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Category

Data Source Characteristic


Learners have mastered
entry behaviors in order
to comprehend the
components of applying
the Pythagorean
theorem.

Implication(s)
No remedial component
is required in the design
of the instruction on
objective.

Entry
Behaviors

Instructor
Observation

Prior
Knowledge

Instruction needs to start


with the fundamentals,
Student &
Prior knowledge of
to prevent gaps in skill
instructor
applying the
development, while also
surveys;
Pythagorean ranges from
maintaining interest of
interaction
none to a lot, with most
more knowledgeable
with students; learners in the a little
students. These learners
observation and some categories.
may be able to assist
their novice peers.

Attitudes

Motivation

Education
and Ability

Instruction should be
clear, straightforward,
supportive, and
interesting while
explaining the
importance of the lesson
content and should
provide pertinent
rationale for learning the
content.

Student &
instructor
surveys

Few students recognize


the importance of
learning to apply the
Pythagorean Theorem.

Student &
instructor
surveys;
observation

Instruction should be
designed to stimulate
student motivation and
Most students are not
keep interest high (e.g.,
highly motivated to learn
tying examples to realthe lesson content
life scenarios, and
keeping the pace fairly
lively).

Observation
of
performance;
student &
instructor
surveys

Learners have been


exposed to a variety of
approaches and all are
functioning at or above
expected norms for the
eighth grade level.

Any number of
techniques and
strategies could be used
to present the
instruction, which needs
to be clear and explicit.
Group work may be
helpful so that students

can share skills and


experience.
Direct instruction
Student &
Design instruction to
blended with active
instructor
include active
Learning
learning preferred,
engagement of learners.
Preferences surveys;
particularly hands-on
interaction
Possibly incorporate
experiences and
with students;
group work and a game
discussion. Also, games
observation
or hands-on experience.
and small-group projects.
Be sure instruction is
well-organized,
supportive, positive,
Attitudes toward the
logical, and clear;
Attitudes
Student &
current learning
objectives should be
toward
instructor
environment range from stated at the outset and
learning
surveys;
very positive to mildly
activities should be
environmen interaction
positive. Some learners consistent with
t
with students
have mixed feelings.
objectives. Be sure
students understand
what they are doing and
why.

Instructor
surveys;
Group
observation;
characteristi
discussions
cs
with
instructors

Most are: between 12 &


13 years of
age; Caucasian, AfricanAmerican, and Hispanic;
all are fluent in the
English language; most
are middle-class to lower
middle class; personality
characteristics range
from out-going to
reserved.

Use language and


examples learners can
relate to while
introducing them to less
familiar ideas. Refer to a
variety of techniques in
developing instructional
strategies