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DEEP ANODE SYSTEMS

Design, Installation, and Operation

by

T. H. Lewis, Jr.
RE., C.S., C.RS.

Published by

NACE INTERNATIONAL

Copyright 0 2000 by Loresco International


Reprinted with editorial revisions by NACE International
with permission from Loresco International

NACE INTERNATIONAL
P.O. Box 218340
Houston, TX 77218-8340
www.nace.org

ISBN 978-1-57590-111-4
Printed in the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Reproduction of contents in whole or part without permission of
copyright owner is expressly forbidden.

CONTENTS
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Purpose .................... .................... .... 1
Deep Groundbed Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Advantages .................... .................... . 1
Disadvantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Disclaimer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - 3
Gathering Design Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Determining Design Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Determining Geology and Hydrology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Researching Existing Data Bases .................... .... 6
United States Geological Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
State District Office of USGS ................... ........6
American Geological Institute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
State Geological Surveys .................... ........... 7
Local Water Well Drillers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Surface Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Driven Rod Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Pilot Hole Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Two-Point Test Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Three-Point Test Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Four-Point Test Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Determining Water Chemistry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Materials Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Electrochemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Anodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Graphite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
High-Silicon Chromium Cast Iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Platinum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - 2 6
Mixed-Metal Oxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Other Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Carbon Backfill .................... ................. 28
Wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Other Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Casings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Anode Support Structures .................... ......... 34
Centralizers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Vent Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Environmental Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

iv

CONTENTS

2.5.1
2.5.2
2.5.3
2.5.4
2.6
3
3.1
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
3.2.4
3.3
3.3.1
3.3.2
3.3.3
3.4
3.4.1
3.4.2
3.4.3
3.5
3.5.1
3.5.2
3.5.3
3.6
3.6.1
3.6.2
3.6.3
3.7
3.7.1
3.7.2
3.7.3
3.7.4
3.7.4.1
3.7.4.2
3.7.5
3.7.6

Surface Water Runoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Subsurface Aquifer Interchange ........................
Materials Contamination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Abandonment.......................................
Surface Completion Considerations .....................
Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Column Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Geology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Current Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Anode Selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Current Density ......................................
Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Anode Life Calculation ...............................
Reliability and Safety Factors ..........................
Carbon Backfill Selection .............................
Resistivity .........................................
Current Density .....................................
Carbon Backfill Consumption ..........................
Lead Wire Selection .................................
Mechanical Requirements .............................
Chemical Requirements...............................
Electrical Requirements ...............................
Environmental Considerations..........................
Surfacesealing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aquifer Interchange. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing of Materials and Fluids .........................
Other Design Considerations...........................
Vent Systems .......................................
Anode Centering Devices .............................
Anode Replacement ..................................
Special Design Considerations .........................
Parallel Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Structure Attenuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Carbon Column Attenuation ...........................
Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Potential Gradients...................................
Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Temperature Rise ....................................
Electro-Osmosis.....................................

36
37
37
37
38
41
41
41
42
45
45
45
46
46
47
48
48
49
50
51
51
52
52
53
54
54
56
56
56
57
58
60
60
61
61
62
62
63

64
64

CONTENTS

Water Consumption & Replacement ..................... 65


Installation ............................. ............ 69
Equipment and Rigging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Drilling............................. ............... 72
Pilot Hole Decision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Observations During Drilling .......................... 74
Testing ............................. ...............75
During Drilling ............................. ........ 75
After Drilling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Casing Placement.............................. ...... 77
Anode Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Carbon Backfill Placement ............................ 79
Completion .............................. .......... 81
Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Maintenance............................. ...........83
83
Installation ............................ .............
.
Commissioning Tests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
.
Routine Inspections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87
Other Considerations............................. .... 88
Troubleshooting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Appendix ............................. ............. 93
Anode Information............................. ...... 93
Resistance Determination .............................94
Resistance Formulas ............................. .... 94
Resistance Graphs ............................. ...... 97
Anode Spacing Calculations .......................... 105
Carbon Backfill Resistivity Testing..................... 108
Pump Calculations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Anode Temperature Rise Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117

Chapter 1

Introduction
1.1 PURPOSE
The purpose of this manual is to provide the design engineer with a
single-source guide for designing, installing, and operating deep anode
systems. The design and installation process for a successful deep anode
system involves a combination of gathering data, preforming design
calculations, selecting specific materials and techniques, and planning the
installation method. Besides the mathematical calculations necessary to
complete a specific design, many design decisions require the exercise of
good engineering judgment. Decisions such as equipment requirements,
hole completion techniques, site problems, materials selection, and safety
procedures often require a combination of experience, knowledge,
forethought, and judgment. This design manual will discuss many
engineering judgment decisions and provide some possible options
available with an indication of the factors that influence the particular
choice for a specific design.

1.2 DEEP GROUNDBED DEFINED


The definition of a deep groundbed or deep anode system that is most
often quoted is the definition endorsed by NACE International in
RP0572: I
One or more anodes installed vertically at a nominal depth of 15 m
(50 ft) or more below the earth's surface in a drilled hole for the
purpose of supplying cathodic protection for an underground or
submerged metallic structure.

1.3 ADVANTAGES
Although a complete list of the advantages in using a deep anode system
can be found in RP0572, it is worthwhile to elaborate on several of the
most important points. Since the current discharge occurs deep in the body

INTRODUCTION

of the earth rather than near the surface, the anodic potential gradient is not
as extensive in the near-surface soils where most utility structures are
found. This means that the potential for anodic interference is greatly
reduced. Therefore, deep anode systems can represent a significant
advantage in areas with many foreign metallic surface structures such as
municipalities and large industrial facilities.
Another significant advantage often possible using a deep anode design is
the limited surface land area necessary for the installation. Since all of the
anodes are stacked vertically in a single drilled hole, the installation can be
completed with very limited surface land required. Not only is this an
advantage in congested areas where surface land may be very limited, but
also the cost of additional right-of-way can often be avoided in less
congested areas. It is often even possible to install the deep anode system
within the existing right-of-way for facilities such as transmission
pipelines. This is possible because the anodes can be made remote from the
structure by placing the discharge zone deeper in the body of the earth.
The primary operating cost of an impressed current cathodic protection
system is the cost of the commercial AC power required. The electric
utility bill represents a charge for the energy consumed by the cathodic
protection system. Energy is the power delivered over a certain time
interval. Power is determined by the current input squared times the load
resistance. Since the current input is predetermined by the current required
to achieve a specific level of cathodic protection, it cannot be reduced
without losing some degree of protection. However, if the input resistance
can be reduced, then the power delivered to obtain cathodic protection is
also reduced. With high surface soil resistivities, it is possible to
significantly reduce the system input resistance by placing the anodes
deeper in the body of the earth where low resistivity strata can often be
found. Further, the resistance remains more stable over time because the
factors that control the resistance (moisture content and temperature) are
more constant in deep strata.

1.4 DISADVANTAGES
Again, a complete list of the disadvantages in using a deep anode system
can be found in RP0572. Although most of the disadvantages can be
overcome or minimized with proper consideration and design, the most
serious disadvantage is usually the additional installation cost per ampere
of cathodic protection required when compared to surface groundbed
designs. However, this cost is sometimes overshadowed by the savings that

DISADVANTAGES

can be realized by reduced power, right-of-way, or interference solution


costs.

1.5 DISCLAIMER
Although every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy and
completeness of the information contained in this manual, neither Loresco
International nor any of the specific contributors to this manual warrant or
accept any liability for use of the manual or the information contained in
the manual. Further, it is recognized that many specific site conditions and
variables can exist which require careful consideration and application of
engineering judgment by individuals with knowledge and experience in a
specific area. Therefore, individuals using this manual are cautioned to seek
competent scientific or engineering advice and assistance in those areas.

REFERENCES
1. NACE Standard RP0572, Design, Installation, Operation, and Maintenance of Impressed
Current Deep Groundbeds (Houston, TX: NACE, 1995). Approved June 1972, Revised 1995.

Chapter 2

Gathering Design Information


2.1 DETERMINING DESIGN CURRENT
The deep anode system design current should be decided by first
determining the current required for cathodic protection of the structure. A
safety factor should be added to the cathodic protection current requirement
to handle anticipated system growth and coating deterioration. If no
information is available regarding anticipated system expansion and no
history is available on coating deterioration, a 25-percent additional current
capacity is suggested.
Depending upon the total design current, the anticipated attenuation
along the structure to be protected, and the geometry of the structure to be
protected, one or more deep anode systems may be necessary to provide
the protective current. The maximum recommended design current for a
single deep anode system depends on the geology (stratigraphy and
lithology) and maximum hole diameter desired. However, design of a
single deep anode groundbed with a current output rating more than 50
amps should be attempted only after all other alternatives have been
considered. This 50-amp limit is suggested due to the amount of the
discharge surface area required to generate this level of current output
without depleting moisture levels or generating gases too rapidly to
adequately dissipate.

2.2 DETERMINING GEOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY


For successful deep anode groundbed installation and operation, adequate
information about the geology and hydrology at the proposed site is
necessary during the design stage. It is desirable to know the exact
stratification, moisture content, resistivity, and specific classification of the
soils and rock layers at the proposed site along with the pore water
chemistry. If only limited information can be obtained, the minimum
information necessary is the anticipated depth and thickness of a low
resistivity stratum adequate for current discharge and the depth to the top of

GATHERING DESIGN INFORMA TION

the water table (phreatic surface). Of course, the more detailed the available
information becomes, the better the design will be.
What constitutes a low-resistivity stratum adequate for current discharge
is relative. It depends entirely upon the types of soil layers and their relative
resistivities in a given area. Except for certain electronically conductive
minerals, such as magnetite (Fe304), specular hematite (Fe,O3), carbon,
graphite, pyrite (FeS,), galena (PbS), chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), bornite
(Cu5FeS4), covellite (CuS), copper, and pyrrhotite (FeS), most minerals
which make up soil and rock layers are electrical insulators. Therefore, the
conduction method in most soils and rocks is electrolytic in nature taking
place through the moisture contained within the pores and channels of the
layer. Consequently, the moisture content and chemistry are very important
determinants of the conductivity.'-'
Some of the most commonly sought sediments due to their relatively low
resistivities are: clay, shale, marl, chalk, and sands or porous formations
containing conductive waters. The suitability of any one of these
formations is dependent upon its depth and relative resistivity.

2.2.1 RESEARCHING EXISTING DATA BASES


There are several possible sources of geological information that may be
helpful in the early design stages. The following is a list of potential
information sources including contact information and data available.
2.2.1.1
United States Geological Survey (USGS) - Considerable surface and
subsurface geological information is available either through the library
reference desk at (703) 648-4302 or the Earth Science Information Center
at (800) 872-6277. USGS information is available on the internet at
http:llwww.usgs.govl

2.2.1.2
State District Office of USGS - Each state has a district office of the
USGS that maintains geologic profile information for the state. These
offices are usually located in the state capital and may be contacted by
telephone using the federal government information section of the
telephone directory. Information may be obtained by telephone or fax
request to the District Office with location descriptions providing the
county, section, township, and range or longitude and latitude for the point
of interest.

DETERMINING GEOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY

2.2.1.3
American Geological Institute (AGI) - This office is located in
Alexandria, Virginia, at (703) 379-2480. The AGI can also be contacted
on the InterNet at http://www.agiweb.org/. The AGI maintains a geological
database of records for North America since 1785 and other areas of the
world since 1933. The AGI provides a geoscience database on CD-ROM
known as GEOREF. This information is commercially available via
annual subscription, and is usually available at university or research
libraries.
2.2.1.4
State Geological Surveys or Department of Natural Resources - Many
states provide helpful geological information from reported drillers' logs.
These offices are generally located in the state capital and may be contacted
by telephone using the state government information section of the
telephone directory.
2.2.1.5
Local Water Well Drillers - Often, helpful information can be obtained
from local water well drillers. Not only can they usually provide
information about the stratification of soils, but also they can provide
information about drilling conditions and anticipated installation problems
based on previous drilling experience in the area. Local water well drillers
can be located in the Yellow Pages section of the telephone directory.
2.2.2 SURFACE TESTING
Depending upon the surface topology, location of underground metallic
structures, and available open testing area, it is possible to estimate subsoil
resistivities using data obtained from surface testing techniques. The FourPoint test method is the most accurate method of measuring the average
resistivity of large volumes of earth, in-situ.' Two of the four test electrodes
are current injection points, and two are potential measurement points.
Resistance is determined by dividing the magnitude of the test current
flowing between the current electrodes into the voltage drop measured
between the potential electrodes. There are several commercially available
instruments that perform this calculation internally and provide the
resistance directly.
Although there are a number of electrode arrangements possible, the most
commonly used technique is based on the Wenner arrangement. This
electrode arrangement, as shown in Figure 2-1, involves equally spacing

G A THERING DESIGN INFORMA TION


Figure 2-1 :Wenner Electrode Arrangement
RESISTANCE METER

the four electrodes distance a apart and along a straight line with the
current electrodes on the outside and the potential electrodes on the i n ~ i d e . ~ - ~
If the depth of the electrodes does not exceed 0.1 a, then the apparent
resistivity to depth a is given by the formula:

p=ZnaR
Equation (2-1)
Wenner Arrangement Equation

where p = resistivity (ohm-cm)


R = measured resistance (ohms)
a = electrode spacing (cm)
If p is desired in ohm-cm and a is measured in feet, the formula becomes:

p = 191.5 a R
Equation (2-2)
A baseline for the electrode array should first be established, which is
three times the depth of soil to be investigated. The baseline should be
straight and cross relatively level terrain. The center of the baseline should
be established and used as the center of the electrode array. As resistance
measurements are recorded for various electrode spacings, the array should
be expanded about the established center point. Incremental electrode
spacings from 10 to 50 feet are suggested depending upon the detail
desired.

DETERMINING GEOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY

Care should be exercised as the test array dimensions expand to ensure


adequate spacing from underground utilities and to avoid errors due to
electromagnetic coupling between current and potential leads. If large
depths must be investigated requiring large test array dimensions, other
electrode arrangements may be used to increase measurement sensitivity
(Schlumberger-Palmer arrangementy or reduce electromagnetic coupling
(Azimuthal-dip~le).~
Since the desired information for design purposes is the depth, thickness,
and resistivity of a layer or layers in the earth suitable for efficient current
discharge, the soil resistivity data must be analyzed. The first step in
analyzing the data is to plot the calculated apparent resistivity as the
ordinate versus electrode spacing. Inspection of the graph of apparent
resistivity will provide an indication of the variation in resistivity with
depth. The inflection points in the curve provide a method of estimating the
relative depth of resistivity boundaries. Over a limited range of resistivity
and thickness ratios, the boundary may be estimated at two-thirds of the
spacing where the inflection point occurs. For a more thorough
determination of boundary locations and true resistivities for specific
layers, the plotted data must be compared with a series of master curves
calculated for various layer models with differing resistivity and depth
ratios to find an acceptable
A simpler technique for analyzing the data, which typically produces
acceptable estimates, is the Barnes method? This method is based upon soil
layers of uniform thickness with boundaries parallel to the surface of the
earth. Where this is true, each incremental thickness of soil (electrode
spacing) must result in a decrease of the total measured resistance
regardless of the resistance of the added layer. If the measured data indicate
decreasing resistance with increased electrode spacing, this method can be
used to estimate the layer resistivities.
The first step in application of the Barnes method is to convert the
resistance measurements from the test data to conductance by taking the
reciprocals. Next, the incremental conductance for each successive layer
should be determined by subtracting the total conductance at that layer
from the total conductance of the previous layer. This incremental
conductance is then converted to layer resistance by taking the reciprocal.
Finally, the layer resistance is converted to layer resistivity in ohm-m by
multiplying it by the factor 2 7c a, where a is the spacing in meters (or 191.5
a where a is in feet).
For example, consider the data in Table 2-1. Based upon the Barnes
analysis a low resistivity stratum is anticipated between 45 and 75 meters

deep with a layer resistivity of 19 ohm-m.

Table 2-1 : Example of Barnes Analysis


2.2.3 DRIVEN ROD TESTING
Another test method that may be employed to estimate layer soil
resistivities at a proposed deep anode site involves driving a sectional
ground rod while measuring the resistance-to-earth of the rod as additional
sections are driven. A modified form of the fall-of-potential method is used
to determine the incremental resistance-to-earth of the rod. This method is a
three-electrode test method requiring a test electrode, a current injection
electrode, and a potential electrode. When using the unmodified form of the
fall-of-potential method, it is necessary to plot the measured resistance
verses distance between the test electrode and the potential electrode to
determine the true resistance for each additional increment of rod driven.
This is a time-consuming procedure that can be modified with a small
compromise in accu~acy.~.
la"
The true resistance of a test electrode can be determined using a threeelectrode method when the distance between the test electrode and the
potential electrode is 62% of the distance between the test electrode and the
current electrode. However, the current electrode must be completely
outside the area of influence of the test electrode during the procedure.
Since the required placement location of the current electrode is a complex
function of the variations in soil resistivity and dimensions of the test
electrode, it cannot be determined with certainty. Therefore, a location for
the current electrode is first estimated. Then, a modified form of the fall-of-

DETERMINING GEOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY

11

potential method is used to ensure that the current electrode is sufficiently


separated from the test electrode within acceptable error limits.
To reduce the test time it is better to place the current electrode at a fixed
distance from the test electrode that is outside the area of influence of the
test electrode at the total anticipated driving depth. For a total driving depth
of from 60 to 120 meters (200 to 400 feet), the current electrode should be
located approximately 120 meters (400 feet) from the test electrode.
The modified fall-of-potential method requires a resistance measurement
with the potential electrode at three different locations for each additional
increment of rod driven. The center potential electrode should be located
62% of the distance between the test electrode and the current electrode
with two additional potential electrodes placed at locations 3 meters (10
feet) either side of this location, as shown in Figure 2-2. In other words,
with the current electrode at 120 meters (400 feet) the three potential
electrodes should be placed at 71, 74, and 77 meters (238, 248, and 258
feet) from the test electrode position.

Figure 2-2: Modified Fall-of-Potential Method


X
.62% X

TYP

P1

c1

TEST ELECTRODE

c2
P2

The percentage variation in resistance measured using the center potential


electrode and each electrode on either side is then calculated. If this
variation exceeds acceptable limits (maximum of 5% is suggested), the
current electrode should be moved further away from the test electrode, the
potential electrodes relocated based on 62% of the new location, and the
test reconducted before the test rod is driven deeper. This test is repeated
for each new increment of driven depth for the test electrode until rod
refusal occurs or the maximum desired depth is reached.
Using this procedure, it is not necessary to move any of the potential or
current electrodes if the original placement of the current electrode is

12

GATHERING DESIGN INFORMATION

sufficiently far from the test electrode. However, the method checks this
placement at each step of the test procedure allowing electrode relocation if
necessary without invalidating previous test data.
Next, the resistances measured using the center potential electrode verses
driven depth of the test rod are analyzed using a modification of Blattners
equation.I Z

Equation (2-3)
Modified Blattner Equation
where T = layer thickness or increment of rod depth (m)
o = conductivity of layer (Siemendm)
N = layer number being analyzed
L = total rod depth at N (rn)
D = rod diameter (m)
R = resistance measured at N (ohms)
i = counter for previous layer numbers
Define: Tooo= 0

Analysis of the test data is based upon reiterative use of the modified
Blattner equation for each additional increment of driven rod depth. Notice
the summation term will be zero for the first layer analyzed. An example of
this analysis, which used a 0.019 m (3/4 in.) sectional ground rod for the
test, is shown in Table 2-2.
2.2.4 PILOT HOLE TESTING
The best method of determining the layer resistivities involves lowering a
test probe into a drilled test or pilot hole. This method not only produces
more reliable resistivity data, but also provides direct evidence on the
location of layer boundaries, drilling conditions, and water chemistry. This
procedure can be undertaken before or during the actual deep anode
installation. Due to the cost of drilling the test hole, the procedure is
generally not economically justifiable before the actual installation unless
the testing cost is a small percentage of the complete project cost. This may
be the case when many deep anode holes are anticipated within a limited
area such as a specific oil field, industrial plant, or generating station.
The best application of this technique involves using the test procedure as

DETERMINING GEOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY

13

Table 2-2: Example of Blattner Analysis

an integral part of the actual deep anode installation. This is accomplished


by first drilling a pilot or test hole of from 7.5 to 15 centimeters (3 to 6
inches) in diameter. The test hole is drilled to the depth anticipated for the
system as determined by observation of drilling conditions and cuttings from
the hole, test information from other sources, geological data previously
available, or cost limitations. Once the test hole has been drilled, the drill bit
is removed, and a test probe is lowered into the hole. Information from the
data gathered during the test procedure is then used to adjust the deep anode
design, including the final hole depth, as necessary. Next, the pilot or test
hole is reamed to the final diameter, as required by the design.
A test procedure that often provides useful information, especially when
no previous information from other sources is available, is a drill stem
resistance-to-earth test, Figure 2-3. This test is conducted similar to the
Driven Rod Test except the drill stem is used as the test electrode. This test
is usually conducted just before adding an additional length of drill stem to
the down-hole string. This test can be set up and conducted quickly so as to
minimize drilling delay. The data produced can be analyzed using
Blattners equation as described in Section 2.3 or simply used to anticipate
minimum expected deep anode resistance.
The time to complete the pilot hole and then ream it to final diameter is
somewhat longer than the time required to drill the hole to final diameter in
one step. However, the additional time involved is only the time to pull the
drill stem after the pilot hole completion plus the testing time. The time
required for the actual pilot hole drilling is recovered when the final hole

14

GATHERING DESIGN INFORMATION


Figure 2-3: Drill Stem ResistanceTest

BORE HOLE FILLED WITH


DRILLING FLUID
DRILL STEM

diameter is reamed due to the reduction in actual volume of soil that must
be removed from the hole. Also, due to information about actual drilling
conditions obtained at the specific location, often additional time can be
saved in producing the final hole diameter.
Next, several specific test procedures and probes for conducting the pilot
hole test are discussed. The specific procedure and probe that should be
used depend upon the desired detail, accuracy of the information desired,
and the equipment available.
2.2.4.1 Two-Point Test Procedure
The two-point test procedure is the simplest and most commonly used
procedure for estimating the layer resistivities and boundary locations. This
procedure is based upon measuring the resistance between a single test
electrode lowered into the pilot hole and a remote, low-resistance ground
existing on the surface, such as an electrical grounding system, a pipeline,
or a tank battery? ' I
The resistance-to-earth of the low-resistance ground must be several

DETERMINING GEOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY

15

orders of magnitude lower than the lowest resistance-to-earth of the test


electrode if accurate resistivities are to be predicted. However, if the lowresistance ground is only one order of magnitude lower than the resistance
of the test electrode, the test will be sensitive enough that the relative
relationship between the resistivities of various layers of soil can be
determined and used to place the anodes. The resistance of the test
electrode lead can be measured and subtracted from each measured
resistance to improve the accuracy of the data.
The test electrode, which will be lowered into the pilot hole, should be
rugged in construction. In order to estimate the layer resistivities, the dimensions of the electrode must be known. A test electrode used successfully for this procedure is constructed from nominal 1-inch standard black
steel pipe that has an outside diameter of 33.4 mm (1.3 15 in.). The length of
pipe that will be exposed as the electrode contact surface is exactly 1.52 m
( 5 ft.) long. The pipe is cut about 15 cm (6 in.) longer to allow for
connection of the lead wire to the electrode. A hole is drilled into the steel
pipe approximately 7.5 cm (3 in.) from the end, and a #8 AWG HMWPE
wire is inserted into the end of the pipe and out the drilled hole. The wire is
then brazed or silver-soldered to the outside surface of the pipe. Next, the
lead wire attachment area is moisture sealed with a dielectrically insulating
material, such as epoxy and/or layers of electrical tape, leaving exactly 1.52
m (5 ft) of the electrode length uncoated. Finally, the test electrode is filled
with molten lead or lead shot for weight, and the ends are sealed.
To simplify accurate placement of the test electrode during the procedure,
the #8 AWG HMWPE wire should be accurately marked in 1.52 m (5 ft.)
increments. Double marks are recommended at 15.2 m (50 ft.) increments
as a double-check on electrode position.
To begin testing the test electrode is lowered into the pilot hole to the first
marked increment on the wire lead after the top of the electrode is below
the standing water level. At that point the resistance between the test
electrode and the low-resistance ground is measured and recorded using a
four-terminal resistance testing instrument. Terminals P1 and C1 on the test
instrument may be interconnected using a short, bare copper jumper, and
the test electrode lead wire connected to these terminals. To reduce the
possibility of contact or lead resistance in the low-resistance ground
connection, this connection should be made to the structure using separate
leads for the P2 and C2 connections. The test setup for this procedure is
shown in Figure 2-4.
After the first resistance reading has been made, the electrode is lowered
until the next marked increment on the lead wire reaches ground level, the

16

GATHERING DESIGN INFORMATION


Figure 2-4: Two-Point Test Procedure

4-TERMINAL SOIL
RESISTANCE METER

WEIGHTED TEST
ELECTRODE

LOW RESISTIVITY ZONE

electrode is stopped, and the new resistance is measured and recorded. This
procedure is continued until the test electrode reaches the bottom of the
hole. The test electrode is then removed from the hole, and the test data are
analyzed.
Analysis of the test data consists of calculating the average electrolyte
resistivity necessary to produce the resistance value measured based on the
dimensions of the test electrode. This can be accomplished by solving
Dwight's equation for an infinitely submerged cylinder ')-I4 for resistivity in
terms of measured resistance, as shown on the following page:

DETERMINING GEOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY

P=

17

2nLR

Equation ( 2 4 )
Resistivity Estimate for Two-Point Test
where p = resistivity (ohm-m)
R = measured resistance (ohms)
L = electrode length (m)
D = electrode diameter (m)
If the electrode dimensions given above are used, Equation (2-4) can be
simplified as shown.

p = 2.27R
Equation (2-5)
where p = resistivity (ohm-m)
R = resistance (ohm)

2.2.4.2 Three-Point Test Procedure


The three-point test procedure used for logging a pilc hole is the same as
the two-point test procedure described in Section 2.4.1 except that potential
and current electrodes located on the surface are used instead of the
existing low-resistance ground.
Assuming a down-hole test electrode as described in the two-point test
procedure, the current electrode should be located on the surface 23 m (75
ft) from the pilot hole. The potential electrode should be located 62% of
this distance from the pilot hole or 14 m (47 ft). The two surface electrodes
are allowed to remain at these fixed locations as the test electrode is
lowered into the hole.
2.2.4.3 Four-Point Test Procedure
A four-point test procedure similar in principle to the method outlined in
Section 2.2 but conducted by lowering test electrodes into a pilot hole can
be used to obtain detailed layer resistivity and boundary location data.2.5.h.
To successfully locate the electrodes within the pilot hole, an appropriately

Ia

GATHERING DESIGNINFORMATION

designed electrical logging tool, called a sonde, is employed. There are


many different electrode arrangements possible for the sonde depending
upon the desired information and radius of investigation. One specific
sonde design, which has been successfully used, is shown in Figure 2-5.
Figure 2-5 : Test Sonde

COPPER ELECTRODE

- INSULATED
CONDUCTOR
CABLE

CENTER OF
WENNER ARRAY

CENTER OF
NORMAL ARRAY

The sonde shown in Figure 2-5 contains five contact electrodes allowing
the tool to be employed in each of two specific arrangements: Wenner or
normal array. This flexibility in electrode arrangement is often used by
logging with one array type as the sonde is lowered into the pilot hole and
logging using the other array upon retrieval of the sonde. Each of the five
electrodes is connected by an individual measurement lead to the surface,
and the electrodes are insulated from each other by the body of the sonde.
Terminals A and E function as current electrodes with terminals C and D
serving as potential electrodes for the Wenner arrangement. As shown in
Figure 2-5, the center of the Wenner array is located halfway between
terminals C and D. Since the array is electrically symmetrical with respect
to this location, the depth of the array during testing is recorded at this

DETERMINING GEOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY

19

position. The relationship between measured resistance using the Wenner


array and layer resistivity is

p=4naR
Equation (2-6)
Sonde Calibration Equation
where p = resistivity (ohm-cm)
a = electrode spacing (cm)
R = resistance (ohms)

For the dimensions of the sonde in Figure 2-5, the calibration equation for
the Wenner array becomes:

p = 2000 R
Equation (2-7)
Wenner Array Calibration Equation
The radius of investigation using the Wenner electrode arrangement is
approximately equal to the spacing between the electrodes or 1.6 m (5.2 ft).
For the normal array, terminals A and E serve as current injection
terminals while terminal B and a surface electrode function as potential
measurement terminals. Since the normal array is electrically symmetrical
with respect to the center point between terminals A and B, the depth of the
tool is recorded based upon this point when employing the normal array.
The radius of investigation using this electrode arrangement is
approximately twice the spacing between terminals A and B or 1.6 m (5.2
ft). The equation relating the layer resistivity to measured resistance is the
same as Equation (2-6) for the normal array except that the spacing, a, is
the distance between terminals A and B. Therefore, with the dimensions
given for the sonde in Figure 2-5, the calibration equation becomes:

p = l000R
Equation (2-8)
Normal Array Calibration Equation
The derivation of Equation (2-6), which is the calibration equation for
both the Wenner and normal sondes, is based on the assumption of infinite
immersion in a homogeneous, conducting electrolyte. Of course, the

20

GATHERING DESIGN INFORMATION

infinite immersion constraint is violated near the surface; therefore, the


actual resistivity values in this area would be expected to be lower than
predicted. Also, since the body of the earth is not homogeneous, as required
in the derivation, the gradients produced by the sonde will be distorted in
unpredictable patterns. This fact does not render the method invalid,
however. It simply makes the actual section of earth included in the sample
tested impossible to accurately predict other than to determine the sample
center point. The resistivity determined is a weighted average resistivity
surrounding the center point of the sonde. Finally, minor distortions in the
resistivity calculated versus the true layer resistivity occur because of the
presence of the bore hole. However, if the electrode spacing is large
compared to the bore hole diameter, these distortions are of minor
significance unless the true resistivity becomes very high.*.l6

2.3 DETERMINING WATER CHEMISTRY


The natural chemistry of the ground water at a proposed deep anode
installation site is of interest to the design engineer due to its influence on
the materials selection process. Ground water chemistry is a controlling
factor in determining the electrochemical reactions that will occur. The
specific electrochemical reactions occurring influence the anode
consumption rate and chemical attack of groundbed components and,
therefore, the system life. Since the reactions that occur at the groundbed
are anodic or oxidation reactions, oxidizable species present in the ground
water are of interest.
Many ions or compounds can have an effect on the life of the groundbed
components; however, the halogens are the most important, especially the
chloride ion. Although many available cathodic protection anodes function
well in a chloride environment, components such as wire insulations and
anode connection encapsulations are aggressively attacked by the chlorine
gas generated. Therefore, a prior knowledge of the existence of chloride
ions in the ground water will allow the design engineer to improve the
system life by selecting materials suitable for this exposure.
The problem in determining the ground water chemistry is sampling. The
water chemistry of interest, of course, is the water surrounding the
groundbed components. Sampling of the ground water in the discharge
column area is usually not possible even during the drilling process. Also,
by the time the drilling process has begun, the cathodic protection materials
are usually required at the site to be available for immediate installation.
Therefore, either a test hole must be drilled for information purposes only,

DETERMINING WATER CHEMISTRY

21

or the ground water chemistry must be anticipated from other information


sources. Drilling of a test hole for water sampling is generally not
economically practical.
Sources that can provide at least some information about ground water
chemistry are the geological sources discussed in Section 2.1. Since the
presence of chlorides in the ground water is of major interest, local water
well drillers can provide information indicating indirect evidence of
chlorides. Because the presence of the chloride ion in the ground water has
a very noticeable effect on the hydration (viscosity) of bentonite drilling
muds, drillers will be aware of areas where salt is present in the ground
water. If chloride-contaminated waters are encountered while drilling with
bentonite muds, the muds flocculate, losing viscosity.'*
2.4 MATERIALS SELECTION
Selection of specific materials for the deep anode installation is based
upon a number of considerations including the specific environment,
current discharge, availability, cost, and anticipated life. The equilibrium
environment in a functioning deep anode system can be quite aggressive.
Due to the electrochemical reactions occurring, the pH of the system is
driven in the acidic direction with reported pHs of one or less. In addition,
oxidizing gases such as oxygen and chlorine are generated during current
discharge.'9.20

2.4.1 ELECTROCHEMISTRY
The most common electrochemical reactions occurring within an
impressed current deep anode system involve either metal consumption or
gas evolution. The generalized metal consumption reaction is
M

+M

+n

+ ne -

The metal ion reacts with water in neutral environments to form a metallic
hydroxide.
M +n + nH,O

+ M(OH), + nH

(2-2)

Where the evolution of oxygen is the primary reaction, water is consumed.

22

GATHERING DESIGN INFORMATION

When the sulfate ion is present, a two-stage reaction producing sulfuric


acid occurs. However, the complete reaction is the same as reaction (2-3)
since the sulfate ion is recovered.
2 S 0 i 2+ 2H,O

+ 0,t + 4H

+ 4e- + 2SO;'

(2-41

If the chloride ion is present in the ground water, the evolution of


chlorine gas is likely.
2CI-

+ Cl,t

+ 2e-

(2-51

The chlorine produced will further react with water producing hydrochloric
and hypochlorous acids [21].
CI, + H,O

+ HCI + HOCl

(2-61

Finally, when carbon backfill is used, carbon monoxide and/or carbon


dioxide are produced.
C + H,O
C + 2H,O

+ CO 1 + 2H

+ 2e-

+ CO, t + 4H + + 4e-

(2-7)
(2-8)

As indicated by the above chemical reactions, all of the possible reactions


lower the pH of the system. Also, with the exception of the metal oxidation
reaction {2-1), all of the possible reactions result in the generation of a gas.
Finally, note that water is consumed in the oxygen, carbon monoxide, and
carbon dioxide evolution reactions.'y-2".22

2.4.2ANODES
With very few exceptions, most impressed current anodes are classified
as inert or insoluble type anodes. This means that the anode can provide a
surface for oxidation reactions with minimal consumption of the base
anode material. The two major exceptions are aluminum anodes used in
fresh water applications and scrap steel anodes. Both of these anodes are
soluble anodes. With soluble anodes large amounts of metal are necessary
to provide a useful life due to the rapid consumption rate.
Insoluble impressed current anodes can be further classified as massive or
dimensionally stable anodes (DSA). Although the rate of material loss is
relatively low (a few pounds per ampere year or less), massive anodes
become smaller with time due to the slow, steady oxidation of the anode.

MATERIALS SELECTION

23

This decrease in the anode dimensions results in an increase in the


resistance-to-earth of the anode with time. Eventually, this type of anode
fails when the resistance-to-earth increases to the point that current can no
longer be effectively discharged or the electrical connection is exposed to
the environment and lost. The most common examples of this type of
anode are graphite and high-silicon chromium cast iron.
Dimensionally stable anodes are composite anodes with an active
discharge surface coated onto a passive substrate material, such as titanium,
tantalum, or niobium. When exposed to the environment due to
consumption of the active coating, the passive substrate forms a tenacious,
high-resistance surface film that prevents further current discharge. With
this type of anode, although the active coating is very slowly consumed
(milligrams per ampere-year), the dimensions of the anode do not change
with time. These anodes exhibit very little increase in resistance-to-earth
until most of the active coating has been consumed. The most common
active coatings are platinum and mixed-metal oxide coatings containing
rare metal oxides, such as rheuthenium dioxide or iridium dioxide.20.23-2s
Finally, an anode classification that has consumption characteristics
somewhere between the massive and dimensionally stable anodes should
be recognized. This classification has been called semi-composite or semidimensionally stable. This type anode is represented by metal oxide anodes,
such as magnetite and ferrite anodes. Consumption rates are in grams per
ampere-year.M
With all long, cylindrical anodes placed deep within the earth, the
discharge current density from the ends of the anode is higher than from the
center of the anode. This high current density results in more rapid
consumption of the anode material at the ends of the anode. This
phenomenon is called end effect. The characteristic penciling of the end
of a graphite anode due to end effect is shown in Figure 2-6. With massive
anodes, the electrical connection may be exposed to the environment and
subsequent corrosion as the anode material consumes. If the connection is
made near the anode end, premature failure may result. This failure
mechanism is delayed in massive deep anodes by using center-connected
anodes. Since the electrical connection is not exposed with the
consumption of dimensionally stable anodes, center-connection is not
required to prevent connection loss, although center connections may be
required to limit atten~ation.~.
26
Since any moisture reaching the electrical connection of an anode can
result in current leakage and accelerated corrosion, the connection must be
completely watertight for all anode types. Therefore, one of the most

24

GATHERING DESIGN INFORMATION

Figure 2-6: Anode End Effect

important considerations i n anode assembly is the moisture seal


surrounding the connection.
2.4.2.1 Graphite

Graphite anodes, which became commercially available to the cathodic


protection industry i n the mid- 194Os, were the first inert cathodic
protection anodes. This anode is manufactured by first producing an
amorphous carbon rod by heating a mixture of ground petroleum cokes and
coal tar pitch binder to approximately 900" C, followed by cooling in a
reducing atmosphere. The carbon rod is then converted to crystalline
graphite by heating to 2600" C. This process results in an electronicallyconductive graphite with a porosity of 14 to 20%.*'
Due to the high porosity of graphite, ground water can penetrate into the
anode interior, resulting in electrochemical reactions occurring within the
anode. This can promote selective attack of the grain boundaries andor
mechanical damage due to internal gas generation. The result is an apparent
increase in consumption rate or electrical-connector corrosion. To avoid
these potential problems, impregnation treatments with nonconductive

MATERIALS SELECTION

25

fillers are often used to reduce the porosity. The most commonly available
22
treatments are linseed oil, wax, and
Graphite anodes function well in chloride-containing waters. The
consumption rate for graphite is less in chloride environments than in fresh
waters. However, caution should be exercised in using graphite anodes in
high temperature (> 50C),low pH, or high-sulfate environments due to the
increased consumption rate anticipated. Also, since graphite is soft and may
be easily damaged by fast water flow, impingement attack, or cavitation,
these conditions should be avoided.l9
When used in deep anode systems with carbon backfill, the maximum
recommended current density is 10 amps/m2 ( 1 amp/ft2). Assuming all of
the current discharged from the graphite surface results in the generation of
carbon dioxide gas, the theoretical consumption rate of the anode is 1
kg/amp-year (2.2 Ibs/amp-year).9-20.
22 In practice, the typical graphite
consumption rate in carbon backfill ranges from 0.1 to 1 kg/amp-year (0.2
to 2 lbs/amp-year).27

2.4.2.2 High-Silicon Chromium Cast Iron


High-silicon cast iron first appeared as an anode material in 1954.
Although the material functioned well in a fresh water environment, severe
pitting corrosion was experienced in sea water. As a result of continued
development of the alloy, chromium was added in 1959 to improve the
anode performance in waters containing chloride ions.2o
When high-silicon chromium cast iron is used as an anode, a film of
silicon dioxide forms on the anode surface. Formation of this oxide film
retards the rate of material loss due to oxidation. Although silicon dioxide
is normally considered an insulating material with a very high resistivity,
when anodically formed under wet conditions, the film is porous and
semiconductive. This allows the anode to continue to discharge current
without a noticeable increase in contact resistance. However, under lowmoisture conditions, the resistivity of silicon dioxide film increases with
time, effectively limiting current discharge.i9-20. 22.27
Due to the hardness of the alloy, high-silicon cast iron is resistant to
erosion and abrasion from flowing waters, impingement, or cavitation.
Although this anode is resistant to acid attack, high pH environments
should be avoided because the silicon dioxide film is soluble in alkaline
solutions. Also, the anode consumption rate will increase in environments
containing sulphate ions. Finally, dry soil conditions should be avoided due
to the effect on the resistivity of the silicon dioxide
The maximum recommended current density for a high-silicon chromium

26

GATHERING DESIGN INFORMATION

cast iron anode is 10 amps/m2 (1 amp/ft2). The anticipated consumption


rate will be between 0.1 and 0.5 kg/amp-year (0.2 and 1 lbs/amp-year).zn~27

2.4.2.3 Platinum
Platinum-coated anode materials were installed in land-based cathodic
protection systems in Great Britain as early as 1961. However, the first
land-based testing of platinum-coated anodes in the United States began in
1977. Some of the first installations in the U.S. were in deep anode
systems. Although early reports from the U.K. were good, the experience
of U.S. companies employing platinum-coated anodes is mixed.2n,z8-z9
To produce an economical anode for the cathodic protection industry,
very thin coatings of platinum are plated or clad onto a substrate of
titanium or niobium, as described in Section 2.4.2. The most common
platinum thicknesses range from about 1 to 8 microns (50 to 300
microinches). Although these anodes are available in wire, rod, plate, and
mesh form, the most common arrangement for deep anode systems is wire
with some rod anodes used in higher current applications. Available wire
and rod diameters range from 2 mm to 20 mm (0.08 to 0.8 i n c h e ~ ) . ~ " . ~ ~ - ~ ~
Platinum-coated anodes have been used successfully when surrounded by
carbon backfill. The dissolution rate of platinum is 2.4 to 12
to 2.6 X 10-5 Ibs/amp-year) in sea water
milligrams/amp-year (5.3 X
where the evolution of chlorine gas is the primary reaction. The rate of
dissolution is approximately ten times higher when oxygen is the primary
gas generated.I9
Care should be utilized in designing deep anode systems using platinumcoated anodes to avoid localized high-current density discharge areas along
the anode surface that can promote premature failure. This can occur with
long wire anodes placed in variable soil resistivity environments. The
maximum current density suggested for platinum-coated anodes
surrounded by carbon backfill in a deep anode system is 50 amps/m2 (5
amps/ft* ).
Other factors that can result in poor performance of platinum-coated
anodes include anode scales or deposits, certain organic compounds, lowfrequency ripple, current reversals, and specific environmental components,
such as manganese and iron. Acid attack of the substrate materials can
result in premature anode failure in confined, stagnant environments.
Finally, breakdown of the passive oxide film on the substrate materials can
occur with excessive voltage stress across the oxide-electrolyte interface,
resulting in dissolution of the substrate. Titanium in a chloride environment

MATERIALS SELECTION

27

exhibits the lowest breakdown voltage at approximately 7 to 10 volts.


However, if the platinum-coated anode is surrounded by carbon backfill, it
is difficult to develop this magnitude of voltage across the anode interface
with the above current density limitations.19.28-29
2.4.2.4 Mixed-Metal Oxide
Mixed-metal oxide anodes consist of an electrocatalytic coating of rare
metal oxides deposited on a passivating substrate material, such as titanium
or niobium. The coating, applied using thermal decomposition, thermal
spray, and other techniques, is usually less than 25 microns ( 1 mil) thick.
These anodes were first used in cathodic protection in Europe in the early
1970s. The first known applications in the United States were in 1984.20
Mixed-metal oxide anodes are available in wires, tubes, rods, mesh,
strips, and plates; however, tube anodes are most commonly used in deep
anode designs. Multiple tube anodes can be connected to a single lead wire
in a feed-through arrangement, or each tube anode can be attached to an
individual lead wire. Anode manufacturers offer different metal oxide
formulations depending on the specific environment. Usually, a different
formulation is offered for environments that will generate oxygen,
chlorine, or chlorine/oxygen. The formulation for chlorine/oxygen
evolution is designed for environments like salt-saturated mud where the
probability is that chlorine gas will be generated first followed by oxygen
gas later as the chloride-ion concentration decreases.2o
Mixed-metal oxide manufacturers publish information indicating the
estimated anode life based upon a specific discharge current density for a
specific anode application. At least two manufacturers indicate that the
estimated anode life for a mixed-metal oxide anode in a fresh water
(oxygen-producing) environment is inversely proportional to the discharge
current density. This relationship is conservatively used by these
manufacturers to estimate the anode life in carbon backfill. This is a
conservative estimate since some anode current discharge is electronically
conducted from the anode surface by the carbon backfill. However,
because of the unique ability of each manufacturer to control the specific
metal oxide formulation, mixture ratio, thickness, and coating density for
these types of anodes, the manufacturer of the specific anode employed
should be consulted for an estimate of the anode life for discharge current
densities other than the published recommended value. If the anode current
loading is more than the manufacturer's published rating for a specific life,
the anode life will be reduced.25

20

GATHERING DESIGN INFORMATION

2.4.2.5 Other Materials


Although there are several other types of cathodic protection anodes on
the market, these anodes are generally intended for applications other than
deep anode systems, except scrap steel anodes. Scrap steel was one of the
first anode materials to be used in deep anode designs. Although scrap steel
has been used from time to time primarily due to the availability of large
quantities of scrap or abandonment of steel casings used for other purposes,
new designs using scrap steel are becoming rare.
Since scrap steel is a soluble anode material, the consumption rate is
relatively high, 10 kg/amp-year (22 lbs/amp-year). This requires a very
large anode mass to produce a useful life. The steel anode life may be
extended by surrounding the anode with carbon backfill; however, the
consumption rate is still very high.
Since higher discharge current densities are anticipated at low-resistivity
boundaries, concentrated corrosion resulting in anode segmentation and
loss of electrical connection have been the major operational problems
associated with this type anode. This problem is usually addressed by
making multiple electrical connections to the anode and applying a strip
coating to the steel.

2.4.3 CARBON BACKFILL


The anodes in a deep anode system are surrounded by carbon backfill to
accomplish three major goals: to maintain the stability of the drilled hole,
to serve as the primary anodic reaction surface, and to lower the resistanceto-earth of the system. Use of an electronically-conductive carbon backfill
allows the anode to function primarily as an electrical supply conductor to
the carbon. The carbon backfill conducts the current electronically from the
anode surface to the backfill-earth interface where the current is converted
to ionic flow through an electrochemical reaction. Since the
electrochemical reactions result in consumption of anodic surface material,
consumption of soil moisture, generation of gases, and reduction of the
pH, the carbon backfill serves as a sacrificial buffer between the anode and
the reaction environment. In effect, the carbon backfill acts as the anodic
discharge surface and takes the brunt of the consumption. Also, as a result
of the much larger reacting surface of the carbon backfill column, the
discharge current density is effectively decreased, reducing the possibility
of operational problems, such as gas blockage and soil drying.
Carbon backfills are produced from one of two major classifications of
cokes: metallurgical and petroleum cokes. Metallurgical coke, shown in
Figure 2-7, is produced by heating coal to temperatures between 500 to

MATERIALS SELECTION

29

Figure 2-7: Metallurgicalcoke

800C (950 to 1500F) without air contact. This results in the evolution of
various gases and liquids from the coal leaving a porous, solid residue of
carbon coke. Due to large variations in temperature within the coking ovens
and the variability of the naturally produced coal, metallurgical coke has
highly variable characteristics. In general, metallurgical cokes are low in
carbon content, porous resulting in a low specific gravity, and high in ash
content and volatiles. These factors result in a product that is relatively high
in resistivity and not suitable for deep anode systems.
Petroleum cokes are produced using the heavy residue from the
distillation of crude oil. After the initial hydrocarbon cracking process, the
heavy oil residue is used as feedstock for the coking process. Although
there are several different types of cokers, the two primary production
techniques are batch and continuous-feed cokers.
A delayed coker is an example of a batch process coker where the
feedstock is heated to the range of 480 to 500C (900 to 930F) and charged
into large coking drums operated between 10 and 18 psi. The coke
precipitates out of the solution onto the walls of the coking drums. After a
period of time, the operation is discontinued, and the coke is cut from the
drum walls in large chunks using hydraulic cutting nozzles. This type of
petroleum coke, delayed coke, is shown in Figure 2-tLrn
A fluid coker is a continuous process where coke deposits on the surface
of fluidized seed coke circulating within the reactor vessel. The reactor
operates between 480 and 565C (900 to 1050F) at atmospheric pressure.
As the carbon particles become larger and heavier, they are removed from

30

GATHERING DESIGN INFORMATION


Figure 2-8: Delayed Coke

the reactor. This process results in dense, spherical coke particles, fluid
coke, as shown in Figure 2-9.O
Figure 2-9: Fluid Coke

The as produced or green petroleum cokes, which are high in volatile


content, are nonconductive and cannot be used as carbon backfills without
being heat treated (calcined). There are a number of different types of heat
treating vessels or calciners, which may be employed. Depending upon the
specific type of calciner, the cokes may be subjected to temperatures as low

MATERIALS SELECTION

31

as 500C (950F)to as high as 1250C (2300F).In addition to becoming


electronically conductive, the coke particles shrink during the heat
treatment due to the loss of volatiles resulting in an increase in real density
[301.
Some of the most important considerations when selecting a coke to be
used as a carbon backfill in a cathodic protection deep anode system
include: resistivity, specific gravity, carbon content, and particle sizing and
shape.
The primary objective of the carbon backfill in a deep anode system is to
electronically conduct the current discharged from the anode surface to the
carbon-earth interface where the electrochemical reaction can occur with
least impact on the anode performance. Due to the presence of ground
water at the anode surface and within the porosity of the carbon backfill
column, the anode current has two possible parallel flow paths into the
body of the earth as shown in Figure 2-10: an electronic path through the
carbon backfill particles and an electrolytic (ionic) path through the water
contained within the carbon backfill. As the resistivity of the carbon
backfill becomes smaller compared to the resistivity of the ground water,
more of the current flows through the desired electronic path to the carbonearth interface. The result is a shift in the reaction location from the anode
Figure 2-10 : Anode Current Discharge Paths

Magnified view
of Anode-Coke
interface ,

CARBON
PARTICLES

GROUND
WATER

e- Electronic
Ionic

32

GATHERING DESIGN INFORMATION

surface to the periphery of the carbon backfill.


The resistivity of the carbon backfill that is of significance is the in-situ
bulk resistivity. This resistivity depends on the specific resistivity of
individual carbon particles and the contact resistance between particles.
The specific resistivity of individual particles is controlled by contaminants
within the particles (ash, volatiles, etc.) and the degree of heat treatment of
the particles. The effect of the heat treatment (calcination) is dependent
upon a time-temperature relationship. A complete calcination results in loss
of volatiles, increase in density, activation of the particle surface, and a
semi-graphitization. With a complete calcination, specific particle
resistivity is reduced.
The surface activation of the carbon particles results in a lower particleto-particle contact resistance. To lower the bulk resistivity further, the
particle contact resistance must be decreased by surface treatment
processes.
The in-situ bulk resistivity of all carbon backfills is also a function of the
compaction and applied pressure. Since in deep anode systems the backfill
column will generally be below the water table, a high specific gravity of
the carbon particles is important to ensure compact settling. The apparent
specific gravity is further increased with the addition of specially selected
nonionic surfactants. These surfactants promote complete surface wetting
of the carbon particles and release of trapped air within surface cracks and
irregularities. Finally, dedusting oils must not be permitted even in very
low quantities due to their effects on particle settling and resistivity.
The carbon content of the backfill determines the deep anode system life.
Because carbon is consumed in the process, the greater the carbon weight
per unit of volume, the greater will be the capacity of the system to
discharge current. Carbon backfill specifications usually provide the
percentage of fixed carbon. Fixed carbon by definition is 100% minus the
percentages of ash, moisture, and volatiles.
Anode performance is also dependent on the carbon backfill particle
sizing and shape. For optimum electronic contact between the anode and
backfill, the backfill particles must be small compared to the anode
diameter for maximum contact area. However, very small particles (less
than 7.5 microns or 200 Tyler mesh) are not desirable because they are
much higher is ash content, high in resistivity, and dusty. Spherical
particles are desirable because they can settle into a compact column
without the necessity of tamping. Also, there is less of a tendency to trap
gases with spherical particles compared to flat, irregularly shaped particles.

MATERIALS SELECTION

33

2.4.4 WIRE
Each anode in a deep anode system is usually installed with an individual
lead wire connected to an individual shunt for current adjustment and
measurement. Although it is possible to connect several anodes to one lead
wire, this practice is not recommended for several reasons. First,
independent anode position and current adjustment is not possible without
individual lead wires. This is important since relatively small changes in
earth resistivity along a deep anode column will result in nonuniform anode
discharge current densities. For multiple anodes on a single lead wire, it is
impossible to determine the individual anode current densities. Therefore,
one anode may be severely overloaded, resulting in premature failure.
Upon failure of the first anode, the next anode becomes overloaded
resulting in a domino effect. Also, with multiple anodes per lead wire,
failure of one anode in the string can result i n loss of the electrical
connection to other anodes in the same string.
With individual lead wires, #8 AWG copper is usually an adequate
conductor size both from the current capacity and mechanical strength
perspectives. A single lead of this wire size can conduct at least 45 amps
without insulation damage. Since the DC resistance is around 2.1
milliohms/m (0.65 milliohms/ft) at 25C for this conductor size, the voltage
drop along an individual deep anode lead wire is not usually excessive. The
breaking strength of #8 AWG copper is approximately 200 kg (450 Ibs).
The most common insulation type used in cathodic protection applications
is high-molecular-weight polyethylene (HMWPE) conforming to ASTM
D 1248 type 1, Class C5, Grade 5-3,with an average insulation thickness of
2.8 mm (110 mils) ?lo%. Due to the excellent moisture and chemical
resistance of HMWPE insulation, it is used almost exclusively in all
cathodic protection applications except environments containing halogen
ions. For halogen ion environments, the primary insulation should be an
inert fluorocarbon or halogenated material such as polyvinylidene fluoride
(PVDF), radiation-crosslinked polyvinylidene fluoride (XLPVDF),
ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE), or crosslinked ethylene
chlorotrifluoroethylene (XLECTFE). Usually, an outer abrasion-resistant
jacket of high-molecular-weight polyethylene or polyoflin is
2.4.5 OTHER COMPONENTS
There are additional components that may be necessary or useful
depending upon the specific deep anode design objectives. The use of all of
these ancillary components is neither necessary nor desirable for every
design. With specific design objectives clearly in mind, the design of the

34

GATHERING DESIGN INFORMATION

system should be based upon selection of the following components as


necessary to achieve the objective.
2.4.5.1 Casings
Casings may be desirable to provide a replaceability feature for the
anodes or for environmental sealing requirements. The use of casings for
environmental objectives is discussed in Section 2.5. Casings employed to
allow for future anode replacement must be selected considering the
following installation and operational factors: chemical resistance, current
transmission mode, corrosion resistance, life, stability, strength, and easeof-assembly.
If the casing string will be located in the anode discharge area, DC
current must pass through the casing material without significant
deterioration or effect. This has been addressed by either using a perforated
plastic casing or a conductive casing material.
2.4.5.2 Anode Support Structures

Anode support structures may be necessary either to reduce strain on the


anode lead wires or to provide a means for positive anode placement.
Normally, lightweight anodes through 75-millimeter (three-inch) diameter
graphite anodes that will be surrounded by carbon backfill do not require a
separate means of support to prevent excessive stress on the individual
anode lead wires. An additional means of support should be considered for
very heavy anodes based upon the specific circumstances. This support
may take the form of a specially-selected, chemically-resistant polymer
rope, a plastic vent system, or a rigid steel piping system.
If anode installation and placement problems are anticipated due to such
factors as unstable formations, positive anode placement can be better
controlled by attaching the anodes to a support structure, such as a steel
pipe or plastic vent system before insertion into the drilled hole. The
support pipe or vent system can then be lowered into the hole by extending
the pipe one joint at a time to the surface. The entire support structure can
be left in the hole after carbon backfill placement, or if a steel pipe
structure is used, the section above the top of the top anode can be
removed from the hole.
If the top section of a steel piping support is to be removed, this can be
accomplished by installing a long nipple at the point of separation. This
joint should be greased and installed hand tight during installation while
all other joints are wrench tightened. Using this technique, the joint with
the long nipple can be disconnected after carbon backfill placement by

MATERIALS SELECTION

35

slow rotation of the piping string from the surface. If a steel piping support
is used, it can serve as the conduit to pump the carbon backfill into the deep
anode system from the bottom of the hole upward.

2.4.5.3 Centralizers
To ensure that each anode is surrounded by carbon backfill, a device to
center the anode in the drilled hole may be employed. The centralizers may
be attached to the anode surface, the anode lead wire, or an anode support
structure. For anodes using passivating substrate materials, such as mixedmetal and platinum-coated anodes, attachment of the centralizer directly to
the anode surface should be avoided due to the possibility of crevice
corrosion beneath the centralizer. All centralizing devices should be
designed to avoid any possibility of anode lead wire damage or carbon
backfill bridging problems. Also, if the system is designed for
replaceability, removal of the anodes must be considered when designing
any centralizing device.
2.4.5.4 Vent Systems
Since most of the electrochemical reactions that occur in a deep anode
system involve the generation of gases, the effect of these gases on the
performance of the system must be considered during the design stage. The
accumulation of excessive gases can isolate sections of the anode surface
from contact with the carbon backfill (gas blockage) resulting in increases
in contact resistance and anode discharge current density.
These problems with gas blockage can be reduced by limiting the anode
discharge current density, selection of a high-conductivity carbon backfill,
and use of a properly designed venting system. The necessity for a venting
system increases as the anode diameter decreases and discharge current
density increases. Therefore, although venting systems may be beneficial
with all types of anodes, they are strongly advised with the small diameter
anodes, such as mixed-metal oxide and platinum-coated anodes.
In order for a venting system to perform properly, carbon backfill must
not be allowed to enter and fill the venting system during installation.
Therefore, the venting system should not be used as a conduit to pump the
carbon backfill into the groundbed. Also, the design of the venting system
must be such that the carbon particles cannot enter the vent holes. Designs
have been used that employ filter fabric to cover relatively large drilled
holes in the vent pipe. However, one of the best techniques involves the use
of very small diameter slits, which will allow gases to enter the venting
system but prevents the passage of carbon backfill particles.

36

GATHERING DESIGN INFORMATION

2.5 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS


Since many areas rely on underground aquifers to provide a major source
of water for industrial use as well as for human consumption, deep anode
systems should be designed to avoid any potential contamination avenues
for these aquifers. As indicated in Figure 2-11 three potential avenues of
contamination should be considered: surface water runoff, subsurface water
interchange between aquifers, and contaminated materials or fluids placed
in the earth.
Figure 2-1 1 : Avenues for Ground Water Contamination

To reduce the possibility of current or future ground water pollution, the


design engineer should investigate the site to determine the past, current,
and future land usage; drainage and possible flood water level; quality and
depth of aquifers; and any other factor that might influence the
environmental design. Also, the materials to be used in the deep anode
system should be investigated to determine any potential contaminants.
2.5.1 SURFACE WATER RUNOFF

Since a deep anode system can serve as a conduit for transfer of polluted
surface water runoff to underground aquifers, this water must not be
allowed to enter the system. One of the first decisions that can affect the

ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

37

probability of contamination via this route is site selection. The proposed


site for a deep anode system should avoid low or flood-prone locations,
areas where surface contaminants are probable, or locations involving
containment dikes or structures.
Although site selection is an important consideration, the upper portion of
the deep anode system should be properly sealed regardless of the location,
since rainwater runoff can carry pollutants into the system. Although the
surface sealing requirements for deep anode systems may vary depending
upon the specific state or other enforcement agency involved, most
authorities require a surface seal of from 3 to 8 meters (10 to 25 feet) of
cement, cement-grout, concrete, bentonite, or bentonite-cement mixtures.

2.5.2 SUBSURFACE AQUIFER INTERCHANGE


In the event two or more aquifers will be encountered during installation
of a deep anode system, the water quality of the each aquifer should be
evaluated to determine appropriate steps to avoid harmful contamination.
If the interchange of waters between the different aquifers would be
detrimental, it should be prevented by proper sealing methods. Otherwise,
if one aquifer is contaminated or becomes contaminated in the future, water
from this aquifer could intermix with the other uncontaminated aquifers.
2.5.3 MA TERIALS CONTAMINATION
The final avenue for possible contamination of underground aquifers is
through the introduction of drilling fluids or system components that
release contaminants into the ground water. The use of potable water for
drilling is recommended. In the event that a potable water supply is not
available, chlorinated fresh water may be used. Any drilling muds or
additives used during the drilling process should be certified as free of any
potential pollutants.
All of the components of the cathodic protection system, especially the
anodes and carbon backfill, should be tested and certified as
noncontaminating. This testing should include approved U.S. EPA
extraction tests for the detection of heavy-metal leachates. Also, for carbon
backfills a screening for toxic or carcinogenic volatile and semi-volatile
organic compounds is recommended.
Complete records of the compliance testing for all of the components
installed in the deep anode system should be maintained.
2.5.4 ABANDONMENT
The final step in the design and operation of a deep anode system is

38

GATHERING DESIGN INFORMATION

abandonment. Once the deep anode system has reached the end of its useful
life, proper abandonment procedures involving permanent sealing and
removal of surface equipment are necessary to prevent future safety or
ground water contamination problems.

2.6 SURFACE COMPLETION CONSIDERATIONS


Design of the surface completion equipment requires consideration of
safety, maintenance, operation, and environmental factors. Before the
design or placement of the surface equipment, the design engineer should
determine the current and future land usage, the possibility of flooding or
standing water, and the pedestrian and vehicle accessibility to the site.
The design engineer should locate the rectifier, shunt box, and other
electrical equipment to provide accessibility for operational data
measurements and periodic maintenance. The location selected should also
limit the possibility of damage from vehicles or vandalism. All electrical
equipment should be locked to prevent tampering or shock hazard
exposure.
The deep anode venting system should be designed to vent gases safely
into the atmosphere. In concentrated form the vent gases (chlorine, oxygen,
carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide) can be corrosive and even toxic;
therefore, they should not be allowed to concentrate or collect within
enclosures. Venting to the atmosphere should occur at a location with
restricted public access, such as within a locked, fenced enclosure or well
above ground level. To prevent the vent from becoming obstructed by
objects dropped into the vent or insect nests, the vent should be terminated
using an inverted fitting and an insect screen.
The design engineer should terminate the deep anode system components
completely below ground where they are not visible to the public, or he
must ensure public safety is not jeopardized and limit tampering or
vandalism. If a casing is exposed above ground, it can be provided with a
locked or tamper-resistant cap.

39
REFERENCES
I. J. D. McNeil, Electrical Conductivity of Soils and Rocks, Technical Note TN05,
Geonics Limited, October 1980.
2. J. R. Hearst, P. H. Nelson, Well Logging for Physical Properties (New York:
McGraw-Hill, 1985).
3. D. N. Lapedes, ed., McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of the Geological Sciences (New York:
McGraw-Hill, 1978).
4. ANSVIEEE Standard 81 - 1983, IEEE Guide for Measuring Earth Resistivity, Ground
Impedance, and Earth Potentials of a Ground System (New York: Institute of Electrical
and Electronics Engineers, 1983). Approved September I98 I , Revised 1983.
5. F. A. Wenner, A Method of Measuring Resistivity, National Bureau of Standards
(now NIST), Scientific Paper, 12, no. S-258 (Gaitherburg, MD: NIST, 1916), p. 469
6. ASTM G 57, Method for Field Measurement of Soil Resistivity Using the Wenner
Four-Electrode Method, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 03.02
(West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM).
7. H. M. Mooney, E. Orellana, Master Tables and Curves for Vertical Electrical Sounding
Over Layered Structure (Madrid: Interciencia, 1966).
8. P. Vingoe, Electrical Resistivity Surveying, Atlas Copco ABEM printed matter
no. 90019, Geophysical Memorandum 5/72, Atlas Copco.
9. H. E. Barnes, Soil Investigation Employing a New Method of Layer Value Determination

for Earth Resistivity Determination, National Research Council Bulletin No. 65


(Washington, DC: National Academy of Science, 1952).
10. Getting Down to Earth Manual of Earth-Resistivity Testing for the Practical Man,
4th ed., James G. Biddle Company, Blue Bell, PA, April 198I .
I 1. Earth Resistance Tests with Three Point Vibroground, Associated Research Manual
18507, Associated Research, Inc., Chicago, IL, 1972.
12. C. J. Blattner, Study of Driven Ground Rods and Four Point Soil Resistivity Test,
IEEE Trans. Power Apparatus and Systems 8, PAS-IOI (August 1982): pp. 2837-2850.
13. H. B. Dwight, Calculation of Resistance to Ground, Electrical Engineering 12, 55
(December 1936): pp. 1319-1328.

14. J. Cochran, A Correlation of Anode-to-Electrolyte Resistance Equations Used in


Cathodic Protection, CORROSION11982, paper no. 169 (Houston, TX: NACE, 1982).

40

GATHERING DESIGN INFORMATION

15. Earth Resistance Tests with Four Point Vibroground, Associated Research Manual

21076, Associated Research, Inc. Chicago, IL.


16. InterpretationHand-Book for Resistivity Logs, Schlumberger Document Number 4,
SchlumbergerWell Surveying Corp., Houston, TX, 1951.
17. NACE Standard RP0572, Design, Installation, Operation, and Maintenance of Impressed
Current Deep Groundbeds (Houston, TX: NACE, 1995). Approved June 1972,
Revised 1995.
18. P. L. Moore, Drilling Practices Manual (Tulsa, OK: PennWell Books, 1974).
19. J. Wagner, Cathodic Protection: Design I (Houston, TX: NACE, 1992).
20. R. W. Stephens, Selection of Materials for Impressed Current Cathodic Protection
Groundbeds, CORROSION/1990,paper no. 410 (Houston, TX: NACE, 1990).
21. A. G. Ostroff, Introduction to Oilfield Water Technology (Houston, TX: NACE, 1979).

22. D. H. boon, C. F. Schrieber, Performance of Impressed Current Anodes for Cathodic


Protection Underground, CORROSION/2000,paper no. 44 (Houston, TX: NACE, 1984).
23. A. Kumar, J. Boy, New developments in the Ceramic Anode for Cathodic Protection,
CORROSION/86,paper no. 288 (Houston, TX: NACE, 1986.)
24. V. F. Hock, J. H. Givens, J. M. Rigsbee, J. E. Suarez, Structure, Chemistry, and
Properties of Mixed Metal Oxides, CORROSIONI88,paper no. 230 (Houston, TX: 1988).
25. J. T. Reading, Oxide Activated Titanium Anodes in Deep Anode Ground Beds,
Proceedings of the Appalachian Underground Corrosion Course, May 1986.
26. T. H. Lewis, Jr., End Effect Phenomena, Materials Performance 9, I8 (September
1979):pp. 26-32.
27. Impressed Current Anodes for Underground Cathodic Protection, NACE Publication
10A196(Houston, TX: NACE, May 1996).
28. J. F. Tatum, Plantized Anodes in Carbonaceous Backfills: A New Dimension,
CORROSIONI78, paper no. 141 (Houston, TX: NACE, 1978).
29. T. H. Lewis, Jr., Plantized Anodes in Carbonaceous Backfills: An Evaluation,
CORROSION/79,paper no. 194 (Houston, TX: NACE, 1979).
30. C. L. Manntell, Carbon and Graphite Handbook (New York, John Wiley, 1968).

Chapter 3

Design
3.1 COLUMN LENGTH
The design of a deep anode system is a reiterative process since a
decision at one point in the design often necessitates changes to previous
decisions. However, the number of iterations is reduced by following a
specific order in the design process. First, determine the design column
length. Selection of the column length in a deep anode design is based on
several factors: geology available, system resistance desired, and discharge
current density limitations.
3.1.1 GEOLOGY
The geology, particularly stratigraphy, at a specific location is a major
design parameter, which cannot be altered. To reduce operating cost it is
desirable to locate the current discharge area in the lowest-resistivity
stratum available. Therefore, the thickness of the lowest-resistivity stratum
available at a particular location determines the maximum column length.
In order to avoid problems with excessive current unbalance between
anodes, it is generally not advisable to place anodes in zones with
significantly different resistivities.
When two or more strata with similar low resistivities are separated by a
higher-resistivity stratum, all of the low-resistivity strata can be used by
extending a continuous carbon column through these strata. However, the
anodes should be placed in the low-resistivity strata only. All of the design
calculations involving column length should use the total thicknesses of the
low-resistivity strata only since very little current discharge will occur
within the higher-resistivity strata.
If the total thickness of low-resistivity strata at a particular site is
insufficient to meet the design goals, two or more deep anode systems can
be installed and operated in parallel. When several deep anode systems are
interconnected, mutual interference effects between the systems should be
considered in the design.
Finding a low-resistivity stratum of sufficient thickness at a reasonable
depth may be a challenge in some areas. First, the term low resistivity is

42

DESIGN

relative. However, the objective is to locate the lowest-resistivity stratum


available in a specific area. In some areas, the lowest-resistivity stratum
may have a relatively high resistivity value by comparison. In this case, the
deep anode design should incorporate a smaller diameter, longer column in
order to produce the lowest system resistance-to-earth given the higherresistivity environment. It is also possible that the lowest-resistivity stratum
is either very deep or located below a rock stratum. The presence of a rock
stratum between the anode discharge zone and the structure to be protected
can result in a dielectric shielding effect, which can only be assessed by
testing. The correct design decisions in these cases involve weighing the
additional costs such as drilling , additional materials, testing, etc. against
any savings in the operational power cost over the life of the system by
using the lower-resistivity stratum. In some cases, the most cost-effective
design will involve using a higher-resistivity stratum.
One of the motivations for designing a deep anode system rather than a
surface system, as indicated in Section 1.3, is to minimize the possibility of
anodic interference with other utilities. Anodic interference is caused when
a foreign metallic structure passes through an area influenced by the
potential gradient of a cathodic protection groundbed. In the case of a deep
anode system, the potential gradients are usually minimal at the surface
since the current is discharged deep within the body of the earth. However,
cases have occurred where a low-resistivity strata used for current
discharge appeared at the surface (outcropped) relatively near the deep
anode system resulting in anodic gradients at the surface. The magnitude of
the anodic gradient, in this case, becomes larger as the distance to the
discharge surface decreases or the thickness of the low resistivity strata
decreases. The magnitude of the anodic gradient reaching the surface is
also larger if the relative resistivities of the surrounding strata are very high
or the current output is large. Therefore, the relative layering at a proposed
deep anode site and variations in depth of the various layers within the area
should be investigated.

3.1.2 RESISTANCE
With the objective of low power cost in mind, the resistance-to-earth
should be calculated for the desired column length given the geologic
limitations. The resistance-to-earth of a deep anode system consists of the
parallel combination of the individual anode-to-backfill contact resistances
plus the resistance-to-earth of the backfill column. For low-resistivity
carbon backfills, the contact resistance of an individual anode is small,

COLUMN LENGTH

43

usually less than a tenth of an ohm. With all of the anode contact
resistances in parallel, the total anode-to-backfill resistance is the contact
resistance of a single anode divided by the total number of anodes.
Therefore, for most practical cases the total anode-to-backfill contact
resistance is insignificant and may be ignored in the calculation of total
system resistance-to-earth. The system resistance can be estimated within
reasonable accuracy by determining the resistance-to-earth of a single
vertical anode with a diameter equal to the carbon backfill column diameter
and a length equal to the column length. In fact, the accuracy of the
resistance estimate is usually controlled by the accuracy of the environment
resistivity value, which must be used in the calculation.
A number of equations are available for calculating the resistance-toearth of single vertical electrodes. The most notable are the equations
developed by H. B. Dwight, Erling D. Sunde, and Walter von Baechmann
and W. Schwenck. The equations developed by Dwight and Sunde each
consider two cases: an electrode with one end at the surface of the earth and
an electrode infinitely submerged within the body of the earth. Baechmann
and Schwenck, however, developed an equation with a variable depth-ofburial term. The equations, along with a discussion of the application of
each equation, are found in Appendix 6.2.2-6
Using the equations or graphs in Appendix 6.2,the resistance-to-earth of
a design with a specific active column length and diameter can be estimated
based on the anticipated layer resistivity. If the estimated resistance is
unacceptable, either the active column length must be increased, the
diameter must be increased, a lower layer resistivity must be found, or
multiple parallel columns must be employed. Generally, increasing the
column diameter will have only a very small effect on the overall resistance
compared to the other variables. The active column length can only be
increased up to the maximum limit allowed by the thickness of the existing
low-resistivity stratum. If the resistance is still unacceptable, either the hole
must be drilled deeper in an attempt to locate another low-resistivity
stratum, or multiple holes must be installed.
The decision on what is an acceptable resistance-to-earth of a deep anode
system is an economic decision. The current output of the deep anode
system is determined by the current requirement of the structure. This
current level is fixed by the nature of the structure and environment and is
independent of the deep anode design. The power necessary to furnish a
specific level of output current is directly proportional to the system
resistance, as shown in Equation (3-1).

44

DESIGN

P = 12R
Equation (3-1)
Power Output of Deep Anode System

where P = D C power output (watts)


I = current output (amps)
R = resistance (ohms)

At a constant level of power output, the cost of the energy, which must be
purchased from the power company on a monthly basis, is calculated in
Equation (3-2).

COST=

720 P C
1000 E F f

Equation (3-2)
Monthly Power Cost

where COST = monthly power cost (dollars)


P = power output (watts)
C = power cost (dollars / kilowatt-hr)
EFF = power conversion efficiency (decimal form)

For a single-phase, full-wave bridge rectifier, the power conversion


efficiency would normally be in the range of 60 to 80% depending upon the
loading on the rectifier. The present value of the power cost over the life of
the system can be estimated using Equation (3-3).This equation discounts
a fixed payment amount paid over n years assuming a constant interest rate
for money.'

PVPC= COST
i(l+i)"
Equation (3-3)
Present Value of Power Cost

where PVPC = present value of power cost (dollars)


COST = monthly power cost (dollars)
i = monthly interest rate of money (decimal form)
n = number of months for system operation

COLUMN LENGTH

45

Now, the estimated savings in power cost in present-value dollars can be


determined by estimating the difference in the present value of the power
cost at two different levels of system resistance. The anticipated savings in
power cost can then be compared with the additional cost to achieve the
lower level of system resistance.

3.1.3 CURRENT DENSITY


Based on the active column length and diameter as determined from the
required system resistance, the average current density should be calculated
at the interface between the carbon column and the earth. Since this is the
primary reaction surface, the rate of gas generation and/or water
consumption will be determined by the current density at this interface.
Since gases will be generated and water will be consumed at a faster rate as
the current density increases, an upper limit must be placed on this current
density based upon the rate of gas removal and water replenishment.
Experience indicates that an upper limit of 1.6 amps/m2 (150 ma/ft2) will
prevent operational problems due to the buildup of gases or the depletion of
water.
If the calculated current density is in excess of the established limit, either
the active column surface area must be increased or the design current level
reduced. The discharge surface area can be increased by either increasing
the diameter or the length of the active column. Of course, increasing the
length of the active column beyond the limits of the low-resistivity strata is
of no benefit since current discharge will be effectively confined to the
low-resistivity strata. Therefore, once the length of the column is at its
maximum value as determined by the existing geology, either the diameter
of the column must be increased or multiple columns must be considered.
3.2 ANODE SELECTION
Selection of a specific anode for a deep anode system depends on a
number of factors including the specific environment, space available, and
current output. Availability and cost are also major considerations in
selection of an anode. A discussion of the anode materials available for a
deep anode system is provided in Section 2.4.2.

3.2.1 CURRENT DENSITY


Once a specific type anode is selected, the minimum number of anodes
required should be determined by dividing the maximum recommended
current output per anode into the required deep anode design current. The

46

DESIGN

maximum recommended current output per anode should be determined


from the manufacturers literature based on the specific environment. This
information is sometimes provided as a maximum recommended anode
current density along with various anode sizes available so that the current
output for a specific anode must be calculated. Of course, the minimum
number of anodes required should be rounded up to the next whole number
if the division results in a fraction. This is the absolute minimum number of
anodes that must be installed. Whether or not additional anodes should be
installed depends upon spacing considerations and safety factors employed.

3.2.2 SPACING
Generally, the anodes are uniformly spaced within the active discharge
area of the deep anode system as determined by either the limits of the lowresistivity stratum or the length of the carbon column. The minimum
spacing between anodes is limited only by the necessity of installing all of
the anodes within the active area. The anodes may be placed end-to-end
with no intervening space, if required. If the physical dimensions of the
anodes will not permit the anodes to be installed within the space available,
a modification of the design is necessary.
The maximum spacing between anodes is controlled by the attenuation of
current flow along the carbon column. The magnitude of the attenuation is
a function of a number of interrelated variables. The attenuation is reduced,
resulting in greater acceptable anode spacing as the resistivity of the earth
increases, the resistivity of the carbon decreases, or the diameter of the
carbon column increases. Section 6-3 develops a method of determining
maximum anode spacing. Table 6-1 provides suggested maximum anode
spacings for a 250 mm (10 in.) diameter column using various combinations
of earth and carbon resistivity.
3.2.3ANODE LIFE CALCULATION
In order to discuss the life of a deep anode system, it is necessary to
define failure. For purposes of this discussion, failure will be defined as a
system resistance increase sufficient to prevent adequate current discharge
with the available power supply.
The life of a deep anode system is determined by consumption of the
anodes, consumption of the carbon backfill, and failure of components due
to factors other than electrochemical oxidation. The anode life and carbon
backfill life due to electrochemical oxidation can be readily calculated.
However, the system life due to other possible failure modes cannot be
easily determined. These failure modes are best handled by proper design

ANODE SELECTION

47

and component selection.


Information necessary to estimate anode life is available through anode
manufacturers or may be based upon specific company experience data.
The information is usually available as a projected consumption rate in a
specific environment, or in the case of mixed-metal oxide anodes, a
projected life in terms of anode discharge current. Because the anticipated
life for a mixed-metal oxide anode in a fresh water (oxygen producing)
environment is inversely proportional to the discharge current density, the
life estimate can be adjusted for any design current density. Since some
anode current discharge is electronically conducted from the anode surface
by the carbon backfill, this represents a conservative estimate.
When anode consumption rate data is provided, the estimated life is
calculated using Equation (3-4). For anode life prediction within a carbon
backfill column in a deep anode system, the consumption rate data should
be based on this environment. It should be realized that the rate of anode
consumption is controlled by the quality of carbon backfill. Therefore, the
consumption rate employed in the calculations should be based on
experience with a particular carbon backfill specification.x

Equation ( 3 4 )
Weight Loss Due to Consumption
where W = total anode weight (Kg)
I = average current discharge (amps)
t = design life (years)
C = consumption rate (Kg / amp-year)
f = utilization factor (decimal)
The anode utilization factor represents the percentage of the anode that
can be used before it fails due to loss of the electrical connection or the
contact resistance to the carbon increases significantly. Based upon
experience the suggested utilization factor for the anode in a deep anode
system should be about 75%.
In addition to estimating the anode life, it is necessary to consider the
consumption rate of the carbon backfill. This is discussed in Section 3.3.3.

3.2.4 RELIABILITY AND SAFETY FACTORS


The level of reliability required for a specific deep anode system is

48

DESIGN

dependent upon the costs associated with premature failure. Some


important factors to consider in determining the level of reliability
necessary are: whether or not failure results in complete or partial loss of
cathodic protection, how critical interruption of protection is for a
particular structure, the cost associated with a replacement system, how
quickly failure of the system will be discovered, the existence of severe
interference mitigated by the current supplied by the system, and the lead
time required for installation of a replacement system.
A greater degree of reliability is designed into a deep anode system by
employing safety factors. With increased reliability resulting from the use
of larger safety factors comes an increase in the cost of the system.
Therefore, the selection of a specific safety factor is an economic decision.
When the costs associated with using a large safety factor are small in
comparison to the increased reliability, a larger safety factor is justifiable.
For example, in a deep anode design case requiring only one or two anodes
to produce the required current output, the number of anodes may be
doubled (a safety factor of two) without significant increase in the overall
system cost. However, the reliability of the system would be significantly
increased. In general, due to the cost of drilling the deep anode hole, a
larger safety factor is justifiable for smaller design currents.

3.3 CARBON BACKFILL SELECTION


Since the carbon backfill serves as the primary electrochemical reaction
surface in a deep anode system, selection of the backfill is critical to the
successful operation of the system. If a high-quality carbon is used in the
deep anode system, the current discharged by the anode will be primarily
electronic. In other words, the anode serves only as an electronic connector
between the power supply and the carbon backfill reaction surface. Some of
the more important characteristics of a high-quality carbon backfill were
discussed in Section 2.4.3.

3.3.1 RESISTIVITY
As discussed in Section 2.4.3, the in-situ bulk resistivity of the carbon
backfill is an important determinant of the percentage of ionic versus
electronic current discharged from the anode surface. Since the ground
water in the deep anode system discharge zone is generally relatively
conductive, small differences in carbon backfill resistivity can result in
significant changes in the percentage of ionic current transfer from the
anode surface. Also, as ,indicated in Section 3.2.2, the maximum acceptable

CARBON BACKFILL SELECTION

49

anode spacing is affected by the carbon backfill resistivity. Therefore, some


means of comparing carbon backfill resistivities is needed.
Although specifications for carbon backfills often limit the maximum
acceptable resistivity value, the method of measuring the resistivity is
usually not given. Since there is no accepted industry standard for this
measurement, significant confusion exists in the industry regarding this
important specification. Some of the past practices involve measuring the
resistivity in an open soil box or using a resistivity test standard developed
for the carbon electrode industry. Both test techniques have limitations in
the application to carbon backfills for the cathodic protection industry.
The important resistivity value is the in-situ bulk resistivity of the carbon
backfill, as supplied. The problem with determining this value is the
difficulty of reproducing the measurements. The measured resistivity of
carbon backfill is a function of a number of variables including the shape
and sizing of the individual carbon particles, the arrangement of the
individual particles in the test fixture, the specific resistivity of the
individual particles, the contact surface of the individual particles, and the
pressure applied. Due to the sensitivity of the resistivity measurement to the
above variables, the resistivity measured for a specific sample of carbon
backfill is not reproducible unless these variables are controlled in the test.
The applied pressure can be controlled and selected to be representative of
the in-situ conditions in the test procedure. However, the other sensitivity
variables cannot be easily controlled without selecting specific sized and
shaped particles from the sample for the measurement. This procedure
results in the measurement of a sample that is not representative of the bulk
backfill conditions. Since some of the sensitivity variables cannot be easily
controlled, the variability of the measurements due to these effects can be
eliminated through statistical analysis of the data. A method for testing
carbon backfill resistivity for use in cathodic protection deep anode systems
is provided in Section 6.4.
3.3.2 CURRENT DENSITY
Recall from Section 2.4.3, among the results of the electrochemical
reactions occurring at the backfill-earth interface are water consumption
and gas generation. With excessive depletion of water or the buildup of
gases, deep anode operational problems are anticipated. The final
equilibrium conditions determine whether or not the deep anode system
operates successfully over the long run.
The final moisture level at the discharge interface will be a result of the
equilibrium established between moisture depletion effects and moisture

50 DESIGN
restoration effects. Moisture will be depleted due to consumption by the
electrochemical reactions plus electro-osmosis effects driving moisture
away from the anode. The primary balancing restoration effect is due to the
hydraulic forces in the earth. Both moisture depletion effects are a function
of current density. The hydraulic restoration effect is a function of the
rainfall in the area, the level of the water table, and the permeability of the
surrounding earth. For long-term operational stability, the equilibrium
moisture level must be sufficient to provide a continuous electrolytic
conduction bridge from the backfill interface into the bulk soil.
The buildup of gases at the backfill interface results in a reduced
discharge surface area together with an increase in earth contact resistance.
The overall result is an increasing resistance of the deep anode system
requiring continual increases in rectifier voltage in order to maintain the
required current output. This condition is known in the industry as gas
blockage. The rate of gas generation is directly related to the discharge
current density. The rate of gas dissipation is a function of the venting
system design and the ability of the surrounding earth to absorb the gases.
For successful long-term operation, the resulting equilibrium must be such
that the total gas accumulation within the deep anode system is minimal.
In order to avoid the operational problems associated with water
depletion or gas accumulation, the design current density must be limited.
The current density of interest is the average current density at the carbonearth interface. This is the primary reaction surface. Although the current
density limit for a specific deep anode location is dependent on the soil
hydrology and permeability at the location, a maximum current density of
160 yA/cm2 (150 mA/ft2) has been used successfully for many years,
especially in the Southeast USA.8
3.3.3 CARBON BACKFILL CONSUMPTION
As the electrochemical reactions occur within the deep anode system,
carbon backfill is consumed. Since the oxidation product of the carbon
backfill is a gas, a void is created. This void will be filled by carbon from
above, if the carbon exhibits good flow characteristics. If the carbon
backfill does not flow into the voids, water from the surrounding earth will
fill the voids with earth from caving of the surrounding formation
ultimately occupying the space. In order to maintain a carbon backfill
environment around the anodes, additional carbon backfill should be placed
above the top anode to provide a replenishment source for the consumed
backfill.

CARBON BACKFILL SELECTION

51

Once significant consumption of the carbon backfill occurs, the anodes


are exposed directly to the ionically conducting environment resulting in a
large increase in anode consumption rate. As some of the anodes begin to
fail due to the high rate of consumption, a domino effect occurs as the
current density increases on the remaining anodes.
The life of the carbon backfill can be estimated using Equation 3-4 with
a carbon consumption rate of 1 kilogram per amp-year (2 pounds per ampyear). The utilization rate for the carbon backfill should be very
conservative since exposure of a few anodes can precipitate rapid system
failure. A utilization factor of 25% is suggested.
3.4 LEAD WIRE SELECTION

Selection of the anode lead wire for a deep anode installation requires
consideration of the mechanical, chemical, and electrical design demands.
Also, a decision is necessary on whether to use individual anode lead wires
or to place multiple anodes on a single lead wire.
In order to improve reliability of the system, individual anode lead wires
are generally recommended. However, as the number of anodes in a single
deep anode system increases or anode replaceability becomes a design
consideration, placement of several anodes on a single lead becomes a
more acceptable alternative. As the number of anodes increases, individual
anode failure has less of an overall impact on the continued operation of the
system. In addition, as the number of individual lead wires increases, the
volume of the discharge column occupied by lead wires rather than
conductive carbon backfill becomes a factor affecting the operation of the
system. Replaceability of the anodes is also jeopardized by the congestion
caused by excessive anode lead wires.
When installing multiple anodes on a single lead wire is considered,
system reliability is improved by limiting the number of anodes on a single
cable and by considering looped connection arrangements.
3.4.1 MECHANICAL REQUlREMENTS
The mechanical stress on the cable and insulation is an important design
factor that should be considered. Excessive cable stress due to tensile
loading or bending can cause insulation cracks resulting in catastrophic
cable failure if the copper conductor is exposed to moisture. Therefore, care
should be exercised in making any small radius bends, such as during the
installation process, or the design of anode cable suspension loops.
Also, tensile stress on the cable due to the anode weight during

52 DESIGN
installation should be evaluated. If the drilled hole contains water or
drilling fluids during the anode installation, the buoyancy force of the fluid
will reduce the cable loading. If the discharge column is backfilled with
carbon, the anodes will be supported by the carbon after settling, relieving
the cable stress. Therefore, the critical loading time is during the
installation of the anodes. Anodes of up to 32 kilograms (70 pounds) are
routinely installed on #8 AWG HMWPE cable without additional support.

3.4.2 CHEMICAL REQUIREMENTS


Due to the aggressive environment within an operating deep anode
system, chemical resistance of the cable insulation is important. In halogenfree environments, high-molecular-weight polyethylene (HMWPE)
insulation conforming to ASTM D 1248 type one, Class C-5, Grade 5-3 is
recommended for a deep anode system. The average insulation thickness
should be 2.8 mm (1 10 mils) with a 10% t~lerance.~
If the presence of chlorides or other halogens is anticipated in the ground
water, a dual-extruded insulation is recommended. The primary insulation
should be an inert fluorocarbon or halogenated material, as described in
Section 2.4.4. In order to mechanically protect the primary insulation, an
outer abrasion-resistant jacket of high-molecular-weight polyethylene or
polyoflin is employed.'
3.4.3 ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS
The primary electrical requirement for the anode lead wire is adequate
current-carrying capacity or ampacity. The ampacity of a insulated wire is
the maximum current that can be conducted without raising the temperature
of the wire beyond the safe operating limits for the insulation. Therefore,
the ampacity of an insulated wire is a function of the ambient temperature,
the type and thickness of the insulation, the number of current-carrying
conductors, and the thermal resistance characteristics of the system. A
mathematically exact ampacity can be calculated using the Neher-McGrath
method. However, this method of ampacity determination can be complex
and time consuming.'O
Another method of ampacity determination is based on using appropriate
tables in the latest version of the National Electrical Code with correction
factors applied, as necessary. Although the National Electrical Code is
neither a design manual nor intended for the specific application of
cathodic protection installations, it does provide a simple method of
determining conservative ampacities for specific wire sizes.
For example, using Table 3 10-16 in the National Electrical Code, the

LEAD WIRE SELECTION

53

ampacity for not more than three #8 AWG HMWPE copper cables with a
temperature rating of 75C directly buried in the earth at an ambient
temperature of 30C is 50 amps. If this ampacity is corrected for an ambient
temperature of 20C and for a total of 10 to 20 anode lead wires, the
ampacity is reduced to 26 amps for each lead." Using this very
conservative ampacity rating, it is apparent that #8 AWG HMWPE lead
wire would not approach overloading unless several anodes are connected
to the same cable.
Another consideration in appropriately sizing anode cables is the voltage
drop along the cable. Voltage drop along the anode lead wire is due to the
resistance of the wire and results in power loss, lowering the operating
efficiency of the system. The decision on the level of voltage drop to
tolerate before increasing the cable size is an economic decision. However,
a total voltage drop of 5% or less along the cable system will usually
provide a reasonable efficiency of operation.
Using the example of a #8 AWG HMWPE copper anode lead, the
resistance is 2.15 milliohms/m (0.654 milliohms/ft) at 25"C.'2Assuming a
design using 10 anodes discharging two amps each with the longest anode
lead wire measuring 100 meters (330 feet), the total voltage drop along the
longest lead is 0.43 volts. Assuming a one-ohm system resistance, the
rectifier output voltage would be 20 volts; therefore, the maximum anode
lead voltage drop would be 2.2%. Again, a #8 AWG HMWPE anode lead
would be adequately sized considering voltage drop.

3.5 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS


When contemplating the installation of a deep anode system, federal,
state and local environmental laws regarding the protection of underground
water quality should be determined. These regulations should be carefully
observed during the design and installation processes.
In order to complete a deep anode system design adequately addressing
environmental concerns, it is necessary to determine specific site
conditions, which may impact the design. Surface site conditions should be
thoroughly investigated to determine flood levels, water runoff patterns,
existing surface pollutants, and future land use. Information should also be
obtained relative to the depth, thickness, and water quality for underground
aquifers at the proposed installation site. Finally, if water will be employed
during the drilling process, a water source should be located and its quality
investigated.

54

DESIGN

3.5.1 SURFACE SEALING


The top of a deep anode system should be properly sealed to prevent
surface water runoff, spills, or flood waters from entering the system. If
surface casings are to be used, the casing should be extended well-above
flood level or mechanically sealed. The annular space between the outside
of the casing and the earth should be sealed to a depth great enough to
prevent surface waters from entering the system. If no surface casing is
employed, the sealing materials should fill the drilled hole from the surface
to the required sealing depth.
Some of the sealing materials, which may be employed, include cement,
cement-grout, concrete, bentonite, or bentonite-cement mixtures. The
minimum suggested radial thickness of the sealing material on the outside
of a casing is 5 centimeters (2 inches). The total required depth for the
sealing material varies depending upon the permeability of the surface soils
and the depth to the top of an impervious formation, such as rock or clay.
However, most enforcement agencies suggest a minimum depth of 3 to 7.5
meters (1 0 to 25 feet).
A cement seal usually consists of neat cement mixed with 5 to 7 gallons of
water per bag of cement. The cement-grout mixture consists of up to two
parts of sand by weight to one part of cement mixed with 5 to 7 gallons of
water. Concrete mixtures substitute gravel for a portion of the sand.
Bentonite sealing material consists of dry pellets of bentonite. Finally, small
percentages of powdered bentonite (5 to 8%) are sometimes added to
cement mixtures to improve pumping characteristics and reduce shrinkage.
One easy method of sealing the upper portion of a deep anode system
involves pouring dry bentonite pellets into the hole from the surface. Upon
contact with water, bentonite particles adsorb surface water and swell
producing an impermeable clay seal. Since the surface area-to-volume ratio
is low for the bentonite pellets, there is a time delay before significant
swelling of the pellets occurs. This time delay allows the pellets to fall
considerable distances through clean, quiescent water. After complete
hydration of the pellets, a dense, impermeable clay seal is formed.
3.5.2 AQUIFER INTERCHANGE
The interchange of water between potable and contaminated aquifers as a
result of the interconnecting channel formed by a deep anode system is
another avenue for the potential contamination of underground water. In
order to avoid mixing of waters underground, the deep anode design must
minimize the possibility of significant flow between aquifers. From a
practical point of view, the mixing of underground waters becomes more of

ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

55

a significant problem as the difference in water quality between aquifers


increases.
One of the first methods of eliminating the possibility of interchange is to
avoid drilling through multiple aquifers. If it is determined that two
separate aquifers with significantly different water quality exist at a
particular location, design of the deep anode system such that the second
aquifer is not penetrated could be the best choice to prevent contamination.
This design approach may even involve two or more deep anode systems
installed above the sensitive aquifer and operated in parallel.
Another approach involves sealing one or more penetrated aquifers. If an
aquifer that requires sealing is not within the intended cathodic protection
current discharge zone, conventional sealing techniques such as a plastic or
steel casing with an external seal of cement or cement-grout can be used.
However, if the aquifer is within a current discharge zone, a casing with an
external seal of conductive carbon grout material is recommended. The
conductive grout will allow effective current transfer while providing the
required seal. In addition to providing the necessary aquifer seals, selection
of a low permeability carbon backfill will reduce water interchange
between aquifers. An example of an environmentally sealed deep anode
system is shown in Figure 3-1.
Figure 3-1 : Environmentally Sealed Deep Anode System
If casing is used, then a
casing seal is required

SURFACE SEAL

Depth approximately
25 to 50 feet

NATIVE FILL

DeDendent on
a q u b location
as to length or
use of native fill

DISCHARGING ZONE

Matenal certified to be
clean and reduced
permeabilityif required

,VENT

To extend up
rectifier pole
above flood
levels

56 DESIGN
3.5.3 TESTING OF MATERIALS AND FLUIDS
Another possible route for pollution of underground aquifers is through
the introduction of contaminated materials or drilling fluids during the
installation of the deep anode system. During the design stage, materials
should be selected that have been tested and certified as noncontaminating.
The results of EPA-approved extraction test for heavy-metal leachates
should be obtained for the files for any materials proposed for the
installation. Any muds or other drilling compounds utilized to aid in the
production or stabilization of the hole should also be certified as
noncontaminating.
Water used for drilling should be potable water whenever possible. If a
potable water supply is not available near a proposed drilling site, fresh
water source may be used after being properly chlorinated. The amount of
chlorine required to disinfect a water source depends upon the quantity of
oxidizable material in the water (chlorine demand), the temperature and pH
of the water, and the exposure time. Although the chlorine for treatment
may be obtained in a number of different forms and concentrations,
common laundry bleach (5.25% sodium hypochlorite) is often used.
Depending on the particular water source, from one to two litters (gallons)
of laundry bleach per lo00 litters (gallons) of water is recommended. The
treated water should be allowed to stand for a minimum of 2 hours prior to
use.-15
3.6 OTHER DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Depending upon the objectives for a specific project, other design
considerations may become important to accomplish specific goals. The
variations in design and the types of auxiliary components that might be
used are limited only by the imagination of design engineers. Some of the
more common secondary considerations are discussed below.
3.6.1 VENT SYSTEMS
Many of the electrochemical reactions occurring in a deep anode system
involve the evolution of a gas. If these gases accumulate, the electrical
contact resistance between the anode and the carbon backfill or the carbon
backfill and the earth increases. In the extreme, the contact resistances
increase to the point that current discharge from the system is prevented.
This problem is known in the industry as gas blockage.
The accumulation of gases is prevented through control of gas generation
and dissipation. The rate of gas generation is restricted by controlling

OTHER DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

57

discharge current densities. Also, gas generation at the anode surface is


minimized through the selection of high-quality, electronically-conductive
carbon backfills. Dissipation of the gases occurs through absorption into
geological formations and though the use of proper venting techniques,
when required.
The need for a specific venting system becomes more important with
designs where the anode current density is high, the permeability of the
existing geological formations is limited, the resistance of the electronic
path through the carbon backfill is high, the water resistivity is low, or the
system is environmentally sealed. Venting systems are recommended with
smaller diameter anodes operating at higher design current densities, such
as mixed-metal oxide and platinum.
When designing a venting system, a dielectric material should be selected
that is resistant to the chemical environment within a deep anode system.
The diameter of the venting system should be as small as possible to avoid
restricting current flow within the carbon column while providing an
adequate gas discharge path. The openings in the vent tube should be
constructed in such a way to allow the gases to enter while excluding the
carbon backfill particles. This can be accomplished by employing narrow
slits or by covering larger diameter drilled holes with filter fabric. The vent
tube together with its openings must be strong enough to withstand the
anticipated differential pressures during the installation.
The joining method for the venting system is important both from a
strength and an ease-of-installation point of view. Slip couplings or belland-spigot joints assembled with a solvent-weld cement provide a strong,
easy-to-assemble connection. If the solvent-weld cement is fast acting and
can cure underwater, the installation process can proceed rapidly.
Finally, the surface termination of the venting assembly should be
designed to minimize the possibility of obstructions. The venting system
should be terminated well-above flood and traffic levels to allow safe gas
venting while preventing water entry. A screened, inverted U termination
is suggested to prevent insects and small animals from entering the system.

3.6.2 ANODE CENTERING DEVICES


Another important consideration in deep anode designs using carbon
backfill is centering of the anodes within the backfill. It is not critical that
the anodes be located in the exact center of the backfill column, only that
the anodes not be allowed to directly contact the side of the drilled hole. Of
course, any current discharged on an anode surface in direct contact with
the earth would result in consumption of the anode andor gas generation

58 DESIGN
on its surface. Therefore, the anode must be positioned such that carbon
backfill will completely surround the anode.
The design of any centering device should be such that it does not
significantly reduce the total anode discharge surface area. Also, care
should be exercised in placing the centering device directly on the surface
of any anode susceptible to crevice corrosion, such as rare metals on
titanium or niobium substrates. Finally, if anode replacement is a design
objective, the centering device must not interfere with the removal process.

3.6.3 ANODE REPLACEMENT


As discussed in Section 3.2.3, anode and/or lead wire failure is a primary
failure mode of a deep anode system. Because drilling the hole for the deep
anode system usually represents an expenditure of at least one-fourth of the
installation cost, a design allowing anode replacement without the necessity
of redrilling of the hole can be very cost competitive.
One patented Replaceable Deep Anode System (U. S. Patent no.
3,725,669) shown in Figure 3-2involves a nominal 15 cm (6 in.) diameter
casing string consisting of a steel lead with a flow control valve, a perforated
plastic section, and a solid plastic section. The steel lead section facilitates
casing installation by providing weight for the casing string and a method of
casing support and carbon backfill placement during installation. The casing
string is supported during installation using 2.5 cm (1 in.) steel pipe inserted
into the casing string and connected to a left-hand female thread in a oneway flow control valve at the bottom of the steel lead. The perforated casing
section consists of extra-strength ABS casing perforated with forty-five 3.2
cm (1.25 in.) holes per foot and covered with a thin metallic membrane. The
perforations are drilled at a 45-degree angle from the casing surface with the
centerline of the perforations angled down to the outside in the installed
position. This ensures complete filling of the perforations with carbon
backfill during installation. Finally, the casing string is completed by
installing a section of solid, extra-strength ABS casing to the surface.
This Replaceable Deep Anode System design allows replacement of the
anodes at the time of failure. The replacement process involves fluidizing
the carbon backfill and pumping it to the surface using a water jetting
technique. The carbon backfill is allowed to settle out of the water
recirculation system in a holding tank at the top of the hole. Once the
carbon backfill has been removed, the failed anodes can be retrieved and
new anodes installed. The carbon backfill can then be refluidized and
returned to the system.

OTHER DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

59

Figure 3-2 : Replaceable Deep Anode System

Groundbed Cover

Earth Seal

Native Fill

Top of Carbon Backfill


Inside Casing

Top of Carbon Backfill


Outside Casing
ABS Perforated Casing with
Metallic Membrane
C

0
.-c
0

1" Vent Pipe


Carbon Backfill
Anodes

Steel Lead with Flow Control Valve

60 DESIGN
3.7 SPECIAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
In addition to the details previously covered, which are involved with
almost every system design, there are a number of special design situations
that may occur. These situations occur due to unusual geology, system
requirements, or location and usually require a detailed investigation of the
particular problems involved together with the available options.

3.7.1 PARALLEL HOLES


In situations where the geology is such that the total thickness of
available low-resistivity earth is insufficient for the design current
requirement, paralleling deep anode systems is an option. As previously
indicated, insufficient low-resistivity earth for current discharge can result
in operational problems associated with an excessive discharge current
density or a high system resistance. In weighing the available options
economics, of course, must be factored into the decision.
Operating two or more deep anode systems in parallel simply involves
connecting the anodes from each deep anode system to the same rectifier.
In operating the deep anode systems in parallel, the systems should be
identical in construction to avoid problems with current balancing. This is
accomplished by placing an equal number of anodes in each system within
the same low-resistivity stratum. Since the individual deep anode systems
will be located relatively close together, no significant variations in
geology are anticipated for most locations. Also, the rectifier should be
located such that the anode cable lengths are about the same to avoid
significant differences in cable resistance. If the systems are constructed in
this manner, the current will be evenly distributed to each deep anode
system without the need for adding series balancing resistors.
In operating two or more deep anode systems in parallel, the spacing
between the individual systems is an important design consideration. If the
individual deep anode systems are placed far enough apart so that the
mutual interference effects are negligible, mi-nimum total resistance is
achieved. The total parallel resistance of widely spaced systems is simply
the resistance of one deep anode system divided by the number of systems.
Due to the cost of cable, trenching, and right-of-way, it is usually desirable
to locate the deep anode systems as close together as possible. If the
systems are placed very close together, the total resistance will be
approximately the same as one deep anode system. Due to these two
competing design requirements, the spacing is usually a compromise
balancing installation cost and system resistance. A reasonable spacing can

SPECIAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

61

be determined by plotting system resistance versus spacing using Equation


(6-6) and choosing a spacing within the knee of the curve where the rate
of change in resistance decreases significantly. The spacing selected based
on this criterion will be between 15 and 20 meters (50 and 80 feet) for most
designs.

3.7.2 STRUCTURE ATTENUATION


The number and locations of deep anode systems required to provide
adequate cathodic protection for a specific structure are determined both by
the current requirement and by the attenuation characteristics of the
structure. If the structure has significant physical length, the current density
and resulting potential shift of the structure will decrease with increasing
distance away from the rectifier location. This decrease in current density is
due to attenuation as a result of the linear resistance of the structure.
If the structure is electrically long, the maximum distance between deep
anode systems will be determined by the minimum current density required
for adequate protection. A structure may be classified as electrically long if
the shift in potential at one end of the structure is insignificant when current
is injected at the opposite end. If a structure exhibits significant attenuation,
multiple cathodic protection current injection points will be required in
order to provide an effective cathodic protection design.*
3.7.3 CARBON COLUMN ATTENUATION
Just as the structure can exhibit attenuation of current flow due to the
linear resistance of the structure itself, the carbon column in a deep anode
system can also suffer from attenuation. The attenuation of current flow
along a carbon column is a result of the linear resistance of the carbon
column. Although the linear resistance is relatively small in the case of a
carbon column, it is the relative relationship with the resistance-to-earth of
the column that determines the overall effect. In situations where the earth
resistivity is low, the carbon column attenuation may be significant,
requiring consideration in the design.
If attenuation is significant along a carbon column in a specific case and
the anodes are spaced relatively far apart, the effect is an apparent increase
in the expected resistance-to-earth of the deep anode system. Also, the
carbon column is not as effective as a single reaction surface. The solution
to a carbon column attenuation problem is to space the anodes closer
together or to reduce the linear resistance of the carbon column. Anode
spacing is discussed in Section 6-3.
The linear resistance of a column of uniform cross-section is calculated

62

DESIGN

from Equation 6-12. As seen from this equation, the linear resistance may
be reduced by either selecting a lower-resistivity carbon backfill or
increasing the effective diameter of the carbon column. It should be
realized that any nonconducting materials, such as insulated anode lead
wires and vent systems, installed in the carbon column reduce the effective
cross-section of the conducting column.
3.7.4 SAFETY
Public safety should always be a consideration in any engineering design.
Although the safety issues with design of a deep anode system are minimal,
the design engineer should evaluate two possible areas of concern: surface
potential gradients and gas discharge. These two safety concerns usually
require no specific action for most deep anode systems. However, they
become more important with high discharge currents or installation in areas
with high levels of public exposure.*
3.7.4.1 Potential Gradients
Surface potential gradients generated by any functioning cathodic
protection groundbed are a safety concern as a result of the possible shock
hazards. A person walking across the earths surface in an area influenced
by these potential gradients is exposed to a potential difference between his
feet. This shock hazard is known as step potential. Also, if a person is
standing on the earths surface and touching a conductor energized by the
deep anode system, he is exposed to a potential difference between his
hand and feet. This is called touch potential. Finally, a transferred potential
hazard occurs when a person contacts a conductor at remote-earth potential
while standing within an area of earth potential gradients.
The safe potential and current exposure limits for humans are dependent
on the magnitude, duration, and frequency of the source. For exposure to
potentials from the operation cathodic protection systems, the duration of
exposure is continuous. Regarding frequency effects, most of the work in
determining safe exposure limits has been for frequencies in the 50 to 60
Hertz range since this is the common world power supply frequency range.
It is generally reported that the human body can tolerate higher levels of
DC current than currents in the 50/60 Hertz range. Therefore, using
recommended safe exposure limits determined for a 50/60 Hertz supply
will be conservative for DC exposure conditions. Any open circuit potential
in excess of 15 volts or current supply of 5 milliamps or more constitutes
an anticipated shock hazard.
Surface potential gradients are minimized with a deep anode system

SPECIAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

63

design because the current discharge occurs deep within the body of the
earth. However, some surface potential gradient will be detectable. The
primary factors that determine the magnitude of surface potential gradients
for a deep anode system are level of current discharge, soil resistivity, and
depth of current discharge. For most operating deep anode systems, surface
potential gradients are well-below safe operating limits.
3.7.4.2 Gases
The primary gases that may be discharged by a deep anode system are
oxygen, chlorine, carbon monoxide, or carbon dioxide. These gases are all
possible anodic reaction products. Hydrogen gas is a cathodic reaction
product and should not normally be generated in a deep anode system.
However, it is possible with a poorly designed system to produce hydrogen
gas.
One example where the production of hydrogen gas is possible in a deep
anode system involves ionic current discharge from the anode surface that
is intercepted by a metallic casing. The ionic current discharge from the
anode may occur because the anode is suspended in a ground water
environment or because of a high resistivity carbon backfill saturated with
low resistivity water. In either case, the ionic flow must be converted back
into an electronic current in order to flow through the casing. This
conversion can only occur as a result of a cathodic electrochemical reaction
on the inside surface of the casing wall. Of course, the electronic current is
converted back into ionic current on the outside wall of the metallic casing
through another anodic reaction.
Carbon monoxide and hydrogen gases are potentially explosive. Also,
oxygen and chlorine gases combined with flammable gases or vapors can
form explosive mixtures. Chlorine gas is toxic to humans. Carbon
monoxide can cause asphyxiation by preventing the absorption of oxygen
into the blood. With the exception of oxygen itself, of course, all of the
above gases can cause asphyxiation by displacement of oxygen in closed
space^.'^-'^
In the quantities generated by most deep anode systems, the gases can be
safely vented to the atmosphere by observing a few precautions. Due to the
potential safety hazards involved, the gases should not be allowed to
concentrate in closed spaces. Therefore, deep anode venting should be
designed in such a way to ensure release to the atmosphere rather than to
confined spaces. Also, the vent should be placed well-above pedestrian
traffic with restricted access.y

64

DESIGN

3.7.5 TEMPERATURE RISE


In an operating deep anode system, direct current is discharged into a
resistive medium, the earth. This current flow through the resistance of the
earth results in a power dissipation in the form of heat. The resulting
temperature rise at the soil interface of the deep anode can have two
potentially detrimental effects. First, as the temperature increases, the rate
of soil moisture loss due to evaporation increases. If the temperature at the
interface reaches the boiling point of water, thermal instability results until
the increase in system resistance effectively shuts off current discharge.2'
Also, thermoplastic components in the deep anode system, such as anode
lead wires and venting systems, can be damaged if the temperature rise is
excessive. Therefore, in areas with limited soil moisture or in high current
output designs, some method of estimating the temperature rise is useful to
prevent operational failure of the system. Methods of estimating the
temperature rise are discussed in Section 6.6.
The steady-state temperature rise of a deep anode system is directly
proportional to the soil resistivity and inversely proportional to the soil
thermal conductivity. Generally, some reasonable estimate of the average
soil resistivity can be made in order to estimate the temperature rise. For
designs where the soil resistivity is 3000 ohm-cm or less and the maximum
current density on the hole wall is 1.6 A/m2 (150 mA/ft2) or less, as
suggested in Section 3.1.3, the temperature rise under the most
conservative assumptions should not be a problem. However, if either the
soil resistivity or design current density are higher, the temperature rise
should be investigated.
If the thermal conductivity of the soil cannot be determined or reasonably
estimated, a conservative value of 0.6 w/m-"C can be used to determine
whether the temperature rise may be a problem. This value of conductivity
represents the thermal conductivity of water. If the anticipated temperature
rise is in excess of 50"C, either the actual thermal conductivity of the soil
should be investigated further to better estimate the temperature rise, or the
design should be modified. Design modifications having the greatest effect
are reducing the discharge current and increasing the effective column
length for the system.
3.7.6 ELECTRO-OSMOSIS
The electro-osmotic method of drying soils has been used by civil
engineers for over 40 years as a soil stabilization technique. Engineers
found that for effective reduction of water content the soil had to be a soft,
fine-grained material with moderate electrical conductivity, such as silty-

SPECIAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

65

clays. If the electrical conductivity of the soil is too high, very large
currents are required to maintain a voltage gradient adequate for effective
drying.'?
Electro-osmosis is the movement of a liquid (water) containing ions
through small pores of an electrically charged soil." Microscopically finegrained minerals develop a negative surface charge as a result of crystal
imperfections. During the formation of these very small grains through the
process of weathering, positive charges are adsorbed to the ~urface.'~
Under
the influence of an electric field, these positive charges move in the
direction of the field and parallel to it dragging the pore liquid along. The
velocity of the liquid movement is directly related to the potential
gradient.23

3.7.7 WATER CONSUMPTION AND REPLACEMENT


There are at least four different anodic reactions resulting i n the
consumption of water, as discussed in Section 2.4.1. Two of the reactions
involve the electrolysis of water to produce oxygen gas. The first reaction
is the simple electrolysis of water (3}, and the second reaction is a two-step
process i n the presence of the sulfate ion (4). The overall result of the
second reaction is the same as the first reaction. The other two reactions
involve the oxidation of carbon in the presence of water to produce either
carbon monoxide (7) or carbon dioxide (8).
The rate of an electrochemical reaction is controlled by the rate of the
electron transfer process. Each of the possible reactions results in the
consumption of one mole of water for every two moles of electrons
transferred. Therefore, the water loss per amp-year of current discharged is
the same regardless of the particular reaction involved.
One amp-year is equal to 3.1536 X lo7 amp-seconds or coulombs. One
Faraday or 96,487coulombs is equal to one mole of electrons. Therefore,
one amp-year is equal to 326.84moles of electrons or Faradays. Since the
number of moles of water consumed is equal to one-half of the moles of
electrons transferred, the quantity of water lost will be 163.42 moles per
amp-year. With a gram-formula weight of 18, the weight of water
consumed will be 2941.56grams per amp-year, which is equal to 2.94liters
per amp-year (0.778gallons per amp-year).2s
Although the actual quantity of water consumption is relatively small, in
low-permeability soils, such as clay, another factor also contributes to the
depletion of water at any anodic surface: electro-osmosis. Through the
process of electro-osmosis, as described in Section 3.7.6 above, water is
driven away from the anode surface by the current discharged. Water is

66 DESIGN
replenished at an anodic surface by the natural hydraulic gradients in the
earth.
In an operating deep anode system the moisture level at the discharge
surface will reach an equilibrium determined by the rate of water depletion
and the hydraulic restoration forces. The worst case involves fine-grained,
low-permeability soil, since water movement toward the discharge surface
is slow while electro-osmotic forces add to the normal water consumption
reactions depleting water levels. Of course, as the moisture level at the
discharge surface decreases, the result is an increasing resistance-to-earth
of the deep anode system. If the equilibrium level is such that insufficient
moisture is present, the resistance will increase to the point that an adequate
level of current cannot be discharged. If this is the case, an artificial water
supply must be used to supplement the natural hydraulic forces, or the
current discharge must be reduced to the point that the natural hydraulic
forces can maintain an adequate moisture level. If a supplemental water
supply is required, potable water should be introduced through the venting
system.

REFERENCES
1. J. F. Tatum, Sr., private correspondence to author, August 8, 1996.

2. H. B. Dwight, The Calculation of Resistance to Ground and of Capacitance, MIT J. of


Mathematics and Physics X (1930-1931): p. 50-74.

3. H. B. Dwight, The Calculation of Resistances to Ground, Electrical Engineering 12,SS


(December 1936): p. 1319-1328.
4. E. D. Sunde, Earth Conduction Effects in Transmission Systems (New York: Dover
Publications, 1968).
5 . W. von Baechmann, W. Schwenk, Handbook of Cathodic Protection (U.K., Surrey:

Portcullis Press, 1975).


6. Classic Papers and Reviews on Anodic Resistance Fundamentals and Applications
(Houston, TX: NACE, 1986).
7. J. C. Van Home, Fundamentals of Financial Management (Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice-Hall, 1977).

67
8. J. Wagner, Cathodic Protection: Design I (Houston, TX: NACE, 1992).
9. NACE Standard RP0572, Design, Installation, Operation, and Maintenance of Impressed
Current Deep Groundbeds (Houston, TX: NACE, 1995). Approved June 1972,
Revised 1995.
10. J. H. Neher, M. H. McGrath, The Calculation of the Temperature Rise and Load
Capability of Cable Systems, AIEE Transactions, Part 111 (Power Apparatus and
Systems) 76 (October 1957):pp. 752-772.
11. The National Electrical Code Handbook 1996 (Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection

Association, 1996).
12. A. W. Peabody, Control of Pipeline Corrosion (Houston, TX: NACE, 1967).
13. A. G. Ostroff, Introduction to Oilfield Water Technology (Houston, TX: NACE, 1979).
14. Missouri Private Well Construction Standards, RSMo256.600, Missouri Department of
Natural Resources, Rolla, MO, September 1987.
15. Regulations of Water Supply, Sewage Disposal, and Solid Waste, Title 26, Subtitle 04,

Chapter 04,Maryland Department of the Environment, Baltimore, MD.


16. ANSMEEE Standard 80-1986, IEEE Guide for Safety in AC Substation Grounding
(New York: IEEE, 1986).Approved July 1985.
17. NACE Standard RP0177, Recommended Practice: Mitigation of Alternating Current and
Lightning Effects on Metallic Structures and Corrosion Control Systems (Houston, TX:
NACE, 1995). Approved July 1977.
18. Hazardous Chemica Data, NFPA 49, 1975 ed. (Quincy. MA: NFPA, 1975).
19. Fire Hazard Properties of Flammable Liquids, Gases, and Volatile Solids, NFPA 325M.
1984 ed. (Quincy, MA: NFPA, 1984).
20. R. S. Treseder, R. Baboian, C. G. Munger., eds., Corrosion Engineers Reference Book,
2nded. (Houston, TX: NACE, 1991).
21. E. W. Kimbark, Direct Current Transmission, Vol. I (New York: John Wiley, 1971).
2 2 . 0 . G. Ingles, I. K. Lee, W. White, Geotechnical Engineering (Boston: Pitman, 1983).
23. E. R. Hicks, R. F. Probstein, Removal of Contaminants from Soils by Electric Fields,
Science 260 (April 23, 1993): pp. 498-503.
24. J. D. McNeill, Electrical Conductivity of Soils and Rocks, Technical Note TN-5,
Geonics Limited, October 1980.

68

DESIGN

25. H. F. Holtzclaw, Jr., W. H. Nebergall, F. C. Schmidt, College Chemistry with


Qualitative Analysis, 4th ed. (Lexington, MA: D. C. Health, 1972).

Chapter 4

Installation
4.1 EQUIPMENT AND RIGGING
The major steps involved in the installation of a deep anode system
include drilling the hole, electrically logging the hole, placing the anodes in
the hole, pumping the backfill into place, and completing the installation to
the surface. To successfully accomplish each of these steps, the proper
equipment and installation techniques are necessary. Although a variety of
equipment types and installation methods may be used, there are some
basic considerations in selecting equipment and planning the installation.
The first step of the installation process involves drilling the hole. In
order to minimize installation problems, the hole needs to be straight,
stable, and free of obstructions or constrictions. Depending upon the
specific geology, the hole may be drilled with air or mud circulation.
Although air drilling may be preferred in areas involving significant hard
formation drilling, most deep anode holes are drilled using rotary mud rigs.
With a rotary mud rig, the quality of the completed hole is dependent on
the drilling equipment, drilling speed, mud characteristics, and driller expertise. All of these factors interact to determine the final result. However,
if the drilling equipment is undersized for the diameter and depth of hole to
be drilled, the probability of hole problems will increase significantly.
Therefore, an investigation of the drilling equipment to be used is
warranted.
As the hole diameter and depth increase, the volume and weight of fluid
column that must be moved by the drill rig circulation equipment increases.
Although centrifugal pumps may provide adequate pumping pressures for
relatively shallow holes with stable formations, positive displacement
pumps are recommended for deep anode installations. Most portable rotary
mud rigs employ duplex piston-type mud pumps rated by the cylinder liner
diameter and piston stroke length. The minimum mud pump rating
suggested is a duplex 127 mm X 152 mm (5 in. X 6 in.), which has a
displacement of approximately 560 liters per minute (1 50 gpm) at a
maximum pressure of 21.8 kg / cm2 (2.14 MPa, 310 psi).'
In addition to adequate pumping capacity, other components of the drill

70 INSTALLA TION
rig and drill string should be reviewed. The drill rig mast, swivel, and traveling blocks should have sufficient height and load capacity to handle the
anticipated drill string load and the length and weight of any casing strings
to be installed. The drill string consisting of the kelly, drill pipe, and bit together with any drill collars or stabilizers should be inspected to determine
proper sizing and wear. The mud circulation system should be inspected for
leaks including pump, drill stem swivel seals, and drill pipe couplings.
Before installation of the anodes, the drilled hole should be electrically
logged to determine optimum placement. Electrical logging techniques are
described in Section 2.2.4. Depending upon the specific technique
involved, the only equipment required is a down-hole electrode or sonde, a
resistance test instrument, and a surface ground or test electrodes. A
method of supporting, lowering, and retrieving the exploring electrode is
also required. This may be accomplished by using a sheave supported
above the drilled hole. To determine the exact position of the exploring
electrode in the hole, the interconnecting lead wire should be marked in
calibrated increments.
There are many different approaches to selecting the equipment and setup
for placement of the carbon backfill in a deep anode system. For most
installations it is strongly recommended that the carbon backfill be pumped
into the hole from the bottom upward, as discussed in Section 4.6, rather
than pouring into the top of the hole. If the backfill is to be pumped into the
bottom of the hole, a pump, mixing nozzle, mixing tank, routing valves,
pumping pipe, and pipe suspension and retrieval system will be required. A
schematic of one arrangement, which allows continuous mixing and
pumping of any quantity of backfill, is shown in Figure 4-1.
Often, the drill rig is employed to pump the carbon backfill by making
simple modifications to the circulation system employed for drilling the
hole. First, two fluid circulation flow paths must be established. One
closed-loop path must be created through a mixing tank to facilitate mixing
the carbon slurry. The second flow path is established from the mixing tank
through the down-hole piping to allow placement of the backfill. Flow
through each path is controlled and regulated by flow control valves. Since
the down-hole piping used to pump the backfill is usually 2.5 cm (1 in.)
standard black steel pipe, a transition fitting is necessary to allow coupling
the pumping pipe to the drill stem swivel. This arrangement allows the
pumping pipe to be supported and retrieved using the drill rig mast, and the
carbon slurry to be pumped by the rig mud pump.
If the drill rig is not used to pump the carbon backfill, an auxiliary pump
capable of flow rates of at least 190 liters per minute (50 gpm) at 8.8

EOUIPMENT AND RIGGING

71

FLUIDIZING
NOZZLE

PUMPING PIPE

PUMP

MIXING TANK
PUMP
SUCTION

1" VENT PIPE

ANODE

Figure 4-1 : Pumping Carbon Backfill

kg/cm2 (0.86MPA, 125 psi) is recommended for hole depths of up to 90 m


(300 ft.). If a single auxiliary pump is used to mix the backfill slurry and
pump down-hole, the total output from the pump will be divided between
the two flow paths in proportion to the flow resistance within each path. A
more detailed analysis of pump requirements can be made by referring to
Section 6.5. A positive displacement pump, which can pass fluids with a
high solids content, such as a piston-type, diaphragm, or progressing cavity,
is recommended. Also, some support and retrieval means will be needed
for the down-hole pumping pipe.
In order to mix the carbon backfill into a slurry form for pumping downhole, a mixing tank is necessary. Any open-top tank with a capacity of
between 380 liters (100 gallons) and 950 liters (250 gallons) can be used. If
the tank is too large, maintaining the carbon backfill in suspension becomes
difficult. If the tank is too small, adequate slurry volume is not available
when down-hole pumping begins. In order to mix the slurry, a closed-loop
circulation is established from the pump suction in the mixing tank, through
the pump, and out of a fluidizing nozzle directed into the mixing tank. The

72 INSTALLA TION
fluidizing nozzle can be any outlet device with an exit constriction
sufficient to increase the fluid velocity to produce a jetting action for
mixing tank agitation. A very simple fluidizing nozzle can be fabricated by
slightly flattening one end of a 1 m (3 ft.) long piece of standard one inch
steel pipe. The fluidizing nozzle should be attached to the outlet of the
pump by a section of flexible high-pressure hose. The mixing tank should
be placed such that the top of the deep anode system is visible and
convenient access is provided to sufficient clean water for the procedure.
For larger mixing tanks, the tank may be slightly elevated on one end with
the end of the suction line placed at the lowest point, if desired. The pump
suction line should be equipped with a strainer with 10 mm (3/8 in.)
openings. The strainer should have enough openings to minimize flow
restriction.
To pump the backfill-water slurry into the hole, a 2.5 cm (1 in.) or larger
steel pipe should be connected to the pump discharge through a down-hole
control valve and suspended in the hole. The pumping pipe should be
lowered to within 1 meter (3 feet) of the bottom of the hole but not allowed
to rest on the hole floor. To prevent plugging of the pumping pipe during
the lowering or pumping process, six to ten - 12 mm (0.5 in.) holes should
be drilled or cut into the bottom 1.5-m (5-ft.) section of the pipe.
There are many other mixing and pumping setups possible. The specific
setup described here and the technique described in detail in Section 4.6
have been used successfully for many years under all types of construction
conditions. This particular setup is described because of the simplicity and
availability of the necessary components.
4.2 DRILLING

Although detailed drilling methods and equipment are beyond the scope
of this manual, some helpful information will be discussed. The cost of
producing the hole is directly related to the drilling speed. Therefore, the
driller is motivated to complete the hole as rapidly as possible. However, if
the hole is drilled too rapidly, problems may develop with hole stability,
obstructions, constrictions, and/or straightness. When drilling through
unconsolidated formations, adequate circulation time is necessary to
provide a stabilizing mud cake on the hole wall. For clay formations,
additional hole-cleaning time is necessary to remove mud boots and
constrictions. Also, depending upon the formation, increasing the pulldown pressure to increase drilling speed can result in significant hole
deviations.

DRILLING

73

The cost of producing the hole is also related to the quantity of drilling
muds or additives required during the drilling process. The addition of
drilling mud improves hole cleaning and bit lubrication in addition to
providing hole stabilization in unconsolidated formations. Bentonite
drilling mud is one of the least expensive muds for drilling in fresh water
formations. However, as the salt (sodium chloride) content of the water
increases, the hydration quality (yield) of bentonite is decreased. Of course,
if the bentonite particles fail to hydrate and thicken, the mud does not
perform its intended functions. The bentonite yield is not greatly affected at
sodium chloride concentrations of less than approximately 0.5 percent;
however, at concentrations of around 5% the bentonite yield is reduced to
about 50%. Other cations such as calcium, magnesium, and potassium can
also affect the yield of bentonite muds. Prehydration of bentonite with fresh
water may provide substantial benefits when formation salt waters are
encountered. Depending upon the specific conditions, salt water muds or
gels may be necessary. Care should be exercised when selecting alternate
drilling fluids, especially hydrocarbon-based muds or gels, to avoid
significantly affecting the formation resistivity.2
Although equipment, drilling speed, and muds have each been discussed
independently, they are all interrelated and formation dependent. Driller
expertise is the pivotal factor that often makes the difference between a
successful, cost-effective installation and a less-than-satisfactory job. A
"well-seasoned" driller listens to the sounds of the rig as it produces the
hole, watches the mud circulation, checks the cutting returns, and carefully
observes his gauges. He often anticipates hole problems before they occur.
He knows when additional hole-cleaning time will pay off in installation
time savings, and moves into action when hole stability becomes
questionable.

4.2.1 PILOT HOLE DECISION


Drilling a pilot hole of from 7.5 to 15 centimeters (3 to 6 in.) in diameter
as an integral part of a deep anode installation is recommended. This will
provide actual site geological data, which can be used to fine-tune the
design for improved efficiency. As discussed in Section 2.2.4, the
additional cost of a pilot hole is relatively small since the time required to
produce the pilot hole is largely recovered by increased speed in reaming
the hole to the final diameter. In addition, the formation information
obtained by drilling a small diameter pilot hole first can lead to improving
the total drilling time and stability of the final larger diameter hole. A pilot
hole becomes more important as the knowledge of the geology at a specific

74

INSTALLA TION

site is more limited.


Based on the specific deep anode design, a minimum active current
discharge column length is required. To provide the desired active column
length, the deep anode hole must be drilled until low-resistivity formations
of sufficient thickness are found at a depth approaching remote earth.
Deciding the optimal final hole depth for a deep anode system without
benefit of prior geological information or probing with a pilot hole can be
difficult. On one hand, the hole may be drilled deeper and deeper with no
benefit, while on the other hand, the hole may be stopped within a few feet
of an optimal low-resistivity stratum. Since the pilot hole can be drilled
much faster, deeper exploration is economically practical.
Regardless of the hole size, drilling to greater depths adds more cost to
the installation. Therefore, eventually the decision to stop drilling must be
made. The decision to stop drilling of the pilot hole should be made by
evaluating the probability that sufficient low-resistivity strata have been
penetrated and/or that the benefit of continued exploration is small. The
decision becomes easier as more information is available. Some useful
information includes prior geological information about the area,
observation and resistivity testing of the drill cuttings, resistance testing of
the drill stem, and evaluation of the drillers log.

4.2.2 OBSERVATIONS DURING DRILLING


Providing the best deep anode installation possible in terms of cost,
resistance, and longevity requires the integration of knowledge and
experience with the available information. The information necessary in the
case of subsurface exploration must be gleaned from every available
source. As indicated previously, prior information regarding the anticipated
geology in the area is helpful. However, more specific geological
information becomes available as the pilot hole is drilled. This information
can be accumulated and evaluated through careful observation and testing.
An accurate drillers log listing the specific geological formations
encountered (with depth) can be invaluable. Since the cuttings arriving at
the surface must circulate up the hole with the drilling fluids, there is
generally a time delay between encountering a specific formation and
observation of the cuttings. However, the experienced driller will generally
note the depth when a change in the sound or performance of the rig is
detected. This depth is recorded as the formation boundary. Often the
driller can tell much about the formation by observing the performance of
the rig. The details of a specific formation are confirmed by retrieving
cuttings from the fluid circulation stream using a strainer. The type, color,

DRILLING

75

sizing, and hardness of the cuttings from the formation are generally noted.
Often the decision to terminate pilot hole drilling is made primarily from
the observations obtained during the drilling operation. For example, if the
rig has been drilling through a clay stratum, as determined by the above
techniques, and a sand stratum is encountered, the decision to stop the pilot
hole may be made if thickness of the clay stratum is adequate.
4.3 TESTING

Besides the observations, which can provide useful information during


the drilling operation, testing can be performed to provide additional
information. The most common tests involve evaluation of the resistivity of
formations encountered. Some specific tests that may be performed are
discussed below. These tests may be conducted using a small pilot hole or a
hole drilled to the final diameter.
4.3.1 DURING DRILLING

There are two primary types of tests performed during the drilling process
to provide decision making data. Both tests are used to estimate formation
resistivity. The first test involves measurement of the resistivity of the
cuttings screened from the fluid circulation stream. The cuttings are
accumulated and compacted tightly into a soil box. As seen in Figure 4-2,
this is a test fixture consisting of a small, nonconductive, rectangular
container with metallic end plates to provide contacts for current injection
into the test sample. Two metallic pins are also provided through the walls
of the test fixture to contact the sample for potential measurement.
Figure 4-2 : Soil Box

76

INSTALLA TION

The test procedure involves calculating the resistance of the sample


between the potential pins and determining the resistivity using Equation
(4-1). The resistance of the sample is determined by dividing the voltage
measured between the two potential pins by the current injected into the
sample. If a DC test current is employed, care must be exercised to avoid
errors due to polarization of the pins. AC type test instruments are
available, which provide a direct output of the sample resistance.'
It can be seen from Equation (4-1) that the resistivity of the sample is
equal to the resistance measured times a proportionality constant
determined by the dimensions of the sample box. The cross-sectional area
is calculated perpendicular to the direction of current flow, and the length is
measured between the potential pins in the direction of the current flow.
This equation relating resistivity to resistance is only correct for cases
involving constant cross-sectional area in the direction of current flow.

A
p = R-

Equation (4-1)
Soil Box Resistivity Equation

where p = resistivity (ohm-cm)


R = resistance of sample (ohms)
A = cross-sectional area (cm')
L = length of current path (cm)
The second test that may be performed during the drilling process to help
determine when to stop drilling is a drill stem-to-earth resistance. This test
is conducted similar to the Driven Rod Test described in Section 2.2.3,
except the drill stem is used instead of a driven rod. This test is usually
conducted when the top of the drill stem or kelly has reached the bottom of
its travel distance just before adding another length of drill stem. The
potential measurement and current injection pins located on the surface
should be positioned for maximum test depth before the first test
measurement. If the resistance test instrument is positioned near the rig
with the leads connected to the surface pins, the test can be completed
within minutes by connecting to the stem. If desired, the measured
resistance values can be analyzed using the modified Blattner equation.
4.3.2 AFTER DRILLING
Once the decision to terminate drilling has been made, the drill stem

TESTING

77

should be removed from the hole in preparation for electrically logging the
hole. Data from the electrical logging will be used to position the anodes,
adjust the carbon column length, and estimate the final deep anode
resistance-to-earth. Depending upon the accuracy needed, any one of
several techniques, as described in Section 2.2.4.1 through Section 2.2.4.3,
can be used for electrical logging.
If a pilot hole was drilled, time is now available, while the hole is reamed
to the final diameter, to analyze the logging data and adjust the design. Of
course, any design adjustments must be made within the limits of available
materials. The anode design locations can be adjusted to take advantage of
low-resistivity strata and optimize anode current loadings. If sufficient lowresistivity strata were not found to handle the design discharge current, the
decision to limit the current output or drill multiple holes can be made
based on the data. Also, the decision to split the active discharge column
between two or more low-resistivity strata within the same hole can be
analyzed.
4.4 CASING PLACEMENT

Depending upon the specific design or design objectives, a casing may be


required for the installation. Casings may be used to prevent the entrance of
surface waters, to seal environmentally sensitive zones, to stabilize
unconsolidated formations during installation, to serve as a current
discharge surface, to provide a more controlled environment for the anodes,
or to facilitate future anode replacement. Casing strings may consist of
metallic materials such as steel, plastics such as PVC or ABS, or
combinations. The casing string may extend from the surface to the total
depth of the hole or only partially cover the hole. Finally, some means may
be employed to seal the casing from the outside environment, or it may be
left open.
Whatever the specific purpose of the casing, it should be placed in the
hole before any of the other components. If the bottom end of the casing is
open, placement within the drilled hole should not be difficult provided the
hole is straight and obstruction-free. If the casing clearance to the hole wall
is small, the casing string may require pushing into place, especially when
any hole problems exist. If pushing is anticipated, the leading edge of the
casing string should be equipped with a tapered guide shoe.
If the casing string is sealed before installation, weight must be added to
the casing to overcome the buoyancy effects of the drilling mud in the hole.
This is generally accomplished by pumping the drilling fluids into the

78 INSTALLATION
casing string as it is pushed into place. Once the casing string is locked into
place in the hole, the drilling fluids are cleaned from inside the casing by
washing with water.
In difficult drilling conditions, it is sometimes necessary to install a steel
casing to maintain a stable hole until the deep anode materials are in place.
The casing may even be pushed into place as the drilling progresses. This
hole stabilization casing may be left in place or may be pulled during or
after the carbon backfill placement. If the casing is to be removed from the
hole, care must be exercised to avoid anode or cable damage during the
pulling process. Depending upon the hole depth and the carbon backfill
column length, the casing may have to be pulled in sections as the carbon
backfill is installed to prevent locking the casing in place by the backfill.
If the casing is to be left in the hole, some type of fill is generally
required between the casing and the hole wall to lock the casing in place, to
seal sensitive formations, and/or to provide an electronically conductive
contact to the earth. If the same carbon backfill is to be placed inside and
outside of the casing, the backfill may be pumped during one operation
after anode placement. If, however, the backfill to be placed outside of the
casing is different, it is generally installed in a separate operation before
anode placement.
If sealed casing strings are installed and placement of the backfill on the
inside and outside of the casing is to take place in two different operations,
care must be exercised to avoid significant differential pressures across the
casing wall capable of bursting or collapsing the casing, especially plastic
materials. One method of reducing the differential pressures is to maintain
heavy drilling mud on the opposite side of the casing wall from the backfill
pumping operation. Another technique involves simultaneous placement of
the carbon backfills on the inside and outside of the casing.
4.5 ANODE PLACEMENT

Before carbon backfill is placed around the anodes, the anodes should be
properly located within the discharge zone. An exact placement location for
each anode should be determined by review of the electrical and drillers
logs. Once each anode depth has been determined, the anode lead wire
should be marked to ensure proper placement.
If the anodes are to be suspended from their individual lead wires, they
should be lowered into position after attachment of any center devices. If
additional anode support is planned, the anodes should be attached to the
support before installation. Any venting system specified should be

ANODE PLACEMENT

79

attached to the anodes and/or anode support assembly. The venting system
should be at a fixed distance from the anode discharge surfaces but not
contacting the anode surface directly. This can be accomplished by
inserting fixed spacers between the anodes and the vent.

4.6 CARBON BACKFILL PLACEMENT


With all of the anodes, vent, and support structures in place, the carbon
backfill can now be installed. For most deep anode systems, the carbon
backfill should be placed around the anodes by pumping a water-backfill
slurry upward from the bottom of the drilled hole. Since the drilling fluids
are displaced upward and out of the top of the hole during this process, a
cleaner carbon column around the anodes is assured. Also, because the
carbon is in a clean water slurry, settling characteristics are enhanced
resulting in a more dense, compact carbon column. Compared with top
loading of the carbon backfill, potential problems associated with trapped
contamination, voids, or bridging within the backfill column or at the anode
surfaces are significantly reduced. This means anode life and system
resistance are improved.
The only significant exception to the recommendation for pumping the
carbon backfill from the bottom of the hole involves installations in stable
rock formations or cased holes that can be thoroughly cleaned with fresh
water before backfill installation. Due to the size and extent of fissures in
some rock formations, it may be necessary to top-load a large-grain carbon
backfill to plug the fissures and successfully fill the hole.
The setup required to pump the carbon backfill using the method
described here was discussed in detail in Section 4.1. Once the pumping
setup is ready, cleaning of the hole can begin if the drilled hole is stable.
This procedure involves pumping clean water down-hole through the
pumping pipe to displace drilling fluids from the hole. Keeping in mind the
risk of hole collapse in unstable formations, the hole should be cleaned as
much as practical with the clean water. In case of unstable formations, this
step may need to be skipped altogether.
To begin the slurry mixing process, the mixing tank should be filled to
approximately one-half of total capacity with clean water. This should
allow carbon backfill to be added to the mixing tank without the need for
additional water until the tank has reached maximum capacity. At that point
the slurry density should be near the recommended pumping density. With
the valve controlling down-hole flow closed and the valve controlling
circulation through the mixing tank open, the pump is started and

80 INSTALLATION
circulation through the mixing tank begun.
The end of the fluidizing nozzle should be positioned in the mixing tank
just below water level and directed at an angle resulting in maximum
agitation within the tank. Carbon backfill can then be poured into the
mixing tank where the high-velocity fluid exits the mixing nozzle. The
backfill should be poured at a rate that allows the material to become
suspended in the fluid flow stream.
At regular intervals during the mixing process, the bottom of the mixing
tank should be checked using a shovel to ensure that the carbon backfill is
not settling out. By proper placement of the mixing nozzle, maintenance of
a good fluid flow rate, and addition of backfill at the proper rate, the
backfill should remain in suspension without supplemental agitation.
However, in the event that backfill does settle out in the tank, additional
stirring of the tank using a shovel may be necessary. The process of adding
carbon backfill to the flow stream should be continued u n t i l the
recommended carbon-water mix ratio has been achieved or the tank reaches
maximum capacity. At that point, the slurry mixture should be relatively
thick, but the pump should be having no problem circulating the slurry or
maintaining the carbon backfill in suspension.
Once the slurry in the mixing tank is ready, the down-hole flow control
valve can be opened to begin diverting part of the fluid flow stream into the
drilled hole. Fluid flow out of the top of the hole should begin as the carbon
backfill displaces the fluids within the hole. The pump speed should be
increased to maintain agitation within the mixing tank. The down-hole flow
rate may be adjusted with the flow control valve until a steady outflow of
approximately 75 to 95 liters per minute (20 to 25 gpm) is observed at the
top of the deep anode system. At this pumping rate and with an increase in
pump speed, the agitation within the mixing tank should not change
significantly.
As the slurry begins to flow down-hole, the fluid level in the mixing tank
should begin to slowly drop. When the fluid level in the tank approaches
the two-thirds full mark, the mixing of additional carbon and water can
begin. The rate of water and carbon backfill addition should be about equal
to the down-hole flow rate to maintain the fluid level within the tank within
the upper one-third of the tank capacity. Also, the water flow rate into the
mixing tank should be adjusted to maintain the proper carbon-water mix
ratio. By observing the viscosity and solids content of the mixture
consistency at regular intervals, the water and carbon addition rates can be
adjusted as necessary.
This process should be continued until the last bag of carbon backfill to

CARBON BACKFILL PLACEMENT

a1

be pumped has been added to the mixture. When the last bag of carbon has
been added, the water supply should be turned off allowing the mixing tank
to pump down. Immediately before the fluid level within the mixing tank
reaches the point where the suction begins to draw air into the pump, clean
water should be added to the tank and all agitation in the tank stopped. The
clean water is added to displace the carbon backfill slurry from the
circulation system. The volume of fresh water required should be
calculated based on the specific pump and down-hole piping volume. For a
90 m (300 ft.) deep anode system, the volume of clean water needed should
be about 110 to 150 litters (30 to 40 gallons).
When the clean water has been pumped through the circulation system,
the pump should be shut down, the pumping pipe disconnected from the
drill stem swivel, and additional water pumped through the pump and
associated piping until the outflow is clean. This final cleaning should only
require a few minutes. Removal of the down-hole pumping pipe should be
undertaken within a few minutes after flow has been stopped to avoid
entrapment of the pipe by settling backfill.
4.7 COMPLETION

After the backfill pumping process, a minimum of eight hours is


recommended to allow settling before confirming the level of carbon
backfill within the system. If additional backfill is required to bring the
level up to design, it may be poured slowly into the top of the hole or
pumped depending upon the additional quantity required. If the additional
backfill is to be pumped, the pumping pipe can be returned to the hole
stopping just above the current backfill level, and additional material
pumped into the hole. Care should be exercised in lowering the pumping
pipe to avoid damage to the anode leads. If steel pumping pipe is
reinstalled, the end of the pipe should be prepared to prevent contact of the
leading edge with the anode lead wires.
A minimum waiting period of 24 hours after the final pumping is
recommended to allow carbon backfill settling before final hole
completion. The completion process usually involves filling the area above
the carbon backfill with some type of fill and sealing the top of the hole. If
the design involves a replaceable anode system, only the area on the
outside of the casing may be filled and sealed. Many states now require the
fill material above the carbon backfill to be either the native material
previously removed from the hole or a sealing material such as cement or
bentonite.

02

INSTALLATION

Final completion of the deep anode system is accomplished by sealing the


top portion of the hole to prevent the entrance of surface groundwaters.
This may be accomplished using one of several alternatives as discussed in
Section 2.5.1 or Section 3.5.1. Also, installation of the surface facilities
must be undertaken. Some considerations in the installation of the surface
equipment are discussed in Section 2.6.

REFERENCES
I . Duplex Mud Pumps, Bulletin 3-231,4th ed., Gardner-DenverCompany, Dallas, TX.

2. P. L. Moore, Drilling Practices Manual (Tulsa, OK: PennWell Books, 1974).


3. R. A. Gummow, J. R. Myers, Cathodic Protection -Theory and Data Interpretation
(Houston, TX: NACE, 1989).

Chapter 5

Operation
5.1 MAINTENANCE
Deep anode systems generally do not require significant maintenance to
operate successfully for long periods. However, the power supply must be
routinely checked to ensure an uninterrupted supply of protective current.
Through a combination of good installation records, complete
commissioning tests, routine inspections, and corrective actions for
problems discovered, continued operation of a deep anode system can be
ensured.
5.1.1 INSTALLATION

The first step in the successful operation and maintenance of any deep
anode system begins during the installation process. The company
inspector should check all components delivered to the jobsite against the
design specifications to ensure compliance. He should also verify all of the
dimensions provided on the design drawings, such as hole diameter,
completion depth, anode locations, and casing dimensions. Any variations
from the drawings or specifications should be approved by the design
engineer and recorded for future reference.
A complete record of the installation should be maintained. This record
should include the original design drawings and specifications with any
approved field changes marked in red. The record should also contain the
drillers log with soil types identified and the depth recorded. A detailed
copy of the electrical log including test instruments and method should also
be maintained. The installation record should contain any materials tests
performed to ensure compliance with the design specifications. Finally,
information about the chemical composition and compliance with state and
federal pollution regulations for all materials should be maintained.
5.1.2 COMMISSIONING TESTS
To allow the carbon backfill to settle completely around the anodes, at
least 24 hours should be allowed after final pumping before the system is
energized. After stabilization, the system should be thoroughly tested.

a4

OPERATION

Complete test records for the system will prove very useful in diagnosing
problems i n the future. Some more important tests include the system
resistance, the resistance-to-earth of the deep anode system, the resistanceto-earth of the structure, the current output of each anode, and the
resistances between anodes.
The system resistance is an important troubleshooting and prediction
measurement because it is very easy to make and routinely check. This is
the resistance as measured at the terminals of the rectifier or power supply.
From ohms law, the resistance is the algebraic sum of the driving voltages
divided by the current flow. Since a voltage opposing the rectifier voltage
will exist due to the difference between the polarized potential of the anode
material and the polarized potential of the protected structure, this voltage
must be subtracted from the rectifier output voltage. The magnitude of this
opposing voltage can be determined by measuring the voltage across the
rectifier terminals instantaneously after interrupting the rectifier current
output.
Measurement of the original resistances of the individual components of
the total system resistance is helpful in future troubleshooting problems.
This allows determination of the specific component responsible for any
future changes in system resistance. The total system resistance is the series
combination of the resistance-to-earth of the deep anode system, the
resistance-to-earth of the structure at the rectifier location, the resistance of
the positive header cable, and the resistance of the negative structure cable.
If the sum of these individual resistances is more than the total system
resistance, the deep anode system is not remote from the structure.
The resistance-to-earth of the deep anode system should be determined
with respect to remote earth. This resistance is defined as the instantaneous
shift in potential of the deep anode system divided by the instantaneous
change in current output of the system. Using the rectifier as a power
supply for the test, the instantaneous change in current is simply the
rectifier current output. The instantaneous potential shift of the deep anode
system is the potential measured when the rectifier current is flowing less
the potential measured instantaneously after the rectifier current is
interrupted. These potential measurements should be made between the
anode buss in the shunt box and a copperkopper sulfate reference electrode
placed at remote earth. Remote earth is determined with the rectifier
operating. It is the location where no further increase in potential can be
detected as the reference electrode is moved further away from the deep
anode system i n a direction opposite to the direction to the protected
structure. The test set-up for this measurement is shown in Figure 5-1.

MAINTENANCE

a5

Figure 5-1: Measurement of Resistance-to-Earth of Deep Anode System

Connect to
positive output
terminal

Pipeline

,Reference Cell

1 DEEP

ACTIVE
COLUMN

The resistance-to-earth of the structure is determined in a manner similar


to the method used to determine the resistance-to-earth of the deep anode
system. In this case, the potential measurement should be made between a
test lead attached to the structure and remote earth. However, remote earth
should be determined in a direction opposite to the direction of the deep
anode system. If a separate potential measuring test lead is not available in
the same area as the negative structure lead attached to the rectifier, the
negative terminal of the rectifier can be used for the measurement.
However, the resistance determined will include the series resistance of the
negative lead in this case.
The resistance of the negative or positive cables can be determined
several different ways. These resistances can be measured by using a fourterminal resistance instrument. They can be calculated by measuring the
voltage drop between the ends of the cable for a known quantity of test
current and applying ohms law. Finally, the resistances can be estimated
by determining the cable size and length and applying published resistanceper-unit-length values.
Another important measurement that should be made when the system is

86

OPERATION

commissioned is the current discharge of each individual anode in the deep


anode system. If calibrated shunts are installed in series with each anode
lead (a recommended policy), the voltage drop across each shunt is
measured and divided by the resistance of the shunt to determine the
current discharge. As a check, the individual anode currents should be
added and compared with the measured rectifier current output. Any
significant variation between the two current values should be investigated.
In the event that the current discharge of one or more individual anodes
exceeds the maximum current discharge recommended by the
manufacturer, the current output of each of these anodes must be reduced.
One approach is to reduce the total rectifier output voltage. If this is not
acceptable due to low current discharge by the remaining anodes, currentlimiting resistors can be installed in series with the individual anode leads.
The resistors must be capable of safely carrying the current without
overheating. Attempting to balance the anode currents using series resistors
Figure 5-2: Measurement of In-Situ Carbon Resistivity

MAINTENANCE

a7

is not recommended. Anode current output balancing is better


accomplished by proper anode placement during installation using
information from the electrical log.
Finally, measuring and recording the resistances between the individual
anodes within the deep anode carbon column is recommended. Two
different tests are suggested, both using a four-terminal soil resistance
meter. The first test involves measuring the resistances between each
combination of two anodes within the carbon column. For this test, the
instrument is used as a two-terminal device by interconnecting the potential
and current terminals. The second test involves measuring the resistivity of
the carbon column using four of the anodes as contact electrodes. In this
case the soil resistance meter is used in the four-terminal mode with the
current terminals connected to anodes on either end of the column and the
potential leads connected to anodes central to the column, as shown in
Figure 5-2. Since the resistivity of the carbon is several orders of
magnitude lower than the earth resistivity, the test current injected is
substantially confined within the carbon column. Therefore, the column
resistivity can be estimated using Equation (5-1) where the cross-sectional
area, A, is the circular cross-section of the column and the length, L, is the
distance between the two potential measurement anodes.'

Equation (5-1)
Column Resistivity Estimate

where p = resistivity (ohm-cm)


R = resistance (ohm)
A = cross sectional area (cm2)
L = length (cm)
5.1.3 ROUTINE INSPECTIONS

Once each month the rectifier supplying power to each deep anode
system should be inspected, and the current and voltage outputs recorded.
The inspection should consist of visually inspecting for signs of heating,
arcing, or burning; noticing unusual smells or sounds; and comparing
output levels with previous values. Any indications of problems or changes
should be investigated in detail to determine the source and corrective
action required. The voltage and current outputs indicated by the panel

aa

OPERATION

meters should be recorded and compared with prior readings.


Once every three months, the rectifier voltage and current outputs should
be measured with a portable test instrument and compared against the panel
meters. Any significant variations between the readings should be
investigated and corrective action implemented. Also, the individual anode
currents should be measured and recorded.

5.1.4 OTHER CONSIDERATIONS


Any trends in increasing system resistance should be investigated
thoroughly as to the possible cause. The troubleshooting techniques
described in Section 5.2 will provide helpful suggestions.
If the system design is based upon supplemental watering of the deep
anode system, the quantity of water required per unit of time must be
determined. The use of any automatic or continuous watering systems will
require a routine inspection to check the water flow rate and monitor the
deep anode system resistance. If water is injected into the system in
periodic batches, the injection periods must be determined, and the system
checked periodically between injections to determine continuous operation
within design limits.
5.2 TROUBLESHOOTING

Usually problems associated with the operation of a deep anode system


can be classified in one of three possible problem areas: physical damage,
power supply problems, or increased system resistance. Because of the
minimal surface exposure for most of the deep anode system, physical
damage is less of a problem with this type of system. This is especially true
if the top of the deep anode system is well marked or protected by a barrier.
Assuming a routine inspection program is in place, any physical damage,
which may occur, is normally obvious due to the signs of construction
work in the area.
One of the most probable operational problems with a deep anode system
is an interruption in the power supply output. Besides physical damage due
to accidents, construction, vandalism, or animals, the rectifier output may
be interrupted by an input power failure, internal component failure, or a
transient surge. After a quick visual inspection to eliminate obvious signs
of physical damage to the deep anode system or header cables, the power
supply should be inspected.
Although some information provided may be applicable to other types of
power supplies, the following troubleshooting information is based upon

TROUBLESHOOTING

a9

the assumption that the power supply is a standard rectifier. A standard


rectifier is a constant voltage output device. In other words, theoretically as
long as the AC voltage input to the rectifier remains constant, the DC
voltage output is constant for a specific tap setting. Real rectifiers deviate
somewhat from the theoretical model due to internal voltage drops, which
vary with the load current.
The first step in determining whether the rectifier is operating properly is
to observe the output current and voltage levels and compare the existing
values to previously recorded values. If the rectifier tap adjustments are
unchanged and the voltage output is significantly different from previous
values, the cause must be associated with the power supply. If the current
output is different, it may be due to a power supply problem or a change in
'
the system resistance.
If a rectifier problem is suspected, careful observation may uncover the
source of the problem quickly. Look for signs of excessive heat, such as
discolored metallic components or insulation damage. Listen for unusual
sounds or the lack of normal sounds. For example, a low-level hum is
normal for an operating transformer. Be observant of unusual odors, such
as the smell of ozone caused by electrical sparks or burning plastic from
overheated lead insulation. Assuming the problem is not discovered by the
suggested observations, the next step is a systematic isolation of the
rectifier components to discover the defective part.*
If the output voltage is significantly different from previous values,
measure the input AC voltage to the unit. If the input voltage is within
limits, the problem is internal to the rectifier. Next, measure the AC voltage
input to the rectifier bridge at the transformer tap adjustments. If the power
supply is a single-phase bridge rectifier, the input voltage to the rectifying
bridge should be approximately 11 1% of the average DC output voltage. If
the power supply is a three-phase bridge rectifier, the line-to-line input
voltage to the bridge should be approximately 74% of the average DC
output voltage. If the input voltage to the bridge is significantly higher than
expected based on the output, a problem in the rectifying bridge section
should be suspected. Problems with the transformer section are indicated if
the input voltage to the bridge is near the estimated value.2
If the rectifier voltage output is approximately the same as previous
values but the current output is significantly different, changes in the
system resistance should be investigated. Using the test procedures
described in Section 5.1.2, the various components of the total system
resistance should be measured and compared with the original values to
determine the source of the change. If the deep anode system is determined

90 OPERATION
to be the system component responsible for the change in system
resistance, a more detailed investigation of the deep anode system is
warranted to determine the cause and corrective action necessary.
There are several possible causes for an increase in the resistance of a
deep anode system including loss of soil moisture, gas blockage, lead wire
failure, anode connection failure, or anode consumption. Since corrective
action may be possible if the increase in resistance is associated with loss
of soil moisture or gas blockage, determination of the cause is important.
Also, if the increase in resistance can be controlled, replacement of the
deep anode system may be delayed resulting in a cost savings. If the
problem is associated with component failures, an estimate of the time
when replacement will be necessary will allow planning and budgeting for
the replacement.
To determine the most probable cause for the increased resistance, a
combination of analyzing available historical data, measuring appropriate
operating variables, and testing hypotheses is used to reach a conclusion. In
analyzing the historical data, the following questions should be considered.
How old is the installation? Has the installation been operated within the
design current output? How quickly has the increase in resistance occurred?
Considering the individual anode current outputs, is the increase associated
with one or more individual anodes or the deep anode system as a whole?
Is there any evidence of chlorine gas generation? What type of soil is in the
active discharge zone? What is the normal moisture level within this zone?
How permeable is the zone to water movement?
In addition to the resistance-to-earth of the deep anode system, the
resistances between anodes and the column resistivity should be measured
and compared to the original values. The individual anode current outputs
should also be measured and compared with previous values. Finally, the
polarization level of the deep anode system should be measured. For this
test, the potential between the positive terminal of the rectifier and a remote
copperkopper sulfate reference cell is measured immediately after the
rectifier is interrupted. With the rectifier off, the potential is monitored over
time until it stabilizes. The change in potential from the instant-off value
to the final stabilized value represents the polarization of the deep anode
system.
With the above information in mind, some considerations in evaluating
the most probable cause of the increase in operating resistance will be
discussed. Resistance increases due to lead wire failure or anode
connection failure tend to occur suddenly with total output loss from the
anode while increases due to moisture depletion, gas blockage, or anode

TROUBLESHOOTING

91

consumption occur gradually. Anode consumption would not be anticipated


until near the end of the system design life if the current output of the
system has been within design limits. Evidence of chlorine gas evolution
would be more often associated with lead wire failure or gas blockage. Due
to the greater distance involved in venting to atmosphere, gas blockage
problems would tend to begin at the bottom of the system and move
upward. However, because of the location of water tables and the greater
hydraulic head normally found with increasing depth, water depletion
problems would tend to begin at the shallower anodes and move
downward. The anode with the history of the highest current output would
be the first anode to increase in resistance due to consumption. A high level
of polarization would be anticipated with gas blockage or water depletion
problem^.^-^
If the operational problem is determined to be due to gas blockage or
water depletion, it may be possible to restore the output to reasonable
levels. Since both operational problems are aggravated by higher current
densities, the total current output of the system may have to be reduced to
prevent a recurrence of the problem. For water depletion problems, the
solution involves addition of water to the deep anode system. Potable water
may be injected into the vent pipe, if present, or introduced into the top of
the deep anode system if cased. If access to the carbon discharge column is
not available via a vent system or surface casing, a small diameter pipe may
be jetted though the surface soils down to the top of the carbon column for
injecting water. Care should be exercised to avoid damage to the anode
lead wires. The injection of high pressure water or air though the vent pipe
or a pipe jetted into the anode area may also allow the release of trapped
gases if the event of gas blockage problems.'
If the increase in resistance is determined to be a result of lead wire
failure, connection failure, or anode consumption, anode or groundbed
replacement are the only solutions. As long as adequate cathodic protection
of the structure is maintained or supplemented by nearby groundbeds, the
ultimate replacement can be delayed. However, based upon consideration
of the rate of change of the system resistance and the existing level of
protection for the structure, an estimate of the time to required replacement
should be made for planning and budgeting purposes. As anodes or their
electrical connections begin to fail, the current output of the remaining
anodes increases. Since this can result in a domino effect by increasing the
rate of anode consumption, the system life can be extended by reducing the
current discharge if structure protection can be maintained.

92

OPERATION

REFERENCES
1. J. Wagner, Cathodic Protection: Design I (Houston, TX: NACE, 1992).

2. Cathodic Protection Rectifier Manual, Goodall Electric, Inc. Fort Collins, CO, 1989.

3. R. A. Gummow, J. R. Myers, Cathodic Protection -Theory and Data Interpretation


(Houston, TX: NACE, 1989).
4. NACE RP0572, Recommended Practice, Design, Installation, Operation, and
of Impressed Current Deep Groundbeds (Houston, TX: NACE, 1995).
Approved June 1972.

Chapter 6

Appendix
6.1 ANODE INFORMATION
Detailed descriptions of the most commonly used anodes for deep anode
applications are provided in Section 2.4.2. A summary of the maximum
recommended current densities and anticipated consumption rates for these
anodes used i n deep anode systems is provided in Table 6-1. The
information provided in this table represents an integration of suggested
values from a number of different sources together with adjustments based
on personal experiences.'-'

Table 6-1: Deep Anode Information

94

APPENDIX

6.2 RESISTANCE DETERMINATION


This section provides methods of determining the resistance-to-earth of a
deep anode system. As indicated in Section 3.1.2, the anode contact
resistance to the carbon backfill is usually insignificant and is ignored in
this section. In cases involving a small number of anodes, small-sized
anodes, high-resistivity backfill, and/or a very low-resistivity discharge
stratum, the contact resistance should be checked to determine if it is
indeed insignificant and can safely be ignored. The contact resistance can
be estimated by two applications of one of the following equations using
the carbon backfill resistivity while changing from the anode dimensions to
the backfill column dimensions. The difference between the two values is
an estimate of the anode contact resistance.
Despite the method used to estimate the resistance-to-earth of the deep
anode system, the estimate will be only as accurate as the data used to
produce the estimate. Since the resistance-to-earth is directly related to the
soil resistivity, the accuracy of the soil resistivity data usually controls the
accuracy of the estimate of resistance-to-earth.

6.2.1 RESISTANCE FORMULAS


Several different formulas are given for calculating the resistance-to-earth
of a deep anode system. The particular equation that should be employed in
a given situation depends upon the specific circumstances. The descriptions
of the variables and the units are consistent for all of the equations.
Some of the first equations were developed by H. B. Dwight. His surface
anode equation is based on the assumption that a single anode is installed
vertically with one end at the surface of the earth. Of course, all of the
following equations assume a uniform, homogeneous environment.s.'O

Equation (6-1)
Dwight-Single Surface Anode

where R = resistance-to-earth (ohms)


p = environment resistivity (ohm-cm)
L = length (m)
D = diameter (m)

RESISTANCE DETERMINATION

95

For the case with a single vertical anode installed infinitely deep within
the body of the earth, the equation becomes:

Equation (6-2)
Dwight-Single Deep Anode
Erling D. Sunde also developed equations for calculating the resistanceto-earth of single, vertical electrodes.'@"The equation based upon one end
of the anode located at the surface of the earth is as follows:

Equation (6-3)
Sunde-Single Surface Anode
The equation for a single anode located infinitely deep is:

Equation ( 6 4 )
Sunde-Single Deep Anode
If the length, L, is much greater than the diameter, D, i n Sunde's
Equation (6-3) for surface anodes, the equation reduces to Dwight's
Equation (6-1) for surface anodes. The same holds true for the two deep
anode equations. Therefore, Dwight's equations are a special case of
Sunde's equations. Dwight's equations are not valid unless the length is
much greater than the diameter.
Since the surface anode equations are based on one end of the anode
located at the surface and the deep anode equations are based on the anode
located infinitely deep within the earth, neither case is exactly correct for
real deep anode installations. However, the resistance-to-earth for real
installations would be expected to fall between the two calculated values.
The deeper the discharge zone is in the earth, the closer the resistance-to-

96

APPENDIX

earth should approach the calculated deep anode value.


There is an equation developed by Walter von Baechmann and W.
Schwenck that contains a term for the depth to the top of the anode. The
resistance-to-earth produced by application of this equation to a deep anode
design is usually somewhere between the values determined using either
the surface or deep equations. Comparing the Baechmann and Schwenck
equation with the depth equal to zero with Sundes Surface equation, the
difference between the two results is between 2 and 4 percent for
reasonable values of diameter (150 to 300 mm) and length (3 to 100 m). If
the depth to the top of the anode term, T, in the Baechmann and Schwenck
equation is allowed to approach infinity, the second natural logarithmic
term goes to zero. Comparing this simplified Baechmann and Schwenck
equation with Sundes Deep equation, the difference is between 5 and 9
percent. The Baechmann and Schwenck equation always produces the
higher resistance value: therefore, it is the more conservative of the two.
The Baechmann and Schwenck equation is given below.Iz

Equation (6-5)
Baechmann and Schwenck-Single Anode T Depth
For multiple deep anode systems installed infinitely far apart and
operated in parallel, the resistance-to-earth of the parallel combination is
the resistance-to-earth of a single deep anode system divided by the total
number of systems. As the individual deep anode systems are placed closer
together, they begin to interact and interfere with each other. This
interference can be represented as a mutual resistance between the deep
anode systems. The mutual resistance between the individual deep anode
systems results in an increase in the total system resistance. Therefore, the
effective resistance-to-earth of the combination increases by the mutual
interference factor.
For multiple deep anode systems placed at equal spacing along a straight
line, the resistance-to-earth is calculated from the following formula
developed by Sunde.

R EStSTAN C E D ETERMtNA TtON

97

Equation (6-6)
Sunde-Multiple Vertical Anodes
where N = number of vertical anodes
R(D) = resistance-to-earth of one anode of Diameter D (ohms)
S = spacing between anodes (m)
R(2iS) = mutual resistance between anodes using D = 2iS (ohms)
In Equation (6-6) above, the resistance-to-earth, R(D), is simply the
value calculated for a single, vertical anode with diameter, D, using the
appropriate Equation (6-1) through Equation (6-4). The mutual resistance
between anodes, R(2iS), is the value calculated for a single vertical anode
with a diameter of 2i times the spacing, S, using one of the previous
resistance equations. The summation term involving these mutual
resistances corrects the calculated resistance-to-earth for the mutual
interference between anodes.
When the spacing, S, is equal to or larger than the anode length, L, and
the number of anodes is large, Equation (6-6) can be simplified to the
following form.

O.O1

In ( 0.656 N ))

Equation (6-7)
Sunde-Multiple Vertical Anodes with S > L
6.2.2 RESISTANCE GRAPHS
The graphs provided in this section were generated using the equations in
Section 6.2.1. Since Dwight's equations are a special case of Sunde's
equations, graphs are provided for Sunde's equations only. The first two
graphs, Figure 6-1 and Figure 6-2, are plots of resistance versus column
length with the column diameter held constant. Three different curves are
plotted on each graph for three different values of column diameter: 150,
250, and 380 mm (6, 10, and 15 in.).

90

APPENDIX

0.9
0.8

0.7

0.6

0.3
0.2

0. I
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Length, rn

Figure 6-1: Sunde Surface Equation (p=lOOO n-cm)

For all of the graphs, the soil resistivity, p, is held constant at loo0 ohmcm. Since resistance is directly proportional to resistivity, the resistance for
any value of resistivity is obtained by determining the value from the
curves at 1000 ohm-cm and using the resistivity ratio to correct for the
actual resistivity.

RESISTANCE DETERMINATION

99

0.9
0.8

0.7
.c

0.6

0.5

(D

c
In
.In

0.4

0.3
0.2
0.1

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90 100

Length, rn

Figure 6-2: Sunde Deep Equation (p=lOOO Q-cm)

The Baechmann and Schwenck equation was used to generate Figure 6-3
and Figure 6-4.Again, three curves are plotted on the same graphs for the
three different values of column diameter. Two different values of depth to
the top of the discharge column were used to illustrate the amount of
resistance variation with depth. The depth used in Figure 6-3is 15.2 meters
(50 feet).

100 APPENDIX

I
0.9
0.8

0.7

JZ
0

-s

0.6
0.5

In
.v)

0.4

0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Length, m
Figure 6-3: Baechmann-Schwenck Eq.(T=15.2 m 8, p=lOOO R-cm)
The depth for Figure 6-4 is 61 meters (200 feet).

RESISTANCE DETERMINATION 101

I
0.9

0.8

0.7

!
m

0.5

u)
.u)

0.4

0.3
0.2
0. I

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90 100

Length, rn

Figure 6 4 : Baechmann-Schwenck Eq. (T=61 m & p=lOOO 0-cm)


All of the above figures are based on a single deep anode system. For
multiple deep anode systems equally spaced along a straight line and
operated in parallel, the resistance-to-earth is calculated from Sundes
Equation (6-6). This equation is based upon adding a mutual resistance
term to account for the mutual interference between anode systems. The
following three graphs contain three plots each for the mutual resistance
term versus spacing for three different column lengths: 15, 30, and 60
meters (50, 100, and 200 feet).

102 APPENDIX

To use these graphs, read the mutual resistance value for a specific
spacing for a given column length. This is the mutual resistance with the
soil resistivity equal to loo0 ohm-cm. Next, use one of the previous graphs
to determine the resistance-to-earth of a single anode column of the correct
dimensions in 1000 ohm-cm soil. Then, add the two resistance terms
together and correct the total resistance for the actual soil resistivity by
multiplying by the resistivity ratio. Finally, divide the corrected resistance
by the number of deep anode systems in parallel.
Figure 6-5 provides mutual resistance plots for two (N=2) deep anodes
operated in parallel.
0.12

0.1

0.02

10

20

30

40

Spacing, m
Figure 6-5: Mutual resistance term for N = 2 (p=lOOO f2-cm)

50

RESISTANCE DETERMINATION 103

Figure 6-6 provides the mutual resistance term for three (N=3) deep
anode systems.
0.25

E
r

0.2

0.15

a
c

.-UJUJ

;0.1

20
30
40
Spacing, m
Figure 6-6: Mutual resistance term for N = 3 (p=lOOO n-cm)
0

10

50

104 APPENDIX
Finally, Figure 6-7 provides the mutual resistance term for four (N=4)
deep anode systems.
0.3

0.25

9
t

ai

0.2

0
C

.!$

0.15

(u

0.05

10

20

30

40

50

Spacing, m
Figure 6-7: Mutual resistance term for N = 4 (p=lOOO n-cm)

For example, determine the total system resistance-to-earth of three deep


anode systems with column lengths of 30 meters (100 feet) and diameters
of 250 mm (10 in.) placed in 5,500 ohm-cm soil. Assume the deep anode
systems are spaced 20 meters (65 feet) apart. The mutual interference term
in 1000 ohm-cm soil is approximately 0.06 ohms according to Figure 6-6.
The resistance-to-earth of a single deep anode system with these
dimensions in 1000 ohm-cm soil is about 0.28 ohms from Figure 6-2.
Adding these two values, we obtain 0.34 ohms in 1000 ohm-crn soil.
Multiplying by the ratio of 5.5 to one to correct the soil resistivity to 5,500
ohm-cm, we obtain 1.87 ohms. Now, dividing this total by three, the
number of anode systems, we find the total resistance-to-earth for this
system is 0.62 ohms. Using the exact equations of Section 6.2.1 rather than
the graphs in this section, the value is 0.612 ohms.

ANODE SPACING CALCULATIONS 105

6.3 ANODE SPACING CALCULATIONS


The maximum spacing between anodes in a deep anode system is
determined by considering the effects of current attenuation along the
carbon column. The active carbon column is a DC transmission system
with a linear per unit resistance, r, and a per unit leakage conductance-toearth, g. As a result of the combination of the linear resistance and leakage
conductance, the current flow from an anode is attenuated as it flows along
the column.
The input signals to this transmission system are the currents injected by
the anodes within the carbon column. The overall current flow along the
carbon column can be estimated by determining the current flow due to
each individual anode and summing the currents by application of linear
superposition. In order to simplify the analysis, only the effect of two
adjacent anodes is considered. Further, it is assumed that a uniform,
homogeneous carbon column is placed infinitely deep within a uniform,
homogeneous earth environment.
The analysis begins with the general equation for the current flow along a
DC transmission system, as shown in Equation (649.

I ( y) = I, cosh (ay)- Es sinh (ay)


RG

Equation (6-8)
General DC Transmission Equation
where I = current flow (amps)
y = per unit distance from anode
Is = current from source (amps)
a = attenuation constant
E, = voltage at source (volts)
R, = characteristic resistance (ohms)

The current discharged from the column at any point is the rate of change
in the current flow along the column, which is simply the derivative of
Equation (6-8) with respect to position, y. The current density discharged
at any point is the current discharged divided by pi times the diameter, as
seen in Equation (6-9).14

106 APPENDIX
E, cosh( ay)
I, sinh ( ay) - i(y)=

RG

nd

Equation (6-9)
Deep Anode Discharge Current Density

where i = current density (amps/ mhnit length)


d = diameter (m)

In order to apply Equation (6-9), the attenuation constant, a, and the


characteristic resistance, &, must first be determined from Equations (610) and (6-11).13

a=Jrg
Equation (6-10)
Attenuation Constant
where a = attenuation constant
r = linear resistance (ohms per unit length)
g = leakage conductance (siemens per unit length)

Equation (6-11)
Characteristic Resistance
where R, = characteristic resistance (ohms)

The linear resistance of the carbon column can be calculated using


Equation (6-12).

ANODE SPACING CALCULATIONS 107

n-d 2
4

Equation (6-12)
Linear Resistance of Carbon Column
where p, = carbon resistivity (ohm-m)
L = length of column (m)
d = diameter of column (m)
The leakage conductance of the carbon column, g, can be estimated by
calculating the resistance-to-earth of the column using Equation (6-2) and
taking the reciprocal. Since only the relative magnitude of current density is
of interest, the magnitude of anode current can be assumed to be one. The
anode voltage can then be calculated using ohm's law once the resistance
looking in the direction of the second anode is determined. This input
resistance is determined using Equation (6-13)."

R,,

R, coth (ax )

Equation (6-13)
DC Transmission System Input Resistance
where R
,, = input resistance (ohms)
x = unit distance from end of column
Finally, Equation (6-9) is used to calculate the current density at an
anode location due to the current discharged by the anode at the location
plus the current density due to current discharged by the next closest anode.
Then the total current density halfway between two adjacent anodes due to
the two nearest anodes is calculated. The ratio of these two current
densities can then be compared to determine the estimated variation in
current density discharged along the column at various anode spacings. In
order to make a determination regarding maximum anode spacing, a
maximum acceptable current density variation of 25% along the column
was adopted.

108 APPENDIX
The spacings provided in Table 6-2 below were based on the above
analysis. For purposes of this analysis, the column length was assumed to
be 30 m (100 ft) with a diameter of 250 mm (10 in). The analysis was
conducted about the center point in the column.
Maximum Anode Spacing
Meters
(fi)

Earth
Resistivity
ohm - cm

3-

Carbon Resistivity
ohm - cm
5
10
25
1.8
(6)

1.2
(4 1

6.4

4.0

(21)

(13)

2.7
(9)

1000

5.8

4000

12.0

9.1

(38)

(30)

13.0
(43)

10.0
(33)

7.0
(23)

4.6
(15)

16.0

12.0

4.0

(41)

8.8
(29)

55

(53)

(18)

(13)

5000
7500

4.6
(15)

50

3.0
(10)

3.0
(10)

Table 6-2: Maximum Anode Spacing, meters (ft)

6.4 CARBON BACKFILL RESISTIVITY TESTING


The C.E. 5 test method was developed to provide a reliable, reproducible
method of determining bulk carbon backfill resistivity, as supplied. This
method may be adapted to either laboratory or field conditions.
The test apparatus, shown in Figure 6-8, consists of a nine-inch long,
clear acrylic tube with an inside diameter of 2.0 kO.030inches. One end of
the acrylic tube is fitted with a one-inch thick brass plug flush with the end
of the tube. The brass plug is held in place with four brass screws. Two of

CARBON BACKFILL RESISTIVITY TESTING 109


Figure 6-8: Resistivity Test Apparatus

,Carbon

Sample

the brass screws are one-quarter inch longer than the depth of the threaded
hole into the plug. This allows for attachment of two test leads to the plug.
The acrylic test cylinder is scored at a distance of exactly one inch and two
inches from the inside edge of the brass plug. Also, small sample tolerance
marks are placed at exactly 1/16 inch on either side of the one-inch sample
mark.
A 15 7/8-inch long solid cylindrical brass weight (360 FC) is machined to
an outside diameter of 1 31/32 k 1/64 inch. This solid brass cylinder is used
as a free weight applied to the carbon backfill sample. The pressure applied
to the test sample placed in the apparatus is approximately 5 psi. Two brass
screws are inserted into the top of the brass weight to provide measurement
test points. A lifting handle is also attached to the top end of the brass
weight to facilitate handling.
In order to measure the resistance of the test sample, a four-point
resistance measurement device capable of measuring resistances as low as
0.01 ohms, such as a Nilsson Model 400 Soil Resistance meter, is required.
Four 16 AWG stranded, insulated copper test leads are also required. The
test procedure should be conducted at a temperature near room temperature

110 APPENDIX

(25" C). The steps of the test procedure are:


1. Obtain a 10-pound representative sample of the carbon backfill to be
tested. Fill the acrylic test cylinder to the one-inch sample mark f 1/16
inch. (The small score marks on either side of the one-inch mark indicated
minimum and maximum sample levels).
2. Level the carbon sample within the test cylinder by tilting and shaking
the cylinder, as necessary.

3. Slowly lower the solid brass weight carefully onto the top of the carbon
sample. Visually inspect the contact between the brass weight and the
carbon sample. If the carbon sample does not appear to be level or is not
within the sample tolerance marks, remove the weight and repeat steps 1 or
2, as required. No voids should be evident between the end of the brass
weight and the carbon sample.
4. The next step depends on the particle sizing. If the majority of particles

are 1/16 inch diameter (Tyler mesh 6) or larger, it is more difficult to obtain
a level sample that makes intimate contact with the end of the brass weight.
Therefore, the brass weight should be raised to the two-inch score on the
test cylinder and released allowing it to impact the sample. If the majority
of the carbon particles are less than 1/16 inch diameter, this step should be
skipped.
5 . Without disturbing the contact established between the brass weight and
the carbon sample, individually connect terminals PI and C1 on the
resistance test instrument to the two screws on the top of the weight. Also,
connect terminals P2 and C2 on the resistance test instrument to the two
screws in the brass plug in the end of the acrylic test cylinder. All of the
resistance meter terminals should be connected to individual brass screws
using separate test leads.

6. The resistance test meter should then be adjusted to null position, and the
indicated resistance recorded. Since the resistance test instrument provides
scale overlap, the reading should be taken on the lowest range switch
setting.

7. The measured resistance readings from step 6 should be multiplied by


the test cylinder calibration factor of eight (8) to convert the reading to
resistivity in ohm-centimeters.

8. A minimum of 10 different samples should be tested from the original


10-pound material sample. This should be done by returning each test

CARBON BACKFILL RESISTIVITY TESTING 1 1 1


sample to the original container after completion of the test and before
removing the next test sample. The original container should be mixed
prior to removing the next test sample.
After the test data is obtained using the above procedure, the data should
be statistically analyzed. The statistical procedure is given below.
1. The average resistivity of the samples should be calculated using
Equation (6-14).
n

n
Equation (6-14)
Average Resistivity of Test Samples
where

= average resistivity of samples


x ,= individual resistivity measurement
n = number of samples tested (min. n=10)

2. The standard deviation for the test sample is next calculated using
Equation (6-15).

c (xi-.)'
n

s, =

i. I

n-1

Equation (6-15)
Standard Deviation of Test Samples
where s, = standard deviation of test samples

3. Finally, the average resistivity of the carbon backfill sample is


determined from Equation (6-16).

112 APPENDIX

Equation (6-16)
Average Resistivity of Carbon

where p = average resistivity of backfill sample


t = student t scores based on n - 1 degrees
freedom
4. The student t score for a two-sided test, as required by Equation (6-16),
can be found in statistical reference books, such as Statistics For Research
by Shirley Dowdy and Stanley Wearden (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1983).
In order to determine a t score, the desired level of certainty for the
confidence interval should first be determined. The level of certainty, in
decimal form, is then subtracted from one, and the result is divided by two
in order to determine, a, the area under one tail of the t distribution curve.
This is necessary since most reference books provide a table of critical t
values for one tail only. The number of degrees of freedom is the number
of test samples, n, minus one.
For example, if the desired level of confidence is 95%, the value of a
would be one minus 0.95 divided by 2 or 0.025. Assuming the number of
test samples is 10, the degrees of freedom would be 9. Using the above
statistical reference book, the t score is found to be 2.262 in Table A. 10 on
page 467.
5. Using the results of Equation (6-16), various carbon backfill
resistivities can be compared by considering the average resistivities of the
backfill samples and the range of variability of these average resistivities,
as expressed by the second term of the equation.

6.5 PUMP CALCULATIONS


In order to select a pump capable of pumping a slurry of carbon backfill
and water into a deep anode system, Bernoullis equation for fluid
dynamics can be used. Bernoullis equation is an energy balance equation
that states that the sum of the kinetic energy, potential energy, and pressure
of a fluid flow system must remain constant. If the work input of a pump
and the energy loss due to frictional losses are considered, Bernoullis
equation becomes.

PUMP CALCULATIONS 1 13

Equation (6-17)
Bernoulli Fluid Dynamics Equation

where p = pressure (kg/m2)


p = density (kg/m3)
v = velocity (m/sec)
g, = gravitarionai Tactor (m/secz)
z = elevation (m)
g = gravitational acceleration (m/sec2)
h, = pump head (m)
h, = friction head (m)
Application of the Bernoulli equation to the problem of pump selection
requires consideration of the fluid flow system. As shown in the schematic
of Figure 4-1, the system consists of a mixing tank at ground level, a
pump, the discharge piping, and the drilled hole.
To determine the maximum pump pressure, consider the case when the
mixing tank is almost empty and the carbon backfill slurry is just flowing
out of the top of the hole at ground level. If the pump suction is selected as
location 1 and the top of the drilled hole as location 2, p , = p2 =
atmospheric pressure, v I = v2 0, and z, = z2 = ground level. Therefore,
Bernoulli's equation reduces to:

h,

h,

Equation (6-18)
Special Case of Bernoulli Equation

In other words, the pump head equals the total frictional head of the
system. The frictional head is the sum of the frictional head for the suction
piping, the discharge piping, and the drilled hole. The frictional head is
calculated using the Darcy equation.I5

114 APPENDIX

Equation (6-19)
Darcy Equation

where f = friction factor


L = length (m)
v = velocity (m/sec)
D = diameter (m)
For laminar fluid flow conditions ( N R ~I 2 0 0 0 ) , the friction factor can be
calculated from Equation (6-20) below.

Equation (6-20)
Friction Factor Laminar Flow

where N, = Reynolds number


If the flow is turbulent, the friction factor is must be calculated using an
iterative solution to the Colebrook and White equation.
I

Equation (6-21)
Colebrook & White Friction Factor - Turbulent Flow

where e = roughness (steel = ,00015) (ft)


D = diameter (fit)
Since the Colebrook and White equation is difficult to use, the Sacham
equation can be used with an accuracy loss of only I %.IT

PUMP CALCULATIONS 115


-2

5.02

Equation (6-22)
Sacham Equation - Turbulent Flow
Reynolds number required to determine the friction factor is calculated as
f0110ws.'.'

N,=

DVP
c!

Equation (6-23)
Reynolds Number

where 1.1= viscosity (kg/m-sec)

Finally, the viscosity of a slurry is determined from Equation (6-24)."

Equation (6-24)
Slurry Viscosity

where p = slurry viscosity (kg/m-sec)


v, = liquid viscosity (kg/m-sec)
as= volume fraction of solids
c = empirical coefficient (1.25)
Using the above equations, the pump head in meters of slurry can be
calculated. The pump head can be converted to pump pressure in kg/cm2
by applying Equation (6-25).
ppurnp =

P
cm
10000 m2
hP

Equation (6-25)
Pump Pressure

= pump pressure (kg/cm*)


where Ppump

116 APPENDIX

For fluid petroleum coke with a bulk density of about 74 lbs/ft3


(1.2g/cm3), the recommended mixing ratio for pumping is 26.5 liters of
water per 45.4 kg of backfill (7 gallons per 100 pounds). With this mix
ratio the slurry density is 1450 kg/m3 (90.5 lb/ft3) with a viscosity of 0.017
kg/m-sec (0.01 1 lb/ft- sec) at 15.5"C (60" F).
Assuming various flow rates, Table 6-3 was constructed giving the
required pumping pressures for specific pipe sizes assuming the use of
calcined fluid petroleum coke with a bulk density of about 74 lbs/ft3
( 1 .2g/cm3). The pressure drop given in the table is based on a total pipe
length of 30.5 m (100 ft). The total pressure drop for any specific length of
piping can be determined by multiplying the values in the table by the ratio
of the actual pipe length in meters (feet) divided by 30.5 meters (100 feet).

Pumping Pipe
Size

nominal
(in)

ID,mm

(in)

Pressure per 30.5m (1 00 ft), kg/cm*


(Ib/in')

Flow, Ipm
(gpm)

76
1201

95
1251

114
1301

151
1401

189
(501

(1)

26.64
1.58
2.34
3.23
5.40
8.08
(1.049) (22.5) (33.3) (46.0) (76.9) (115)

(1 1/4)

35.05
0.430 0.633 0.869 1.44 2.14
(1.380) (6.12) (9.00) (12.4) (20.5) (30.4)

40.89
0.208 0.305 0.418 0.689 1.02
(1 1/2) (1.610) (2.96) (4.34) (5.94) (9.81) (14.5)
(2)

52.50 0.064 0.094 0.128 0.211 0.310


(2.067) (0.912) (1.34) (1.83) (3.00) (4.41)

Table 6-3: Pump Pressure per 30.5 m (100 ft) of pipe, kg/cm2(Ib/inz)

In addition to the pressure drop in the pumping pipe, pressure drops will
also occur in each valve, coupling, ell, tee, or other fitting encountered by
the flow stream. These pressure drops can be calculated by determining an
equivalent length of straight pipe for each fitting and calculating the
pressure drop for a length of pipe equal to the actual length plus the total
equivalent length for all fittings. Table 6-4 provides a list of equivalent
pipe lengths for various fittings.I5The equivalent pipe lengths for the valves

PUMP CALCULATIONS 1 17
are based on the valve in the full-open position.
Under worst-case conditions, the pressure drop associated with the slurry
flow up the inside of the drilled hole or through a 6 m (20 ft) section of I 0 0
mm (4 inch) suction hose is less than 1% of the pumping pipe pressure
drop. Therefore, they can safely be ignored in the calculation.
Equivalent Length of Straight Pipe, m (ft)
Fittings
1

Standard Pipe Size, in


1 114
1 112

Regular 90"
ell

1.6
(5.2)

2.0
(6.6)

2.3
(7.4)

2.6
(8.5)

Long radius
90" ell

0.82
(2.7)

0.98
(3.2)

1.o
(3.4)

1.1
(3.6)

Regular 45"
ell

0.40
(1.3)

0.52
(1.7)

0.64
(2.1)

0.82
(2.7)

Tee
line flow

1.4
(4.61

1.7
(5.6)

2.3
(7.7)

Tee
branch flow

2.7
(8.7)

3.0
(9.9)

3.7
(12.0)

Globe valve

11
(37)

13
(421

16
(54)

Gate valve

0.26
(0.84)

0.34
(1.1)

0.37
(1.2)

0.46
(1.5)

Coupling

0.088
(0.29)

0.11
(0.36)

0.12
(0.39)

0.14
(0.45)

~~~

~~

Table 6-4: Equivalent Length of Straight Pipe for Various Fittings, m (ft)

6.6 ANODE TEMPERATURE RISE CALCULATIONS


A method of estimating the steady-state temperature rise of a cylindrical
anode was presented in a paper by W. H. Burkhart." Burkhart's equation,
Equation (6-26), is based upon the assumptions of a homogeneous,
uniform environment with constant electrical and thermal conductivities.

118 APPENDIX
The derivation of his equation involves summing the resistance effects of
incremental shells of soil surrounding the anode. Burkhart assumed that
these soil shells could be described by increasing the anode diameter and
length by an arbitrary size factor, l3.

AT =

l2R
4 n K ( r +L)

Equation (6-26)
Burkhart Temperature Rise

where AT = temperature rise ("C)


I = total anode current (amps)
R = resistance-to-earth of anode (ohms)
K = thermal conductivity of earth (wattslm-"C)
L = anode length (m)
r = anode radius (m)
In work conducted by GTE on the ELF Communications project for the
U. S. Navy, it was concluded that Burkhart's equation underestimated the
temperature rise. Based on the corrected equation derived by GTE, the soil
shells were described by increasing the anode diameter by an arbitrary size
factor while leaving the length unchanged. The corrected Burkhart
equation, as derived by GTE, is given as Equation (6-27) below. GTE also
mentioned an equation developed by Kimbark, but did not use the equation
in their predictions.lU

AT=

l2R
2nKL

___

((

l + i ) l n ( I+!)
-1)

Equation (6-27)
GTE Corrected Temperature Rise
Kimbark used the analogies between a current field and a heat-flow field
to develop an equation relating the steady-state temperature rise of
electrode to the potential of the electrode to remote earth. Kimbark's
equation, Equation (6-28), is based on the electrode surface being
equipotential and is independent of electrode shape. The derivation of the
equation also assumes the surface of the earth to be a perfect thermal and
electrical insulator.I9

ANODE TEMPERATURE RISE CALCULATIONS 1 19

V2
AT= 2PK
Equation (6-28)
Kimbark Temperature Rise

where V = potential of electrode to remote earth (volts)


p = resistivity of soil (ohm-m)
The Kimbark equation can be expressed in terms of current output and
resistance-to-remoteearth of the column using Ohm's law.
The original Burkhart temperature rise formula is in error due to the
overstatement of the effect of increasing length of the earth shells, and the
GTE modification ignores the increasing length of the earth shells
completely. Therefore, Burkhart's original formula understates the steadystate temperature rise while the GTE modification overstates the rise.
Theoretically, the temperature rise should fall somewhere between the two
predictions. The equipotential electrode surface required by Kimbark's
equation may be significantly violated in predictions of temperature rise for
a deep anode system. Since all of the equations require a homogeneous
environment with constant thermal and electrical conductivities, any
prediction based on the equations is at best an estimate of the temperature
rise for real-world conditions.
Of course, in order to use any of the temperature rise equations, some
average thermal and electrical conductivities must be known or assumed
for the earth environment. Usually some average resistivity value can be
estimated from previous experience or by using test data from the location.
The thermal conductivity is generally based on engineering tables listing
various soil types. Even when limited information on the soil type is
available some value for thermal conductivity must be assumed. However,
accurate selection of values for these two variables directly impacts the
accuracy of the temperature rise prediction.
Burkhart indicated that most soils have a thermal conductivity of 0.9
w/m-"C or less. Without a direct measurement of the thermal conductivity
Burkhart suggested assuming a value of 0.6 w/m-"C, which is thermal
conductivity of water.'' Kimbark assumed a value of 1 w/m-"C in his
calculation^.'^ GTE used 0.6 w/m-"C for design predictions on the ELF
project. When empirical results indicated a temperature rise significantly
less than predicted, GTE suggested that much larger thermal conductivities
were required to fit the data for the specific soils at the test locations.

120 APPENDIX
Values of 4 w/m-C for the Michigan facility and 16 w/m-C for the
Wisconsin facility were suggested by the data. GTE further indicated that
values as large a 20 w/m-C have been reported in the literature for watersaturated, porous sands.2From these sources it appears that the soil thermal
conductivity can vary from lows of 0.15 w/m-C for very dry soils to highs
~ . *a first estimate of temperature rise when the actual
near 20 W / ~ - ~ C . For
soil thermal conductivity is unknown, a relatively conservative value of 0.6
w/m-C is suggested.

REFERENCES
I . J. Wagner, Cathodic Protection: Design I (Houston,TX: NACE, 1992).
2. R. W. Stephens, Selection of Materials for Impressing Current Cathodic Protection
Groundbeds, CORROSION/90, paper no. 84 (Houston, TX: NACE, 1990).

3. D. H. Kroon, C. F. Schrieber, Performance of Impressed Current Anodes for Cathodic


Protection Underground, CORROSION/84, paper no. 44 (Houston, TX: NACE, 1984).
4. J. T. Reding, Oxide Activated Titanium Anodes in Deep Anode Groundbeds,
Proceedings of the Appalachian Underground Short Course, May 1986.
5. Impressed Current Anodes for Underground Cathodic Protection Systems,
Publication 10A196 (Houston,TX: NACE, May 1996).
6. J. F. Tatum, Platinized Anodes in Carbonaceous Backfills: A New Dimension,
CORROSION/78,paper no. 14 I (Houston, TX: NACE, 1978).
7. T. H. Lewis, Jr., Platinized Anodes in Carbonaceous Backfills: An Evaluation,
CORROSION/79,paper no. 194 (Houston,TX: NACE, 1979).
8. H. B. Dwight, The Calculation of Resistance to Ground and of Capacitance. MIT J.
Mathematics and Physics X (1930-1931):pp. 50-74.
9. H. B. Dwight, Calculation of Resistances to Ground, Electrical Engineering 12.55
(December 1936): pp. 1319-1328.
10. Classic Papers and Reviews on Anode Resistance Fundamentals and Applications

(Houston, TX: NACE, 1986).


1 I . E. D. Sunde, Earth Conduction Effects in Transmission Systems (New York: Dover

Publications, 1968).

121
12. W. von Baechmann, W. Schwenk, Handbood of Cathodic Protection, (UK, Surrey:
Portcullis Press, Ltd., 1975).
13. J. Wagner, Cathodic Protection: Design I (Houston, TX: NACE, 1992).
14. R. Pope., Attenuation of Forced Drainage Effects on Long Uniform Structures,
Corrosion 2 (December 1946): pp. 307-319.

15. R. N. Robinson, Chemical Engineering Reference Manual (Belmont, CA: Professional


Publications, 1994).
16. R. H. Perry, C. H. Chilton, eds., Chemical Engineers Handbook, 5th ed. (New York:
McGraw-Hill, 1973).
17. W. H. Burkhart, Temperature Rise in Underground Impressed Current Anodes,
Corrosion 36 (April 1980): pp. 161-167.
18. ELF Communications: M T F N T F Grounds Design Report, Naval Electronic Systems
Command, 14 October 1983, GTE Systems, Boston, MA.
19. E. W. Kimbark, Direct Current Transmission, Vol. I (New York: John Wiley, 1971).

20. MTF Terminal Grounds Update Review, 27 February 1985, GTE Systems, Boston, MA.

INDEX

Index Terms

Links

A
ampacity

52

anodes
classification of

22

graphite

23

impregnation treatments

24

25

high-silicon chromium
cast iron

23

inert or insoluble

22

25

massive anodes vs.


dimensionally stable anodes
(DSA)
mixed-metal oxide
substrate material

22
27
27

platinum

26

scrap steel

22

28

consumption rates

20

23

25

46

93
current densities

25

45

93

current output balancing

41

60

86

87

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

anodes (Cont.)
electrical connection, exposure
to environment

23

end effect

23

placement

15

34

41

46

57

61

70

77

58

77

46

61

105

43

96

99

78
replacement

51

resistances between

87

support structure

34

use of center-connected anodes

23

attenuation

B
Baechmann and Schwenck equation
Bernoullis equation

112

Burkharts equation

117

C
carbon backfill

28

calcined

31

32

carbon content

31

32

consumption

22

28

delayed coke

29

fluid coke

29

green petroleum cokes

46

50

30

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

metallurgical coke

29

petroleum coke

29

pumping

35

70

78

33

48

79

112
resistivity
resistivity testing

31
108

carbon column attenuation

61

105

casings

34

38

for environmental sealing

34

54

for replacability

34

58

35

57

centralizers
C.E. 5 test method
chloride ion

63

77

81

108
20

25

27

52

27

35

47

26

35

93

47

73
coatings, active
mixed-metal oxide

23
23
93

platinum
Colebrook and White equation

23
114

column resistivity

86

90

current, anode

27

31

46

77

86

90

45

49

23

26

93

105

25

41

current density
anode

carbon backfill

45

47

49

60

64

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

current density (Cont.)


gas generation

28

35

45

water consumption

28

45

50

current-limiting resistors

50

86

D
Darcy equation
deep anode equations

113
95

deep anode system


advantages of using

commissioning tests

83

definition of

design of

41

column length

41

geology

41

anodic interference

42

location in low-resistivity strata

41

mutual interference

41

potential gradient, influence of

42

presence of rock stratum

42

stratigraphy

41

disadvantages of using

installation

69

operation of

83

deep groundbed, definition of

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

design current, determining

dimensionally stable anodes

22

drilling

72

drillers log

74

equipment

69

expertise

73

fluids

21

45

60

83

37

53

55

78

79

43

94

97

28

31

49

56

72
hole stability

72

78

hole cleaning

72

73

observations during

74

pilot hole

12

speed

72

testing during

75

Dwights Equation

16

73

E
electrical logging tool (see sonde)

18

electrochemical reactions

21

24

48

65

evolution of gases

21

35

metal consumption

21

electro-osmosis
engineering judgement
environmental considerations

50

64

36

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

environmental (Cont.)
in installation of deep anode system

53

aquifer interchange

37

54

materials and fluids, testing of

37

56

surface sealing materials

34

36

54

equations
altenuation constant

106

average, statistical

111

112

96

99

Baechmann and Schwenck


Bernoullis

113

Burkharts

118

characteristic resistance

106

Colebrook and White

I14

current density, anode discharge

106

Darcy

113

DC transmission

105

Dwights

94

friction factor

114

GTE temperature rise

118

Kimbarks

119

power cost

44

power output

44

115

pump head to pump pressure


conversion
resistance, input
resistivity, column

115
107
87

106

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

equations (Cont.)
resistivity, soil box

76

Reynolds number

115

Sacham

115

standard deviation

111

Sundes

95

viscosity

115

weight loss, consumption

47

equipment and rigging

69

drilling equipment

69

pumps

69

112

fluidizing

58

71

17

four-point test procedure


frictional head

112

friction factor

114

80

G
gas blockage

28

35

50

56

90
geology, determining

column length

41

conductive minerals

data bases

parallel holes

60

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms
GTE temperature

Links
119

H
hydrology, determining

I
increasing system resistance
input resistance
in-situ resistivity
inspection of system

88
107
7

32

48

86

96

101

87

interference
anodic

42

mutual

41

60

104

K
Kimbarks equation

119

L
leakage conductance
linear resistance

105
61

105

M
materials selection
mixing ratio

21
116

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms
mixing tank
moisture, soil

mutual interference

Links
70

79

25

49

65

90

41

60

96

101

27

58

28

104
mutual resistance

96

102

23

26

N
niobium

93

O
other components of deep anode system
casing

34
34

anode support structures

34

centralizers

35

vent systems

35

P
parallel holes

60

pilot hole

73

reaming

73

pilot hole testing

12

drilling of

12

77

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

placement
anode

34

70

78

carbon backfill

34

58

70

78

79
top loading

79

pumping setup

79

casing

77

polarization level

90

pressure drop

116

pump calculations

112

pump head to pump pressure conversion

115

R
reliability and safety factors

47

replaceable deep anode system

58

resistance

42

active column length

43

anode-to-backfill

43

Baechmann and Schwenk equation

43

layer resistivity

43

multiple parallel columns

43

rectifier, power conversion efficiency

44

resistance graphs
column length
multiple deep anode systems

97
97
101

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

resistance increases

46

88

anode connection failure

90

anode consumption

90

91

gas blockage

90

91

lead wire failure

90

moisture depletion

90

operational problems

91

90

resistance-to-earth
deep anode system

42

drill stem

13

driven rod test

10

fall-of-potential

10

Reynolds number
right-of-way, cost of obtaining

61

84

94

115
2

S
Saacham equation
safety as a consideration in design

115
38

gases

63

potential gradients

62

safety factors
slurry, carbon backfill
slurry density

62

47

70

79

112

116

soil box
use of to measure resistivity
soil resistivity

49

75

94

98

102

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

sonde

18

spacing, anode

46

statistical analysis of data


stratigraphy

5
61

Sundes Equation

95

surface anode equation

94

41

Barnes method

Four-Point test method

layer resistivities, estimating

other electrode arrangements

Wenner arrangement

system life

105

111

structure attenuation

surface testing

49

20

32

64

117

10

thermal conductivity

64

118

three-point test procedure

17

titanium

23

46

91

14

70

27

58

T
temperature rise
test electrode

26

93
troubleshooting

84

88

increased system resistance

88

90

physical damage

88

power supply

88

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms
two-point test procedure

Links
14

V
vent systems

35

56

viscosity

21

80

20

115

W
water chemistry
as factor in electrochemical reactions

20

chloride ion

21

effects on materials selection

21

halogens

21

water consumption and replacement

65

wire used in deep anode systems

33

failure

33

58

insulation

20

33

selection

51

ampacity

33

52

cable stress

34

51

chemical resistance

52

voltage drop

53

90

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.