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Guideline of Daimler AG - Safe Handling of Lithium-Ion Batteries

Guideline on Safe Handling of


Lithium-Ion Batteries

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Guideline of Daimler AG - Safe Handling of Lithium-Ion Batteries

Author: Standardization Working Group


Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries

As of: 2013-09-19

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Guideline of Daimler AG - Safe Handling of Lithium-Ion Batteries

Document characteristics
Project name:

Standards for the safe handling of lithium-ion batteries at


Daimler AG locations

Document title

Safe Handling of Lithium-Ion Batteries

File name

Leitfaden Lithium-Ionen-Batterien_Daimler-AG_V3.0.doc

Version/release

03.0

Date of creation

19-09-2013

Authors

Members of the working group (see annex)

Approval:

Steering committee of the working group


(see below)

Document manager

Dr.-Ing. Arnold Lamm RD/EDB

Update service

Dr.-Ing. Arnold Lamm RD/EDB

Change log

Dr.-Ing. Arnold Lamm RD/EDB

Guideline distribution list

Locations / plants of Daimler AG

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Guideline of Daimler AG - Safe Handling of Lithium-Ion Batteries

Contents

Material and Geographical Scope, Obligation ..............................................................6

Purpose ........................................................................................................................6

Definitions and Explanations of Terms ........................................................................6

Risk Potential...............................................................................................................9

Use of Assessment Report............................................................................................9

Industrial Safety Requirements ..................................................................................10

6.1

Safety Instructions ................................................................................................................................... 10

6.2

Electrical Hazard/Responsibility of Electrics Specialist .......................................................................... 11

Provision and Storage Requirements ..........................................................................11

7.1

Provision at Locations and Facilities ....................................................................................................... 11

7.2

Storage in Locations and Facilities .......................................................................................................... 12

7.2.1

Storage in Areas with Sprinkler Protection .................................................................................... 12

7.2.2

Storage in Areas with Fire Detection System and Plant Fire Service ............................................. 12

7.2.3

Storage in Other Cases ................................................................................................................... 13

7.3

Equipping Workplaces with Fire Extinguishers ....................................................................................... 13

Handling of Lithium-Ion Batteries .............................................................................14

8.1

Handling Damaged Lithium-Ion Batteries ............................................................................................... 14

8.2

Behavior in Case of Accidents of Vehicles with Lithium-Ion Batteries .................................................. 17

8.3

Definition of Competencies for Examination of Damaged Batteries (Competent Person) ...................... 18

8.4

Material Control and Storage of Damaged and/or Defective Lithium-Ion Batteries ............................... 19

8.5

In-House Transports ................................................................................................................................. 21

8.6
Installation and Operation of Charging Stations for Lithium-Ion Batteries and Electric Vehicles with
Lithium-Ion Batteries ............................................................................................................................................ 21
8.7

Installation and Operation of Battery Test Rigs ....................................................................................... 21

8.8

Installation and Operation of Drive Train Test Rigs ................................................................................ 22

Transport ...................................................................................................................22

9.1

National and International Regulations on Transporting Hazardous Goods ............................................ 22

9.2
Implementation of National and International Regulations and Laws when Transporting Lithium-Ion
Batteries ................................................................................................................................................................ 22

10

Disposal .....................................................................................................................23

10.1

General Information: ................................................................................................................................ 23


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Guideline of Daimler AG - Safe Handling of Lithium-Ion Batteries


10.2

Specific Tasks and Responsibilities Relating to Disposal ........................................................................ 23

10.2.1

Waste Producers (Development, Production, Workshops): ............................................................ 23

10.2.2

Waste Manager (or person in charge of these tasks at the location) ............................................... 24

10.2.3

Waste Logistics .............................................................................................................................. 24

10.2.4

Purchasing ...................................................................................................................................... 24

10.3

Process Descriptions ................................................................................................................................ 24

11

Annexes .....................................................................................................................24

12

Members of Working Group and Steering Committee ................................................25

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Guideline of Daimler AG - Safe Handling of Lithium-Ion Batteries

Material and Geographical Scope, Obligation

These guidelines are obligatory for all area of locations and installations of Daimler AG at which
lithium-ion batteries are handled. This includes branch offices and foreign locations of Daimler AG. It
is to be understood as a minimum requirement based on German law. Any requirements of locally
applicable law which go beyond the guideline must also be observed; in the case of collisions, legal
requirements have priority.
The guideline is binding with regard to its objectives. Regarding regulations for achieving these
objectives, deviations are permitted if local legal requirements or battery-specific special aspects
require this.
The application is recommended to other companies within the Daimler group. If permitted under
corporate law, Daimler AG reserves the right to the binding introduction by the respective
management.

Purpose

This guideline refers to the safe handling of lithium-ion batteries, regardless of the voltage (DC). The
object are all batteries which have been manufactured by Daimler or by suppliers commissioned by
Daimler and used at the locations. Both lithium-ion batteries tested according to the criteria of the UN
Manual "Tests and Criteria" Part III, 38.3 and untested prototypes may be concerned.

Definitions and Explanations of Terms

DC: Direct Current


EFK: Electrics specialist for HV systems in motor vehicles
EFKmF: Electrics specialist with specialist responsibility
FfHV: Specialist for HV systems in motor vehicles
F 90: Resistance of a component to fire for 90 minutes
VdS CEA 4001: VdS CEA guidelines for sprinkler systems, planning and installation
HHS 4: Classification into fire hazard categories, HHS4: high fire hazard, category IV storage risks
Type K5/PM 12: Carbon-dioxide fire extinguisher with 5 kg extinguishing agent/metal-fire
extinguisher with 12 kg extinguishing agent
VAwS: Ordinance on facilities handling substances hazardous to waters
VEFK: Responsible electrics specialist
WGK 1 3: Water contamination class, WGK 1: low hazard to waters
WGK 2: hazard to waters, WGK 3: severe hazard to waters
WIS: Workshop Information System
PPE: Personal protective equipment

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Guideline of Daimler AG - Safe Handling of Lithium-Ion Batteries


The following PPE must be worn for eliminating released electrolyte:
Electrician protective glove in accordance with IEC 60903, Class 0, Category R (see following
PPE for work on HV components)
With pure electrolyte (no danger caused by HV components): chemical protection glove
of nitrile
Tightly sealing protective glasses/goggles/facial protective screen
Long-sleeve protective clothing
The following personal protective equipment (PPE) shall be worn for work on vehicles in which the
condition of the HV vehicle power supply is not clearly recognizable:
Facial protective screen (in accordance with EN 166, abbreviation: 8) as protection against
electric arcs
Electrician's protective gloves (in accordance with IEC 60903, Class 0, Category R; certified in
accordance with IEC 61482-1-2, Class 2 or EN 61482-1-2, Class 2) as protection against
electric arcs and for a maximum working voltage of AC 1,000 V/DC 1,500 V. Additional
protection against acid, oil and ozone
Arc fault jacket (in accordance with EN 61482 1-2, Class 2) as protection against electric arcs
Outdoor storage area: Storage area indicated for the temporary storage of defective or damaged
lithium-ion batteries, which meets the requirements in accordance with Section 8.4. Here a distinction
is made between OK and NOK storage areas based on differing requirements.
Transport of hazardous materials: The term "Transport" covers the process of changing the
location of hazardous material (e.g. lithium-ion batteries) outside of enclosed industrial sites (public
transport area) using vehicles approved for the respective means of transport.
The term 'transport' also covers the acceptance and delivery of the good as well as all preparatory and
follow-up actions, such as the determination of the applicable hazardous-goods classification, the
packaging, the marking of the packages, loading, unloading and receiving, the organization of
transport processes, the creation of hazardous-goods documents or the unpacking (see 2
Subsection 2 GGBefG).
A comprehensive overview of the topic is supplied by the Guideline on Transporting Lithium-Ion
Batteries in Road, Sea and Air Traffic (Annex 2).
Transport on public roads vs. internal transport:
For shipping processes outside the plant grounds, we speak of transport (according to ADR).
In this case, a complete evaluation of the battery using the assessment report (Part A - D) is
required to ensure the transport safety.
Within the surrounded grounds, we speak of an internal transport. The local occupational
safety regulations shall be observed for this purpose. In addition, an acute danger caused by
the battery shall be excluded in accordance with Part A of the assessment reports.
Assessment report for determination of transport safety: Battery/manufacturer-specific process
description and reporting sheet for checking and assessment of the transportability of lithium-ion
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Guideline of Daimler AG - Safe Handling of Lithium-Ion Batteries


batteries. The assessment reports can be obtained via a database with transport documents provided
by RD/EDB (Annex 1).
Damaged battery: If the battery is classified as "not safe for transport" based on the assessment
report, then it is considered to be "damaged". If the assessment report has been passed and no other
noticeable problems (critical entries in the fault memory) are known, then it can be assumed that the
battery is not damaged. Batteries with casings which are intentionally opened or partially removed for
testing and development purposes (e.g. instrumentation with temperature sensors, voltage tap-offs at
individual cells, etc.) are not to be considered damaged as long as the respective responsible
development or testing engineer checks the undamaged condition of the cells, has excluded any risks
of short circuits inside the battery and the functionality of the battery and the battery management
system with regard to safety is completely ensured and this has been clearly confirmed with
corresponding marking on the outside of the battery. The assessment report must also be carried out
here.
Defective battery: A battery shall be considered defective with regard to its usability in the vehicle if
it fails to meet the specified functional requirements in accordance with the component requirement
specifications. This is always the case if no data transfer via the communication interface can be
established with the battery management system. A defective battery need not necessarily be
damaged.
Installation: Facility (building, laboratory, test facility at location)
Used battery: A used lithium-ion battery can be both an intact and a defective or damaged battery or
a battery which is safe to transport or not safe to transport, e.g. for the purpose of checking,
evaluation or disposal.
Tested lithium-ion battery: The battery matches a type which has been tested in accordance with
the UN Manual "Tests and Criteria", Part III, Sub-Section 38.3 and fulfills all requirements of the
Section 2.9.4 UN Recommendations for the Transport of Hazardous Materials, Section 2.2.9.1.7 ADR,
Section 2.9.4 IMDG Code or the Sub-Paragraph 3.9.2.6 IATA-DGR.
Lithium-ion battery: Accumulator or secondary battery during the charging and discharging of which
positively charged lithium ions are moved back and forth between the cathode and anode and with
which no metallic lithium is used.
New battery: Battery from production (validated by a quality management system), which has not yet
been used/installed (in the vehicle, for tests, etc.) and which has not succumbed to any damage
event.
Prototype battery: Battery which has not been successfully tested in accordance with the UN Manual
"Tests and Criteria", Part III, Sub-Section 38.3, however which meets the other remaining
requirements in accordance with Section 2.9.4 UN Recommendations for the Transport of
Hazardous Materials, Paragraph 2.2.9.1.7 ADR, Section 2.9.4 IMDG Code or the SubParagraph 3.9.2.6 IATA-DGR.

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Guideline of Daimler AG - Safe Handling of Lithium-Ion Batteries


Storage container: Container approved for the internal transport (not transport in public traffic areas)
of defective or damaged lithium-ion batteries and in which batteries can be brought to and stored in
the outdoor storage area.
Transport: Change in location of lithium-ion batteries on areas within enclosed sites.
Handling: All activities and actions during which a hazard can be posed by the lithium-ion batteries
described here. For example, transport, opening of and removal from transport packing, processes for
putting into and removing from storage, provision at the installation location, installation in or removal
from vehicles, conducting of performance or durability tests of batteries in test rigs and test facilities,
sampling, disposal and all activities in conjunction with transport (see Chapter 9) are referred to as
handling.

Risk Potential

Lithium-ion batteries contain chemical energy in the form of the combustible electrolytes and a high
amount of electrical energy due to the high energy density in the charged condition. In addition to
inflammability, the substances contained have properties which present a health and environmental
hazard in some cases (for details regarding the ingredients and their risk potential, see the material
safety data sheets of the respective battery manufacturer). In addition, leaked coolant (water-glycol
mixture) in the battery can result in an internal fire due decomposition of the glycol caused by the
high-voltage path.
In case of improper handling, mechanical damage and the effects of great heat (e.g. in case of a fire),
the chemical and electrical energy and materials contained can be released, resulting in hazards to
people, property and the environment. A true danger may be an accident of a vehicle equipped with
lithium-ion batteries.

Use of Assessment Report

Lithium-ion batteries can be considered safe for transport when the danger of a short circuit, the
resulting of heat or fire and the releasing of hazardous materials contained can be excluded for the
duration of the transport. The transport safety of used batteries shall be checked prior to each
transport (shipping processes outside the plant grounds) and confirmed with the respectively
applicable assessment report (see Annex 1). On the basis of the assessment report prepared by each
battery manufacturer, a lithium-ion battery can be inspected with regard to their transport safety.
When processing the assessment reports, in particular the following hazards which endanger the
transport safety shall be evaluated:

Dangerous heat build-up

Fire

Internal or external short circuit

Emission of dangerous fluids (electrolyte leakage)

Damaged or considerably deformed casing

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Guideline of Daimler AG - Safe Handling of Lithium-Ion Batteries

Batteries for which an absence of voltage at the contacts has not been determined (only for
batteries > 60 V)

Insulation faults

The condition for transporting lithium-ion batteries is the ensuring of the transport safety. This can be
carried out using the assessment reports. The procedure in cases in which this is not successful is
described in the Guideline on Transporting Lithium-Ion Batteries in Road, Sea and Air Traffic (Annex 2)
and shall be explicitly coordinated and specified locally for the location-specific conditions by the
E3 manager of the respective area of responsibility with inclusion of the CoC Hazardous Materials.
In view of the development of new lithium-ion batteries, at least prototypes for installation in vehicles
may only be accepted if a valid assessment report of the supplier is available. The respective
component managing developer in conjunction with the respective supplier is responsible for the
procurement and/or provision of the "assessment report" and all other necessary documents
(e.g. safety data sheet, UN 38.3 confirmation, etc.).

6
6.1

Industrial Safety Requirements


Safety Instructions

Employees who come into contact with lithium-ion batteries shall be instructed before initially
beginning their job and then at least annually on the possible dangers and the specified procedure for
damage to a battery or when an accident or malfunction occurs:
Employees who do not directly handle lithium-ion batteries, however work in their vicinity (warehouse,
assembly, workshop, etc.) shall receive awareness-raising training as part of the annual safety
instruction.
Employees who handle lithium-ion batteries on a daily basis (e.g. as part of assembly work), shall be
provided with annual detailed workplace-related safety instruction.
Employees who handle lithium-ion batteries on a daily basis and are also to diagnose and/or inspect
them, shall be provided with annual detailed workplace-related safety instruction and shall meet the
requirements for a "capable person" defined in the guideline (Chapter 8.3).
Safety instructions should contain the following points:

Reference to the hazardous substances and the hazards resulting from them

Organizational measures, safety measures and rules for behavior to be observed by employees

Safety and emergency measures taken

Contents of the regulations and rules which are required for the implementation of the tasks (in
this case, for example, the rules defined in the Guideline for Lithium-Ion Batteries)

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Guideline of Daimler AG - Safe Handling of Lithium-Ion Batteries


In addition, packages and load carriers which contain lithium-ion batteries should be marked with a
clearly visible self-designed adhesive label containing not only the written note "Lithium-Ion Battery",
but also the applicable symbols in accordance with ASR A 1.3.

6.2

Electrical Hazard/Responsibility of Electrics Specialist

When a battery is delivered, an employee, i.e. the capable person as described in Chapter 8.3, shall
determine that the battery does not present any electrical hazard.
For the retail sector, the following applies: the documents on HV safety and HV batteries contained in
the WIS shall be observed.
The reason for this is that the battery is delivered electrically pre-charged. The mechanical protection
against accidental touching of the contacts and the contactors that are open in as-delivered condition
ensure that the touch-proof battery housing is voltage-free. When the battery is put to its intended
use, an electrical hazard due to contact with high voltage can definitely be excluded.
Only after a high-voltage battery has been connected to the vehicle system and the internal battery
management has been actuated, will high voltages greater than 60 V DC occur in the lines and
connected vehicle components.
For intended use of a battery in vehicles or test facilities, comply with the regulations on high-voltage
safety that shall be specified by the electrics specialists (VEFK, EFKmF) responsible for the work
areas.

Provision and Storage Requirements

The following requirements for provision and storage describe the necessary measures from the view
of fire protection, taking into account the different local fire-protection conditions.
The requirements refer only to batteries in safe-to-transport or undamaged condition in accordance
with the results of the respective assessment report.
Requirements for damaged and/or non-transport-safe batteries follow in Section 8.1 "Handling
Damaged Lithium-Ion Batteries". Whether a battery is not safe to transport results from the evaluation
by a capable person.
Apart from the generally valid protection targets, further protection targets shall be achieved with the
following requirements:

The spreading of secondary fires from the environment to the battery shall be prevented.

If the battery unexpectedly causes a fire, spreading is to be checked and the fire extinguished.

7.1

Provision at Locations and Facilities

No additional requirements result when providing customer-ready batteries on production or assembly


lines, in incoming and outgoing goods, in development workshops and in sales facilities including
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Guideline of Daimler AG - Safe Handling of Lithium-Ion Batteries


workshops, provided the maximum number of batteries provided is based on the daily requirement.
No additional requirements exist when storing customer-ready batteries installed in vehicles or
devices.
7.2

Storage in Locations and Facilities

The requirements for the storage of lithium-ion batteries depend on the storage type and the capacity
of the active fire protection in use at the corresponding location or installation. Against this
background, the following variants are possible.
The provision of a fire-water retention system (according to the LRRL Guideline (Firer-Water
Retention Systems Guideline)) shall be checked and possibly implemented for specific locations,
depending on the storage location and volumes.
Details shall be coordinated with the locally responsible fire-protection and environmental-protection
planning departments.
7.2.1

Storage in Areas with Sprinkler Protection

When storing lithium-ion batteries in storage areas with sprinkler protection,1 the following
requirements shall be taken into account:
With open storage
Storage at a distance of 2.50 m from other storage materials, alternatively installation of a
dividing wall made of non-combustible materials, the height of the dividing wall shall
exceed that of adjacent storage goods by at least 1 m.
Maximum surface area of sub-storage areas: 150 m.
Maximum storage height: 1.60 m or
With shelf storage
Storage in protected shelves (e.g. HHS 4 according to VdS CEA 4001).
7.2.2

Storage in Areas with Fire Detection System and Plant Fire Service

For the storage of lithium-ion batteries in storage areas with early fire detection (fire detection
systems), the following requirements shall be considered:
Storage at a distance of 2.50 m from other storage materials, alternatively installation of a
dividing wall made of non-combustible materials, the height of the dividing wall shall
exceed that of adjacent storage goods by at least 1 m.
Maximum surface area of sub-storage areas: 150 m.
Maximum storage height: 1.60 m.
Full-time plant fire service (response time 5 min.).
This does not apply to locations and facilities (including rented objects) falling into the area of
responsibility of a public fire service with a response time > 5 min.

Design of water exposure of protective covers according to currently valid assessment basis for sprinkler systems
(e.g. VdS CEA 4001), take packaging into account

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Guideline of Daimler AG - Safe Handling of Lithium-Ion Batteries


7.2.3

Storage in Other Cases

At locations and facilities where the requirements of Figures 7.2.1 or 7.2.2 cannot be fulfilled, the
following requirements apply: lithium-ion batteries shall be stored in rooms separated from other
sections by fire-resistant elements (F 90).
Individual batteries can, depending on their size, be stored in corresponding fire-resistant hazardoussubstance cabinets (F90). It must be taken into account that no additional combustible materials may
be stored in the aforementioned storage options.
If a corresponding capacity is not available in the object, the batteries can also be stored outside the
building at a distance > 5 m from other physical structures. If a distance > 5 m is not feasible, the
erection of a fire-resistant wall (F90) is possible (individual case solution). The following points shall be
observed for storage outside the building:
Existence of a weather protection (roof)
Soil or surface that is impermeable to liquids or collecting pan.
In Germany, the requirements of the VAwS (Ordinance on Facilities Handling Substances
Hazardous to Waters) shall also be considered (sealing-tightness requirements and testing
requirements for sealing surfaces).
In Germany, a fire-water retention system shall be provided, if necessary (if water
contamination class (WGK) 3 and more than 1 t or WGK 2 and more than 10 t or WGK 1
and more than 100 t are stored).
Measures relating to object and property protection.
Note on implementation: Storage outdoors can, for example, be achieved by using an
outdoor storage area (e.g. similar to the model in Bblingen, Germany, see Chapter 8.4)
7.3

Equipping Workplaces with Fire Extinguishers

In the production, storage and workshop areas where lithium-ion batteries are handled, the type of
extinguishing agent selected shall be based on the typical application/fire load. In addition, water is
suitable as an extinguishing agent for events of lithium-ion batteries.
Lab or workshop areas where cells and batteries are handled for advanced research and development
purposes shall be equipped with a combination of CO2 and metal-fire powder extinguishers (example:
K5 or PM 12 types).
Lithium-ion battery fires can always be extinguished with water. Following extinguishing of the lithiumion battery, it can reignite itself. Therefore, a larger water requirement must be expected. It may be
possible to reduce the water requirement by adding extinguishing agent additives.
Deviations as well as details on the type of extinguishing agent or the number of fire extinguishers
shall be clarified on site with the responsible contact person for fire protection.

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Guideline of Daimler AG - Safe Handling of Lithium-Ion Batteries

8
8.1

Handling of Lithium-Ion Batteries


Handling Damaged Lithium-Ion Batteries

Lithium-ion batteries which are damaged during internal handling (including transport) or are found
damaged or defective, can represent a danger for the surrounding area depending on the degree of
damage.
During a fire or smoke development, the plant or company fire department or external fire department
shall be alarmed immediately and a sufficient safety margin (at least 5 m) shall be assumed (see
following process flowchart "Checking a damaged lithium-ion battery for transportability").
If electrolyte leaks out, the safety measures and rules for behavior specified locally in the working and
operating instructions apply at the locations.
These shall be coordinated with the local work safety department.
If electrolyte leaks out, the following minimum requirements generally apply at the locations:

Clean the danger area and assume the safety margin; ensure good ventilation
Wait for a possible reaction time of the electrolyte of 20 min and any reactions
(e.g. smoke development )
If no further reactions are visible, the battery must be brought into a safe container
described in Chapter 8.4 and then to the area specified for storage
The leaked electrolyte shall be bound using an absorber (vermiculite) and brought into
containers (closed plastic containers) intended for disposal

The PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) to be used is described in detail under "Definitions of
Terms". The protective gloves and the work clothing shall be cleaned after contamination and the
manufacturer's specifications shall also be observed.
In case of contact with the electrolyte, the affected area shall be cleaned immediately with plenty of
cold water. Should the eyes be affected, flush them immediately with plenty of cold water or an eyewash bottle. A physician or the plant medical department must be consulted immediately.
If neither a fire nor smoke development nor leaked electrolyte can be determined, then a further
inspection of the lithium-ion battery by a capable person (for a definition of capabilities for the
individual work steps, see Section 8.3) shall be ordered. The result of the examination will be
documented in a battery-specific assessment report and shall be enclosed with the battery (for an
example see Annex 1 and VDA report).
When bringing a new lithium-ion battery type to Daimler AG for the first time, a process description for
checking and evaluating the transportability of defective or damaged batteries shall be presented by
the battery manufacturer (assessment report). For prototype batteries which still do not have an
assessment report approved by the battery manufacturer, the VDA standard report can be used
temporarily.

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Guideline of Daimler AG - Safe Handling of Lithium-Ion Batteries


The completed assessment report serves as basis for deciding on the transportability of the battery.
Details on the inspection and for the use of assessment reports shall be governed in local (depending
on the location or facility), battery-specific work instructions.
Batteries from the crash area shall be treated after loading as follows:
The coolant is to be drained off while still installed
Then the inspection results (including the evaluation of the transportability) can be carried out
directly. If safe transport is determined, the battery can be packed and shipped directly.

If it is determined during the evaluation of the electrical safety of HV batteries (> 60 V) by a highvoltage specialist (FfHV) or electrics specialist (EFK) that a voltage can be measured between the
HV contacts or between an HV contact and the casing (for the maximum voltage: see the batteryspecific assessment report) then this battery is not approved for transport without additional
measures. Then the following measures are required for transport:

The contacts in the HV connector shall be covered by the battery-specific terminal protection
caps,
With damaged HV connectors, other suitable safety measures shall be taken to reliably
prevent touching of live parts.

The battery shall be marked with a highly adhesive, highly visible self-designed adhesive label which
shows not only the note "Caution! Battery with defective HV circuit/The information in the
assessment report must be observed!", but also the applicable symbol according to ASR A 1.3:

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Guideline of Daimler AG - Safe Handling of Lithium-Ion Batteries


Process flowchart: Checking of a damaged lithium-ion battery for transportability (see Chapter 8.1)

Damaged
lithium-ion
battery

yes

Is there
imminent
danger?*

*Fire/smoke
development,
determined!

no

Lithium-ion
battery
transportable
without
restriction?

yes

**Evaluation by
capable person
(for definition,
see Chapter 8.3)

no

Alarm fire
department
Emergency
call 112

Removal in accordance
with internal emergency
process see Chapter 8.1,
8.4 and 8.5

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Removal via
logistics route
see Chapter 9.2

Guideline of Daimler AG - Safe Handling of Lithium-Ion Batteries


8.2

Behavior in Case of Accidents of Vehicles with Lithium-Ion Batteries

If an accident occurs with a vehicle which uses lithium-ion batteries as an energy accumulator, the
following procedure must be complied with:
First, the vehicle involved in an accident shall be examined by qualified experts (for any damage to the
high-voltage battery (HV battery). (For the retail sector, the following applies: employees with product
training):
Visible mechanical damage to the HV battery (with body deformation in the surrounding
area of the HV battery, the HV battery shall be removed with protective equipment suitable
for this purpose if necessary)
Electrolyte leakage (visible and/or odorous)
Heat development (discoloration)
Coolant leakage/coolant leakage from the battery casing

If one of the criteria has been determined, then suitable measures shall be taken immediately.
The vehicle shall be parked as follows until repairs are carried out:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Park the vehicle in a free space with sufficient distance (> 5 m) to other vehicles and buildings
Remove the ignition key; with KEYLESS-GO remove the transmitter from the vehicle
Disconnect the 12 V battery
Actuate the service disconnect (high-voltage shut-off device) (if this is not possible, then the
battery connector must be pulled. When doing so, PPE must be worn and the expert personnel
must be qualified (product training or FfHV)) (The PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) to be
used is described in greater detail in "Definitions of Terms".
5. The clear area shall be secured against access by unauthorized persons and marked with
locally valid warning signs which point out the danger of the vehicle involved in an accident
(high voltage).

If no qualified expert personnel is present outside business hours, then apart from the receiving
analysis for potential dangers and point (4) of the information on parking the vehicle, the measures
listed here (1 - 5), without (4) with regard to fire protection and vehicle protection shall nevertheless
be carried out.
If a repair order for the vehicle has been placed, the battery shall be replaced following an accident
with triggering of the pyrofuse (irreversible switch-off of the HV system). If the HV battery cannot be
removed with the ordinary repair instructions, then the responsible MPC shall be contacted. With
XENTRY Diagnostics/DAS, the triggering of the pyrofuse can be determined with the fault memory of
the battery management system (BMS) or VECU (169EV) if necessary.
The currently valid fault codes are contained in the WIS.
At least the tests listed below must be carried out for leaving the HV battery in the vehicle after an
accident without triggering of the pyrofuse. First a visual inspection for damage to the HV components
and the 12-volt vehicle power supply (bare lines, danger of short circuits) must be carried out. If all
HV components and liners are undamaged on the outside, the service disconnect must be
reconnected. PPE must be worn during an HV service disconnect and when connecting HV cables.

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The PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) to be used is described in detail under "Definitions of
Terms".
Function test:
Performing the control unit short test for detection of safety-relevant faults and conditions
in the battery management system (insulation resistance, function of insulation monitor,
function of interlock, function of contactor, max/min cell voltage, safety triggering in the
HV battery)
Carrying out the charging process for 10 min ("Engine on" for hybrid vehicles or with the
charging cable for plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles).
Checking the function with the instrument cluster (hybrid vehicles) or with the charge
indicator box or the charging socket in the vehicle (electric vehicle and plug-in hybrid)
Carrying out a test drive
If safety-relevant fault codes (see above) or malfunctions occur during these tests, the HV battery may
not remain in the vehicle and must be replaced.
In case of an accident/incident or fire which can lead to severe battery damage, the measures
described in the following Section 8.3 shall be taken.

8.3

Definition of Competencies for Examination of Damaged Batteries (Competent Person)

To perform examinations on batteries, various competencies are required. For this purpose, an
appropriately customized training course (evaluation of the transportability of lithium-ion batteries) is
offered which can be booked via eTrain. The training course is intended especially for persons who
handle lithium-ion batteries on a daily basis. It is not battery-specific, but instead teaches the basic
principle of battery evaluation for all Daimler lithium-ion batteries - shown using the example of
several battery types. The training course is divided into the following parts:
a) Theory and evaluation of dangers
b) Special features of the specified batteries and measurements
On the other hand, the assessment reports are battery-specific and come from the respective
manufacturer. After conducting the training course, the employees are capable of evaluating the
transport safety and filling out the assessment reports required for this purpose (see Annex 1). Part a)
of the training course must be repeated every 5 years, Part b) is battery-specific and no repetition is
required here. With regard to the capabilities, these are described in the following depending on the
inspection step (based on the assessment reports and the safety data sheets of the respective
manufacturers). In areas where batteries are handled, at least two persons shall be classified as
competent, so that one person can act as substitute if the other one is absent. The existing
qualification cascade applies for the retail sector. Employees who have participated in a product
training course are considered to be capable. The minimum qualifications for processing the individual
work steps of the evaluation (see assessment reports for transportability) are specified in the
following:

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A) Fire and/or smoke development, electrolyte leakage
The annual safety instruction is sufficient for determining smoke development, fire development or
electrolyte leakage. The necessary training documents are stored centrally on the intranet.
For the retail sector the following applies: A capable person is anyone, who has received awarenessraising training (eLearning). Additional information is stored in the WIS (e.g. Note on acute hazards
caused by high-voltage batteries: AH54.10-P-0007-01EZV, AH54.10-P-0007-01MEV, Transportability
evaluation: OF54.10-P-3000-01B, OF54.10-P-3000-01C, OF54.10-P-3000-01Z).
B) Assessment of mechanical protective coverings/housings
Capable persons are those who have attended the training course offered in the e-train (training
course consists in particular of the correct processing of the assessment reports). At branch offices,
these are employees with an HV qualification and product training.
For the retail sector the following applies: A capable person is anyone, who has received awarenessraising training (eLearning). Additional information is stored in the (e.g. Note on acute hazards caused
by high-voltage batteries: AH54.10-P-0007-01EZV, AH54.10-P-0007-01MEV, Transportability
evaluation: OF54.10-P-3000-01B, OF54.10-P-3000-01C, OF54.10-P-3000-01Z).
C) Measurement of externally present voltage
A competent person is a person who is at least FfHV (high-voltage specialist) with corresponding work
instruction or EFK (electrics specialist). At branch offices, these are employees with an
HV qualification and product training.
D) Assessment of internal short circuit
a) Battery installed in vehicle
A competent person is a person who is instructed to apply the respective vehicle diagnostic system by
means of an area-specific work instruction. At branch offices, these are employees with an
HV qualification and product training.
b) Battery not installed in vehicle
Capable persons are those who have the hardware and software infrastructure required for
communication with the battery management system, who have been trained in the handling of
batteries and the use of battery-specific hardware and software and who can read out diagnostic and
battery state information on the removed battery.

8.4

Material Control and Storage of Damaged and/or Defective Lithium-Ion Batteries

Damaged lithium-ion batteries are stored safely in a leak-proof storage container, half of which is filled
with vermiculite (non-combustible, absorbs leaking electrolyte). (Example see Annex 3, storage
container for damaged lithium-ion batteries). It must be ensured that a storage container or storage
room is immediately available.
For the retail sector, the following applies: If an acute danger can be excluded, then high-voltage
batteries diagnosed as not suitable for transport in the vehicle may not be removed until after
consulting with the responsible MPC/general representative and providing a storage container. The
storage container intended for this purpose shall be ordered immediately after the analysis for
transportability at the Global Logistics Center (GLC).
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The GSP/LSW department can provide support for procurement. For contact persons, see Annex 4.
Then in-house transport (as per Section 8.5) to a safe location is possible. The storage container with
the lithium-ion battery shall remain there in accordance with the specified period of time indicated in
the approval or in the valid regulations. In the process, it must be ensured that transfer to the storage
container and the transport to the external storage area is carried out immediately. After this time
period, internal chemical reactions of the lithium-ion battery are no longer to be expected and it
generally no longer poses any danger. Even after this time period, the following safety precautions
should still be taken into account. Details shall be specified and documented for each specific
location.

The requirements regarding the surface area for the storage of damaged lithium-ion batteries are:

Surface area is located outside the building

A weather protection (roof) is provided. Can be eliminated when a storage container or


storage room (Annex 4) is used.

Storage at a distance > 5 m from buildings or combustible materials. If a distance > 5 m is not
feasible, the erection of a fire-resistant wall (F90) is possible.

Soil or surface that is impermeable to liquids or collecting pan.

In Germany, the requirements of the VAwS (Ordinance on Facilities Handling Substances


Hazardous to Waters) shall also be considered (sealing-tightness requirements and testing
requirements for sealing surfaces).

The provision of a fire-water retention system (according to the LRRL Guideline) shall be
checked and possibly implemented for specific locations, depending on the storage location
and volumes.

Measures relating to object and property protection.

The requirements of the assignment marking of the storage containers are:

There is no claim to marking whether or not a storage container is occupied.

The containers are equipped with pressure relief openings. As a result, there is no danger,
should an occupied container be opened. If a storage container is stored in an outside
storage area, then it shall be placed there without a cover, as otherwise the semi-stationary
extinguishing system cannot become active.

The person who orders the moving of defective or damaged batteries into the temporary storage area
according to Section 8.4, has the responsibility for forwarding the batteries for disposal as shown in
the process diagram in Section 8.
Defective or damaged batteries brought into the outside storage area shall be marked clearly and
permanently with information on the origin, storage date and owners of the batteries for the purpose
of traceability and further order schedule. For the retail sector, the following applies: Defective or
damaged batteries from vehicles involved in an accident (with a triggered pyrofuse) shall be sprayed
with non-soluble, clearly visible paint (e.g. red), especially the inside and outside of at least one plug
connection on the battery.
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Guideline of Daimler AG - Safe Handling of Lithium-Ion Batteries

Figure1 Implementation example NOK outside storage area, Bblingen model

8.5

In-House Transports

For the in-house transport of lithium-ion batteries, the existing in-house instructions by Logistics shall
be used or at least the following basic requirements for transport safety shall be observed:
Used batteries are only transported if a certificate of transportability is available. (at least Part A
"Acute Dangers")
Transport is only carried out by trained/instructed (see Chapter 6.1 Safety Instructions) personnel.
The safety instruction shall take place prior to the transport activity and shall be taken into account
as part of the annual repeat instruction.
Transport of the lithium-ion batteries can take place in the original packaging or other load carriers.
However, the employee shall be able to clearly recognize from the packaging, marking or labeling that lithium-ion batteries are concerned.
Particular attention is to be paid to load securing and stacking heights (see Section 7.21.-7.2.3).
Section 7 shall be observed for further storage and provision.
If a malfunction or accident occurs, the procedure described in Section 8.1 shall be used.
8.6

Installation and Operation of Charging Stations for Lithium-Ion Batteries and Electric
Vehicles with Lithium-Ion Batteries

The planning, selection, setup and operation of charging stations for lithium-ion batteries in the sense
of battery charging systems in production, storage and workshop areas shall be coordinated with the
locally responsible fire protection planning and specialized planners. The electrical safety of the
devices shall be ensured.
8.7

Installation and Operation of Battery Test Rigs

For the installation and the operation of test rigs or facilities where destructive material tests or
performance tests in the limit range of lithium-ion batteries are carried out, special safety measures
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Guideline of Daimler AG - Safe Handling of Lithium-Ion Batteries


are necessary which are not covered in this guideline. Such facilities shall be set up as part of the
plant-specific planning process.
8.8

Installation and Operation of Drive Train Test Rigs

For component and system test rigs which contain lithium-ion batteries, a systematic determination
and evaluation of the risk potential is carried out with a risk evaluation. Required measures shall be
derived from this. The test rig must have a CE-compliant approval for battery operation.

9
9.1

Transport
National and International Regulations on Transporting Hazardous Goods

The transport of lithium-ion batteries in the public transport area shall be performed in strict
compliance with applicable national and international regulations on the transport of hazardous goods
for the respective means of transport. The following legal regulations shall be observed in particular:

UN recommendations: - I UN Rules
- II UN "Tests and Criteria" Manual

European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods


by Road ADR,

Regulation concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail RID,

European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods


by Inland Waterways ADN,

International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code - IMDG Code,

International Civil Aviation Organization Technical Instructions ICAO T.I. or the


International Air Transport Association - Dangerous Goods Regulation IATA-DGR.

Note: In other countries (e.g. US, Canada, Brazil, India, China, etc.) other or additional regulations may
be valid.
The requirements resulting from the aforementioned legal regulations shall be described in procedural
and work instructions and shall be integrated in the requirement specifications when using service
providers. In this process, especially the battery type, the development and test status, the condition
of the battery (assessment report), the respective packaging, the quantities to be transported during
the transport process and the type of involvement in the preparation and implementation of the
transport processes shall be taken into account.
9.2

Implementation of National and International Regulations and Laws when Transporting


Lithium-Ion Batteries

The responsibility for compliance with the dangerous goods regulations, the creation and updating of
the procedural and work instructions and the initial and recurring instruction and training of
employees involved in the transport of lithium-ion batteries and the monitoring and checking of the
specified procedure for effectiveness (related supervision) lies with the relevant executive managers
up to level E3 as well as the management personnel below Level 3 expressly named as
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"commissioned persons" according to the Daimler Guideline D1980.0 "Transport of Dangerous
Goods" of 2013-05-01.
Details on the implementation of the legal requirements for hazardous materials when transporting
lithium-ion batteries are described in the "Guideline on Transporting Lithium-Ion Batteries in Road, Sea
and Air Traffic".
This guideline will be adapted at the appropriate time to the new aspects of the hazardous materials
laws and the respective latest version will be published on the CoC Hazardous Materials intranet site
(http://intra.corpintra.net/gefahrgut).

10 Disposal
10.1 General Information:
Already during the development and planning phase, it shall be ensured that waste avoidance and
recycling is adequately integrated into all process steps. The necessary departments shall be involved
in this process.
The supplier of the HVB must submit a recycling concept including transport. Dismantling instructions
for the HVB shall be submitted in German and English.
"Re-manufacturing" the re-processing of the used battery for re-use in the vehicle shall be
preferred over disposal (differentiation criterion: will to dispose in waste legislation). Relevant
concepts shall be developed prior to the market introduction.
Take-back agreements with the battery manufacturer shall be considered in the requirement
specifications or purchasing contracts and the relevant conditions shall be defined.
Note: Take-back agreements with the original manufacturer are always possible, but should, as a rule,
not be considered as disposal according to German waste legislation.
High-quality materials recycling of the HV battery after termination of the product service life shall be
aimed at. Possible disposal partners shall be involved upfront.
The existing disposal concepts and logistics shall be questioned and optimized at regular intervals.
Communication about the existing disposal routes for locations of Daimler AG (Germany) is ensured
via the Disposal working group. The following applies for branch offices and authorized agents of the
sales organization: If batteries cannot be routed to Remanufacturing (ReMan), disposal is carried out
via the Mercedes-Benz Recycling System (MeRSy).
10.2 Specific Tasks and Responsibilities Relating to Disposal
10.2.1 Waste Producers (Development, Production, Workshops):
Report their disposal intention to the responsible waste manager and waste logistics area
beforehand
Give detailed information about the material composition of the waste (e. g. "safety data sheet" in
Europe) beforehand
The used battery that is to be disposed of shall be delivered to the waste collection point with
complete data/identification (battery type, waste producer,). Without complete data including
the analysis document, the collection point cannot accept the used battery. (see the checklist,
Annex 4)
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10.2.2 Waste Manager (or person in charge of these tasks at the location)
Classifies the battery according to the currently applicable waste legislation (note: currently
HV batteries shall be classified as hazardous waste according to AVV 160121*, changes can only
be made in coordination with the specialist experts of the Disposal working group.)
Performs required tests and releases the disposal path prior to the disposal; here: entire process
chain up to final use and implementation/initiation of the disposal audit, see Procedural Instruction
ENV-VA-DAG-003
Initiates authorizations relating to waste legislation and waste-disposal proofs
Initiates purchasing contracts together with Purchasing (currently IPS)
Performs operational disposal checks based on existing processes for checking hazardous waste
at the locations
10.2.3 Waste Logistics
Ensures suitable acceptance and provision of used batteries; applies the standardized check list for
the acceptance of HV batteries at the waste-collection point (see Annex 5)
(At the waste-collection point, the requirements for provision and storage apply, see Chapter 4)
Performs operational disposal, exclusively via the approved disposal paths and proofs
Ensures the legally required documentation
10.2.4 Purchasing
On initiative of the waste manager (or waste logistics manager) quotations are requested from
potential disposal companies; concludes purchasing contracts
During the selection and commissioning of the recycler, the achievement of the specified recycling
efficiency in accordance with the battery guideline shall be ensured (for industrial batteries, this is
50 percent by weight of the average weight of the batteries and accumulators recycled in the
process). The recycler shall submit proof and the achievement of the recycling efficiency shall be
included in the recycling contract.
10.3 Process Descriptions
see Annex 5

11 Annexes
Note: Some of the following specified documents shall be adapted to local conditions, model series or
battery types in use at the locations.

Annex 1

All assessment reports and safety data sheets of the respective


manufacturers shall be obtained via the database for transport
documents. Contacts: Component managers for the batteries,
T. Handschuh (database manager in RD/EDB)

Annex 2

Guideline on Transporting Lithium-Ion Batteries in Road, Sea and Air


Traffic
See
CoC
Hazardous
Materials
intranet
site
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(http://intra.corpintra.net/gefahrgut)

Annex 3

Annex 4

Storage containers for damaged batteries Contacts of GSP/LSW

Check list for acceptance of HV/Li-ion batteries and cells for disposal at
the waste collection point

Process descriptions for the disposal of HV/lithium-ion batteries and cells


Annex 5
Annex 6

Procedural instruction on evaluating transportability of lithium-ion


batteries (currently being prepared by the Safety working group)

12 Members of Working Group and Steering Committee


The document was created by the members of the working group:
Function

Last name, first


name

Plant

Department

Work safety

Thomas Gutschalk

096

PER/HS

Aftersales, environmental
protection management

Dr. Georg Bchler

006

GSP/LS

Matthias Wst

059

GSP/TPA

Sophie Klein

059

GSP/TPA

Hans-Jrgen Mau

059

GSP/TPA

HV working group ('AK HV') MBC

Rainer Falsett

059

RD/EKS

Fire protection planning

Hans Pietsch

050

CS/D1

Fire protection

Heiko Schfer

050

CS/D2

Dr. Tobias Handschuh

059

RD/EDB

Leonhard Heinrichs

788

Dt. ACCU

Dr. Ulf Jakobi

059

RD/EEB

Facility management

Thomas Gareis

059

CFM/RD

FP/WP

Holger Mazanec

050

FP/IP

Dr. Dietmar Michel

050

FP/IP

Hazardous goods manager

Dr. F.-A. Polonius

001

T/WTM

Fire department

Hartmut Schmitt

050

CS/D1

Legal department

Thomas Frangenberg

096

L/RE

Battery development

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Guideline of Daimler AG - Safe Handling of Lithium-Ion Batteries


HRM/RDT

Stephan Limpcher

059

HRM/RDT

Logistics

Volker Mller

059

RD/OTL

Production planning and


scheduling

Annette Lacroix

010

PWT/VEP

Dr. Peter Bidian

010

PWT/VEP

Project manager

Dr.-Ing. Arnold Lamm

059

RD/EDB

Environmental protection

Dr. Udo Hartmann

019

RD/RSE

Representative Disposal working


group

Joachim Findeis

010

WPS/WSE

Representatives of
implementation groups

Alexander Dietl

059

RD/OTW

Erik Theis

059

RD/OTW

Rainer Schneider

059

RD/KSP

Helmut Ruoff

059

RD/KSP

Hartmut Goetzen

059

RD/RCR

Axel Wittig

059

RD/RCR

Insurance

Eberhard Hess

643

INS/CI

Representatives of Business Units

Bus: Frederic Woller

028

E/EE-HVS

Thomas Ehrhard

028

SPV

Truck: Tobias
Lcking, Stephan
Treusch

019

TP/AGH

020

VAN/ESA

VAN: Bastian Huber

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