Anda di halaman 1dari 12

10/12/2016

FlynneffectWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Flynneffect
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

TheFlynneffectisthesubstantialandlongsustainedincreaseinbothfluidandcrystallizedintelligencetestscores
measuredinmanypartsoftheworldfromroughly1930tothepresentday.Whenintelligencequotient(IQ)tests
areinitiallystandardizedusingasampleoftesttakers,byconventiontheaverageofthetestresultsissetto100
andtheirstandarddeviationissetto15or16IQpoints.WhenIQtestsarerevised,theyareagainstandardized
usinganewsampleoftesttakers,usuallybornmorerecentlythanthefirst.Again,theaverageresultissetto100.
However,whenthenewtestsubjectstaketheoldertests,inalmosteverycasetheiraveragescoresaresignificantly
above100.
Testscoreincreaseshavebeencontinuousandapproximatelylinearfromtheearliestyearsoftestingtothepresent.
FortheRaven'sProgressiveMatricestest,subjectsbornovera100yearperiodwerecomparedinDesMoines,
UnitedStates,andseparatelyinDumfries,Scotland.Improvementswereremarkablyconsistentacrossthewhole
period,inbothcountries.[1]ThiseffectofanapparentincreaseinIQhasalsobeenobservedinvariousotherparts
oftheworld,thoughtheratesofincreasevary.[2]
TherearenumerousproposedexplanationsoftheFlynneffect,aswellassomeskepticismaboutitsimplications.
Similarimprovementshavebeenreportedforothercognitionssuchassemanticandepisodicmemory.[3]Recent
researchsuggeststhattheFlynneffectmayhaveendedinatleastafewdevelopednations,possiblyallowing
nationaldifferencesinIQscores[4]todetermineiftheFlynneffectcontinuesinnationswithloweraveragenational
IQs.

Contents
1 Originofterm
2 RiseinIQ
2.1 PrecursorstoFlynn'spublications
2.2 Intelligence
3 Proposedexplanations
3.1 Schoolingandtestfamiliarity
3.2 Generallymorestimulatingenvironment
3.3 Nutrition
3.4 Infectiousdiseases
3.5 Heterosis
4 Possibleendofprogression
5 IQgroupdifferences
6 Seealso
7 References
8 Furtherreading
9 Externallinks

Originofterm
TheFlynneffectisnamedforJamesR.Flynn,whodidmuchtodocumentit
andpromoteawarenessofitsimplications.Thetermitselfwascoinedby
RichardHerrnsteinandCharlesMurray,authorsofTheBellCurve(1994).[5]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flynn_effect

Externalvideo

1/12

10/12/2016

FlynneffectWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Althoughthegeneraltermforthephenomenonreferringtonoresearcherin
particularcontinuestobe"secularriseinIQscores",manytextbookson
psychologyandIQtestinghavenowfollowedtheleadofHerrnsteinand
MurrayincallingthephenomenontheFlynneffect.[6]

RiseinIQ
IQtestsareupdatedperiodically.Forexample,theWechslerIntelligence
ScaleforChildren(WISC),originallydevelopedin1949,wasupdatedin
1974,in1991,2003andagainin2014.Therevisedversionsarestandardized
basedontheperformanceoftesttakersinstandardizationsamples.A
standardscoreofIQ100isdefinedasthemedianperformanceofthe
standardizationsample.Thusonewaytoseechangesinnormsovertimeisto
conductastudyinwhichthesametesttakerstakebothanoldandnew
versionofthesametest.DoingsoconfirmsIQgainsovertime.SomeIQ
JamesFlynn:WhyourIQlevels
tests,forexampletestsusedformilitarydrafteesinNATOcountriesin
arehigherthanourgrandparents'(ht
Europe,reportrawscores,andthosealsoconfirmatrendofrisingscoresover tp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9vp
time.TheaveragerateofincreaseseemstobeaboutthreeIQpointsper
qilhW9uI),(18:41),TEDtalks
decadeintheUnitedStates,asscaledbytheWechslertests.Theincreasing
testperformanceovertimeappearsoneverymajortest,ineveryagerange,at
everyabilitylevel,andineverymodernindustrializedcountry,althoughnotnecessarilyatthesamerateasinthe
UnitedStates.Theincreasehasbeencontinuousandroughlylinearfromtheearliestdaysoftestingtothe
present.[7]ThoughtheeffectismostassociatedwithIQincreases,asimilareffecthasbeenfoundwithincreasesin
attentionandofsemanticandepisodicmemory.[3]
UlricNeisserestimatedthatusingtheIQvaluesof1997theaverageIQoftheUnitedStatesin1932,accordingto
thefirstStanfordBinetIntelligenceScalesstandardizationsample,was80.Neisserstatesthat"Hardlyanyofthem
wouldhavescored'verysuperior',butnearlyonequarterwouldhaveappearedtobe'deficient.'"Healsowrotethat
"Testscoresarecertainlygoingupallovertheworld,butwhetherintelligenceitselfhasrisenremains
controversial."[7]
Trahanetal.(2014)foundthattheeffectwasabout2.93pointsperdecade,basedonbothStanfordBinetand
Wechslerteststheyalsofoundnoevidencetheeffectwasdiminishing.[8]
Raven(2000)foundthat,asFlynnsuggested,datainterpretedasshowingadecreaseinmanyabilitieswith
increasingagemustbereinterpretedasshowingthattherehasbeenadramaticincreaseoftheseabilitieswithdate
ofbirth.Onmanyteststhisoccursatalllevelsofability.[1]
SomestudieshavefoundthegainsoftheFlynneffecttobeparticularlyconcentratedatthelowerendofthe
distribution.TeasdaleandOwen(1989),forexample,foundtheeffectprimarilyreducedthenumberoflowend
scores,resultinginanincreasednumberofmoderatelyhighscores,withnoincreaseinveryhighscores.[9]In
anotherstudy,twolargesamplesofSpanishchildrenwereassessedwitha30yeargap.ComparisonoftheIQ
distributionsindicatedthatthemeanIQscoresonthetesthadincreasedby9.7points(theFlynneffect),thegains
wereconcentratedinthelowerhalfofthedistributionandnegligibleinthetophalf,andthegainsgradually
decreasedastheIQoftheindividualsincreased.[10]SomestudieshavefoundareverseFlynneffectwithdeclining
scoresforthosewithhighIQ.[11]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flynn_effect

2/12

10/12/2016

FlynneffectWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

In1987,FlynntookthepositionthattheverylargeincreaseindicatesthatIQtestsdonotmeasureintelligencebut
onlyaminorsortof"abstractproblemsolvingability"withlittlepracticalsignificance.HearguedthatifIQgains
doreflectintelligenceincreases,therewouldhavebeenconsequentchangesofoursocietythathavenotbeen
observed(apresumednonoccurrenceofa"culturalrenaissance").[7]Flynnnolongerendorsesthisviewof
intelligenceandhassinceelaboratedandrefinedhisviewofwhatrisingIQscoresmean.

PrecursorstoFlynn'spublications
EarlierinvestigatorshaddiscoveredrisesinrawIQtestscoresinsomestudypopulations,buthadnotpublished
generalinvestigationsofthatissueinparticular.HistorianDanielC.Calhouncitedearlierpsychologyliteratureon
IQscoretrendsinhisbookTheIntelligenceofaPeople(1973).[12]R.L.Thorndikedrewattentiontorisesin
StanfordBinetscoresina1975reviewofthehistoryofintelligencetesting.[13]

Intelligence
ThereisdebateaboutwhethertheriseinIQscoresalsocorrespondstoariseingeneralintelligence,oronlyarise
inspecialskillsrelatedtotakingIQtests.Becausechildrenattendschoollongernowandhavebecomemuchmore
familiarwiththetestingofschoolrelatedmaterial,onemightexpectthegreatestgainstooccuronsuchschool
contentrelatedtestsasvocabulary,arithmeticorgeneralinformation.Justtheoppositeisthecase:abilitiessuchas
thesehaveexperiencedrelativelysmallgainsandevenoccasionaldecreasesovertheyears.Recentmetaanalytic
findingsindicatethatFlynneffectsoccurfortestsassessingbothfluidandcrystallizedabilities.Forexample,
Dutchconscriptsgained21pointsduringonly30years,or7pointsperdecade,between1952and1982.[7]Butthis
riseinIQtestscoresisnotwhollyexplainedbyanincreaseingeneralintelligence.Studieshaveshownthatwhile
testscoreshaveimprovedovertime,theimprovementisnotfullycorrelatedwithlatentfactorsrelatedto
intelligence.[14]RushtonhaveshownthatthegainsinIQovertime(theLynnFlynneffect)areunrelatedto
g.[15][16]ResearchershaveshownthattheIQgainsdescribedbytheFlynneffectaredueinparttoincreasing
intelligence,andinparttoincreasesintestspecificskills.[17][18][19]

Proposedexplanations
Attemptedexplanationshaveincludedimprovednutrition,atrendtowardsmallerfamilies,bettereducation,
greaterenvironmentalcomplexity,andheterosis(theoccurrenceofoffspringwithmorepronouncedphenotypical
traitsfrommixingthegenesofitsparents).[20]Anotherpropositionisthegradualspreadoftesttakingskills.[7]
TheFlynneffecthasbeentoorapidforgeneticselectiontobethecause.[21]

Schoolingandtestfamiliarity
Durationofaverageschoolinghasincreasedsteadily.OneproblemwiththisexplanationisthatifintheUS
comparingolderandmorerecentsubjectswithsimilareducationallevels,thentheIQgainsappearalmost
undiminishedineachsuchgroupconsideredindividually.[7]
Manystudiesfindthatchildrenwhodonotattendschoolscorelowerontheteststhantheirregularlyattending
peers.Duringthe1960s,whensomeVirginiacountiesclosedtheirpublicschoolstoavoidracialintegration,
compensatoryprivateschoolingwasavailableonlyforCaucasianchildren.Onaverage,thescoresofAfrican
AmericanchildrenwhodidnotreceiveformaleducationduringthatperioddecreasedatarateofaboutsixIQ
pointsperyear.[7]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flynn_effect

3/12

10/12/2016

FlynneffectWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Anotherexplanationisanincreasedfamiliarityofthegeneralpopulationwithtestsandtesting.Forexample,
childrenwhotaketheverysameIQtestasecondtimeusuallygainfiveorsixpoints.However,thisseemstosetan
upperlimitontheeffectsoftestsophistication.Oneproblemwiththisexplanationandothersrelatedtoschooling
isthatintheUS,thegroupswithgreatertestfamiliarityshowsmallerIQincreases.[7]
Earlyinterventionprogramshaveshownmixedresults.Somepreschool(ages34)interventionprogramslike
"HeadStart"donotproducelastingchangesofIQ,althoughtheymayconferotherbenefits.The"Abecedarian
EarlyInterventionProject",analldayprogramthatprovidedvariousformsofenvironmentalenrichmentto
childrenfrominfancyonward,showedIQgainsthatdidnotdiminishovertime.TheIQdifferencebetweenthe
groups,althoughonlyfivepoints,wasstillpresentatage12.Notallsuchprojectshavebeensuccessful.[7]Also,
suchIQgainscandiminishuntilage18.[22]
CitingahighcorrelationbetweenrisingliteracyratesandgainsinIQ,DavidMarkshasarguedthattheFlynn
effectiscausedbychangesinliteracyrates.[23]

Generallymorestimulatingenvironment
Stillanothertheoryisthatthegeneralenvironmenttodayismuchmorecomplexandstimulating.Oneofthemost
striking20thcenturychangesofthehumanintellectualenvironmenthascomefromtheincreaseofexposureto
manytypesofvisualmedia.Frompicturesonthewalltomoviestotelevisiontovideogamestocomputers,each
successivegenerationhasbeenexposedtoricheropticaldisplaysthantheonebeforeandmayhavebecomemore
adeptatvisualanalysis.ThiswouldexplainwhyvisualtestsliketheRaven'shaveshownthegreatestincreases.An
increaseonlyofparticularform(s)ofintelligencewouldexplainwhytheFlynneffecthasnotcauseda"cultural
renaissancetoogreattobeoverlooked."[7]
In2001,DickensandFlynnpresentedamodelforresolvingseveralcontradictoryfindingsregardingIQ.They
arguethatthemeasure"heritability"includesbothadirecteffectofthegenotypeonIQandalsoindirecteffects
suchthatthegenotypechangestheenvironment,therebyaffectingIQ.Thatis,thosewithagreaterIQtendtoseek
stimulatingenvironmentsthatfurtherincreaseIQ.Thesereciprocaleffectsresultingeneenvironmentcorrelation.
Thedirecteffectcouldinitiallyhavebeenverysmall,butfeedbackcancreatelargedifferencesofIQ.Intheir
model,anenvironmentalstimuluscanhaveaverygreateffectonIQ,evenforadults,butthiseffectalsodecays
overtimeunlessthestimuluscontinues(themodelcouldbeadaptedtoincludepossiblefactors,likenutrition
duringearlychildhood,thatmaycausepermanenteffects).TheFlynneffectcanbeexplainedbyagenerallymore
stimulatingenvironmentforallpeople.TheauthorssuggestthatanyprogramdesignedtoincreaseIQmayproduce
longtermIQgainsifthatprogramteacheschildrenhowtoreplicatethetypesofcognitivelydemanding
experiencesthatproduceIQgainsoutsidetheprogram.TomaximizelifetimeIQ,theprogramsshouldalso
motivatethemtocontinuesearchingforcognitivelydemandingexperiencesaftertheyhavelefttheprogram.[24][25]
Flynninhis2007bookWhatIsIntelligence?furtherexpandedonthistheory.Environmentalchangesresulting
frommodernizationsuchasmoreintellectuallydemandingwork,greateruseoftechnologyandsmaller
familieshavemeantthatamuchlargerproportionofpeoplearemoreaccustomedtomanipulatingabstract
conceptssuchashypothesesandcategoriesthanacenturyago.SubstantialportionsofIQtestsdealwiththese
abilities.Flynngives,asanexample,thequestion'Whatdoadogandarabbithaveincommon?'Amodern
respondentmightsaytheyarebothmammals(anabstract,orapriorianswer,whichdependsonlyonthemeanings
ofthewords'dog'and'rabbit'),whereassomeoneacenturyagomighthavesaidthathumanscatchrabbitswith
dogs(aconcrete,oraposteriorianswer,whichdependedonwhathappenedtobethecaseatthattime).

Nutrition

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flynn_effect

4/12

10/12/2016

FlynneffectWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Improvednutritionisanotherpossibleexplanation.Today'saverageadultfromanindustrializednationistaller
thanacomparableadultofacenturyago.Thatincreaseofstature,likelytheresultofgeneralimprovementsof
nutritionandhealth,hasbeenatarateofmorethanacentimeterperdecade.Availabledatasuggestthatthesegains
havebeenaccompaniedbyanalogousincreasesofheadsize,andbyanincreaseintheaveragesizeofthe
brain.[7][26]Thisargumenthadbeenthoughttosufferthedifficultythatgroupswhotendtobeofsmalleroverall
bodysize(e.g.women,orpeopleofAsianancestry)donothaveloweraverageIQs.[9]RichardLynn,however,
claimsthatwhilepeopleofEastAsianoriginmayoftenhavesmallerbodies,theytendtohavelargerbrainsand
higherIQsthanaveragewhites.[27]
A2005studypresenteddatasupportingthenutritionhypothesis,whichpredictsthatgainswilloccur
predominantlyatthelowendoftheIQdistribution,wherenutritionaldeprivationisprobablymostsevere.[10]An
alternativeinterpretationofskewedIQgainscouldbethatimprovededucationhasbeenparticularlyimportantfor
thisgroup.[9]RichardLynnmakesthecasefornutrition,arguingthatculturalfactorscannottypicallyexplainthe
Flynneffectbecauseitsgainsareobservedevenatinfantandpreschoollevels,withratesofIQtestscoreincrease
aboutequaltothoseofschoolstudentsandadults.Lynnstatesthat"Thisrulesoutimprovementsineducation,
greatertestsophistication,etc.andmostoftheotherfactorsthathavebeenproposedtoexplaintheFlynneffect.
Heproposesthatthemostprobablefactorhasbeenimprovementsinprenatalandearlypostnatalnutrition."[28]
Acenturyago,nutritionaldeficienciesmayhavelimitedbody
andorganfunctionality,includingskullvolume.Thefirsttwo
yearsoflifeisacriticaltimefornutrition.Theconsequences
ofmalnutritioncanbeirreversibleandmayincludepoor
cognitivedevelopment,educability,andfutureeconomic
productivity.[29]Ontheotherhand,Flynnhaspointedto20
pointgainsonDutchmilitary(Raven'stype)IQtestsbetween
1952,1962,1972,and1982.HeobservesthattheDutch18
yearoldsof1962hadamajornutritionalhandicap.Theywere
eitherinthewomb,orwererecentlyborn,duringthegreat
Dutchfamineof1944whenGermantroopsmonopolized
foodand18,000peoplediedofstarvation.[30]Yet,concludes
Flynn,"theydonotshowupevenasablipinthepatternof
DutchIQgains.Itisasifthefaminehadneveroccurred."[2][31]
Itappearsthattheeffectsofdietaregradual,takingeffectover
decades(affectingmotheraswellaschild)ratherthanafew
months.

Changesinanenvironmentalvariable(e.g.human
nutrition)maycausedifferentgenestobeexpressed
duringchildhood.

Insupportofthenutritionalhypothesis,itisknownthat,intheUnitedStates,theaverageheightbefore1900was
about10cm(4inches)shorterthanitistoday.[32]PossiblyrelatedtotheFlynneffectisasimilarchangeofskull
sizeandshapeduringthelast150years.Thoughtheideathatbrainsizeisunrelatedtoraceandintelligencewas
popularizedinthe1980s,studiescontinuetoshowsignificantcorrelations.[27][33](Note,however,thatsizeisn't
everythingormaybeanythingsignificantatall.Forexample,theoverallsizeandasymmetricalshapeofAlbert
Einstein'sbrainwerenormalwhereastheprefrontal,somatosensory,primarymotor,parietal,temporaland
occipitalcorticeswereextraordinary.)[34]ANorwegianstudyfoundthatheightgainswerestronglycorrelatedwith
intelligencegainsuntilthecessationofheightgainsinmilitaryconscriptcohortstowardstheendofthe1980s.[35]
Bothheightandskullsizeincreasesprobablyresultfromacombinationofphenotypicplasticityandgenetic
selectionoverthisperiod.[36]Withonlyfiveorsixhumangenerationsin150years,timefornaturalselectionhas
beenverylimited,suggestingthatincreasedskeletalsizeresultingfromchangesinpopulationphenotypesismore
likelythanrecentgeneticevolution.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flynn_effect

5/12

10/12/2016

FlynneffectWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Itiswellknownthatmicronutrientdeficiencieschangethedevelopmentofintelligence.Forinstance,onestudy
hasfoundthatiodinedeficiencycausesafall,inaverage,of12IQpointsinChina.[37]
ScientistsJamesFeyrer,DimitraPoliti,andDavidN.WeilhavefoundintheU.S.thattheproliferationofiodized
saltincreasedIQby15pointsinsomeareas.JournalistMaxNisenhasstatedthat,withthistypeofsaltbecoming
popular,that"theaggregateeffecthasbeenextremelypositive."[38]
Daleyetal.(2003)foundasignificantFlynneffectamongchildreninruralKenya,andconcludedthatnutrition
wasoneofthehypothesizedexplanationsthatbestexplainedtheirresults(theotherswereparentalliteracyand
familystructure).[39]

Infectiousdiseases
Eppig,Fincher,andThornhill(2009)arguethat"Fromanenergeticsstandpoint,adevelopinghumanwillhave
difficultybuildingabrainandfightingoffinfectiousdiseasesatthesametime,asbothareverymetabolically
costlytasks"andthat"theFlynneffectmaybecausedinpartbythedecreaseintheintensityofinfectiousdiseases
asnationsdevelop."Theysuggestthatimprovementsingrossdomesticproduct(GDP),education,literacy,and
nutritionmayhaveaneffectonIQmainlythroughreducingtheintensityofinfectiousdiseases.[40]
Eppig,Fincher,andThornhill(2011)inasimilarstudyinsteadlookingatdifferentUSstatesfoundthatstateswith
ahigherprevalenceofinfectiousdiseaseshadloweraverageIQ.Theeffectremainedaftercontrollingforthe
effectsofwealthandeducationalvariation.[41]
AtheendarVenkataramani(2010)studiedtheeffectofmalariaonIQinasampleofMexicans.Exposureduringthe
birthyeartomalariaeradicationwasassociatedwithincreasesinIQ.Italsoincreasedtheprobabilityof
employmentinaskilledoccupation.TheauthorsuggeststhatthismaybeoneexplanationfortheFlynneffectand
thatthismaybeanimportantexplanationforthelinkbetweennationalmalariaburdenandeconomic
development.[42]Aliteraturereviewof44papersstatesthatcognitiveabilitiesandschoolperformancewereshown
tobeimpairedinsubgroupsofpatients(witheithercerebralmalariaoruncomplicatedmalaria)whencompared
withhealthycontrols.Studiescomparingcognitivefunctionsbeforeandaftertreatmentforacutemalarialillness
continuedtoshowsignificantlyimpairedschoolperformanceandcognitiveabilitiesevenafterrecovery.Malaria
prophylaxiswasshowntoimprovecognitivefunctionandschoolperformanceinclinicaltrialswhencomparedto
placebogroups.[43]

Heterosis
Heterosis,orhybridvigorassociatedwithhistoricalreductionsofthelevelsofinbreeding,hasbeenproposedby
MichaelMingroniasanalternativeexplanationoftheFlynneffect.However,JamesFlynnhaspointedoutthat
evenifeveryonematedwithasiblingin1900,subsequentincreasesinheterosiswouldnotbeasufficient
explanationoftheobservedIQgains.[44]

Possibleendofprogression
JonMartinSundetandcolleagues(2004)examinedscoresonintelligencetestsgiventoNorwegianconscripts
betweenthe1950sand2002.Theyfoundthattheincreaseofscoresofgeneralintelligencestoppedafterthemid
1990sanddeclinedinnumericalreasoningsubtests.[35]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flynn_effect

6/12

10/12/2016

FlynneffectWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

TeasdaleandOwen(2005)examinedtheresultsofIQtestsgiventoDanishmaleconscripts.Between1959and
1979thegainswere3pointsperdecade.Between1979and1989theincreaseapproached2IQpoints.Between
1989and1998thegainwasabout1.3points.Between1998and2004IQdeclinedbyaboutthesameamountasit
gainedbetween1989and1998.Theyspeculatethat"acontributingfactorinthisrecentfallcouldbea
simultaneousdeclineinproportionsofstudentsentering3yearadvancedlevelschoolprogramsfor1618year
olds."[45]Thesameauthorsinamorecomprehensive2008study,againonDanishmaleconscripts,foundthatthere
wasa1.5pointsincreasebetween1988and1998,buta1.5pointsdecreasebetween1998and2003/2004.A
possiblecontributingfactortotherecentdeclinemaybechangesintheDanisheducationalsystem.Anothermay
betherisingproportionofimmigrantsortheirimmediatedescendantsinDenmark.Thisissupportedbydataon
DanishdrafteeswherefirstorsecondgenerationimmigrantswithDanishnationalityscorebelowaverage.[46]
InAustralia,611yearolds'IQ,asmeasuredbytheColoredProgressiveMatrices,hasshownnoincreasefrom
19752003.[47]
IntheUnitedKingdom,astudybyFlynn(2009)foundthattestscarriedoutin1980andagainin2008showthat
theIQscoreofanaverage14yearolddroppedbymorethantwopointsovertheperiod.Fortheupperhalfofthe
resultstheperformancewasevenworse.AverageIQscoresdeclinedbysixpoints.However,childrenaged
betweenfiveand10sawtheirIQsincreasebyuptohalfapointayearoverthethreedecades.Flynnarguesthat
theabnormaldropinBritishteenageIQcouldbeduetoyouthculturehaving"stagnated"orevendumbeddown.
Healsostatesthattheyouthcultureismoreorientedtowardscomputergamesthantowardsreadingandholding
conversations.ResearcherRichardGray,commentingonthestudy,alsomentionsthecomputerculture
diminishingreadingbooksaswellasatendencytowardsteachingtothetest.[48][49]
LynnandHarveyhavearguedthatthecausesoftheabovearedifficulttointerpretsincethesecountrieshavehad
significantrecentimmigrationfromcountrieswithloweraveragenationalIQs.Nevertheless,theyexpectthat
similarpatternswilloccur,orhaveoccurred,firstinotherdevelopednationsandtheninthedevelopingworldas
thereisalimittohowmuchenvironmentalfactorscanimproveintelligence.Furthermore,duringthelastcentury
thereisanegativecorrelationbetweenfertilityandintelligencealthoughthereisnotyetanyconclusiveevidence
oftheassociationbetweenthetwo.Theyestimatethattherehasbeenadysgenicdeclineintheworld'sgenotypic
IQ(maskedbytheFlynneffectforthephenotype)of0.86IQpointsperdecadefortheyears19502000.

IQgroupdifferences
IftheFlynneffecthasendedindevelopednations,thenthismaypossiblyallownationaldifferencesinIQscoresto
diminishiftheFlynneffectcontinuesinnationswithloweraveragenationalIQs.[46]
Also,iftheFlynneffecthasendedforthemajorityindevelopednations,itmaystillcontinueforminorities,
especiallyforgroupslikeimmigrantswheremanymayhavereceivedpoornutritionduringearlychildhoodor
havehadotherdisadvantages.AstudyintheNetherlandsfoundthatchildrenofnonWesternimmigrantshad
improvementsforg,educationalachievements,andworkproficiencycomparedtotheirparents,althoughthere
werestillremainingdifferencescomparedtoethnicDutch.[18]
ThereisacontroversyastowhethertheUSracialgapinIQscoresisdiminishing.Ifthatisthecasethenthismay
ormaynotberelatedtotheFlynneffect.FlynnhascommentedthatheneverclaimedthattheFlynneffecthasthe
samecausesastheblackwhitegap,butthatitshowsthatenvironmentalfactorscancreateIQdifferencesofa
magnitudesimilartothegap.[50]ResearchthathasexaminedwhethergfactorandIQgainsfromtheFlynneffect
arerelatedhavefoundthereisanegativecorrelationbetweenthetwo,whichmayindicatethatgroupdifferences
andtheFlynneffectarepossiblyduetodifferingcauses[51]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flynn_effect

7/12

10/12/2016

FlynneffectWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

TheFlynneffecthasalsobeenpartofthediscussionsregardingSpearman'shypothesis,whichstatesthat
differencesinthegfactorarethemajorsourceofdifferencesbetweenblacksandwhitesobservedinmanystudies
ofraceandintelligence.[52]

Seealso
Environmentandintelligence
Euthenics
Geneenvironmentcorrelation
Impactofhealthonintelligence
Intelligence

References
1.RavenJohn(2000)."TheRaven'sProgressiveMatrices:ChangeandStabilityoverCultureandTime"(PDF).Cognitive
Psychology.41(1):148.doi:10.1006/cogp.1999.0735.PMID10945921.
2.FlynnJ.R.(1987)."MassiveIQgainsin14nations:WhatIQtestsreallymeasure".PsychologicalBulletin.101(2):
171191.doi:10.1037/00332909.101.2.171.
3.RnnlundM,NilssonLG(September2009)."Flynneffectsonsubfactorsofepisodicandsemanticmemory:parallel
gainsovertimeandthesamesetofdeterminingfactors".Neuropsychologia.47(11):217480.
doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2008.11.007.PMID19056409.
4.RichardLynnandTatuVanhanen(2006).IQandGlobalInequality.WashingtonSummitPublishers:Augusta,GA.ISBN
1593680252
5.Flynn,JamesR.(2009).WhatIsIntelligence:BeyondtheFlynnEffect(expandedpaperbacked.).Cambridge:Cambridge
UniversityPress.pp.12.ISBN9780521741477.Laysummary(July18,2010)."The'Flynneffect'isthenamethat
hasbecomeattachedtoanexcitingdevelopment,namely,thatthetwentiethcenturysawmassiveIQgainsfromone
generationtoanother.Toforestalladiagnosisofmegalomania,thelabelwascoinedbyHerrnsteinandMurray,the
authorsofTheBellCurve,andnotbymyself."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flynn_effect

8/12

10/12/2016

FlynneffectWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

6.Fletcher,RichardB.Hattie,John(11March2011).IntelligenceandIntelligenceTesting.Taylor&Francis.p.26.
ISBN9781136823213.Retrieved31August2013.Laysummary(15September2013)."Indeed,thiseffect,now
calledthe'Flynneffect',iswellestablished.Nations,almostwithoutexception,haveshowngainsofabout20IQpoints
pergeneration(30years).ThesegainsarehighestforIQteststhataremostrelatedtoreasoningandthecapacitytofigure
outnovelproblems(thisisoftencalled'fluidintelligence',seeChapter5)andleastrelatedtoknowledge,whicharises
frombettereducationalopportunity,ahistoryofpersistenceandgoodmotivationforlearning(thisisoftencalled
'crystallisedintelligence',seeChapter5)."Freeman,Joan(2010).GiftedLives:WhatHappenswhenGiftedChildren
GrowUp.London:Routledge.pp.290291.ISBN9780415470094.Laysummary(16May2013)."Astrangenew
phenomenonhasbeengrowingsinceabout1950,calledthe'FlynnEffect'afterProfessorJamesFlynnoftheUniversity
ofOtago,NewZealand.InhisbookWhatisIntelligence?,Flynndescribesayearonyearriseinmeasuredintelligence,
aboutthreeIQpointsadecade."Urbina,Susana(2004).EssentialsofPsychologicalTesting.JohnWiley&Sons.p.103.
ISBN9780471419785.Laysummary(10October2013)."Apuzzlinglongitudinaltrendintheoppositedirection,
knownasthe'Flynneffect',hasbeenwelldocumentedinsuccessiverevisionsofmajorintelligencetests(liketheSB
andtheWechslerscales)thatinvariablyinvolvetheadministrationofboththeoldandnewversionstoasegmentofthe
newerstandardizationsample,forcomparativepurposes.DatafromrevisionsofvariousintelligencetestsintheUnited
StatesaswellasinothercountriesextensivelyanalyzedbyJ.R.Flynn(1984,1987)showapronounced,longterm
upwardtrendinthelevelofperformancerequiredtoobtainanygivenIQscore.TheFlynneffectpresumablyreflects
populationgainsovertimeinthekindsofcognitiveperformancethatintelligencetestssample."Wasserman,JohnD.(2
October2012)."Chapter18:AssessmentofIntellectualFunctioning".InWeiner,IrvingB.Graham,JohnR.Naglieri,
JackA.HandbookofPsychology.Volume10:AssessmentPsychology.JohnWiley&Sons.p.486.ISBN9780470
891278.Retrieved25November2013."Bothdefinitionsalsospecifythattheintellectualfunctioningcriterionfora
diagnosisofintellectualdisabilityisapproximately2SDsormorebelowthenormativemean,butfactorssuchastest
scorestatisticalerror(standarderrorofmeasurement),testfairness,normativeexpectationsforthepopulationofinterest,
theFlynneffect,andpracticeeffectsfromprevioustestingneedtobeconsideredbeforearrivingatanydiagnosis."
ChamorroPremuzic,Tomas(13June2011).PersonalityandIndividualDifferences.Wiley.p.221.ISBN97814051
99278.Retrieved15June2014."FlynneffectThefindingbysociologistJamesFlynnthattherearegenerational
increasesinIQacrossnations."
7.NeisserU(1997)."RisingScoresonIntelligenceTests".AmericanScientist.85:4407.
8.Trahan,LHStuebing,KKFletcher,JMHiscock,M(September2014)."TheFlynneffect:ametaanalysis.".
PsychologicalBulletin.140(5):133260.doi:10.1037/a0037173.PMC4152423 .PMID24979188.
9.Teasdale,T.(1989)."Continuingsecularincreasesinintellgenceandastableprevalenceofhighintelligencelevels".
Intelligence.13(3):255262.doi:10.1016/01602896(89)900214.
10.Colom,R.LluisFont,J.M.&AndrsPueyo,A.(2005)."Thegenerationalintelligencegainsarecausedbydecreasing
varianceinthelowerhalfofthedistribution:Supportingevidenceforthenutritionhypothesis"(PDF).Intelligence.33(1):
8391.doi:10.1016/j.intell.2004.07.010.
11.DuttonEdwardLynnRichard(2013)."AnegativeFlynneffectinFinland,19972009".Intelligence.41(6):817820.
doi:10.1016/j.intell.2013.05.008.
12.Calhoun,Daniel(1973).TheIntelligenceofaPeople.PrincetonUniversityPress.ISBN9780691046198.Lay
summary(6October2013).
13.Thorndike,R.L.(1975)."Mr.Binet'sTest70YearsLater".EducationalResearcher.4(5):37.
doi:10.3102/0013189X004005003.ISSN0013189X.JSTOR1174855.
14.MustO,MustA,RaudikV(2003)."ThesecularriseinIQs:InEstonia,theFlynneffectisnotaJenseneffect"(PDF).
Intelligence.31(5):461471.doi:10.1016/S01602896(03)000138.
15.Rushton,J.P.(1999)."SecularGainsinIQNotRelatedtothegFactorandInbreedingDepressionUnlikeBlackWhite
Differences:AReplytoFlynn"(PDF).PersonalityandIndividualDifferences.26(2):3819.doi:10.1016/S0191
8869(98)001482.
16.Rushton,J.P.Jensen,A.(2010)."TheriseandfalloftheFlynneffectasareasontoexpectanarrowingoftheBlack
WhiteIQgap".Intelligence.38(2):2139.doi:10.1016/j.intell.2009.12.002.
17.Wicherts,J.M.Dolan,C.V.Hessen,D.J.Oosterveld,P.Baal,G.C.M.vanBoomsma,D.I.&Span,M.M.(2004).
"Areintelligencetestsmeasurementinvariantovertime?InvestigatingthenatureoftheFlynneffect"(PDF).Intelligence.
32(5):509537.doi:10.1016/j.intell.2004.07.002."Theoverallconclusionofthepresentpaperisthatfactorialinvariance
withrespecttocohortsisnottenable....Thefactthatthegainscannotbeexplainedsolelybyincreasesatthelevelof
thelatentvariables(commonfactors),whichIQtestspurporttomeasure,shouldnotsitwellwithexplanationsthatappeal
solelytochangesatthelevelofthelatentvariables."
18.TeNijenhuisJ,DeJongMJ,EversA,VanDerFlierH(2004)."Arecognitivedifferencesbetweenimmigrantand
majoritygroupsdiminishing?".EuropeanJournalofPersonality.18(5):405434.doi:10.1002/per.511.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flynn_effect

9/12

10/12/2016

FlynneffectWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

19.ColomR,GarciaLopezO(2003)."SecularGainsinFluidIntelligence:EvidencefromtheCultureFairIntelligence
Test".JournalofBiosocialScience.35(1):339.doi:10.1017/S0021932003000336.PMID12537154.
20.Mingroni,M.A.(2004)."ThesecularriseinIQ:Givingheterosisacloserlook".Intelligence.32(1):6583.
doi:10.1016/S01602896(03)000588.
21.Blair,C.Gamson,D.Thorne,S.Baker,D.(2005)."RisingmeanIQ:Cognitivedemandofmathematicseducationfor
youngchildren,populationexposuretoformalschooling,andtheneurobiologyoftheprefrontalcortex".Intelligence.33
(1):93106.doi:10.1016/j.intell.2004.07.008.CiteSeerX:10.1.1.126.6887.
22.PlominR.DeFriesJ.C.CraigI.W.McGuffinP.(2003).Behavioralgeneticsinthepostgenomicera(4thed.).
23.DavidFMarks(2010)."IQvariationsacrosstime,race,andnationality:anartifactofdifferencesinliteracyskills".
PsychologicalReports.106(3):643664.doi:10.2466/pr0.106.3.643664.PMID20712152.
24.DickensWT,FlynnJR(2001)."Heritabilityestimatesversuslargeenvironmentaleffects:TheIQparadoxresolved".
PsychologicalReview.108(2):346369.doi:10.1037/0033295X.108.2.346.PMID11381833.
25.DickensWT,FlynnJR(2002)."TheIQParadox:StillResolved"(PDF).PsychologicalReview.109(4):764771.
doi:10.1037/0033295x.109.4.764.
26.Jantz,R.MeadowsJantz,L.(2000)."Secularchangeincraniofacialmorphology".AmericanJournalofHumanBiology.
12(3):327338.doi:10.1002/(SICI)15206300(200005/06)12:3<327::AIDAJHB3>3.0.CO21.PMID11534023.
27.Lynn,Richard(2006).RaceDifferencesinIntelligence.AnEvolutionaryAnalysis.WashingtonSummitPublishers,
Augusta,GA,USA.
28.Lynn,Richard(JanuaryFebruary2009)."WhathascausedtheFlynneffect?SecularincreasesintheDevelopment
Quotientsofinfants".Intelligence.37(1):1624.doi:10.1016/j.intell.2008.07.008.
29."TheLancetSeriesonMaternalandChildUndernutrition".2008.
30.C.Banning(1946).FoodShortageandPublicHealth,FirstHalfof1945.AnnalsoftheAmericanAcademyofPolitical
andSocialScienceVol.245,TheNetherlandsduringGermanOccupation(May,1946),pp.93110
31.Flynn,JamesR.(2009).WhatIsIntelligence?(p.103).CambridgeUniversityPress.KindleEdition.
32.Samaras,ThomasT.Elrick,Harold(May2002)."GroupHeight,bodysize,andlongevity:issmallerbetterforthe
humanbody?".WestJMed.176(3):206208.doi:10.1136/ewjm.176.3.206.PMC1071721 .PMID12016250.
33.Willerman,LeeSchultz,RobertRutledge,J.NealBigler,ErinD.(1991)."Invivobrainsizeandintelligence".
Intelligence.15(2):223228.doi:10.1016/01602896(91)900318.
34."UncommonFeaturesofEinstein'sBrainMightExplainHisRemarkableCognitiveAbilities".Newswise.Retrieved
6August2013.
35.Sundet,J.Barlaug,D.Torjussen,T.(2004)."TheendoftheFlynneffect?:Astudyofseculartrendsinmean
intelligencetestscoresofNorwegianconscriptsduringhalfacentury".Intelligence.32(4):349362.
doi:10.1016/j.intell.2004.06.004.
36.JantzRL,MeadowsJantzL(May2000)."Secularchangeincraniofacialmorphology".Am.J.Hum.Biol.12(3):327
338.doi:10.1002/(SICI)15206300(200005/06)12:3<327::AIDAJHB3>3.0.CO21.PMID11534023.
JantzRL(July2001)."CranialchangeinAmericans:18501975".J.ForensicSci.46(4):7847.PMID11451056.
37.QianMWangDWatkinsWEetal.(2005)."Theeffectsofiodineonintelligenceinchildren:ametaanalysisof
studiesconductedinChina".AsiaPacificJournalofClinicalNutrition.14(1):3242.PMID15734706.
38.http://www.businessinsider.com/iodizationeffectoniq20137#ixzz2ZuFjmyY7
39.Daley,TCWhaley,SESigman,MDEspinosa,MPNeumann,C(May2003)."IQontherise:theFlynneffectinrural
Kenyanchildren.".PsychologicalScience.14(3):2159.doi:10.1111/14679280.02434.PMID12741743.
40.EppigC,FincherCL,ThornhillR(December2010)."Parasiteprevalenceandtheworldwidedistributionofcognitive
ability".Proc.Biol.Sci.277(1701):38018.doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.0973.PMC2992705 .PMID20591860.
41.Eppig,C.Fincher,C.L.Thornhill,R.(2011)."Parasiteprevalenceandthedistributionofintelligenceamongthestates
oftheUSA".Intelligence.39(23):155160.doi:10.1016/j.intell.2011.02.008.
42.Venkataramani,Atheendar(September18,2010)."EarlyLifeExposuretoMalariaandCognitionandSkillsin
Adulthood:EvidencefromMexico".SSRN1679164.
43.FernandoSD,RodrigoC,RajapakseS(2010)."The'hidden'burdenofmalaria:cognitiveimpairmentfollowing
infection".Malar.J.9(1):366.doi:10.1186/147528759366.PMC3018393 .PMID21171998.
44.Mackintosh,N.J.(2011).IQandHumanIntelligence.Oxford,UK:OxfordUniversityPress,p.291.
45.TeasdaleTW,OwenDR(2005)."Alongtermriseandrecentdeclineinintelligencetestperformance:TheFlynnEffect
inreverse".PersonalityandIndividualDifferences.39(4):837843.doi:10.1016/j.paid.2005.01.029.
46.TeasdaleTW,OwenDR(2008)."Seculardeclinesincognitivetestscores:AreversaloftheFlynnEffect"(PDF).
Intelligence.36(2):1216.doi:10.1016/j.intell.2007.01.007.
47.Cotton,S.M.Kiely,P.M.Crewther,D.P.Thomson,,B.Laycock,R.Crewther,S.G.(2005)."Anormativeand
reliabilitystudyfortheRaven'sColoredProgressiveMatricesforprimaryschoolagedchildreninAustralia".Personality
andIndividualDifferences.39(3):647660.doi:10.1016/j.paid.2005.02.015.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flynn_effect

10/12

10/12/2016

FlynneffectWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

48.Gray,Richard(February7,2009)."BritishteenagershavelowerIQsthantheircounterpartsdid30yearsago".London:
TheTelegraph.
49.Flynn,J.R.(2009)."RequiemfornutritionasthecauseofIQgains:Raven'sgainsinBritain19382008".Economics&
HumanBiology.7:1827.doi:10.1016/j.ehb.2009.01.009.
50.Flynn,J.R.(2010)."ThespectaclesthroughwhichIseetheraceandIQdebate".Intelligence.38(4):363366.
doi:10.1016/j.intell.2010.05.001.
51.Nijenhuis,J.vanderFlierb,H.(2013)."IstheFlynneffectong?:Ametaanalysis".Intelligence.41(6):802807.
doi:10.1016/j.intell.2013.03.001.
52.Flynn,J.R.(1999)."Searchingforjustice:thediscoveryofIQgainsovertime".AmericanPsychologist.54:59.
doi:10.1037/0003066X.54.1.5.

Furtherreading
Flynn,JamesR.(1984)."TheMeanIQofAmericans:MassiveGains1932to1978"(PDF).Psychological
Bulletin.95:2951.doi:10.1037/00332909.95.1.29.Retrieved16May2013.
Flynn,JamesR.(March1987)."MassiveIQGainsin14Nations:WhatIQTestsReallyMeasure"(PDF).
PsychologicalBulletin.101(2):171191.doi:10.1037/00332909.101.2.171.Retrieved13May2013.
Flynn,JamesR.(1998)."IQGainsoverTime:TowardFindingtheCauses".InNeisser,Ulric.TheRising
Curve:LongTermGainsinIQandRelatedMeasures.Washington(DC):AmericanPsychological
Association.pp.2566.ISBN9781557985033.
Flynn,JamesR.(2009).WhatIsIntelligence:BeyondtheFlynnEffect(expandedpaperbacked.).
Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress.ISBN9780521741477.Laysummary(18July2010).
Flynn,JamesR.(2012).AreWeGettingSmarter?RisingIQintheTwentyFirstCentury.Cambridge:
CambridgeUniversityPress.ISBN9781107609174.Laysummary(16May2013).
Neisser,Ulric,ed.(1998).TheRisingCurve:LongTermGainsinIQandRelatedMeasures.APAScience
VolumeSeries.Washington(DC):AmericanPsychologicalAssociation.ISBN9781557985033.Lay
summary(16May2013).
Tuddenham,ReadD.(1948),"SoldierintelligenceinWorldWarsIandII",AmericanPsychologist,3(2):
5456,doi:10.1037/h0054962,PMID18911933

Externallinks
BeyondtheFlynnEffect(http://www.psychometrics.cam.ac.uk/aboutus/directory/beyondtheflynneffect)
a2006lecturebyJamesR.FlynnattheUniversityofCambridge
TheFlynnEffect(http://www.indiana.edu/%7Eintell/flynneffect.shtml)byIndianaUniversity.
MargueriteHolloway,Flynn'seffect,ScientificAmerican,January1999onlineedition(http://www.sciam.c
om/article.cfm?articleID=00037F65D9C01C6A84A9809EC588EF21&ref=sciam)
"HeritabilityEstimatesVersusLargeEnvironmentalEffects:TheIQParadoxResolved"(https://my.psycholo
gytoday.com/files/u81/Dickens_and_Flynn__2001_.pdf)a2001articlebyDickensandFlynn
"DomeImprovement"(http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/13.05/flynn_pr.html)(Wiredarticle)
MalcolmGladwellfromtheNewYorkeronrace,I.Q.,andtheFlynneffect(http://www.newyorker.com/arts/
critics/books/2007/12/17/071217crbo_books_gladwell)
Increasingintelligence:theFlynneffect(http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/FLYNNEFF.html)
Retrievedfrom"https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Flynn_effect&oldid=737378547"
Categories: Intelligence Raceandintelligencecontroversy Psychometrics
Thispagewaslastmodifiedon2September2016,at11:09.
TextisavailableundertheCreativeCommonsAttributionShareAlikeLicenseadditionaltermsmayapply.
Byusingthissite,youagreetotheTermsofUseandPrivacyPolicy.Wikipediaisaregisteredtrademark
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flynn_effect

11/12

10/12/2016

FlynneffectWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

oftheWikimediaFoundation,Inc.,anonprofitorganization.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flynn_effect

12/12