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It is important to find main ideas when reading. Main ideas help readers remember
important information. The main idea of a paragraph tells the topic of the paragraph. The
topic tells what all or most of the sentences are about.

BACALAH DENGAN SEKSAMA


1. Topik (Topic)
Topik (bahasa Yunani:topoi) adalah INTI UTAMA dari seluruh isi tulisan yang hendak
disampaikan atau lebih dikenal dengan topik pembicaraan. Topik adalah hal yang PERTAMA
KALI DITENTUKAN KETIKA PENULIS AKAN MEMBUAT TULISAN. Topik yang
masih awal tersebut, selanjutnya dikembangkan dengan membuat cakupan yang lebih sempit
atau lebih luas. Terdapat beberapa kriteria untuk sebuah topik yang dikatakan baik, diantaranya
adalah topik tersebut harus mencakup keseluruhan isi tulisan, yakni mampu menjawab
pertanyaan akan masalah apa yang hendak ditulis. Ciri utama dari topik adalah cakupannya atas
suatu permasalahan masih bersifat umum dan belum diuraikan secara lebih mendetail.

2. Gagasan Utama (Main Ideas)


Ide pokok adalah ide/gagasan yang menjadi pokok PENGEMBANGAN paragraf. Ide pokok ini
terdapat dalam kalimat utama. Nama lain ide pokok adalah gagasan utama, gagasan pokok.
Dalam satu paragraf hanya ada satu ide pokok.
BACALAH JUGA KETERANGAN DI BAWAH INI:
Finding the Main Idea
How Can I Locate the Main Idea?
Once you can find the topic, you are ready to find the main idea. The main idea is the point of the
paragraph. It is the most important thought about the topic.
To figure out the main idea, ask yourself this question: What is being said about the person,
thing, or idea (the topic)?
The author can locate the main idea in different places within a paragraph. The main idea
is usually a sentence, and it is usually the first sentence. The writer then uses the rest of the
paragraph to support the main idea.

Let's use the paragraph below as an example. First find the topic, then look for the main idea.
Summer is a wonderful time to spend at West Beach. It is a beach with light- colored, soft sand.
The coastline goes on for a long way and many people enjoy walking along it. Children like to
play in the surf and walk along the rocks that are visible at low tide. This is a fun beach for
people of all ages.
In this paragraph:
the topic is: West Beach
the main idea (what the writer is saying about the topic) is: that summer is a wonderful
time at West Beach
Here is another example:
The movie Apollo 13 was a blockbuster for the summer of 1995. It is an exciting story about
space exploration. In the movie, the astronauts get in trouble while they are trying to return to
Earth. People in the audience are on the edge of their seats waiting to see what happens. What
makes it even more exciting is that it is a true story.
In this paragraph:

the topic is the movie Apollo 13


the main idea is in the first sentence: Apollo 13 was a blockbuster for the summer of 1995

While the main idea is usually in the first sentence, the next most common placement is in
the last sentence of a paragraph. The author gives supporting information first and then makes
the point in the last sentence.
Here's a paragraph we can use as an example. Try to locate the topic and the main idea.
Most teenagers and young adults do not know what they want to do for the rest of their lives. It is
a big decision. There are a number of things you can do to narrow the choices. For example you
can take an interest test, do some research on your own about a career, try volunteer work in the
field in which you are interested, or "job-shadow", in which you spend a day with a person who
is working in a field that interests you. These are just a few helpful ideas as you begin to choose
a career.
In this paragraph:

the topic is jobs or career choices


the main idea is a few ideas to help the reader choose a career

Finally, an author might put the main idea in the middle of a paragraph. The author will
spend a few sentences introducing the topic, present the main idea, then spend the rest of the
paragraph supporting it. This can make the main idea more difficult to find.
See if you can find the topic and main idea in the paragraph below.

The United States seems to be in love with the idea of going out to eat. Because of this, a real
variety of restaurants has come about specializing in all kinds of foods. McDonald's is the king
of a subgroup of restaurants called fast-food restaurants. Chances are, no matter where you live,
there is a McDonald's restaurant near you. There are even McDonald's in the Soviet Union. Now
McDonald's is trying something new. It is called McDonald's Express and there is a test site in
Peabody, Massachusetts. It is part of a Mobil gas station. This allows you to fill up with gas and
fill up on food at the same time. What will they think of next?
In this paragraph:

the topic is McDonald's


the main idea is in the middle of the paragraph, in the third sentence: McDonald's is the
king of fast food

READ AND WORK ON THESE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPHS : (TUGAS


INDIVIDUAL: DIKUMPULKAN JAWABAN DARI SEPULUH SOAL INI !)
1). Pasca adanya warga yang mengidap penyakit leptospirosis, Unit Pelaksana Teknis (UPT)
Puskesmas Citarip telah melakukan upaya pencegahan penularan dengan pembersihan
lingkungan. Kepala UPT Puskesmas Citarip, Trisiana Irawati, mengatakan, di wilayah
Puskesmas Citarip terdapat dua warga yang terkena penyakit leptospirosis.
TOPIK :
GAGASAN UTAMA:
2).TIM evakuasi dan pencarian korban banjir bandang di lokasi wisata air terjun Dua Warna,
Sibolangit, Kecamatan Deli Serdang, Sumatra Utara, dihentikan akibat cuaca di lokasi kembali
buruk dan hujan mengguyur puncak gunung. Tim gabungan yang berjumlah 320 orang terdiri
atas Basarnas, TNI, Polri, dan relawan, kembali ke pos utama pencarian korban banjir bandang.
"Rencana pencarian korban akan dilanjutkan Rabu (18/5) besok," ujar Ahmat Junir, Kasip
Potensi.
TOPIK :
GAGASAN UTAMA:
3).SETELAH sebelumnya sekelompok mahasiswa Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM) berhasil
mengolah jelantah (minyak goreng bekas pakai) menjadi biosolar dan biopremium, kini
sekelompok mahasiswa UGM lainnya berhasil mengubah jelantah menjadi biopelumas
(biolubricant). Mereka ialah Yehezkiel Steven Kurniawan, Yudha Ramanda, Nover Arumenta
Sihotang, Hendra, dan Kevin Thomas. Kelimanya memanfaatkan limbah minyak jelantah yang
dihasilkan industri pengolahan makanan. Limbah minyak tersebut diolah menjadi biopelumas
dengan memodifikasi struktur asam oleat di dalamnya.

TOPIK :
GAGASAN UTAMA:
4). OTORITAS Jasa Keuangan (OJK) menyampaikan bahwa sepanjang kuartal I/2016 terdapat
sebanyak 400 perusahaan yang tidak memiliki izin menawarkan produk investasi ke masyarakat.
"Bila diakumulasi, hampir 400 perusahaan yang tidak sah atau tidak memiliki izin dari OJK
menawarkan produk investasi ke masyarakat luas," ujar anggota Dewan Komisioner Bidang
Edukasi dan Perlindungan Konsumen OJK Kusumaningtuti S. Soetiono usai peluncuran Galeri
Investasi Mobile di Jakarta, Selasa (17/8).
TOPIK :
GAGASAN UTAMA:
5). US Ambassador to Indonesia Robert O. Blake Jr. on Tuesday introduced one of two newly
installed PM 2.5 Air Quality Meters ( AQMs ) to the press at the US Housing Complex in
Central Jakarta. The AQMs will be used to specifically measure fine particulates, smaller than
2.5 micrometers in diameter, as WHO says these particularly affect health, the ambassador
added. The second meter has been installed at the warehouse in South Jakarta.
TOPIC :
MAIN IDEAS:
6). Sustainable energy is energy that is consumed at insignificant rates compared to its supply
and with manageable collateral effects, especially environmental effects. Another common
definition of sustainable energy is an energy system that serves the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. The organizing principle for
sustainability is sustainable development, which includes the four interconnected domains:
ecology, economics, politics and culture. Sustainability science is the study of sustainable
development and environmental science.
TOPIC :
MAIN IDEAS:
7). The Islamic State group launched a coordinated assault Sunday on a natural gas plant north of
Baghdad that killed at least 14 people, while a string of other bomb attacks in or close to the
capital killed 15 others, Iraqi officials said. The dawn attack on the gas plant began with a suicide
car bombing at the facility's main gate in the town of Taji, about 20 kilometers ( 12 miles ) north
of Baghdad. Several suicide bombers and militants then broke into the plant and clashed with

security forces. The dead included six civilians and eight security forces; 27 troops were
wounded.
TOPIC :
MAIN IDEAS:
8). Solar liquid collectors are most appropriate for central heating. They are the same as those used in
solar domestic water heating systems. Flat-plate collectors are the most common, but evacuated tube and
concentrating collectors are also available. In the collector, a heat transfer or "working" fluid such as
water, antifreeze (usually non-toxic propylene glycol), or other type of liquid absorbs the solar heat. At
the appropriate time, a controller operates a circulating pump to move the fluid through the collector.

TOPIC :
MAIN IDEAS:
9). You can use a radiant floor, hot water baseboards or radiators, or a central forced-air system
to distribute the solar heat. In a radiant floor system, solar-heated liquid circulates through pipes
embedded in a thin concrete slab floor, which then radiates heat to the room. Radiant floor
heating is ideal for liquid solar systems because it performs well at relatively low temperatures A
carefully designed system may not need a separate heat storage tank, although most systems
include them for temperature control. A conventional boiler or even a standard domestic water
heater can supply back-up heat.
TOPIC :
MAIN IDEAS:
10). Solar energy is the cleanest and most abundant renewable energy source available, and the
U.S. has some of the richest solar resources in the world. Modern technology can harness this
energy for a variety of uses, including generating electricity, providing light or a comfortable
interior environment, and heating water for domestic, commercial, or industrial use. The U.S.
solar market faces both challenges and opportunities; the industry is working to scale up the
production of solar technology, and drive down manufacturing and installation costs.

TOPIC :
MAIN IDEAS:
=================== GOOD LUCK ======================

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