. Menggunakan Persamaan 7 dan Gambar 3 (A) dan (B)
memprediksi titik beku adalah mungkin didasarkan pada parameter proses
(konsentrasi dan waktu) serta apa yang dikatakan tentang Brix. Secara umum,
adalah mungkin untuk memperkirakan total larut kandungan padatan dan
pembekuan titik sampel dalam asosiasi untuk solusi osmotik konsentrasi dan
waktu perawatan. Di sisi lain itu adalah mungkin untuk memprediksi dan
menentukan salah satu dari proses parameter (konsentrasi atau waktu) atau total
larut padatan konten dan titik beku produk akhir jika parameter lainnya diketahui
atau jika ada yang diinginkan berjumlah untuk salah satu parameter. Seperti dapat
dilihat dengan meningkatkan konsentrasi sukrosa solusi dan proses waktu Brix
sampel adalah meningkat dan nilai brix tertinggi dicapai setelah 4,5 jam dalam
konsentrasi 70%.