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Curso: Engenharia de Computao

CIRCUITOS
ELETRNICOS I
ELC 1058

UNIDADE 1 ANLISE DE CIRCUITOS COM


DIODOS SEMICONDUTORES

Conceito: O que ?
Aula 2: O Diodo

Unity 1: The diode


Lecture 2

The diode:
Basics:
ID

Main characteristics:
reverse bias
region

K
ID

Cathode (K)

VD

pn junction

forward
bias region

VZ
VD

p
Anode (A)

Diode symbol

A
Zener region
Diode diagram

Diode characteristic
3

Unity 1: The diode


Lecture 2

The diode:
Basics:
Diode operation:

ID
reverse bias
region

forward
bias region

VD

Unity 1: The diode


Lecture 2

The diode:
Basics:
Diode in circuit:

Applying Kirchhoffs voltage law

Unity 1: The diode


Lecture 2

The diode:
Basics:
Diode in circuit:

Applying Kirchhoffs voltage law

Unity 1: The diode


Lecture 2

The diode:
Basics:
Diode in circuit:
Load line (circuit)

Applying Kirchhoffs voltage law

Unity 1: The diode


Lecture 2

The diode:
Basics:
Diode in circuit:
Load line (circuit)

The solution obtained at the intersection of the two curves is the


same that would be obtained by a simultaneous mathematical
solution of both equations.
The load-line analysis provides a solution with a minimum of effort
and a pictorial description of the solution.
8

Unity 1: The diode


Lecture 2

The diode:
Load line analysis:

R = 1 kOhm

Example:

R = 2 kOhm

Unity 1: The diode


Lecture 2

The diode:
Load line analysis and diode models:

10

Unity 1: The diode


Lecture 2

The diode:
Simple diode circuit:

11

Unity 1: The diode


Lecture 2

The diode:
Simple series diode circuit:

12

Unity 1: The diode


Lecture 2

The diode:
Numerical example:
1

13

Unity 1: The diode


Lecture 2

The diode:
2

Numerical example:

14

Unity 1: The diode


Lecture 2

The diode:
Numerical example:
3

15

Unity 1: The diode


Lecture 2

The diode:
Exercise:

16

Unity 1: The diode


Lecture 2

The diode:
Simple diode circuit (parallel and seriesparallel):

The methods applied in last section can be extended


to the analysis of parallel and seriesparallel
configurations. For each area of application, simply
match the sequential series of steps applied to series
diode configurations.

17

Unity 1: The diode


Lecture 2

The diode:
Numerical example:
1

Solution

18

Unity 1: The diode


Lecture 2

The diode:
Numerical example:
2

19

Unity 1: The diode


Lecture 2

The diode:
Numerical example:
3

20

Unity 1: The diode


Lecture 2

The diode:
Numerical example:
4

21

Unity 1: The diode


Lecture 2

The diode:
Practical devices

22

Unity 1: The diode


Lecture 2

The diode:
Practical devices
Reverse recovery phenomenon

23

Unity 1: The diode


Lecture 2

The diode:
The Ideal Diode:

Applied voltage

Equivalent circuit

Ideal diode characteristic

24

Unity 1: The diode


Lecture 2

The diode:
The Ideal Diode:
Simple ideal diode circuit analysis:

25

Unity 1: The diode


Lecture 2

The diode:
The Ideal Diode:
Simple ideal diode circuit analysis:

26

UNIDADE 1 ANLISE DE CIRCUITOS COM


DIODOS SEMICONDUTORES

Aula 2:
Exerccios
Conceito:
O que
?

27

Unity 1: The diode


Lecture 2

EXERCISES

LOAD-LINE ANALYSIS:

28

Unity 1: The diode


Lecture 2

EXERCISES

LOAD-LINE ANALYSIS:
1

29

Unity 1: The diode


Lecture 2

EXERCISES

LOAD-LINE ANALYSIS:

30

Unity 1: The diode


Lecture 2

EXERCISES

SIMPLE DIODE CIRCUITS:

31

Unity 1: The diode


Lecture 2

EXERCISES

SIMPLE DIODE CIRCUITS:

32

Unity 1: The diode


Lecture 2

EXERCISES

SIMPLE DIODE CIRCUITS:

33

Unity 1: The diode


Lecture 2

EXERCISES

SIMPLE DIODE CIRCUITS:

34

Unity 1: The diode


Lecture 2

EXERCISES

SIMPLE DIODE CIRCUITS:

35

UNIDADE 1 ANLISE DE CIRCUITOS COM


DIODOS SEMICONDUTORES

AulaConceito:
3: Outros
tipos
O que
?de diodos

36

Unity 1: Special diodes


Lecture 3

The Zener diode:


Basics:
The Zener region was
previously discussed in
some detail.
This region of unique
characteristics is
employed in the design
of Zener diodes.

Zener

bipolar

37

Unity 1: Special diodes


Lecture 3

The Zener diode:


Basics:
Zener current in
opposite direction.
For the Zener diode the
direction of conduction
is opposite to that of the
arrow (symbol).

Zener

bipolar

The location of the Zener


region can be controlled
by varying the doping
levels.

38

Unity 1: Special diodes


Lecture 3

The Zener diode:


Basics:

Zener

Equivalent circuit

The complete equivalent circuit of the


Zener diode in the Zener region
includes a small dynamic resistance
and dc battery equal to the Zener
potential.
For all applications to follow, however,
we shall assume as a first
approximation.

Zener diodes are available having Zener potentials of


1.8 to 200 V with power ratings from to 50 W.
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Unity 1: Special diodes


Lecture 3

The Zener diode:

40

Unity 1: Special diodes


Lecture 3

The Zener diode:

41

Unity 1: Special diodes


Lecture 3

The Zener diode:

42

Unity 1: Special diodes


Lecture 3

The light-emitting diode:


The ligth-emitting diode is a structures that emit light when
properly biased.
The two types in common use today to perform this function
are the light-emitting diode (LED) and the liquid-crystal display
(LCD).

43

Unity 1: Special diodes


Lecture 3

The light-emitting diode:


Phenomenum:
In any forward-biased p-n junction there is, within the structure
and primarily close to the junction, a recombination of holes and
electrons.
This recombination requires that the energy possessed by the
unbound free electron be transferred to another state. In all
semiconductor p-n junctions some of this energy will be given
off as heat and some in the form of photons.
In silicon and germanium the greater percentage is given up in
the form of heat and the emitted light is insignificant.
In other materials, such as gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP)
or gallium phosphide (GaP), the number of photons of light
energy emitted is sufficient to create a very visible light source.
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Unity 1: Special diodes


Lecture 3

The light-emitting diode:

45

Unity 1: Special diodes


Lecture 3

The Schottky diode:


Schottky-barrier, surface-barrier, or hot-carrier diode.
Its construction is quite different from the conventional p-n
junction in that a metalsemiconductor junction is created
such as shown in figure below.

The semiconductor is
normally n-type silicon
while a host of
different metals, such
as molybdenum,
platinum, chrome, or
tungsten, are used.
46

Unity 1: Special diodes


Lecture 3

The Schottky diode:


Principle of operation:
In both materials, the electron is the majority carrier. In the metal,
the level of minority carriers (holes) is insignificant. When the
materials are joined, the electrons in the n-type silicon
semiconductor material immediately flow into the adjoining metal,
establishing a heavy flow of majority carriers.
Since the injected carriers have a very high kinetic energy level
compared to the electrons of the metal, they are commonly
called hot carriers.
Schottky diodes are therefore unique in that conduction is
entirely by majority carriers.
47

Unity 1: Special diodes


Lecture 3

The Schottky diode:


Principle of operation:
The heavy flow of electrons into the metal creates a region near
the junction surface depleted of carriers in the silicon material
much like the depletion region in the p-n junction diode. The
additional carriers in the metal establish a negative wall in the
metal at the boundary between the two materials. The net result
is a surface barrier between the two materials.
The barrier at the junction for a Schottky diode is less than that of
the p-n junction device in both the forward- and reverse-bias
regions. The result is therefore a higher current at the same
applied bias in the forward- and reverse-bias regions. This is a
desirable effect in the forward-bias region but highly undesirable in
the reverse-bias region.
48

Unity 1: Special diodes


Lecture 3

The Schottky diode:

Fig. 20.2
49

Unity 1: Special diodes


Lecture 3

The Schottky diode:

50

UNIDADE 1 ANLISE DE CIRCUITOS COM


DIODOS SEMICONDUTORES

Aula 2:
Exerccios
Conceito:
O que
?

51

Unity 1: Special diodes


Lecture 3

EXERCISES

ZENER DIODE:

52

EXERCISES

Unity 1: Special diodes


Lecture 3

ZENER DIODE:

Fig. 1.51a

Fig. 1.51b

53

Unity 1: Special diodes


Lecture 3

EXERCISES

LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE:

Fig. 1.55

54

Unity 1: Special diodes


Lecture 3

EXERCISES

LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE:

Fig. 1.55

55

Unity 1: Special diodes


Lecture 3

EXERCISES

LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE:

Fig. 1.55

56

Unity 1: Special diodes


Lecture 3

EXERCISES

SCHOTTKY BARRIER DIODE:

57

UNIDADE 1 ANLISE DE CIRCUITOS COM


DIODOS SEMICONDUTORES

Aula
4: Circuitos
Conceito:
O que com
? diodos

58