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Raven'sProgressiveMatricesWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Raven'sProgressiveMatrices
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Raven'sProgressiveMatrices(oftenreferredtosimplyasRaven's
Matrices)orRPMisanonverbalgrouptesttypicallyusedineducational
settings.Itisusuallya60itemtestusedinmeasuringabstractreasoning
andregardedasanonverbalestimateoffluidintelligence.[1]Itisthemost
commonandpopulartestadministeredtogroupsrangingfrom5yearolds
totheelderly.[2]Itismadeof60multiplechoicequestions,listedinorder
ofdifficulty.[2]Thisformatisdesignedtomeasurethetesttaker'sreasoning
ability,theeductive("meaningmaking")componentofSpearman'sg(gis
oftenreferredtoasgeneralintelligence).Thetestswereoriginally
developedbyJohnC.Ravenin1936.[3]Ineachtestitem,thesubjectis
askedtoidentifythemissingelementthatcompletesapattern.Many
patternsarepresentedintheformofa66,44,33,or22matrix,giving
thetestitsname.

Contents
1
2
3
4
5
6

Problemstructure
Versions
Usesofthetests
Seealso
References
Externallinks

Thecoverofatestbookletfor
Raven'sStandardProgressive
Matrices

Problemstructure
AllofthequestionsontheRaven'sprogressivesconsistofvisualgeometric
designwithamissingpiece.Thetesttakerisgivensixtoeightchoicesto
pickfromandfillinthemissingpiece.[4]
Raven'sProgressiveMatricesandVocabularytestswereoriginally
developedforuseinresearchintothegeneticandenvironmentaloriginsof
cognitiveability.Raventhoughtthatthetestscommonlyinuseatthattime
werecumbersometoadministerandtheresultsdifficulttointerpret.
Accordingly,hesetaboutdevelopingsimplemeasuresofthetwomain
componentsofSpearman'sg:theabilitytothinkclearlyandmakesenseof
complexity(knownaseductiveability)andtheabilitytostoreand
reproduceinformation(knownasreproductiveability).
Raven'stestsofbothweredevelopedwiththeaidofwhatlaterbecame
knownasitemresponsetheory.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raven%27s_Progressive_Matrices

AnIQtestiteminthestyleofa
Raven'sProgressiveMatricestest.
Giveneightpatterns,thesubjectmust
identifythemissingninthpattern

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Raven'sProgressiveMatricesWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

RavenfirstpublishedhisProgressiveMatricesintheUnitedKingdomin1938.Histhreesonsestablished
ScotlandbasedtestpublisherJCRavenLtd.in1972.In2004,HarcourtAssessment,Inc.adivisionofHarcourt
EducationacquiredJCRavenLtd.HarcourtwaslateracquiredbyPearsonPLC.

Versions
TheMatricesareavailableinthreedifferentformsforparticipantsofdifferentability:
StandardProgressiveMatrices:Theseweretheoriginalformofthematrices,firstpublishedin1938.The
bookletcomprisesfivesets(AtoE)of12itemseach(e.g.,A1throughA12),withitemswithinaset
becomingincreasinglydifficult,requiringevergreatercognitivecapacitytoencodeandanalyzeinformation.
Allitemsarepresentedinblackinkonawhitebackground.[4]
ColouredProgressiveMatrices:Designedforchildrenaged5through11yearsofage,theelderly,and
mentallyandphysicallyimpairedindividuals.ThistestcontainssetsAandBfromthestandardmatrices,
withafurthersetof12itemsinsertedbetweenthetwo,assetAb.Mostitemsarepresentedonacoloured
backgroundtomakethetestvisuallystimulatingforparticipants.HowevertheverylastfewitemsinsetB
arepresentedasblackonwhiteinthisway,ifasubjectexceedsthetester'sexpectations,transitiontosets
C,D,andEofthestandardmatricesiseased.[4]
AdvancedProgressiveMatrices:Theadvancedformofthematricescontains48items,presentedasone
setof12(setI),andanotherof36(setII).Itemsareagainpresentedinblackinkonawhitebackground,and
becomeincreasinglydifficultasprogressismadethrougheachset.Theseitemsareappropriateforadults
andadolescentsofaboveaverageintelligence.[4]
Inaddition,"parallel"formsofthestandardandcolouredprogressivematriceswerepublishedin1998.Thiswasto
addresstheproblemoftheRaven'sMatricesbeingtoowellknowninthegeneralpopulation.Itemsintheparallel
testshavebeenconstructedsothataveragesolutionratestoeachquestionareidenticalfortheclassicandparallel
versions.ArevisedversionoftheSPMtheStandardProgressiveMatricesPluswaspublishedatthesame
time.Thiswasbasedonthe"parallel"versionbut,althoughthetestwasthesamelength,ithadmoredifficult
itemsinordertorestorethediscriminationthattheoriginalSPMhadamongmoreableadolescentsandyoung
adultswhenitwasfirstpublished.Thisnewtest,developedwiththeaidofbettersamplingarrangementsand
developmentsintheproceduresavailabletoimplementtheitemresponsetheory,hasturnedouttohaveexemplary
testproperties.

Usesofthetests
Thetestsweredevelopedforresearchpurposes.Becauseoftheirindependenceoflanguageandreadingand
writingskills,andthesimplicityoftheiruseandinterpretation,theyquicklyfoundwidespreadpractical
application.Forexample,allentrantstotheBritisharmedforcesfrom1942onwardstookatwentyminuteversion
oftheSPM.TheroutineadministrationofwhatbecametheStandardProgressiveMatricestoallentrants
(conscripts)tomanymilitaryservicesthroughouttheworld(includingtheSovietUnion)continuedatleastuntil
thepresentcentury.ItwasbybringingtogetherthesedatathatJamesR.Flynnwasabletoplacethe
intergenerationalincreaseinscoresbeyondreasonabledoubt.[5]Flynn'spathbreakingpublicationsonIQgains
aroundtheworldhaveledtothephenomenonofthegainsbeingknownastheFlynnEffect.AmongRobertL.
Thorndike[6]andotherresearcherswhoprecededFlynninfindingevidenceofIQscoregainswasJohnRaven,[7]
reportingonstudieswiththeRPM.
A2007studyprovidedevidencethatindividualswithAspergersyndrome,ahighfunctioningautismspectrum
disorder,scorehigherthanotherindividualsonRaven'stests.[8]Another2007studyprovidedevidencethat
individualswithclassicautism,alowfunctioningautismspectrumdisorder,scorehigherinRaven'steststhanin
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Wechslertests.Inaddition,theindividualswithclassicautismwereprovidingcorrectanswerstotheRaven'stest
inlesstimethanindividualswithoutautism,althougherringasoften.[9][10]
TheTripleNineSociety,ahighIQsociety,acceptstheAdvancedProgressiveMatricesformforoneoftheir
admissiontests.Theyrequireascoreofatleast32outof36onorbeforeDecember31,1999ontheRAPM.[11]
TheInternationalSocietyforPhilosophicalEnquiry(ISPE)similarlyacceptstheRAPMasaqualificationfor
admission,[12]andsodoestheInternationalHighIQSociety.[13]

Seealso
NNAT(NaglieriNonverbalAbilityTest)
Spatialability

References
Notes
1.Bilker,WarrenB.Hansen,JohnA.Brensinger,
ColleenM.Richard,JanGur,RaquelE.Gur,Ruben
C.(20120901)."Developmentofabbreviatednine
itemformsoftheRaven'sstandardprogressive
matricestest".Assessment.19(3):354369.
doi:10.1177/1073191112446655.ISSN15523489.
PMC4410094 .PMID22605785.
2.Kaplan,R.M.,&Saccuzzo,D.P.(2009).Standardized
testsineducation,civilservice,andthemilitary.
Psychologicaltesting:Principles,applications,and
issues(7ed.pp.325327).Belmont,CA:Wadsworth.
3.Raven,J.C.(1936).Mentaltestsusedingenetic
studies:Theperformanceofrelatedindividualsontests
mainlyeducativeandmainlyreproductive.MScThesis,
UniversityofLondon.
4.Domino,GeorgeDomino,MarlaL.(20060424).
PsychologicalTesting:AnIntroduction.Cambridge
UniversityPress.ISBN9781139455145.
5.Flynn,JamesR.(March1987)."MassiveIQGainsin
14Nations:WhatIQTestsReallyMeasure"(PDF).
PsychologicalBulletin.101(2):171191.
doi:10.1037/00332909.101.2.171.Retrieved13May
2013.
6.Thorndike,R.L.(1977).CausationofBinetIQ
decrements.JournalofEducationalMeasurement,14,
197202.
7.Raven,J.(1981).ManualforRaven'sProgressive

7.Raven,J.(1981).ManualforRaven'sProgressive
MatricesandVocabularyScales.ResearchSupplement
No.1:The1979BritishStandardisationoftheStandard
ProgressiveMatricesandMillHillVocabularyScales,
TogetherWithComparativeDataFromEarlierStudies
intheUK,US,Canada,GermanyandIreland.San
Antonio,TX:HarcourtAssessment
8.Hayashietal.(2007)
http://www.freewebs.com/adiscussion/Superior%20fluid%20int
9.DawsonM,SouliresI,GernsbacherMA,MottronL
(2007)."Thelevelandnatureofautisticintelligence".
PsycholSci.18(8):65762.doi:10.1111/j.1467
9280.2007.01954.x.PMID17680932.Laysummary
ScienceDaily(20070805).
10.DawsonM,GernsbacherMA,MottronL(2011)."The
levelandnatureofautisticintelligenceII:Whatabout
AspergerSyndrome?":65762.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025372.Laysummary
ScienceDaily(20110902).
11.http://www.triplenine.org/HowtoJoin/TestScores.aspx
12.http://www.thethousand.com/scores.html
13.http://www.highiqsociety.org/submitqualifying
score.php

Bibliography
Raven,J.,Raven,J.C.,&Court,J.H.(2003,updated2004)ManualforRaven'sProgressiveMatricesand
VocabularyScales.SanAntonio,TX:HarcourtAssessment.
Raven,J.,&Raven,J.(eds.)(2008)UsesandAbusesofIntelligence:StudiesAdvancingSpearmanand
RavensQuestforNonArbitraryMetrics.Unionville,NewYork:RoyalFireworksPress.
TheaboveManualisonlyavailabletoqualifiedpsychologists,chapter1ofthisbookisamore
generallyavailablesource
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Externallinks
WebsiteaboutDr.JohnRaven(http://www.johnraven.co.uk)
CommercialPageofPearsonPublishersonRavensProgressiveMatrices(http://www.RavensProgressiveMa
trices.com)
Retrievedfrom"https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?
title=Raven%27s_Progressive_Matrices&oldid=731068123"
Categories: Cognitivetests Intelligencetests
Thispagewaslastmodifiedon22July2016,at18:57.
TextisavailableundertheCreativeCommonsAttributionShareAlikeLicenseadditionaltermsmayapply.
Byusingthissite,youagreetotheTermsofUseandPrivacyPolicy.Wikipediaisaregisteredtrademark
oftheWikimediaFoundation,Inc.,anonprofitorganization.

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