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Curso: Engenharia de Computao

CIRCUITOS
ELETRNICOS I
ELC 1058

UNIDADE 1 ANLISE DE CIRCUITOS COM DIODOS


SEMICONDUTORES

Aula
1: Reviso
Conceito:
O que de
? Fsica

Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

Physics Review:
Benjamin Franklin (17061790)
1.

2.

Positive
charge
Negative
charge

Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

Physics Review:
Robert Millikan (18681953)

Prton

+e

Eltron

-e
4

Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

Physics Review:
Charles Coulomb (17361806)

Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

Physics Review:
Charles Coulomb (17361806)

Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

Physics Review:
Charles Coulomb (17361806)
Electric forces between
charges

Bohr Atomic Model

Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

Physics Review:
Atomic Theory

Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

Physics Review:
Atomic Theory & Charge
Electrical charge is an intrinsic property of matter that
manifests itself in the form of forces.
However, the way in which we use the term charge
extends beyond this.
An atom has equal numbers of electrons and protons,
leaving the atom as a whole uncharged.
If the atom acquires additional electrons, we say that
it (the atom) is negatively charged; conversely, if it
loses electrons we say that it is positively charged.
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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

Physics Review:
Atomic Theory & Charge
Examples
Atomic structures.

Germanium

Silicon

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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

Physics Review:
Atomic Theory & Charge
The term charge in this sense denotes an inbalance
between the number of electrons and protons present
in the atom.
The term charge can refer to the charge on an
individual electron or to the charge associated with a
whole group of electrons.

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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

Physics Review:
Atomic Theory
Simplified structure

Copper atom

Silicon atom

Atom with valence shell

Atom with valence shell

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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

Physics Review:
Free Electrons & Ions

Free electrons are valence electrons that gain


sufficient energy from heat alone to escape from their
parent atoms and wander from
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atom to atom throughout the material.

Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

Physics Review:
Free Electrons & Ions
Note that the free electrons do not
leave the substance, they simply
wander from the valence shell of one
atom to the valence shell of another.
The material therefore remains
electrically neutral.
The presence of a large number of free electrons that
makes a substance a good conductor of electric current
charged.
On the other hand, if the valence shell is full (or nearly
full), valence electrons are much more tightly bound.
Such materials have few free electrons.
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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

Physics Review:
Free Electrons & Ions

If the atom
loses an
electron, it is
called a
positive ion;
if it gains an
electron, it is
called a
negative
ion.

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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

Physics Review:
Conductors, Insulators & Semiconductors

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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

Physics Review:
Conductors, Insulators & Semiconductors

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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

Physics Review:
Covalent Bonding

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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

Silicon (Si) Basics:


Intrinsic Silicon
Intrinsic semiconductor is a single-crystal
semiconductor material with no other types of atoms
within the crystal.

Tetrahedral configuration.
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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

Silicon (Si) Basics:


ENERGY LEVELS

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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

Silicon (Si) Basics:


Intrinsic Silicon
At room temperature some valence electrons gain
thermal energy enough (bandgap energy - Eg) to
break the covalent bond and move away from its
original position.
The electron will then be free to move within the crystal.

A positively charged empty state or hole is created.


At T=0K

At T>0K

Two-dimensional representation of silicon crystal

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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

Silicon (Si) Basics:


Intrinsic Silicon
The free electron is the negative charge.
The hole is the positive charge.

In any semiconductor both charged particles contribute


to the current.
The concentration of electrons and holes directly influence in the
current.
E
3 g

2
kT

ni BT e

The concentration of e- and h+ in intrinsec semiconductors are


small, producing small currents.

Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

Silicon (Si) Basics:


Extrinsic Silicon
The characteristics of semiconductor materials can be
altered significantly by the addition of certain
impurity atoms into the relatively pure
semiconductor material.
A semiconductor material that has been subjected
to the doping process is called an extrinsic material.

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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

Silicon (Si) Basics:


Extrinsic Silicon
n-Type Material: impurity elements that have five
valence electrons (pentavalent), such as antimony,
arsenic, and phosphorus
Si

The inserted impurity atom


has donated a relatively free
electron to the structure.

Si

Si
Fifth valence
electron

Si

Si

Sb

donor atoms

Antimony
impurity

Si

Si

Si

Excess of free electrons


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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

Silicon (Si) Basics:


Extrinsic Silicon
p-Type Material: impurity elements that have three
valence electrons, such as boron, gallium, and

indium

Si

Si

There is an insufficient number of


electrons to complete the covalent
bonds of the newly formed lattice.
The resulting vacancy will readily
accept a free electron.

Void

Si

Si

B
Boro
impurity

acceptor atoms
Si

Excess of holes

Si

Si

Si
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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

Silicon (Si) Basics:


Extrinsic Silicon
Majority and Minority Carriers
In an n-type material the electron is called the majority
carrier and the hole the minority carrier.
In a p-type material the hole is the majority carrier and
the electron is the minority carrier.

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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

Silicon (Si) Basics:


Extrinsic Silicon
Carriers concentrations
Intrinsic carrier concentration:

Hole concentration:

Nd no

Electron concentration:

Na po

ni 2 no po

ni 2
po
Nd

Donor atoms concentration.

ni 2
no
Na

Aceptor atoms concentration.


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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

Silicon (Si) Basics:


Drift and Diffusion Currents
Drift is the moviment of charge caused by electric fields.
Diffusion is the flow caused by variations in the
concentration, that is concentration gradients.

Drift current:

E
vdn

E
vdp

Jn
n-Type

Jp
p-Type
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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

Silicon (Si) Basics:


Drift and Diffusion Currents
Drift is the moviment of charge caused by electric fields.
Diffusion is the flow caused by variations in the
concentration, that is concentration gradients.

Diffusion current:
Low concentration

High concentration
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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

The pn junction:
At thermal equilibrium
p

X=0
Simplified geometry of
pn junction

Na

Nd
po

no
X=0

Doping profile of na ideal uniform


doped pn junction

The interface at x=0 is called metallurgical junction.


A large density gradient in both the hole and electron
concentrations occurs across this junction.
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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

The pn junction:
At thermal equilibrium

Na

p-region

Hole diffusion

Space-charge region or
depletion region

n-region

Nd
Electron diffusion

E field
p
Potential

n
X=0

The potential through


the junction

X=0
Initial diffusion at metallurgical
junction (establishing thermal
equilibrium)

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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

The pn junction:
At thermal equilibrium
Circuit Analysis

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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

The pn junction:
Reverse biased

Positive voltage applied to n-region.

Circuit Analysis

VR induces na applied electric field, EA.

EA

Minority
carrier flow

E field

n
W
VR

No current across the


pn junction

The direction of EA is the same as the


E-field.
Since the electric fields outside the
space-charge region is zero, the
magnitude of the space-charge region
field increases above the thermal
equilibrium value.
This increased electric field holds
back the holes in p-region and the
electrons in the n-region.
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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

The pn junction:
Reverse biased

When the space-charge region field


increases, the number of positive and
negative charges also increases.

Circuit Analysis
EA

Minority
carrier flow

E field

n
W
VR

Considering the doping concentration


is constant, the width (W) of the
space charge region must to
increase.
A capacitance is associated with the
pn junction when a reverse-bias
voltage is applied.
The junction capacitance can be
1
written as,

Vbi Bult-in potential barrier


c j 0 Junction cap. at zero applied voltage

VR
c j c j 0 1
Vbi

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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

The pn junction:
Positive voltage applied to p-region.

Forward biased

VD induces na applied electric field, EA.

Circuit Analysis
EA

Majority
carrier flow

E field

n
W

iD

VD

The direction of EA is the opposite of


the E-field.
Since the electric fields outside the
space-charge region is zero, the
potential barrier decreases.
The net result is the electric field in
the space-charge region is lower than
the equilibrium value.
Majority carrier electrons from the nregion diffuse into the p-region.

Majority carrier holes from the p35


region diffuses into the n-region.

Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

The pn junction:
Forward biased
p-region

n-region

holes
electrons

n x

Excess
electron
concentration

Excess hole
concentration

no
X=0

p x

As the majority carriers cross into the


opposite regions, they become
minority carriers.
Thus, the minority carriers
concentration increase.

po
x
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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

The pn junction:
Current-Voltage relationship
ID

forward bias

reverse bias
D
kV

TK
I D I S e 1

VD

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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

The pn junction:
Current-Voltage relationship
Zener effect

ID

forward bias

reverse bias

VZ
VD

Zener region
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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

The pn junction:
Current-Voltage relationship
Temperature effect

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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

The pn junction:
Resistance Levels
DC or Static Resistance

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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

The pn junction:
Resistance Levels
AC or Dynamic Resistance
Diode characteristic

DID

Q-point
(DC-operating point)

DVD
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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

The pn junction:
Resistance Levels
AC or Dynamic Resistance
Using differential calculus.

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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

The pn junction:
Resistance Levels
AC or Dynamic Resistance

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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

The pn junction:
Resistance Levels
AC or Dynamic Resistance

The dynamic resistance can be found simply by substituting the quiescent


value of the diode current into the equation. It is accurate only for values of
ID in the vertical-rise section of the curve.
For small values of ID below the knee of the curve, Eq. (1.7) becomes
inappropriate.

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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

The pn junction:
Resistance Levels
Summary

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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

The pn junction:
Equivalent Circuits Models
ID

VD

ID

VD

ID

VD
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UNIDADE 1 ANLISE DE CIRCUITOS COM DIODOS


SEMICONDUTORES

Aula 1:
Exerccios
Conceito:
O que
?

47

Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

EXERCISES

SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS:
Discussion:

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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

EXERCISES

SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS:

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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

EXERCISES

SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS:

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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

EXERCISES

EXTRINSIC MATERIALS:
Discussion:
Both the n- and p-type materials are formed
by adding a predetermined number of
impurity atoms into a germanium or silicon
base. The n-type is created by introducing
those impurity elements that have five
valence electrons (pentavalent), such as
antimony, arsenic, and phosphorus.

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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

EXERCISES

PN JUNCTION BIAS:
Discussion:

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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

EXERCISES

RESISTANCE LEVELS:

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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

EXERCISES

PN JUNCTION BIAS:

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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

EXERCISES

RESISTANCE LEVELS:
Discussion:

As the operating point of a diode moves from one region to another


the resistance of the diode will also change due to the nonlinear shape
of the characteristic curve. Three different levels are introduced:

DC or Static Resistance

AC or Dynamic Resistance

Average AC Resistance

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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

EXERCISES

RESISTANCE LEVELS:

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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

EXERCISES

RESISTANCE LEVELS:

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Unity 1: Semiconductors Theory


Lecture 1

EXERCISES

EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS:

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