Anda di halaman 1dari 16


1. Differentiate eukaryotic from prokaryotic cells, Eubacteria from Archaea, and know function of
endospores, capsules, and flagella.
a. Eukaryotic cells
i. Eukaryotic cells are typically much larger than prokaryotes.
ii. Eukaryotic cells have a membrane-bound nucleus and organelles, and a cytoskeleton
composed of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments, which play an
important role in defining the cell's organization and shape.
iii. Eukaryotic DNA is divided into several linear bundles called chromosomes, which are
separated by a microtubular spindle during nuclear division.
iv. Cell division by separating duplicated chromosomes by mitosis or meiosis.
v. They can be unicellular or multicellular.
vi. Their flagella are flexible and move in a 2-D whip-like motion for motility.
b. Prokaryotic cells
i. Prokaryotic cells dont have a nucleus, but instead a nucleoid region, which lacks a
nuclear membrane.
ii. They generally lack membrane-bound cell compartments: such as mitochondria and
chloroplasts, and instead processes such as oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis
take place across the prokaryotic plasma membrane.
iii. They contain only a single loop of stable chromosomal DNA stored in the nucleoid.
iv. They reproduce through asexual reproduction, usually by binary fission or budding
v. Most are unicellular.
vi. Their flagella are rigid and rotate for motility
c. **Eubacteria
i. Their cell membranes are composed of fatty acid chains linked to glycerol in an ester
ii. They contain a phospholipid bilayer
iii. They have peptidoglycan in their cell walls, composed of N-acetylglucosamine and Nacetylmuramic acid and have D-amino acids.
iv. Their flagella are hollow stalks, assembled by subunits moving up the central pore and
then adding onto the tip of the flagella.

d. **Archaea
i. Their cell membranes are composed of unique lipid isoprenoid branched chains linked to
glycerol in an ether linkage.
ii. In some the phospholipid bilayer is replaced by a single monolayer.
iii. Most lack peptidoglycan in their cell walls. Some instead have pseudopeptidoglycan,
composed of N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetyltalosaminuronic acid and dont have Damino acids.
iv. Their flagella are synthesized by adding subunits onto their base.
e. Endospores
i. A metabolically inactive, nonreplicating form of certain bacteria that is highly resistant to
physical and chemical damage.
ii. The primary function of most endospores is to ensure the survival of a bacterium through
periods of environmental stress.
iii. Reactivation of the endospore occurs when conditions are more favorable and involves
activation, germination, and outgrowth.
f. Capsules
i. A diffuse layer outside the cell wall of bacteria usually composed of polysaccharides.
ii. They help protect bacteria against phagocytosis.
iii. They contain water which protects bacteria against desiccation.
iv. They exclude bacterial viruses and most hydrophobic toxic materials such as detergents.
g. Flagella
i. Long, flexible, helical protein structures that extend from the surface of the cell and cause
motility by rotation.
ii. Filament: long, helical, hollow structure composed of the protein flagellin.
iii. Hook: short, curved structure like a universal joint connecting the filament and the
motor of the basal membrane in the cell.
iv. Basal body: composed of proteins that aggregate to form a rod to which four rings are
attached, acting as bushings to anchor the structure in the various layers of the cell

2. ***Differentiate gram positive from gram negative microorganisms with regard to cell wall differences.
Also, describe cell wall functions.

a. Cell Wall Functions

i. Osmotic barrier
ii. Solute barrier
iii. Electron transport chain to generate proton motive force
iv. Specific transport systems for substrate uptake
3. Describe how microorganisms grow (also phases of growth, generation time, numbers of generations,
binary fission) and their interactions/effects on the environment how they respond and adapt their
metabolic pathways depending on what energy sources are available.
a. Microbial Growth
i. The increase in microbial population size and population mass.
b. Phases of Growth
i. **Stationary phase
1. bacterial growth rate slows as a result of nutrient depletion and accumulation of
toxic products.
ii. Lag phase
1. bacteria are metabolically active and growing individually with the population
remaining constant while they synthesize RNA, enzymes, and other molecules to
adapt to growth conditions.
iii. Exponential phase
1. bacterial growth rate such that the number of bacteria cells in the population
doubles repeatedly over the same time interval.
iv. Death phase
1. bacteria exhaust nutrients and die, and cell deaths exceed cell births.
c. **Generation Time
i. The amount of time required for one cell to divide, forming two daughter cells (doubling
time). X=X02n
d. Number of Generations
i. the time elapsed (t) divided by the generation time (g)
ii. n = t/g
e. Binary Fission

i. the division of one bacterium into two identical, equal sized daughter cells
4. Describe structure of major macromolecules, nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, their function
in living cells, the bonds linking their subunits, and their structure-function relationships.
a. Nucleic acids
i. Macromolecules such as DNA or RNA that carry genetic information and are composed
of chains of monomeric nucleotides connected by 3 5 phosphodiester linkages
ii. Nucleotides: phosphate, sugar, base
iii. Nucleosides: sugar, base

b. Proteins
i. Large organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined together
by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of adjacent amino acid residues
c. Lipids
i. Any fat-soluble (lipophilic), naturally-occurring molecule, such as fats, oils, waxes,
cholesterol, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins, or phospholipids
ii. The main biological functions of lipids include energy storage, acting as structural
components of cell membranes, and participating as important signaling molecules
iii. fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, saccharolipids and
d. Carbohydrates:
i. Simple organic compounds that are aldehydes or ketones with many hydroxyl groups
added, usually one on each carbon atom that is not part of the aldehyde or ketone
functional group
ii. Monosaccharides are the major source of fuel for metabolism, being used both as an
energy source and in biosynthesis.
iii. Polysaccharides are used for storage in the form is glycogen, especially in liver and
muscle cells. In plants, starch is used for the same purpose.

5. Define important cell wall characteristics and functions.

a. Prokaryotes: cell wall made of peptidoglycan

6. ***Describe energy generating mechanisms in the chemoorganotrophs: oxidative phosphorylation

(electron transport) and substrate level phosphorylation
a. Oxidative phosphorylation
i. ATP formation resulting from aerobic respiration
b. Substrate level phosphorylation
i. ATP formation form the reaction between ADP and a metabolic intermediate with a highenergy phosphate bond
ii. An organic substrate becomes phosphorylated with inorganic phosphate with no energy
iii. It then becomes oxidized and the low energy phosphoryl bond is now a high energy
phosphoryl bond.
iv. High energy phosphoryl bond is transferred to ADP to make ATP
v. 4 ATP produced by substrate level phosphorylation in glycolysis, net 2 ATP
c. Fermentation
i. An anaerobic process in which ATP is generated exclusively by substrate level
ii. Pyruvate is the final electron acceptor and it forms lactic acid by the enzyme lactate
d. Glycolysis
i. Catabolic pathway that converts one molecule of glucose to two molecules of pyruvate
ii. Pyruvate is oxidized with the loss of its carbonyl group as CO2, to yield the acetyl group
of acetyl-CoA by pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.
iii. 2 NADH produced
e. TCA or Krebbs cycle in aerobic respiration
i. 1 ATP produced when succinyl-CoA synthetase converts succinyl-CoA to succinate in
citric acid cycle by substrate level phosphorylation
ii. 3 NADH produced per 1 pyruvate 1 FADH2
7. Relate host-pathogen interactions and virulence:
a. Contrast exo vs. endotoxins
i. ***Exotoxin
1. Toxins proteins produced by certain bacterial pathogens
2. Exotoxins may be secreted, or, similar to endotoxins, may be released during lysis
of the cell
3. They are highly potent and can cause major damage to the host by destroying
cells or disrupting normal cellular metabolism.
4. Produced by both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria.
ii. Endotoxin

1. The lipopolysaccharide in the outer leaflet of the outer membranes of gram

negative bacteria that is harmful to humans and other animals; most of the toxicity
is mediated by lipid A
2. Endotoxins are not secreted in soluble form by live bacteria, but are a structural
component in the bacteria which is released mainly when bacteria are lysed.
3. Endotoxins are potentially toxic, natural compounds found inside pathogens such
as bacteria.
4. Produced only by Gram negative bacteria.
b. Host resistance vs. virulence
i. ***Host resistance:
ii. ***Virulence: a measure of pathogenicity.
1. A measurement of the degree of disease producing ability of a microorganism as
indicated by the severity of the disease produced a measure of the dosage required
to caused a specific degree of pathogenicity
2. One general standard is the LD50.
c. Two aspects of virulence: invasiveness vs. toxigenicity
i. Invasiveness: the ability of a pathogen to invade tissues.
1. The mechanisms for colonization, which involve adherence and initial
2. The production of extracellular substances, such as "invasins", that promote the
immediate invasion of tissues
3. The ability to bypass or overcome host defense mechanisms which facilitate the
actual invasive process.
ii. ***Toxigenicity: is the ability to produce toxins.
1. Toxic substances produced by bacteria, both soluble and cell-associated, may be
transported by blood and lymph and cause cytotoxic effects at tissue sites remote
from the original point of invasion or growth.
8. Differentiate humoral vs. cellular immune response.
a. Humoral immune response
i. Host defenses that are mediated by antibody present in the plasma, lymph, and tissue
ii. It protects against extracellular bacteria and foreign macromolecules.
iii. Transfer of antibodies confers this type of immunity on the recipient.
b. Cellular immune response
i. Host defenses that are mediated by antigen-specific T cells and various nonspecific cells
of the immune system.
ii. It protects against intracellular bacteria, viruses, and cancer and is responsible for graftrejection.
iii. Transfer of primed T cells confers this type of immunity on the recipient.
9. Compare innate immunity with humoral and cellular immunity; describe and explain what is responsible
for active humoral immunity (second exposure is enhanced)
a. Innate immunity
i. Nonspecific host defenses that exist in prior to exposure to antigen and involve physical,
chemical and cellular barriers, as well as inflammatory mechanisms.
ii. Includes phagocytes (monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils), natural killer cells (NK),
and dendritic cells.

b. ***Adaptive immunity
i. Host defenses that are mediated by B and T cells following exposure to antigen and
exhibit specificity, diversity, memory, and self-nonself recognition.
c. Primary response
i. The lag of 5 to 7 days before antibody levels start to rise from the primary response is
time required for the activation of nave B cells by antigen and TH cells and for
subsequent proliferation and differentiation of the activated B cells into plasma cells.
ii. Antigen induces clonal proliferation of B lymphocytes into antibody-secreting plasma
cells and memory B cells.
d. Secondary response
i. The amplified population of memory cells accounts for the rapidity and intensity that
distinguishes the secondary response from the primary.
ii. The lag of 1 to 2 days occurs, antibody levels are higher, and they are sustained for much
iii. The secondary response reflects the activity of the clonally expanded population of
memory B cells.
iv. ****Memory B cells respond to antigen more rapidly nave B cells and because there are
so many more memory B cells in the secondary response, more plasma cells are
generated, making antibody levels 100 to 1000 fold higher.
10. Describe the importance of self antigen expression for the immune system
a. Autoimmunity
i. The result from failure of the hosts humoral and cellular immune systems to distinguish
self from nonself, resulting on an attack on self cells and organs by auto-antibodies and
self-reactive T cells.
b. Self antigen
i. A small molecule, usually a peptide of 68 amino acids derived from body proteins; that
is, "self" proteins such as proteins within the cytosol or serum proteins; i.e., proteins
circulating in the blood and lymph.
ii. Self antigen is nestled in a histocompatibility molecule thats encoded by the MHC, class
II for CD4+ T cells and class I for CD8+ T cells.
c. Central tolerance
i. Deletes T- or B-cell clones before the cells mature if they possess receptors that recognize
self antigens with greater than a low threshold affinity.
ii. T cells whose receptors bind these epitopes so tightly that they could attack the cell
displaying them are deleted by apoptosis.
iii. T cells that survive this negative selection leave the thymus and migrate throughout the
immune system.
11. Describe the structure and functions of immunoglobulins, including antigen binding sites and roles in
a. ***Ig Structure
i. Two identical light (L) chains are bound to two identical heavy (H) chains by disulfide
bonds and noncovalent interactions to form a heterodimer.
ii. Similar noncovalent interactions and disulfide bridges link the two identical H-L chain
combinations to each other to form the basic four-chain (H-L)2 antibody structure, a dimer
of dimers.

1. Variable regions
a. The first 110 or so amino acids of the amino terminal of heavy and light
chains vary greatly among antibodies of different antigen specificity.
2. Constant regions
a. The nearly invariant portion of the Ig
b. The amino acid sequence of the constant region determines the isotype (,
, , , and ) and the type ( and ) of the light chains.
3. Fab fragment
a. A monovalent antigen-binding fragment of an Ig molecule that contains
one light chain and part of one heavy chain, linked by a disulfide bond.
4. Fc fragment
a. A non-antigen-binding fragment of an Ig molecule that contains the
carboxyl-terminal portion of both heavy chains.

5. Antibody Class Structure

a. IgG, IgD, and IgE
i. Monomers that look like the shape Y
b. IgA
i. Its a dimer of Y monomers connected by a J chain at the Fc
portion, but can be found as a monomer, trimer, or tetramer.
c. IgM
i. Its always found as a pentamer of Y monomers connected by a J
chain and disulfide bonds.
b. Ig Effector Function
i. Opsonization
1. Antibodies promote opsonization, in which protein molecules called Fc receptors
on the surface of macrophages and neutrophils bind the constant region of the Ig
2. The variable region binds the target antigen such as a bacterial cell, and the whole
process secures the phagocyte to the pathogen.
ii. Complement system
1. IgM in humans and IgG subclasses can activate a collection of serum
glycoproteins that make up the complement system.

iii. Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC)

1. The antibody acts as a newly acquired receptor enabling the attacking cell (NK
cell) to kill the target cell.
iv. Antibody Class Function
1. IgA is the predominant Ig in external secretions.
2. IgG is the most abundant Ig in the serum.
3. IgM is the first Ig produced during an immune response.
4. IgE mediate immediate hypersensitivity reactions.
5. IgD (along with IgM) are the major membrane bound Igs expressed on mature B
12. Describe the interactions and functions of cells of the immune system, including T cell receptors, MHC,
coreceptors, cytokines, etc.
a. Lymphoid cells
i. B cells
1. bound antibody molecules serve as receptors for antigen
2. Effector cells
a. plasma cells
b. memory cells
ii. T cells
1. T cell receptors
a. ***Only recognize antigen that is bound to MHC molecules
b. Associates with CD3 accessory molecule containing ITAM motif in a
complex for signal transduction
2. Effector cells
a. T helper cells (TH)
i. CD4 membrane glycoprotein
ii. Differentiate to effector cells, which enable the activation of TC
cells, B cells, macrophages, and others.
iii. Recognize MHC class II
b. T cytotoxic cells (TC)
i. CD8 membrane glycoprotein
ii. Recognize MHC class I
c. T regulatory cells (Treg)
i. CD4 and CD25 membrane glycoprotein
ii. Negative regulators of immune system, they suppress immune
iii. NK cells
1. part of the innate immunity
2. recognize tumor or virus infected cells despite lacking antigen-specific receptors
3. function in ADCC (antigen-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity)
iv. Mononuclear phagocytes
1. monocytes
a. circulate in the blood
2. macrophages
a. circulate in the tissues
v. Granulocytic cells
1. Neutrophils







multilobed nucleus
granulated cytoplasm that stains with both acid and basic dyes
first to arrive at a site of inflammation
migrate to tissues where they live 1-2 days
increase in number of circulating neutrophiles bc of inflammation =
g. movement of circulating neutrophils into tissues = extravasation
a. bilobed nucleus
b. granulated cytoplasm that stains with acid dye eosin red
c. play a role in defense against parasitic organisms by secreting contents of
d. phagocytic
a. lobed nucleus
b. heavily granulated cytoplasm that stains with basic dye Methylene blue
c. release pharmacologicallyactive substances from granules that have a
major role in allergic responses
d. nonphagocytic
Mast cells
a. Precursors formed in bone marrow and are released into the blood as
undifferentiate cells; do not differentiate until they leave the blood and
enter the tissues
b. have granules that contain histamine and other pharmacologically active
c. role in allergy development
Dendritic cells
a. Main function: antigen presentation to T cells
b. All express class I and II MHC
c. Acquire antigen
i. Phagocytosis
ii. Receptor-mediated endocytosis
iii. Pinocytosis
Follicular dendritic cells
a. Do not express class II MHC
b. Dont function as APCs
c. Do not arise in the bone marrow
d. Found in lymph node follicles
e. Participate in B cell maturation

b. **Major Histocompatibility Complex

i. MHC class I
1. expressed on nearly all nucleated cells
2. present peptide antigens to TC cells
ii. MHC class II
1. expressed only on few cell types that are specialized for antigen presentation
2. present peptide antigen to TH cells
c. Cytokines
i. Autocrine, paracrine, endocrine
ii. Pleiotropy, redundancy, synergy, antagonism
iii. Picomolar concentrations sufficient for biological effects due to high affinity

iv. Cytokine families

1. Chemokines
2. Hematopoetin
3. Interferon
4. Tumor necrosis factor
13. Define the characteristics of DNA. -- what changes melting point? Increase or decrease in AT and
a. Two polynucleotide chains twisted in a right-handed double helix does Tol 1 or Pol 1 (cant
remember) unwind only right hand or both left and right?
b. B DNA
i. 10 bp per helical turn, 3.4 nm tall
ii. Stacked bases .34 nm apart
c. Phosphate in 5 phosphoester bond
d. 2-deoxyribose sugar
e. Negatively supercoiled
f. Base in 1 glycosidic bond
i. purine
1. Guanine
2. Adenine
ii. pyrimidine
1. Thymine
2. cytosine
g. 3-hydroxyl of sugar (2-deoxyribose) attach to 5-hydroxyl of another nucleotide in a
phosphodiester bond
h. Synthesis
i. Leading strand
1. continuous, 5 to 3
ii. lagging strand
1. discontinuous, 3 to 5
2. produces okazaki fragments
14. Compare DNA and RNA as to structure and function. - why do all have to be double stranded at one
point, what is a secondary structure made out of (alpha, hydrogen bonds?)?
a. DNA
i. 2-deoxyribose
ii. GATC
iii. Double helix in B DNA
b. RNA
i. Ribose
ii. GAUC
iii. Double helix in A DNA form
1. 2-hydroxyl wont allow B DNA form
15. Compare and contrast the steps of DNA replication, DNA transcription, and regulation in prokaryotes
and eukaryotes
a. Prokaryotes
i. Replication
1. ***Origin = 1 OriC
2. circular chromosome
3. no telomere

ii. Transcription
1. occurs in the cytoplasm alongside translation
2. mRNA is not modified
iii. Elongation
1. It starts with the "abortive initiation cycle," during which RNA Polymerase will
synthesize mRNA fragments 2-12 nucleotides long.
2. This continues to occur until the factor rearranges, which results in the
transcription elongation complex
iv. ***Termination
1. Rho-independent
a. RNA transcription stops when the newly synthesized RNA molecule forms
a G-C rich hairpin loop, followed by a run of U's, which makes it detach
from the DNA template.
2. Rho-dependent
a. A protein factor called "Rho" destabilizes the interaction between the
template and the mRNA, thus releasing the newly synthesized mRNA
from the elongation complex.
v. ***Regulation
1. Repressors bind to regions called operators that are generally located downstream
from and near the promoter.
2. Activators bind to the upstream portion of the promoter, such as the CAP region.
3. A combination of activators, repressors and rarely enhancers (in prokaryotes)
determines whether a gene is transcribed
b. Eukaryotes
i. Replication
1. ***Origin = multiple ori
2. ***Telomeres- why do they have telomeres (because theyre linear, because
theres more than one??)
3. linear chromosome
4. Nucleosomes
ii. Transcription
1. transcription primarily occurs in the nucleus; translation occurs in the cytoplasm
2. DNA is wound around histones to form nucleosomes and packaged as chromatin
3. eukaryotic mRNA is modified through RNA splicing, 5 capping and poly A tail
4. **RNA polymerase does not directly recognize the core promoter sequence
5. **Only after certain transcription factors are attached to the promoter
(transcription initiation complex) does the RNA polymerase bind to it
iii. Elongation
1. In Eukaryotic transcription the polymerase can experience pauses, which may be
intrinsic to the RNA polymerase or due to chromatin structure.
2. Often the polymerase pauses to allow appropriate RNA editing factors to bind.
iv. Termination
1. Transcription termination in eukaryotes is less well understood.
2. It involves cleavage of the new transcript, followed by template-independent
addition of As at its new 3' end, in a process called polyadenylation.
v. Regulation

1. Transcriptional regulation tends to involve combinatorial interactions between

several transcription factors, which allow for a sophisticated response to multiple
conditions in the environment. This permits spatial and temporal differences in
gene expression.
2. Also make use of enhancers, distant regions of DNA that can loop back to the
3. Eukaryotes have a nuclear envelope, which prevents simultaneous transcription
and translation.
4. RNA interference also regulate gene expression in most eukaryotes, both by
epigenetic modification of promoters and by breaking down mRNA
16. Describe the central dogma of molecular biology, i.e. DNA RNA Protein synthesis.
a. Transcription
i. Copying DNA into mRNA (aka synthesis of RNA from DNA template)
ii. Occurs in the nucleus
iii. 3 steps: what does helicase do? Unwind duplex or bind to single strand to prevent
1. Initiation- binding of RNA polymerase to double stranded DNA; this step
involves a transition to single-strandedness in the region of binding; RNA
polymerase binds at a sequence of DNA called the promoter. Initiation is the most
important step in gene expression!!
2. Elongation - the covalent addition of nucleotides to the 3' end of the growing
polynucleotide chain; this involves the development of a short stretch of DNA that
is transiently single-stranded.
3. Termination - the recognition of the transcription termination sequence and the
release of RNA polymerase
b. Translation
i. Production of proteins by decoding mRNA produced in transcription
ii. Occurs in the cytoplasm (where ribosomes are located)
17. Describe molecular methods for DNA analysis, protein elucidation and PCR.
a. Western blot
i. Analysis of proteins
b. Southern blot
i. Analysis of DNA
c. Northern blot
i. Analysis of RNA
d. Isoelectric focusing
i. is a procedure used to determine the isoelectric point (pI) of a protein.
ii. A pH gradient is established by allowing a mixture of low molecular weight organic acids
and bases (ampholytes) to distribute themselves in an electric field generated across the
iii. When a protein mixture is applied, each protein migrates until it reaches the pH that
matches its pI.
e. **Gel electrophoresis
i. technique used for the separation of deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, or protein
molecules using an electric current applied to a gel matrix
ii. Separation Gels
1. polyacrylamide
2. agarose
iii. Visualization
1. Stains

a. Ethidium bromide, silver, or coomassie blue dye

2. if molecules fluoresce under ultraviolet light, a photograph can be taken of the gel
3. alternatively radiolabels can be used and visualized on an autoradiogram
f. **Sanger method
i. 4 portions containing the DNA strand to be sequenced prepared.
ii. Each portion is given all the ingredients needed for DNA synthesis and in addition, each
contains one of the four nucleotides in the modified form.
iii. Synthesis of new strand is allowed to take place.
iv. The new DNA strands from the 4 portions are separated by electrophoresis.
v. The sequence of newly formed strand can be read from the auto radiograph. This is
because by reading what the longest strand terminates with, we would know the base of
the first nucleotide. The second longest strand will tell us the base of the second
nucleotide and so on.
g. PCR

heat-stable DNA polymerase, such as Taq polymerase

single-stranded DNA as a template
DNA oligonucleotide primers
thermal cycling, which is alternately heating and cooling the PCR sample to a defined
series of temperature steps
v. chain reaction in which the DNA template is exponentially amplified

18. Contrast steps in lytic cycle with the lysogenic cycle.

a. Lytic growth cycle
i. Phage particle sticks to outer surface of bacterial host cell and injects genome (usually
ii. That DNA is replicated, and the genes expressed to produce many new phage
iii. Once the progeny phage are assembled into mature particles, the bacterial cell is lysed,
and the progeny released to infect another host cell.
b. ***Lysogenic growth cycle
i. Phage particle sticks to outer surface of bacterial host cell and injects genome (usually
ii. Once DNA enters the cell, its integrated into the bacterial chromosome where it is
passively replicated as part of that genome
iii. The genes encoding the protein coat are switched off
iv. The integrated phage is called a prophage
v. The lysogen can be stably maintained for many generations, but can also switch to the
lytic cycle under appropriate circumstances
19. Important characteristics of antibiotics and mechanics to produce antibiotic resistance.
a. Ideal characteristics of antibiotics
i. **selective toxicity with minimal side effects to host
ii. easy to tolerate without a complex drug regimen

iii. bactericidal rather than bacteriostatic

1. we rather kill the bacteria than suppress or inhibit bacterial replication, then
waiting for immune system to kick in
iv. narrow spectrum rather than broad
v. low cost of production & for consumer
vi. stable (shelf-life)
vii. adequate bioavailability: drug much reach adequate concentrations in relevant tissues or
body sites
20. Describe the methods bacteria use to transfer genetic information.
a. Transformation
i. The genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the introduction, uptake and expression of
foreign genetic material (DNA or RNA).
ii. This process is relatively common in bacteria and is often used to insert novel genes into
bacteria for experiments, or for industrial or medical applications.
b. Transduction
i. The process in which bacterial DNA is moved from one bacterium to another by a
bacterial virus.
c. **Bacterial conjugation
i. a process in which a living bacterial cell transfers genetic material through cell-to-cell

I know these are vague but I remember something about....

R-marker selects for ??,
No idea. If I had to guess I would say it would mark for something like a disease or specific gene or locus of
interest. Probably molec material.
experiment with N14 and N15 (all heavy, all light, all mixed, or half and half?),
N14 and N15 were used in an experiment to show that DNA is semiconservative. E coli DNA was placed in
heavy nitrogen N15 making the DNA identifiable. The marked DNA is placed in an N14 media and allowed to
replicate one time. The new strands will contain the N14 while the old stands will have the N15, heavy
nitrogen. Because DNA is semiconservative you would have half heavy and half light at the end of replication.

what does the bacterial cell wall do (help in time of drought, help invade hosts, helps in phagocytosis)?
The peptidoglycan layer allows the cell to retain cell structure even with osmotic pressure. During times of a
drought the cell retains all water within the cell. The peptidoglycan allows for resistance of lysozyme digestion.
Gram positive, having 95% peptidoglycan, are very resistant to lysozyme. How does it invade its host?