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CAE laboratory expeciment 2

- curriculum map
- College Algebra
- Application of Math Principles to Engineering.pdf
- unit-ii
- Euler's and Runge-Kutta Method.pdf
- 6-1
- Higher Order Differential Equations
- PDF%2Fjmssp.2012.77.81
- Age Problems
- tutorium
- separable ode - advanced engineering mathematics
- Ansexam1.pdf
- FIVE INTEGER NUMBER ALGORITHMS TO SOLVE LINEAR SYSTEMS
- Chapter 1
- Factor and Remaimder Theorem
- Algebra
- Differential Equation Basics
- EASY-FIT a Software System for Data Fitting in Dyn
- MA 109 College Algebra Chapter 1.pdf
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CHEP530D1

Computer Applications in Engineering

Instructor

Solving Ordinary Differential Equations Using Matlab

SOLVING ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS USING MATLAB

1. Objective(s):

The activity aims to solve differential equations using matlab.

2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):

The students shall be able to:

2.1 solve first order ordinary differential equations using matlab

2.2 solve second order ordinary differential equations using matlab

2.3 solve third order ordinary differential equations using matlab

2.4 obtain general and particular solutions of first, second and third order ordinary differential equations

2.5 solve systems of ordinary differential equations.

3. Discussion :

Ordinary differential equations tend to arise whenever you need to model changing quantities that depend

on the amount of other quantities around it. For example, in chemistry, the time rate of change of

concentration ( dx/dt ) of a chemical solution often depends on the concetrations of other chemicals that

surround it. In biology, differential equations are often used in population dynamics, to model the evolution

and/or extinction of a particular species (like people, animals, bacteria, or even viruses like HIV) (eg.,

Volterra Equations). In finance, the stock market is often modeled via sets of coupled differential equations

(e.g., Black-Scholes equation). In physics, dfq's are everywhere { we've seen them in Cosmology (e.g.,

Friedmann's Equations, non-linear structure growth and perturbation theory), Classical Dynamics (e.g., the

orbits of planets, stars, and galaxies as specialized N-body problems, hydrodynamics),and Radioactive

Transfer. Most differential equations are too complicated to write down a solution by hand (an "analytical

solution"), so one has to revert to numerics to find any kind of solution at all.

Numerical methods are commonly used for solving mathematical problems that are formulated in

science and engineering where it is difficult or even impossible to obtain exact solutions. Only a limited

number of differential equations can be solved analytically. Numerical methods, on the other hand, can give

an approximate solution to (almost) any equation. An ordinary differential equation (ODE) is an equation

that contains an independent variable, a dependent variable and derivatives of the dependent variable.

The MATLAB ODE solvers are written to solve problems of the form

dx/dt = F(t,x)

The Matlab ODE solvers are accesses by calling a function of the form

[X,T] = ode** (@F, TimeSpan,Xo,Options,P1,P2,P3)

@F

rates of change

Timespan

needed OR a vector of the form [start,end]

Laboratory Exercise no. 2

Xo

settings are used

options associated with the ode solver

P1,P2,P3..

passed to @F

Function [dx_dt] = F(t,x,P1,P2,P3)

dx_dt =

return

There are several different ode solvers supplied with matlab.

Solver

Implicit/Explicit

Accuracy

ode45

Explicit

ode23

Explicit

ode113

Explicit

ode15s

Implicit

ode23s

Implicit

stable than ode15s)

ode23tb

Implicit

stable than ode15s)

ODE45 (an explicit Runge-Kutta method) is efficient, but can become unstable with stiff systems.

This will manifest itself by the solver taking shorter and shorter time steps to compensate. The

solution will either take a long time, or the time step will be reduced to the point where machine

precision causes the routine to fail.

The problems of solving an ODE are classified into initial-value problems (IVP) and

boundary value problems (BVP), depending on how the conditions at the endpoints of the domain

are specified. All the conditions of an initial-value problem are specified at the initial point. On the

Laboratory Exercise no. 2

Solving Ordinary Differential Equations Using Matlab

other hand, the problem becomes a boundary-value problem if the conditions are needed for both

initial and final points. The ODE in the time domain are initial-value problems, so all the conditions

are specified at the initial time, such as t = 0 or x = 0. For notations, we use t or x as an

independent variable.Some literatures use t as time for independent variable.

4. Resources:

Matlab

5. Procedure:

1. Though Matlab is primarily a numeric package, it can solve straightforward differential equations

symbolically. Suppose, for example, we want to solve the first order differential equation y = xy

where y = dy/dx =y(x).

2. We can use Matlabs built-in dsolve(). The input for solving this problem in Matlab is given below:

>>y = dsolve(Dy = y*x,x) where y(x) must be written as Dy. If it is y (x), same as d 2 y/ x 2 ,it

must be written as D2y.If it is y(x), same as d 3 y/ x3 , it must be written as D3y. It is 8y(x), same

as 8dy/dx, it must be written as 8*Dy. All in Java command window. Press enter and record the

results.

3. Notice in particular that MATLAB uses capital D to indicate the derivative and requires that the

entire equation appear in single quotes. MATLAB takes t to be the independent variable by default,

so here x must be explicitly defined as the independent variable. Alternatively, if you are going to

use the same equation a number of times, you might choose to define it as a variable, say eqn 1.

>>eqn1 = Dy=y*x;

>>y = dsolve(eqn1,x)

Press enter and record the results.

4. To solve an initial value problem, say, y(x)=xy with y(1)=1 use

>>y =dsolve (eqn1,y(1)=1,x)

Press enter and record the results.

5. To plot the solution to get a rough idea of its behavior.

>>x = linspace(0,1,20);

>>z= eval(vectorize(y));

>>plot(x,z)

Press enter and record the results.

Laboratory Exercise no. 2

Solving Ordinary Differential Equations Using Matlab

6. Suppose we want to solve and plot the solution to the second order equation

y(x) + 8y(x) + 2y(x) = cos(x) ; y(0) = 0 , y(0)=1

7. The following MATLAB code suffices:

>>eqn2 = D2y + 8*Dy + 2*y = cos(x);

>>inits2 = y(0)=0, Dy(0) = 1;

>>y = dsolve(eqn2,inits2,x)

Press enter and see the results. Record the results.

>>z = eval(vectorize(y));

>>plot(x,z)

Press enter and record the results.

8. Suppose we want to solve and plot the solutions to the system of three ordinary differential

equations

x(t) = x(t) + 2y(t) z(t)

y(t) = x(t) + z(t)

z(t) = 4x(t) 4y(t) + 5z(t)

To find a general solution, each equation is now braced in its own pair of (single) quotation marks:

>> [x,y,z] = dsolve(Dx = x +2*y-z,Dy = x + z,Dz = 4*x 4*y + 5*z)

Press enter and record the results. Notice that since no independent variable is specified,

MATLAB used its default, t.

With conditions:

>> inits = x(0)=1, y(0)= 2, z(0)=3;

>> [x,y,z] = dsolve(Dx = x +2*y-z,Dy = x + z,Dz = 4*x 4*y + 5*z,inits)

Solving Ordinary Differential Equations Using Matlab

>> xx = eval(vectorize(x));

>> yy = eval(vectorize(y));

>> zz = eval(vectorize (z));

>> plot (t,xx,t,yy,t,zz)

Press enter and record the results.

10. To find numerical solutions, MATLAB has a number of tools for numerically solving ordinary

differential equations. Built-in functions ode23 and ode45, which implement versions of RungeKutta 2nd/3rd order and Runge-Kutta 4th and 5th order, respectively. Numerically approximate the

solution of the first order differential equation

dy/dx = xy 2 + y ; y(0) =1 on the interval x [0,0.5]

For any differential equation in the form y = f(x,y), we begin by defining the function f(x,y). For

single equations, we can define f(x,y) as an inline function

>> f = inline(x*y^2 + y)

Press enter and record the results.

11. The basic usage for MATLABs solver ode45 is ode45(function, domain, initial condition). That is ,

we use

>>[x,y] = ode45(f,[0,0.5],1)

Press enter and record the results.

12. To plot the values

>>plot(x,y)

Press enter and record the results.

13. Choosing the partition. In approximating this solution, the algorithm ode 45 has selected a certain

partition [0,0.5] and MATLAB has returned a value of y at each point in this partition. It is often the

case that we would like to specify the partition of values on which MATLAB returns an

approximation. For example, we might only want to approximate y(0.1),y(0.2) y(0.5).We can

specify this by entering the vector values [0,0.1,0.2,0.3,0.4,0.5] as the domain in ode45. That is, we

use

Solving Ordinary Differential Equations Using Matlab

>>xvalues = 0:.1:.5

Press enter and see the results. Record the results.

>>[x,y]=ode45(f,xvalues,1)

Press enter and record the results.

14. Several options are available for MATLABs ode45 solver, giving the user limited control over the

algorithm.Two important options are relative and absolute tolerance, respectively RelTol and AbsTol

in MATLAB. At each step of the ode45 algorithm, an error is approximated for that step. If y k is the

approximation of y(xk) at step k, and ek is the approximate error at this step, then MATLAB chooses

its partition to insure

ek max(RelTol *yk , AbsTol)

where the default values are RelTol=.001 and AbsTol=.000001. As an example for when we might

want to change these values, observe that if yk becomes large, then the error ek will be allowed to

grow quite large. In this case, we increase the value of RelTol. For the equation y = xy 2 + y, with

y(0)=1, the values of y get quite large as x near 1. In fact, with the default error tolerances, we find

that the command

>> [x,y] = ode45(f,[0,1],1);

Leads to an error message,caused by the fact that the values of y are getting too large as x nears

1.In order to fix this problem,we choose a smaller value for RelTol

>>options = odeset(RelTol,1e-10);

>>[x,y]=ode45(f,[0,1],1,options);

>>max(y)

Press enter and record the results.

15. Alternatively, we can solve the same ODE by first defining f(x,y) as an M-file firstode.m

function yprime = firstode(x,y);

% FIRSTODE: Computes yprime =x*y^2 + y

yprime = x*y^2 + y;

In this case, we only require one change in the ode45 command: we must use a pointer @ to

indicate the m-file. That is, we use the following commands

Solving Ordinary Differential Equations Using Matlab

>>xspan=[0,.5];

>>y0=1;

>.[x,y]=ode23(@firstode,xspan,y0);

>>x

Press enter and record the results.

16. Solving a system of ODE in MATLAB is quite similar to solving a single equation, though since a

system of equations cannot be defined as an inline function we must define it as an M-file. Solve

the system of Lorenz equations,

dy/dt = -x + y

dy/dt = x y -xz

dy/dt = -z + xy

where for the purposes of this example, we will take = 10, = 8/3, and =28, as well as x(0)=-8,

y(0)=8, and z(0)=27. The MATLAB M-file containing the Lorenz equations appears below

function xprime = Lorenz(t,x);

%LORENZ: Computes the derivatives involved in solving the Lorenz equations

sig = 10;

beta = 8/3;

rho=28;

xprime=[-sig*x(1) + sig*x(2);rho*x(1)-x(2)-x(1)*x(3);-beta*x(3) +x(1)*x(2)];

17. Observe that x is stored as x(1), y is stored as x(2) and z is stored as x(3).Additionally, xprime is a

column vector,as is evident from semicolon following appearance of x(2).In the command

window,we type

>>x0=[-8 8 27];

>>tspan=[0,20];

>>[t,x]= ode45(@lorenz,tspan,x0)

Press enter and record the results.

Laboratory Exercise no. 2

Solving Ordinary Differential Equations Using Matlab

18. The matrix has been denoted x in the statement calling ode45, and in general any coordinate of the

matrix can be specified as x(m,n) where m denotes the row and n denotes the column.What we

will be most interested in is referring to the columns x, which correspond with values of the

components of the system. Along these lines, we can denote all row or all x by a colon : . For

example, x(:,1) refers to all rows in the first column of the matrix x; that is, it refers to all values of

our original x component. Using this information, we can easily plot the Lorenz strange attractor,

which is a plot of z versus x:

>>plot(x(:,1),x(:,3))

Press enter and record the results.

>>subplot(3,1,1)

>>plot(t,x(:,1))

>>subplot(3,1,2)

>>plot(t,x(:,2)

>>subplot(3,1,3)

>>plot(t,x(:,3)

20. In analyzing system of differential equations, we often want to experiment with different parameter

values. For example, in studying the Lorenz equations we might want to consider the behavior as a

function of the values of , and . Of course, one way to change this is to manually re-open the

M-file Lorenz.m each time we want to try new values, but not only is a slow way to do it, its

unwieldy to automate it. What we can do instead is pass parameter values directly to our M-file

through the ode45 call statement.Alter Lorenz.m into lorenz1.m, the latter of which accepts a vector

of parameters that we denote p.

Function xprime = lorenz1(t,x,p);

%LORENZ ; Computes the derivatives involved in solving the Lorenz equations.

sig=p(1);beta=p(2);rho=p(3);

xprime=[-sig*x(1) + sig*x(2);rho*x(1)-x(2)-x(1)*x(3);-beta*x(3) +x(1)*x(2)];

21. We can now send parameter values with ode45

Laboratory Exercise no. 2

Solving Ordinary Differential Equations Using Matlab

>>[t,x]=ode45(@lorenz1,tspan,x0,[],p)

Press enter and record the results.

22. The first step in solving a second (or higher) order ordinary differential equation in MATLAB is to

write the equation as a first order system. For the equation

y(x) + 8y(x) + 2y(x) = cos(x) ; y(0) = 0 , y(0)=1

Taking y1(x) = y(x) and y2(x) = y(x)

y1(x) = y2(x)

y2 (x) = -8y2(x) -2y1(x) + cos(x)

Proceed as in Procedure 16.

23. Another class of ODEs that often arise in applications are boundary value problems (BVPs).

Consider ,for example, the differential

y 3y + 2y = 0

y(0) = 0

y(1)=10

where our conditions y(0)=0 and y(1) = 10 are specified on the boundary of the interval of

interest

interest x [0,1]. The first step in solving this type of equation is to write it as a first order system

with y1 = 1 and y2 = y, for which we have

y 1 = y2

y2 = -2y1 + 3y2

24. We record this system in the M-file bvpexample.m

Function yprime = bvpexample(t.y)

%BVPEXAMPLE : Differential equation for boundary value problem example

yprime=[y(2); -2*y(1) + 3*y(2)];

Solving Ordinary Differential Equations Using Matlab

25. Next , we write the boundary conditions as the M-file bc.m, which records boundary residues

Function res = bc(y0,y1)

%BC: Evaluates the residue of the boundary condition

Res=[y0(1);y1(1)-10];

By residue, we mean the left-hand side of the boundary condition once it has been set to 0.In this

case, the second boundary condition is y(1)=10, so its residue is y(1)-10, which is recorded in the

second component of the vector that bc.m returns The variables y0 and y1 represent the solution

at x=0 and at x=1 respectively, while the 1 in the parenthesis indicates the first component of the

vector. In the event that the second boundary condition was y(1) = 10, we would replace y1(1)-10

with y1(2)-10.

26. We are now in a position to begin solving the boundary value problem. In the following code, we

first specify a grid of x values for MATLAB to solve on and an initial guess for the vector that would

be given for an initial value problem [y(0),y(0)].We solve the boundary value problem with

MATLABs built-in solver bvp4c.

>>sol = bvpinit(linspace(0,1,25),[0 1]);

>>sol = bvp4c(@bvpexample,@bc,sol);

>>sol.x

Press enter and record the results.

27. We observe that in this case MATLAB returns the solution as a structure whose first component

sol.x simply contains the x values we specified.The second component of the structure sol is sol.y,

which is the matrix containing as its first row values of y(x) at the grid points we specified, and as

its second row the corresponding values of y(x).

28. For the first order differential equation where the highest derivative of the function is one :

dy

=5 y

dx

From calculus, we all know that the solution to this equation is y(t) = Ce -5t, where C is some arbitrary

constant. If we specified an initial condition (say, y(0)= 1.43), then our analytical solution would be

y(t) = 1.43 e-5t.

29. In Matlab, we can use numerical integration techniques to solve differential equations like this

one.For the differential equation in Procedure No. 28, you would make two .m files (one will be a

function file, and the other will be a script that calls the function file).Using Matlab editor, create the

file below and save it as ilovecats.m.

Laboratory Exercise no. 2

Solving Ordinary Differential Equations Using Matlab

dy = zeros(1,1);

dy = -5 * y;

Now create another file and save it as happyscript.m.

[t,y]=ode45(ilovecats,[0,10],1.43);

plot(t,y,-)

xlabel(time);

ylabel(y(t));

title(This plot dedicated to kitties everywhere);

30. Type help ode45 at the prompt. As a general rule of thumb, ode45 is the best function to apply as

a first try for most problems.Ode 45 is an explicit (4,5) Runge-Kutta integrating technique.At Matlab

prompt, type happyscript.m. Press enter and record the results.

31. A 2nd order differential equation is one where the highest derivative term is of order 2:

2

d2 y

sin

=

()

dt2

To integrate this in Matlab, we have to rewrite this single equation into a set of 2 first order

differential equations. The reason behind this is because all Runge-Kutta solvers, including ode45,

are built to only integrate over equations of the type dy/dt = f(t,y).We can easily do this by hand, by

setting:

dy1/ dt = y2

dy2/dt = - 2 sin(y1)

where y1(t) represents (t), and y2(t) represents d/dt.

32. Create an m file and save it as pendulumcats.m

function dy = pendulumcats(t,y)

dy = zeros(2,1);

omega = 1;

Laboratory Exercise no. 2

Solving Ordinary Differential Equations Using Matlab

dy(1) = y(2);

dy(2) = -omega*omega*sin(y(1));

[t,y] = ode45(pendulumcats,[0,25],[1.0 1.0 ]);

plot(t,y(:,1),-);

xlabel (time);

ylabel(y_{1}(t));

title(\theta (t));

figure;

plot(t,y(:,2),'-');

xlabel('time');

ylabel('y_{2}(t)');

title('d \theta / dt (t)');

figure;

plot(y(:,1),y(:,2),'-');

xlabel('\theta (t)');

ylabel('d \theta / dt (t)');

title('Phase Plane Portrait for undamped pendulum');

34. The change in the function file, pendulumcats.m, is the initialization part in line two dy =

zeros(2,1); This is because we now have two equations we are integrating over (y1(t) and y2(t), so

Matlab will store their data into a matrix with two columns.If you just type y at your Matlab prompt,

you will get two columns of data that display.The first column is the set of y(t) (or y1(t)), whose data

points you can alone access by typing y(:,1) at your prompt.The second column of y are the

datapoints for y2(t), which you can access by themselves by typing y(:,2) at your prompt.

35. Run the commands. Record the results.

36. Back in the day, scientists didn't know as much, and thought they could accurately predict the

weather once computers became more powerful. This is because weather people used many sets

of differential equations to model the weather, and it took a long time to integrate those equations

(keep in mind that awesome things like Matlab weren't around in the 50s and 60s { people still used

slide rulers and tables to calculate many things, and the computers that were available back in the

day had very little computing power, so integrating some ODEs, like those in the pendulum

example, would take a crazy long time for the computer to chug through!).

Edward Lorenz was a mathematician and weather forecaster for the US Army Air Corps,

Laboratory Exercise no. 2

Solving Ordinary Differential Equations Using Matlab

and later an MIT professor. For many years, he was interested in solving a simple set of 3 coupled

differential equations just because he wanted to find out what the weather would be like during the

next week." These equations are called the Lorenz Equations, and were derived from simplified

equations of convection rolls rising in the atmosphere. They are pretty simple and can be

expressed as:

dx/dt = -Px + Py

dy/dt = rx y xz

dz/dt = xy bz

where P, r and b are all constants ( P represents the Prandtl number, and r is the ratio of Rayleigh

number to the critical Rayleigh number), and x, y and z are all functions of time. We can use Matlab

to look at trajectories (i.e. plots of x(t) vs time, y(t) vs. time and z(t) vs. time) or phase plane

portraits (i.e. x(t) vs y(t), x(t) vs z(t), and/or y(t) vs z(t) for this system.

37. The function file lorenz.m) should look like:

function dy = lorenz(t,y)

dy = zeros(3,1);

P=10;

r=28;

b=8/3

dy(1)=P*(y(2)-y(1));

dy(2)=-y(1)*y(3) + r*y(1) y(2);

dy(3) = y(1)*y(2) b*y(3);

[t,y] = ode45(lorenz, [0 250], [1.0 1.0 1.0];

subplot(221)

plot (y(:,1),y(:,2),-);

xlable(x(t));

ylabel(y(t));

title( Phase Plane Portrait for Lorenz attractor y(t) vs x(t));

Solving Ordinary Differential Equations Using Matlab

subplot(222)

plot(y(:,1),y(:,3),-);

xlabel(x(t));

ylabel( z(t));

title(Phase Plane Portrait for Lorenz attractor z(t) vs x(t));

subplot(223)

plot( y(:,2),y(:,3,)-);

xlabel(y(t));

ylabel(z(t));

title(Phase Plane Portrait for Lorenz attractor z(t) vs y(t));

suplot(224)

plot(0,0,.);

xlabel(Edward Lorenz);

ylabel(Kitties);

title(Kitties vs Lorenz);

39. Run the script.It should take a little while to run. Record the results.

40. To make a 3D plot ,add the following to the bottom of the script.

plot3(y(:,1),y(:,2),y(:,3),-)

xlabel(x(t));

ylabel(y(t));

zlabel(z(t));

title(3D phase portrait of Lorenz Attractor);

Laboratory Exercise no. 2

Solving Ordinary Differential Equations Using Matlab

41. The Matlab code to solve dy/dx = y(x) with no initial conditions is shown below:

ODE1= dy = y

ODE1solved=dsolve(ODE1, x)

Record the results.

42. To specify initial conditions for the ODE is as follows :

initConds = y(0) = 5

ODE1solved = dsolve(ODE1, initConds,x)

Record the results.

43. Matlab makes plotting functions easy. To plot the function:

x = -5:0.01:5;

y_values = eval(vectorize(ODE1solved);

plot(x,y_values)

Record the results.

44. The same ideas apply to higher ODEs. To solve a second-order ODE with initial values at y(0) and

y(0).Then plot the function in the range [-5,5]

ODE2 = 3*D2y Dy + 6*y = 6 *sin(t) + 2 *cos(t)

initConds = y(0)=1, Dy(0)=2

ODE2solved = simplify)dissolve(ODE2,initConds));

pretty(ODE2solved)

t=-5 :0.01:5;

y_values=eval(vectorize(ODE2solved));

plot(t,y_values)

Record the results.

45. Systems of ODEs can be solved in a similar manner.One simply defines each equation as before.

The only thing that changes is the return of the dsolve function, which is now an array containing

Laboratory Exercise no. 2

Solving Ordinary Differential Equations Using Matlab

sysODE1 = Dx = 2*x + 3*z

sysODE2 = Dy = 6*z y

sysODE3 = Dz = 3*y 12*x

initConds = x(1) = 5, y(2)=3, z(9) = 0

[x,y,z] = dsolve(sysODE1,sysODE2,sysODE3,initConds)

Record the results

Course: BS ChE

Group No.:

Section: CHE 530D1

Laboratory Exercise no. 2

Group Members:

Date Performed:

Date Submitted: June 29, 2015

Instructor: Engr. Crispulo Maranan

Procedur

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Solving Ordinary Differential Equations Using Matlab

Solving Ordinary Differential Equations Using Matlab

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Solving Ordinary Differential Equations Using Matlab

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7. Conclusion:

Matlab software is an application that can help any person solving difficult ordinary differential equations.

Solving Ordinary Differential Equations Using Matlab

Solving Ordinary Differential Equations Using Matlab

T I P V P A A 0 5

4 D

CRITERIA

BEGINNER

1

ACCEPTABLE

2

PROFICIENT

3

SCORE

I. Laboratory Skills

Manipulative

Skills

Members do

needed skills.

not

demonstrate

needed skills.

Members always

needed skills.

demonstrate

Experimental Set-up

materials.

materials with supervision.

material with minimum supervision.

Process Skills

targeted process skills.

targeted process skills.

targeted process skills.

Safety Precautions

precautions.

most of the time.

at all times.

Time Management /

Conduct of Experiment

incomplete data.

incomplete data.

complete data and time to revise

data.

Cooperative

Teamwork

and

and

have

no

defined

responsibilities.

Group conflicts

have to be settled by the teacher.

Members

have

defined

responsibilities most of the time.

Group conflicts are cooperatively

managed most of the time.

defined responsibilities at all times.

Group conflicts are cooperatively

managed at all times.

Neatness

Orderliness

and

the experiment.

occasional mess during and after

the experiment.

times during and after the

experiment.

Ability to do independent

work

teacher.

Members

require

occasional

supervision by the teacher.

supervised by the teacher.

TOTAL SCORE

Other Comments / Observations:

TotalScore

RATING = (

24

) x 100%

Evaluated by:

_______________________________________

Printed Name and Signature of Faculty Member

Laboratory

Exercise

no. 2

3

Date:

___________________________

June 29, 2015

Solving Ordinary Differential Equations Using Matlab

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