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THE WORKING AND TECHNOLOGY OF SATELLITE

PHONES IN PAKISTAN

Muhammad Immad Mohsin Khan

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirem ents for the degree of


M S C I N B U S I N E S S I N F O R M AT I O N S Y S T E M S
D E PA RT M E N T O F B U S I N E S S L O G I S T I C S
AND I N F O R M AT I O N S Y S T E M S
D AT E ( M AY 2 0 0 4 )

THE WORKING AND TECHNOLOGY OF


SATELLITE PHONES IN PAKISTAN

This dissertation is written in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the MSc in Business Information Systems
from Bolton Institute of Higher Education.

ABSTRACT
The topic of this Study is “The working and technology of satellite phones in Pakistan”. The main aim of this
study is to provide knowledge about how satellite communication works and what are the usage of mobile phones
in organizations in Pakistan This report is very helpful for those companies who want to work using satellite
communications and for those who want to study satellite communications, GSM or GPS and all other related
features to GSM world.

The first section of the work consists of the introduction of cellular network, what was the reason of birth of
GSM, satellites in general, communication satellites, telecommunication satellites, GSM, GPS, GPRS, and all
other features and components supported by satellite communication and a final chapter which describes the
research carried out to identify how some companies are taking advantage of using mobile phone
communications, and identifies future potential for changed business practice.

The theoretical part of the project has been referenced to a range of books, journal articles and websites. The latter
parts of the project that relate this theory to actual practice in Pakistan has made use of the author’s gathered
knowledge form the working environment in Pakistan, in particular Thuraya Telecommunication Company, and
the authors own place of work, “MOBILINKGSM”.

The dissertation shows the potential for greater and greater use of mobile communications technology in Pakistan
and identifies particular areas of greatest advantage.

DEDICATION

With the grace of Almighty Allah, the report was given to me and The Bolton institute has come to the successful
end this project report is about “The working and technology of satellite phones in Pakistan”.

I am dedicating this project to my great parents who helped me all departments of my life and because of them I
am now able spend a successful life and face all the challenges of life.
My parents encouraged me in all my good works and efforts, this is just a project even my whole life is dedicated
to my great parents.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

With the grace of Almighty Allah, the project give to me by Bolton institute has come to the successful end the
most valuable assistance of Mr. Mathew Shafagi and Dr. Julian Coleman with out there help I wouldn’t have
completed this repot as success.

This thesis is about the working and technology of satellite phone in Pakistan. I am confident that this just an
experience will proved to be the foundation stone for confident building and relatively more and more challenging
jobs would be assigned to me.
TABLE OF CONTENT
TITLE……………………………………………………………………………………………………….…….1-2
ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………………………………………...…....3
DEDICATION……………………………………………………………………...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT…………………………………………………………………………………………..5
TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………………………………………………6-8
CHAPTER#1______________________________________________________________________________ 9
INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGY……………………………………………………………………….9
SATELLITES…………………………………………………………………….……………………………..…10
WHAT IS A SATELLITE ? ………………………………………………………………………………………11
HOW IS A SATELLITE LAUNCHED INTO AN ORBIT?……………………………………………………...12
INERTIAL GUIDANCE SYSTEMS: …………………………………………………………………………….13
WHAT IS A SATELLITE LAUNCH WINDOW?………………………………………………………………..14
WHAT KEEPS OBJECTS IN ORBIT?………………………………………………………………………..14-16
CAN WE IMITATE NATURE? (ARTIFICIAL SATELLITES) …………………………………………….16-17
WHAT IS INSIDE A TYPICAL SATELLITE? ………………………………….……………………...……17-19
CHAPTER#2___________________________________________________________________________20-21
COMMUNICATION SATELLITE………………………………….………………………………………...20-21
WHY SATELLITES FOR COMMUNICATIONS……………………………………………………………….21
LOW EARTH-ORBITING COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITES: ……………………………………………..21
GEOSYNCHRONOUS COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITES: ……………………………………………..21-22
COMMUNICATION SATELLITE HISTORY………………………………………………………….22-24
BASIC COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE COMPONENTS: ………………………………….
BASIC COMPONENTS OF A COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE LINK: ……………………….…….…24-26
COMMUNICATIONS SATELLIE CORPORATION: …………………………………………………….…26-27
FUTURE COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE: …………………………………………………..………….27-28
CHAPTER#3_____________________________________________________________________________ 29
TELECOMMUNICATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………...29
THURAYA SATELLITE: ………………………………….………………………………………………….….29
THURAYA COVERAGE………………………………….……………………………………………………...30
SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE: ………………………………….…………………………………………………31
ROAMMING PARTNERS:- ………………………………….………………………………………………31-32
SATELLITE FEATURES: ……...………………………………….………………………………………….32-40
CHAPTER#4_____________________________________________________________________________ 40
THE GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) …………………….………………………………………40-42
HOW GPS WORKS: ………………………………….…………………………………………………………..
HOW ACCURATE IS GPS? ………………………………….……………………………………………….
THE GPS SATELLITE SYSTEM: ………………………………….…………………………………………….
WHAT’S THE SIGNAL? ………………………………….…………………………………………………..
CHAPTER#5_____________________________________________________________________________ 45
CELLUAR NETWORK………………………………….………………………………………………………..
INTRODUCTION OF CELLULAR NETWORK……………………………………………………………..
ARRANGEMENT OF CELLS IN A CLUSTR………….………………………………………………………..
RE-USING FREQUENCY: ………………………………….………………………………………………...46-47
CELL: SHAPE AND SIZE………………………………….……………………………………………………..
ALLOWING MOBILITY OF SUBSCRIBER: ………………………………….………………………………..
REGISTER TO THE NEAREST BASE SATAION: ……………………………………………………………..
MOVING THE MOBILE PHONE FROM ONE CELL TO ANOTHER…………………………………………
THE FUTERE: ………………………………….………………………………….………………………….…..
ABOUT CELLULAR: ………………………………….…………………………………………………………
HOW THE CELLULAR SYSTEM WORKS: ………………………………….………………………………...
_____________________________________________________________________________ 52
GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR MOBILES (GSM) ………………………………….…………………………………
WHAT IS GSM TECHNOLOGY? ………………………………….……………………………………………
GSM FACTS………………………………….………………………………….……………………….……
GPRS BASICS……………………….………….………………………………….……………….…………
PACKET CONTROL UNIT (PCU) ………………………………….…………………………………….……..
PURPOSE AND ADVANTAGES OF GPRS………………………………….………………………….………
INTEGRATION OF GPRS WITH GSM………………………………….………………………………………
PROTOCOL ARCHITECTURE…………………………………….…………………………………………….
_____________________________________________________________________________ 66
CASE STUDY AND RESEARCH………………………………………………………………………………..66
INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………………………………66
USAGE OF MOBILE COMMUNICATION IN PAKISTAN…………………………………………………….66
WAYS OF USING MOBILE PHONE TECHNOLOGY IN PAKISTAN……………………………….……66-67
THE OPPERTUNITIES FOR BUSINESS BY USING MOBILE PHONES OR SATELLITE PHONES…...67-68
PRACTICAL APROACH…………………………………………………………………………………………64
COMPANIES…………………………………………………………………………………………………..64-79
_____________________________________________________________________________ 80
CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………………………………………………….80
APPENDIX & GLOSSARY FOR THIS PROJECT………………………………….………………………..
REFERENCE LIST………………………………….…………………………………………………………92-95
BIBLOGRAPHY………………………………….……………………………………………………………….96
CHAPTER# 1

INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGY

INTRODUCTION.

This Project has been done to understand the Working and Technology of Satellite Phones and its need in different
departments of an organization in Pakistan. It studies that how companies are utilizing mobile phone technology
in their business, how the Use of mobile phone in an organization can be a good source of communication and the
extent to which they can save time and cost. Pakistan being a third world country still uses some of the latest
Mobile phone technologies and services that are used in the modern world today. My study focuses on how large,
small and medium size organizations use these technologies in order to benefit their business. There are very few
organization who finds it more convenient to go on a single mobile system, call charges between the same mobile
phone service provider is far less than switching between different networks, because more networks you switch
more costs involve. The study also promotes mobile phone communication in different organizations showing
how they can utilize mobile phone communication from top to bottom in an organization. Recommendations are
made to show how they can improve their communication using mobile phone communication.

DATA GATHERING AND ANALYSIS

The Internet has been the major resource in finding out about the technology and how it is used in other
companies and other economies. Following this desk based research, a number of case studies were conducted,
consulting and visiting major organizations in Pakistan who use Mobile phone technologies to find out at what
extent they use the technologies and how. Most of all the author’s own place of work MOBILINK that is the
largest mobile phone service provider in Pakistan, which helped in concluding working and technology of mobile
phones. I w i l l c o n t r i b u t e k n o w l e d g e , t h e r i g h t c u r r i c u l u m t o m a k e t h i s s t u d y a s u c c e s s .
SATELLITES – AN EXPLANATION OF THE TECHNOLOGY AND THE
POTENTIAL BUSINESS APPLICATIONS

INTRODUCTION:

Not so long ago, satellites were exotic, top-secret devices. They were used primarily in a military capacity, for
activities such as navigation and espionage ( h o w s t u f f w o r k ( 2 0 0 3 ) [ O n l i n e ] . [ O c t 2 0 0 3 ] .
Av a i l a b l e f r o m Wo r l d Wi d e We b h t t p : / / e l e c t r o n i c s . h o w s t u f f w o r k s . c o m / s a t e l l i t e . h t m .

Now they are an essential part of our daily lives. We see and recognize their use in weather reports, television
transmission by DIRECTV and the DISH Network, and everyday telephone calls. In many other instances,
satellites play a background role that escapes our notice ( h o w s t u f f w o r k ( 2 0 0 3 ) [ O n l i n e ] . [ O c t 2 0 0 3 ] .
Av a i l a b l e f r o m Wo r l d Wi d e We b h t t p : / / e l e c t r o n i c s . h o w s t u f f w o r k s . c o m / s a t e l l i t e . h t m .

Some newspapers and magazines are timelier because they transmit their text and images to multiple printing sites
via satellite to speed local distribution. ( h o w s t u f f w o r k ( 2 0 0 3 ) [ O n l i n e ] . [ O c t 2 0 0 3 ] . Av a i l a b l e
f r o m w o r l d Wi d e We b h t t p : / / i b s . h o w s t u f f w o r k s . c o m / i b s / d e s / s a t e l l i t e . h t m

Before sending signals down the wire into our houses, cable television depends on satellites to distribute its
transmissions. The most reliable taxi and limousine drivers are sometimes using the satellite-based Global
Positioning System (GPS) to take us to the proper destination.
(how stuff work (2003)[Online]. [Oct 2003]. Av a i l a b l e from world Wi d e We b
http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/satellite.htm
The goods we buy often reach distributors and retailers more efficiently and safely because trucking firms track
the progress of their vehicles with the same GPS. Sometimes firms will even tell their drivers that they are
driving too fast Emergency radio beacons from downed aircraft and distressed ships may reach search-and-rescue
teams when satellites relay the signal.
( h o w s t u f f w o r k ( 2 0 0 3 ) [ O n l i n e ] . [ O c t 2 0 0 3 ] . Av a i l a b l e
f r o m w o r l d Wi d e We b h t t p : / / e l e c t r o n i c s . h o w s t u f f w o r k s . c o m / s a t e l l i t e . h t m
WHAT IS A SATELLITE?
A satellite is basically any object that revolves around a planet in a circle or elliptical path. The moon is Earth’s
original, natural satellite, and there are many manmade (artificial) satellites, usually closer to Earth.
(Howstuffwork2003)[Online]. [Oct, 2003].
http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/satellite1.htm.

The path a satellite follows is an orbit. In the orbit, the farthest point from Earth is the apogee, and the nearest
point is the perigee. Artificial satellites generally are not mass-produced. Most satellites are custom built to
perform their intended functions. Exceptions include the GPS satellites (with over 20 copies in orbit) and the
Iridium satellites (with over 60 copies in orbit) destination
(how stuff work (2003)[Online]. [Oct, 2 0 0 3 ] . Av a i l a b l e from Wo r l d Wi d e We b
http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/satellite1.htm

Approximately 23,000 items of space junk – objects large enough to track with radar that were inadvertently
placed in orbit or have outlived their usefulness – are floating above Earth. The actual number varies depending
on which agency is counting. Payloads that go into the wrong orbit, satellites with run-down batteries, and
leftover rocket boosters all contribute to the count. This online catalog of satellites has almost 26,000 entries!
Destination.
( h o w s t u f f w o r k ( 2 0 0 3 ) [ O n l i n e ] . [ O c t , 2 0 0 3 ] . Av a i l a b l e
f r o m w o r l d Wi d e We b h t t p : / / e l e c t r o n i c s . h o w s t u f f w o r k s . c o m / s a t e l l i t e 1 . h t m

Although anything that is in orbit around Earth is technically a satellite, the term “Satellite” is typically used to
describe a useful object placed in orbit purposely to perform some specific mission or task. We commonly hear
about weather satellites, communication satellites and scientific satellites.

HOW IS A SATELLITE LAUNCHED INTO AN ORBIT?


Satellite today gets into orbit by riding on a rocket or by riding in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. Several
countries and businesses have rocket launch capabilities, and satellites as large as several tons make it safely into
orbit on a regular basis For most satellite launches, the scheduled launch rocket is aimed straight up at first. This
gets the rocket through the thickest part of the atmosphere most quickly and best minimizes fuel consumption.
( h o w s t u f f w o r k ( 2 0 0 3 ) [ O n l i n e ] . [ O c t , 2 0 0 3 ] . Av a i l a b l e
f r o m w o r l d Wi d e We b h t t p : / / e l e c t r o n i c s . h o w s t u f f w o r k s . c o m / s a t e l l i t e 2 . h t m .

After a rocket launches straight up, the rocket control mechanism uses the inertial guidance system to calculate
necessary adjustments to the rocket’s nozzles to tilt the rocket to the course described in the flight plan. In most
cases, the flight plan calls for the rocket to head east because Earth rotates to the east, giving the launch vehicle a
free boost. The strength of this boost depends on the rotational velocity of Earth at the launch location. The boost
is greatest at the equator, where the distance around Earth is greatest and so rotation is fasts.
( h o w s t u f f w o r k 2 0 0 3 ) [ O n l i n e ] . [ O c t , 2 0 0 3 ] . Av a i l a b l e f r o m w o r l d Wi d e We b
http://ibs.howstuffworks.com/ibs/houwx/satellite2.htm
INERTIAL GUIDANCE SYSTEMS:

A rocket must be controlled very precisely to insert a satellite into the desired orbit. An inertial guidance system
(IGS) inside the rocket makes this control possible. The IGS determines a rocket’s exact location and orientation
by precisely measuring all of the accelerations the rocket experiences, using gyroscopes and accelerometers.
Mounted in gimbals, the gyroscopes” axes stay pointing in the same direction. This gyroscopically stable platform
contains accelerometers that measure changes in acceleration on three different axes. If it knows exactly where
the rocket was at launch and it knows the accelerations the rocket experiences during flight, the IGS can calculate
the rocket’s position and orientation in space
( h o w s t u f f w o r k ( 2 0 0 3 ) [ O n l i n e ] . [ O c t , 2 0 0 3 ] . Av a i l a b l e f r o m
w o r l d Wi d e We b h t t p : / / i b s . h o w s t u f f w o r k s . c o m / i b s / h o u w x / s a t e l l i t e 2 . h t m

How big is the boost from an equatorial launch? To make a rough estimate, we can determine Earth’s
circumference by multiplying its diameter by pi (3.1416). The diameter of Earth is approximately 7,926 miles
(12,753 km). Multiplying by pi yields a circumference of something like 24,900 miles (40,065 km). To travel
around that circumference in 24 hours, a point on Earth’s surface has to move at 1,038 mph (1,669 kph). A launch
from Cape Canaveral, Florida, doesn’t get as big a boost from Earth’s rotational speed. The Kennedy space
Center’s Launch Complex 39-A one of its launch facilities, is located at 28 degrees 36 minutes 29.7014 seconds
north latitude ( h o w s t u f f w o r k ( 2 0 0 3 ) [ O n l i n e ] . [ O c t , 2 0 0 3 ] . Av a i l a b l e f r o m Wo r l d Wi d e We b
h t t p : / / e l e c t r o n i c s . h o w s t u f f w o r k s . c o m / s a t e l l i t e 2 . h t m . The Earth’s rotational speed there is about
894 mph (1,440 kph). The difference in Earth’s surface speed between the equator and Kennedy Space Center,
then, is about 144 mph (229 kph). (Note: The Earth is actually oblate – fatter around the middle – not a perfect
sphere. For that reason, our estimate of Earth’s circumference is a little small). Considering that rockets can go
thousands of miles per hour, you may wonder why a difference of only 144 mph would even matter. The answer
is that rockets, together with their fuel and their payloads, are very heavy. For example, the February 11, 2000 lift-
off of the Space Shuttle Endeavor with the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission required launching a total weight
of 4,520,415 pounds (2,050,447 kg). It takes a huge amount of energy to accelerate such a mass to 144 mph, and
therefore a significant amount of fuel. Launching from the equator makes a real difference.
Once the rocket reaches extremely thin air, at about 120 miles (193 km) up, the rocket’s navigational system fires
small rockets, just enough to turn the launch vehicle into a horizontal position. The satellite is then released. At
that point, rockets are fired again to ensure some separation between the launch vehicle and the satellite itself.
WHAT IS A SATELLITE LAUNCH WINDOW?

A launch window is a particular period of time in which it will be easier to place the satellite in the orbit necessary
to perform its intended function.
(how stuff work (2003)[Online].[Oct,2003]. Av a i l a b l e from Wo r l d Wi d e We b
http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/satellite4.htm

With the Space Shuttle, an extremely important factor in choosing the launch window is the need to bring down
the astronauts safely if something goes wrong. The astronauts must be able to reach a safe landing area where
rescue personnel can be standing by. For other types of flights, including interplanetary exploration, the launch
window must permit the flight to take the most efficient course to its very distant destination. If weather is bad or
a malfunction occurs during a launch window, the flight must be postponed until the next launch window
appropriate for the flight. If a satellite were launched at the wrong time of the day in perfect weather, the satellite
could end up in an orbit that would not pass over any of its intended users. Timing is everything!

WHAT KEEPS OBJECTS IN ORBIT?

For 10,000 years (or 20,000 or 50,000 or since he was first able to lift his eyes upward) man has wondered about
questions such as “What holds the sun up in the sky?”, “Why doesn’t the moon fall on us?” , and “How do they
(the sun and the moon) return from the far west back to the far east to rise again each day?” most of the answers
which men put forth in those 10,000 or 20,000 or 50,000 years we now classify as superstition, mythology, or
pagan religion. It is only in the last 300 years that we have developed a scientific description of how those bodies
travel. Our description of course is based on fundamental laws put forth by the English genius Sir Isaac Newton in
the late 17th century. Masses attract more strongly and the attraction gets weaker as the bodies are moved farther
apart. Newton’s law of gravity means that the sun pulls on the earth (and every other planet for that matter) and
the earth pulls on the sun.
Furthermore, since both are quite large ( by our standards at least) the force must also be quite large. The question
which every student asks ( well, most students anyway) is, “If the sun and the planets are pulling on each other
with such a large force, why don’t the planets fall into the sun?” The answer is simply (are you ready for this?)
THEY ARE! The Earth, Mars, Venus, Jupiter and Saturn are continuously falling into the Sun. The Moon is
continuously falling into the Earth. Our salvation is that they are also moving “sideways” with a sufficiently large
velocity that by the time the earth has fallen the 93,000,000 miles to the sun it has also moved “sideways” about
93,000,000 miles – far enough to miss the sun. By the time the moon has fallen the 240,000 miles to the earth, it
has moved sideways about 240,000 miles – far enough to miss the earth. This process is repeated continuously as
the earth (and all the other planets) makes their apparently unending trips around the sun and the moon makes its
trips around the earth. A planet, or any other body, which finds itself at any distance from the sun with no
“sideways” velocity will quickly fall without missing the sun, will be drawn into the sun’s interior and will be
cooked to well-done. Only our sideways motion (physicists call it our “angular velocity”) saves us. The same of
course is true for the moon, which would fall to earth but for its angular velocity. This is illustrated in the drawing
below.People sometimes (erroneously) speak of orbiting objects as having “escaped” the effects of gravity, since
passengers experience an apparent weightlessness. Be assured, however, that the force of gravity is at work. Were
it suddenly to be turned off, the object in question would instantly leave its circular orbit, take up a straight line
trajectory, which, in the case of the earth, would leave it about 50 billion miles from the sun after just one century.
Hence the gravitational force between the sun and the earth holds the earth in its orbit. This is shown in the
drawing below, where the earth was happily orbiting the sun until it reached point A, where the force of gravity
was suddenly turned off. The Earth No Longer Orbits the Sun if Gravity is switched off The apparent
weightlessness experienced by the orbiting passenger is the same weightlessness, which he would feel in a falling
elevator or an amusement park ride. The earth orbiting the sun or the moon orbiting the earth might be compared
to a rock on the end of a string, which you swing in a circle around your head. The string holds the rock in place
and is continuously pulling it toward you head. Because the rock is moving sideways however, it always misses
your head. Were the string to be suddenly broken, the rock would be released from its orbit and fly off in a
straight line, just as earth did in the drawing above.One question, which one might ask, is “Does the time required
to complete an orbit depend on the distance at which the object is orbiting?” IN fact, Kepler answered this
question several hundred years ago, using the data of an earlier astronomer, Tycho Brahe.After years of trial and
error analysis (by hand – no computers, no calculators), Kepler discovered that the quantity R 3 / T2 was the same
for every planet in our solar system. (R is the distance at which a planet orbits the sun, T is the time required for
one complete trip around the sun). hence, an object which orbits at a larger distance.will require longer to
complete one orbit than one which is orbiting at a smaller distance. One can understand this at least qualitatively
in terms of our “falling and missing” model. The planet which is at a larger distance requires longer to fall to
where it would strike the sun. as a result, it takes a longer time to complete the ¼ trip around the sun which is
necessary to make a circular orbit.
CAN WE IMITATE NATURE? (ARTIFICIAL SATELLITES)

Very soon after Newton’s laws ere published, people realized that in principle it should be possible to launch an
artificial satellite which would orbit the earth just as the moon does. A simple calculation, however, using the
equations, which we developed above, will show that an artificial satellite, orbiting near the surface of the earth
(R = 4000 miles) will have a period of approximately 90 minutes. This corresponds to a sideway velocity (needed
in order to “miss” the earth as it falls), of approximately 17,000 miles/hour (that’s about 7 miles/second). To
visualize the “missing the earth” feature, let’s imagine a cannon firing a cannon ball .In the first frame of the
cartoon, we see it firing fairly weakly. he cannonball describes a parabolic arc as we expect and lands perhaps a
few hundred yards away. In the second frame, we bring up a little larger cannon, load a little more powder and
shoot a little farther. The ball lands perhaps a few hundred miles away. We can see just a little of the earth’s
curvature, but it doesn’t really affect anything. In the third frame, we use our super-shooter and the cannonball is
shot hard enough that it travels several thousand miles. Clearly the curvature of the earth has had an effect. The
ball travels much farther than it would have had the earth been flat. Finally, our mega-super-big cannot fires the
cannonball at the unbelievable velocity of 7 miles/second or nearly 17,000 miles/hour. (Remember – the fastest
racecars can make 250 miles/hour. The fastest jet planes can do a 2 or 3 thousand miles/hour). The result of this
prodigious shot is that the ball misses the earth as it falls. Nevertheless, the earth’s gravitational pull causes it to
continuously change direction and continuously fall. The result is a “cannonball” which is orbiting the earth. In
the absence of gravity, however, the original throw (even the shortest, slow one) would have continued in a
straight line, leaving the earth far behind. For many years, such a velocity was unthinkable and the artificial
satellite remained a dream. Eventually, however, the technology (rocket engines, guidance systems, etc.) caught
up with the concept, largely as a result of weapons research started by the Germans during the Second World War.
Finally, in 1957, the first artificial satellite, called Sputnik, was launched by the Soviets. Consisting of little more
than a spherical case with a radio transmitter, it caused quite a stir. Americans were fascinated listening to the
“beep, beep, beep” of Sputnik appear and then fade out as it came overhead every 90 minutes. It was also quite
frightening to think of the Soviets circling overhead inasmuch as they were our mortal enemies. After Sputnik, it
was only a few years before the U.S. launched its own satellite; the soviets launched Yuri Gagarin, the first man to
orbit the earth; and the U.S. launched John Glenn, the first American in orbit. All of these flights were at
essentially the same altitude ( a few hundred miles) and completed one trip around the earth approximately every
90 minutes.People were well aware, however, that the period would be longer if they were able to reach higher
altitudes. In particular Arthur Clarke pointed out in the mid-1940s that a satellite orbiting at an altitude of 22,300
miles would required exactly 24 hours to orbit the earth. Hence such an orbit is called “geosynchronous”
or “geostationary”. If in addition it were orbiting over the equator, it would appear, to an observer on the earth, to
stand still in the sky. Raising a satellite to such an altitude, however, required still more rocket boost, so that the
achievement of a geosynchronous orbit did not take place until 1963. ( P a r t 1 o f s e c t i o n 1 o f s a t e l l i t e
communication.
( 2 0 0 3 ) [ O n l i n e ] . [ O c t , 2 0 0 3 ] . Av a i l a b l e f r o m Wo r l d Wi d e We b h t t p : / / c t d . g r c . n a s a . g o v / r l e o n a r
d/regs1i.html

WHAT IS INSIDE A TYPICAL SATELLITE?

Satellite come in all shapes and sizes and play a variety of roles. For example, Weather satellites help
meteorologists predict the weather or see what’s happening at the moment. Typical weather satellites include the
TIROS, COSMOS and GOES satellites. The satellites generally contain cameras that can return photos of Earth’s
weather, either from fixed geostationary positions or from polar. orbits. Communications satellites allow
telephone and data conversations to be relayed through the satellite. Typical communications satellites include
Telstar and Intelsat. The most important feature of a communications satellite is the transponder – a radio that
receives a conversation at one frequency and then amplifies it and retransmits it back to Earth on another
frequency. A satellite normally contains hundreds or thousands of transponders. Communications satellites are
usually geosynchronous.
Broadcast satellites broadcast television signals from one point to another (similar to communications satellites).
Scientific satellites perform a variety of scientific missions. The Hubble Space Telescope is the most famous
scientific satellite, but there are many others looking at everything from sunspots to gamma rays Navigational
satellites help ships and planes navigate. The most famous are the GPS NAVSTAR satellites.
Rescue satellites respond to radio distress signals.
Earth observation satellites observe the planet for changes in everything from temperature to forestation to ice-
sheet coverage. The most famous are the LANDSAT series.
( h o w s t u f f w o r k ( 2 0 0 3 ) [ O n l i n e ] . [ O c t , 2 0 0 3 ] . Av a i l a b l e f r o m w o r l d Wi d e We b h t t p : / / i b s . h o w s t
uffworks.com/ibs/houwx/satellite2.htm
Military satellites are up there, but much of the actual application information remains secret. Intelligence-
gathering possibilities using high-tech electronic and sophisticated photographic-equipment reconnaissance are
endless. Applications may include:

Relaying encrypted.
Communications.
Nuclear monitoring.
Observing enemy movements
Early warning of missile launches Eavesdropping on terrestrial.
Radio links Radar imaging.
Photography (using what are essentially large telescopes that take pictures of militarily interesting areas)

Despite the significant differences between all of these satellites, they have several things in common. For
example:

All of them have a metal or composite frame and body, usually known as the bus. The bus holds everything
together in space and provides enough strength to survive the launch.

All of them have a source of power (usually solar cells) and batteries for storage. Arrays of solar cells provide
power to charge rechargeable batteries. Newer designs include the use of fuel cells. Power on most satellites is
precious and very limited. Nuclear power has been used on space probes to other planets (read this page for
details). Power systems are constantly monitored, and data on power and all other onboard systems is sent to
Earth stations in the form of telemetry signals.

All of them have an onboard computer to control and monitor the different systems.
All of them have a radio system and antenna. At the very least, most satellites have a radio transmitter/receiver so
that the ground-control crew can request status information from the satellite and monitor its health. Many
satellites can be controlled in various ways from the ground to do anything from change the orbit to reprogram the
computer system.

All of them have an attitude control system. The ACS keeps the satellite pointed in the right direction.

The Hubble Space Telescope has a very elaborate control system so that the telescope can point at the same
position in space for hours or days at a time (despite the fact that the telescope travels at 17,000 mph!) The system
contains gyroscopes, accelerometers, a reaction wheel stabilization system, thrusters and a set of sensors that
watch guide stars to determine position.
(how stuff work ( 2 0 0 3 ) [ O n l i n e ] . [ O c t , 2 0 0 3 ] . Av a i l a b l e from Wo r l d Wi d e We b
http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/satellite5.htm
CHAPTER# 2

COMMUNICATION SATELLITE

COMMUNICATION SATELLITE

WHY SATELLITES FOR COMMUNICATIONS

By the end of World War II, the world had had a taste of “global communications.” Edward R. Murrow’s radio
broadcasts from London had electrified American listeners. We had, of course, been able to do transatlantic
telephone calls and telegraph via underwater cables for almost 50 years. At exactly this time, however, a new
phenomenon was born. The first television programs were being broadcast, but the greater amount of information
required to transmit television pictures required that they operate at much higher frequencies than radio stations
for example, the very first commercial radio station (KDKA in Pittsburgh) operated (and still does) at 1020 on the
dial. This number stood for 1020 Kilohertz – the frequency at which the station transmitted. Frequency is simply
the number of times that an electrical signal “wiggles” in 1 second. Frequency is measured in Hertz. One Hertz
means that the signal wiggles 1 time/second. A frequency of 1020 kilohertz means that the electrical signal from
that station wiggles 1,020,000 times in one second.

Television signals, however required much higher frequencies because they were transmitting much more
information – namely the picture. A typical television station (channel 7 for example) would operate at a
frequency of 175 MHz. As a result, television signals would not propagate the way radio signals did.

Both radio and television frequency signals can propagate directly from transmitter to receiver. This is a very
dependable signal, but it is more or less limited to line of sight communication. The mode of propagation
employed for long distance (1000s of miles) radio communication was a signal which traveled by bouncing off
the charged layers of the atmosphere ( ionosphere) and returning to earth. The higher frequency television signals
did not bounce off the ionosphere and as a result disappeared into space in a relatively short distance. This is
shown in the diagram below.
Consequently, television reception was a “line-of-sight” phenomenon, and television broadcasts were limited to a
range of 20 or 30 miles or perhaps across the continent by coaxial cable. Transatlantic broadcasts were totally out
of the question. If you saw European news events on television, they were probably delayed at least 12 hours, and
involved the use of the fastest airplane available to carry conventional motion pictures back to the U.S. In
addition, of course, the appetite for transatlantic radio and telephone was increasing rapidly. Adding this increase
to the demands of the new television medium, existing communications capabilities were simply not able to
handle all of the requirements. By the late 1950s the newly developed artificial satellites seemed to offer the
potential for satisfying many of these needs.

LOW EARTH-ORBITING COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITES:

In 1960, the simplest communications satellite ever conceived was launched. It was called Echo, because it
consisted only of a large (100 feet in diameter) aluminized plastic balloon. Radio and TV signals transmitted to
the satellite would be reflected back to earth and could be received by any station within view of the satellite.

Unfortunately, in its low earth orbit, the Echo satellite circled the earth every ninety minutes. This meant that
although virtually everybody on earth would eventually see it, no one person, ever saw it for more than 10
minutes or so out of every 90 minute orbit. In 1958, the Score satellite had been put into orbit. It carried a tape
recorder which would record messages as it passed over an originating station and then rebroadcast them as it
passed over the destination. Once more, however, it appeared only briefly every 90 minutes – a serious
impediment to real communications. In 1962, NASA launched the Telstar satellite for AT&T.

Telstar’s orbit was such that it could “see” Europe” and the US simultaneously during one part of its orbit. During
another part of its orbit it could see both Japan and the U.S. As a result, it provided real-time communications
between the United States and those two areas for a few minutes out of every hour.

GEOSYNCHRONOUS COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITES:

The solution to the problem of availability, of course, lay in the use of the geosynchronous orbit. In 1963, the
necessary rocket booster power was available for the first time and the first geosynchronous satellite, Syncom 2,
was launched by NASA. For those who could “see” it, the satellite was available 100% of the time, 24 hours a
day. The satellite could view approximately 42% of the earth. For those outside of that viewing area, of course,
the satellite was NEVER available.

However, a system of three such satellites, with the ability to relay messages from one to the other could
interconnect virtually all of the earth except the Polar Regions. The one disadvantage ( for some purposes) of the
geosynchronous orbit is that the time to transmit a signal from earth to the satellite and back is approximately ¼
of a second – the time required to travel 22,000 miles up and 22,000 miles back down at the speed of light. For
telephone conversations, this delay can sometimes be annoying. For data transmission and most other uses it is
not significant. In any event, once Syncom had demonstrated the technology necessary to launch a
geosynchronous satellite, a virtual explosion of such satellites followed.

Today, there are approximately 150 communications satellites in orbit, with over 100 in geosynchronous orbit.
One of the biggest sponsors of satellite development was Intelsat, an internationally owned corporation which has
launched 8 different series of satellites ( 4 or 5 of each series) over a period of more than 30 years. Spreading their
satellites around the globe and making provision to relay from one satellite to another, they made it possible to
transmit 1000s of phone calls between almost any two points on the earth. It was also possible for the first time,
due to the large capacity of the satellites, to transmit live television pictures between virtually any two points on
earth. By 1964 ( if you could stay up late enough), you could for the first time watch the Olympic games live from
Tokyo. A few years later of course you could watch the Vietnam War live on the evening news. ( P a r t 2 o f
s a t e l l i t e c o m m u n i c a t i o n ( 2 0 0 3 ) [ O n l i n e ] . [ O c t , 2 0 0 3 ] . Av a i l a b l e f r o m Wo r l d Wi d e We b
http://ctd.grc.nasa.gov/rleonard/regs1ii.html

COMMUNICATION SATELLITE HISTORY

The first communications satellite was Echo 1; launched in 1960, it was a large metallized balloon that reflected
radio signals striking it. This passive mode of operation quickly gave way to the active or repeater mode, in which
complex electronic equipment aboard the satellite receives a signal from the earth, amplifies it, and transmits it to
another point on the earth. Relay 1 and Telstar 1, both launched in 1962, were the first active communications
satellites; Telstar 1 relayed the first live television broadcast across the Atlantic Ocean. However, satellites in the
Relay and Telstar program were not in geosynchronous orbits, which is the secret to continuous communications
networks. Syncom 3, launched in 1964, was the first stationary earth satellite. It was used to telecast the 1964
Olympic games in Tokyo to the United States, the first television program to cross the Pacific Ocean. In
principle, three geosynchronous satellites located symmetrically in the plane of the earth’s equator can provide
complete coverage of the earth’s surface. In practice, many more are used in order to increase the system’s
message-handling capacity. The first commercial geosynchronous satellite, Intelsat 1 (better known as Early
Bird), was launched by COMSAT in 1965. a network of 19 Intelsat satellites in geosynchronous orbit now
provides instantaneous communication throughout the world. In addition, numerous communication satellites
have been orbited by commercial organization and individual nations for a variety telecommunications tasks.

Artificial satellite that functions as part of a global radio-communications network. Echo 1, the first
communications satellite, launched in 1960, was an instrumented inflatable sphere that passively reflected radio
signals back to earth. Later satellites carried with them electronic devices for receiving, amplifying, and
rebroadcast signals to earth. Relay 1, launched in 1962 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
(NASA) was the basis for Telstar 1, a commercially sponsored experimental satellite. Geosynchronous orbits ( in
which the satellite remains over a single spot on the earth’s surface) were first used by NASA’s Syncom series and
Early Bird (later renamed Intelsat 1), the world’s first commercial communications satellite. In 1962, the U.S.
Congress passed the Communications Satellite Act, which created the Communications Satellite Corporation
(Comsat). Agencies from 17 other countries joined Comsat in 1964 in forming the International
Telecommunications Satellite Consortium ( Intelsat) for the purpose of establishing a global commercial
communications network.

Renamed the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization in 1974, Intelsat now has 143 member
agencies, a network of 17 satellites in geosynchronous orbits that provides instantaneous communications
throughout the world, and more than 2,000 earth station to transmit and receive signals to and from the satellites.
It has orbited eight series of Intelsat satellites, beginning with Intelsat 1 ( Early Bird) in 1965. the satellites in the
current series, Intelsat 8, can carry 22,500 two-way telephone calls and three color television broadcasts at the
same time; this could be increased to as many as 112,500 two-way telephone circuits using advanced electronic
equipment.

Comsat is also the U.S. representative to the International Mobile Satellite Organization (Inmarsat). Established in
1979 to serve the maritime industry by developing satellite communications for ship management and distress and
safety applications, Inmarsat was originally called the International Maritime Satellite Organization but changed
its name to reflect its expansion into land, mobile, and aeronautical communications. Its users now include
thousands of people who live or work in remote areas without reliable terrestrial networks. Inmarsat presently
represents 86 member countries and has nine satellites in geosynchronous orbits four of these satellites, the latest
Inmarsat-3 generation, provide overlapping global coverage, and the remainder are available as spares or for
leasing to other organizations.

In addition to the Intelsat and Inmarsat satellites, many others are in orbit. These are used by individual countries,
organizations, and commercial ventures for internal communications or for business or military use. A new
generation of satellites, called direct-broadcast satellites, transmits directly to small domestic antennas to provide
such services as cable like television programming.
(Satellite, artificial -& gt; Typ e s of Satellites on Encyclopedia.com 2002
0 0 3 ) [ O n l i n e ] . [ O c t , 2 0 0 3 ] . Av a i l a b l e f r o m Wo r l d Wi d e We b
h t t p : / / w w w. e n c y c l o p e d i a . c o m / h t m l / s e c t i o n / s a t e l a r t _ Ty p e s o f S a t e l l i t e s . a s p

BASIC COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE COMPONENTS:

Every communications satellite in its simplest form (whether low earth or geosynchronous) involves the
transmission of information from an originating ground station to the satellite ( the uplink), followed by a
retransmission of the information from the satellite back to the ground ( the downlink). The downlink may either
be to a select number of ground stations or it may be broadcast to everyone in a large area. Hence the satellite
must have a receiver and a receive antenna, a transmitter and a transmit antenna, some method for connecting the
uplink to the downlink for retransmission, and prime electrical power to run all of the electronics. The exact
nature of these components will differ, depending on the orbit and the system architecture, but every
communications satellite must have these basic components.

BASIC COMPONENTS OF A COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE LINK:

TRANSMITTERS:

The amount of power which a satellite transmitter needs to send out depends a great deal on whether it is in low
earth orbit or in geosynchronous orbit. This is a result of the fact that the geosynchronous satellite is at an altitude
of 22,300 miles, while the low earth satellite is only a few hundred miles. The geosynchronous satellite is nearly
100 times as far away as the low earth satellite. We can show fairly easily that this means the higher satellite
would need almost 10,000 times as much power as the low-orbiting one, if everything else were the same.
(Fortunately, of course, we change some other things so that we don’t need 10,000 times as much power.)
For either geosynchronous or low earth satellites, the power put out by the satellite transmitter is really puny
compared to that of a terrestrial radio station. Your favorite rock station probably boasts of having many kilowatts
of power. By contrast, a 200-watt transmitter would be very strong for a satellite.

ANTENNAS:

One of the biggest differences between a low earth satellite and a geosynchronous satellite is in their antennas. As
mentioned earlier, the geosynchronous satellite would require nearly 10,000 times more transmitter power, if all
other components were the same. One of the most straightforward ways to make up the difference, however, is
through antenna design. Virtually all antennas in use today radiate energy preferentially in some direction. An
antenna used by a commercial terrestrial radio station, for example, is trying to reach people to the north, south,
east, and west. However, the commercial station will use an antenna that radiates very little power straight up or
straight down. Since they have very few listeners in those directions (except maybe for coal miners and passing
airplanes) power sent out in those directions would be totally wasted.

The communications satellite carries this principle even further. All of its listeners are located in an even smaller
area, and a properly designed antenna will concentrate most of the transmitter power within that area, wasting
none in directions where there are no listeners. The easiest way to do this is simply to make the antenna larger.
Doubling the diameter of a reflector antenna ( a big “dish”) will reduce the area of the beam spot to one fourth of
what it would be with a smaller reflector. We describe this in terms of the gain of the antenna. Gain simply tells us
how much more power will fall on 1 square centimeter (or square meter or square mile) with this antenna than
would fall on that same square centimeter ( or square meter or square mile) if the transmitter power were spread
uniformly (isotropically) over all directions. The larger antenna described above would have four times the gain
of the smaller one. This is one of the primary ways that the geosynchronous satellite makes up for the apparently
larger transmitter power which it requires. One other big difference between the geosynchronous antenna and the
low earth antenna is the difficulty of meeting the requirement that the satellite antennas always be “pointed” at the
earth. For the geosynchronous satellite, of course, it is relatively easy. As seen from the earth station, the satellite
never appears to move any significant distance. As seen from the satellite, the earth station never appears to move.
We only need to maintain the orientation of the satellite. The low earth orbiting satellite, on the other hand, as
seen from the ground is continuously moving. It zooms across our field of view in 5 or 10 minutes.
Likewise, the earth station, as seen from the satellite is a moving target. As a result, both the earth station and the
satellite need some sort of tracking capability which will allow its antennas to follow the target during the time
That it is visible. The only alternative is to make that antenna beam so wide that the intended receiver ( or
transmitter) is always within it. Of course, making the beam spot larger decreases the antenna gain as the
available power is spread over a larger area, which in turn increases the amount of power which the transmitter
must provide.

POWER GENERATION:

You might wonder why we don’t actually use transmitters with thousand of watts of power, like your favorite
radio station does. You might also have figured out the answer already. There simply isn’t that much power
available on the spacecraft. There is no line from the power company to the satellite. The satellite must generate
all of its own power. For a communications satellite, that power usually is generated by large solar panels covered
with solars cells-just like the ones in your solar-powered calculator. These convert sunlight into electricity. Since
there is a practical limit to the how big a solar panel can be, there is also a practical limit to the amount of power
which can generated. In addition, unfortunately, transmitters are not very good at converting input power to
radiated power so that 1000 watts of power into the transmitter will probably result in only 100 or 150 watts of
power being radiated. We say that transmitters are only 10 or 15% efficient. In practice the solar cells on the most
“powerful” satellites generate only a few thousand watts of electrical power.

Satellite must also be prepared for those periods when the sun is not visible, usually because the earth is passing
between the satellite and the sun. this requires that the satellite have batteries on board which can supply the
required power for the necessary time and then recharge by the time of the next period of eclipse.
( P a r t 3 o f S a t e l l i t e C o m m u n i c a t i o n s ) [ O n l i n e ] . [ O c t , 2 0 0 3 ] . Av a i l a b l e f r o m Wo r l d Wi d e
We b h t t p : / / c t d . g r c . n a s a . g o v / r l e o n a r d / r e g s 1 i i i . h t m l

COMMUNICATIONS SATELLIE CORPORATION:


(Comsat), organization incorporated (1962) by an act of Congress to establish a commercial system of
international communications using artificial satellites. Although government sponsored, it was financed by a
public stock issue. The launching in 1965 of its first satellite, Early Bird, also known as Intelsat 1, inaugurated a
transatlantic service; Asian service was established 18 months later. With more than 140 representatives of other
nations, Comsat is a member of the International Telecommunication Satellite Organization, Intelsat (formerly
called the International Telecommunications Satellite Consortium). Through member-company satellites and
earth stations around the world, the consortium provides for international communications via telephone and
television. Comsat is also the U.S. representative to the International Mobile Satellite Organization, Inmarsat
(formerly called the International Maritime Satellite Organization). Established in 1979 to serve the maritime
industry by developing satellite communications for ship management sand distress and safety applications,
Inmarsat presently has 86 member countries and has expanded into land, mobile, and aeronautical
communications.
(Communications Satellite Corporation on
E n c y c l o p e d i a . c o m ) [ O n l i n e ] . [ O c t , 2 0 0 3 ] . Av a i l a b l e f r o m w o r l d Wi d e We b
h t t p : / / w w w. e n c y c l o p e d i a . c o m / h t m l / C / C o m m u n S 1 C 1 . a s p

FUTURE COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE:


The nature of future satellite communications systems will depend on the demands of the marketplace (direct
home distribution of entertainment, data transfers between businesses, telephone traffic, cellular telephone traffic,
etc.) ; the cost of manufacturing, launching, and operating various satellite configurations; and the costs and
capabilities of competing systems – especially fiber optic cables, which can carry a huge number of telephone
conversations or television channels. In any case, however, several approaches are now being tested or discussed
by satellite system designers one approach, which is being tested experimentally, is the “switchboard in the sky”
concept. NASA’s Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) consists of a relatively large
geosynchronous satellite with many uplink beams and many downlink beams, each of which covers a rather small
spot (several hundred miles across) on the earth. However, many of the beams are “steerable”. That is to say, the
beams can be moved to a different spot on the earth in a matter of milliseconds, so that one beam provides uplink
or downlink service to a number of locations. Moving the beams in a regular scheduled manner allows the
satellite to gather uplink traffic from a number of locations, store it on board, and then transmit it back to earth
when a downlink beam comes to rest on the intended destination. The speeds at which the traffic is routed and the
agility with which the beams move make the momentary storage and routing virtually invisible to the user. The
ACTS satellite is also unique in that it operates at frequencies of 30 GHz on the uplink and 20 GHz on the
downlink. It is one of the first systems to demonstrate and test such high frequencies for satellite communications.

The ACTS concept involves a single, rather complicated, and expensive geosynchronous satellite. An alternative
approach is to deploy a “constellation” of low earth orbiting satellites. By planning the orbits carefully, some
number (perhaps as few as 20, perhaps as many as 250) of satellites could provide continuous contact with the
entire earth, including the poles. By providing relay links between satellites, it would be possible to provide
communications between any two points on earth, even though the user might only be able to see any one satellite
for a few minutes every hour. Obviously, the success of such a system depends critically on the cost of
manufacturing and launching the satellites. It will be necessary to mass-produce communications satellites, so that
they can turned out quickly and cheaply, the way VCRs are manufactured now. This seems a truly ambitious goal
since until now the average communications satellite might require 6 months to 2 years to manufacture.
Nevertheless, at the present time, several companies including Hughes Electronics, Motorola, and Teledesic, Inc.,
have indicated their intent to undertake such a system.
(part4 satellite C o m m u n i c a t i o n ) [ O n l i n e ] . [ O c t , 2 0 0 3 ] . Av a i l a b l e f r o m Wo r l d Wi d e We b
h t t p : / / c t d . g r c . n a s a . g o v / r l e o n a r d / r e g s 1 i v. h t m l

CHAPTER# 3

TELECOMMUNICATIONS

TELECOMMUNICATIONS:

Control over unmanned space probes and artificial satellites is maintained from the ground at control centers,
where huge electronic computers analyze data and determine the exact moment when a change should be made.
These instructions re relayed to the spacecraft by signals carried on certain radio frequencies. Instruments inside
the craft also use radio signals to send data back to earth. Radio contact with spacecraft divides naturally into
three categories: tracking, telemetry, and control. Tracking is the continuous reporting of a satellite’s or space
probe’s position in space. Telemetry is the transmission of data back to earth by an on-board instrument (e.g.,
camera, Geiger counter, or magnetometer). Control includes the overall direction of a spacecraft to achieve the
intended trajectory. Commands are specific control signals that order execution of a specific maneuver, such as
turning on a camera or firing a retro-rocket.
(Space science. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001) [ O n l i n e ] . [ D e c , 2 0 0 3 ] . Av a i l a b l e f r o m
Wo r l d Wi d e We b h t t p : / / w w w. b a r t l e b y. c o m / 6 5 / s p / s p a c e s c i . h t m l

THURAYA SATELLITE:

Thuraya’s satellites have been specially designed to achieve network capacity of about 13,750 telephone channels.
Thuraya’s hand held mobile terminals are comparable to GSM handsets in terms of size and appearance, as well a
in voice quality.

THURAYA COVERAGE

Thuraya Coverage
Afghanistan Egypt Kuwait Qatar
Albania Eritrea Kyrghyzstan Romania
Algeria Estonia Latvia Russia
Andorra Ethiopia Lebanon Saudi Arabia
Armenia FR of Yugoslavia Liberia Senegal
Austria France Libya Sierra Leone
Azerbaijan Gambia Liechtenstein Slovak Republic
Bahrain Georgia Lithuania Slovenia
Bangladesh Germany Luxembourg Somalia
Belarus, Republic of Ghana Macedonia Spain
Belgium Gibraltar Mali Sri Lanka
Benin Greece Malta Sudan
Bhutan Guernsey Mauritania Switzerland
Bosnia Herzegovina Guinea Moldova, Republic of Syria
Bulgaria Guinea Bissau Monaco Tajikistan
Burkina Faso Hungary Morocco Togo
Cameroon India Nepal Tunis
Central African Republic Iran Netherlands Turkey
Chad Iraq Niger Turkmenistan
Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast) Ireland Nigeria Ukraine
Croatia Isle of Man Oman, Sultanate of United Arab Emirates
Cyprus Italy Pakistan United Kingdom
Czech Republic Jersey Palestine Uzbekistan
Denmark Jordan Poland Yemen
Djibouti Kazakhstan Portugal
SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:

A Superior Mobile Satellite System Thuraya-1 satellite was launched on 21st October 2000; on board a Sea
Launch Zenti-3Sl rocket from the equator in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. It was the heaviest commercial
payload ever launched and the first commercial satellite to employ digital beam forming. Thuraya’s commercial
services have begun in a gradual roll out in a number of countries in 2001.

The Thuraya mobile satellite system is a turnkey project built by Boeing Satellite Systems, formerly Hughes
Space and Communications International, Inc. (HSCI), at the cost of US$ 1 billion. Designed for a lifespan of 12
to 15 years, Thuraya’s satellite will maintain geo-synchronous orbit at 44o East. The contract includes
manufacture of two high power geo-synchronous satellites, the launch of the first satellite, manufacture and
installation of the ground network equipment, the manufacture of nearly a quarter of a million mobile handsets
and the project insurance.

Thuraya’s system has been adapted for efficient operation in both satellite and GSM environments. It provides
high flexibility in managing network resources through a re-programmable satellite payload. This supports
modifications to the system’s coverage area even in the post-launch period and optimizes performance over high
demand areas.

Thuraya’s satellites have been specially designed to achieve network capacity of about 13,750 telephone channels.
Thuraya’s hand held mobile terminals are comparable to GSM handsets in terms of size and appearance, as well
as in voice quality.

ROAMMING PARTNERS:-
Where as Thuraya, which is currently operating satellite phones in Pakistan.
THURAYA has signed roaming agreements with both the GSM operators in Pakistan i.e. Mobilink and Ufone.
Roaming partnerships allows THURAYA subscribers to use their mobile phones in a GSM service area.
THURAYA subscribers can roam within their respective GSM operator’s network. e.g. when you are indoors you
may experience weak satellite signals, to enjoy seamless connectivity you have an option of switching your
handset to the compatible GSM network.
THURAYA subscribers (with THURAYA SIM cards) can access Mobilink or Ufone network area in Pakistan.
Your handset on GSM preference will automatically catch the signals of the operator, whichever has stronger
signals present. You can also exercise your network preference by opting for any particular operator. Please note
that the tariff structures for using any particular GSM network will vary as per individual agreements with each
operator.
GSM subscribers from networks who have roaming agreement with THURAYA can access THURAYA satellite
services anywhere in the coverage area using their existing GSM SIM cards and a THURAYA Handset.
Thuraya’s Frequencies: -

Mobile Links

1-Earth-to-space 1626.5-1660.5 MHz

2-Space-to-Earth 1525.0-1559.0 MHz

Feeder Links

1-Earth-to-space 6425.0-6725.0 MHz


2-Space-to-Earth 3400.0-3625.0 MHz

SATELLITE FEATURES:

250-300 spot beams.

Digital beam forming (which provides for dynamic area coverage and optimizes over change in traffic demand)

Single hop link for mobile-to-mobile communications


High power capacity

Dynamic satellite power control providing 10dB link margins


The Thuraya system is comprised of three key elements – Space Segment, Ground Segment and User Segment.

SPACE SEGMENT
The Space Segment comprises one operational satellite in geo-synchronous orbit, located 36,000 kms above the
equator with one spare satellite ready for deployment. The first operational satellite was successfully launched on
the 21st October 2000 and full commercial service have begun in a gradual roll out starting from April 2001 in
many countries in Thuraya's coverage area.

The Thuraya Geo satellite, which constitutes the Space Segment, is operated and managed by a sophisticated and
integrated ground network known as the Ground Segment. The Ground Segment includes the Satellite Operation
Centre, which monitors and controls satellite movement, ensuring the overall and ongoing maintenance of
satellites in geo-synchronous orbit.

Satellite Overall Design


Number of satellites: 2.
Type of orbit: Geo-synchronous orbit with 6° inclination.
Orbital locations: 44° E and 28.5° E.
Service life of 12 years.
Compatible with Sea Launch and Ariane 5 launch vehicles and others
Supplier: Hughes Space & Communications International, Inc.
Payload Subsystem
12.25-meter aperture deployable satellite antenna.
On-board digital signal processing (DSP) to facilitate interconnectivity between the common feeder link coverage
and the spot beams to make effective use of the feeder link band and to facilitate mobile to mobile links between
any spot beams.
Digital beam-forming capability which will allow Thuraya to reconfigure beams in the coverage area, to enlarge
beams and to activate new beams. It also allows the system to maximise coverage of "hot spots", or those areas
where excess capacity is required.
The flexibility to allocate 20% of the total power to any spot beam.
The flexibility to reuse the spectrum up to 30 times and therefore use the spectrum efficiently.
The signal characteristics of 8 time-multiplexed voice circuits:
Modulation pi/4 QPSK FDMA carrier channel BW 27.7 KHz Channel bit rate is 46.8kbps.

Bus Subsystem

Power
(1) Solar
(2) Beginning of life 13KW
(3) End of life 11KW
(4) Panels are 2 wings of 4 panels each w/dual-junction gallium arsenide cells.

Batteries
(1) 2.250 A-hr cells

Dimension
(1) In Orbit
(2) L, solar arrays 34.5 m (113ft)
(3) W,antenna 17m (55.7 ft)Service life of 12 years.

Stowed

(1) H:7.6m (25 ft)


(2) W:3.75m * 3.75m (12.3 ft)

Weights

(1)5250 Kg (11,576 lb) Launch


(2) 3200 kg (7,056) in orbit (beginning of life)

Thuraya’s Uplink Beacon Station (UBS)


Thuraya’s satellite coverage area consists of over 250 high-gain-spot-beams that are created by a combination of
its 40-foot by 50-foot ellipse antenna and state of-the-art onboard Digital Beam Forming processor. Each spot
beam is about 450 Km in diameter (if measured at coverage center).

Due to the fact that THURAYA satellite is orbiting in an inclined orbit of about ±6° at the beginning of its life, all
spot beams are maintained in their designated location by adopting:
Satellite orbit-normal operation

Continuous Primary-Gateway-upload of beam coefficients and utilizing the On-Board Digital Beam Forming to
compensate for beams’ deformation.
Satellite body pointing correction toward THURAYA coverage center, and hence the large L-Band Antenna
pointing correction, by using a combination of ground Up link Beacon Station (UBS) and Sun sensors on-board
the satellite.
THURAYA system utilizes two UBSs for hot back up in order to provide continuous pointing accuracy of the L-
Band antenna and hence un-interrupted, high availability and high quality service to our valued customers.

THURAYA has set up its second Uplink Beacon Station in Egypt in an agreement with Telecom Egypt (TE), a
prominent telecommunications company in Egypt. The Almaadi installation is one of the leading earth stations in
the Middle East providing satellite communications. Thuraya’s first UBS is located in the Primary Gateway
(PGW) in Sharjah, UAE.

GROUNDSEGMENT

The Ground Segment comprises of the Primary Gateway and the Regional Gateways. A Primary
Gateway, situated in Sharjah, UAE, is responsible for Thuraya’s entire network, in addition to serving as the
MSS’s main digital exchange. Individual Regional gateways could be established later in other countries as
necessary. The Primary Gateway comprises of the satellite control facilities and the Gateway Station.

Satellite Control
SOC (Satellite Operations Center).
UBS: Uplink Beacon Station.
SPCP: Satellite Payload Central Point
Gateway Station
GSS: Gateway Station Subsystem.
NSS: Network Switching Subsystem.
AOC: Advanced Operations Center.

OSS: Operations Support Subsystem.


Regional Gateways (RGW) in different countries within Thuraya Satellite Coverage are
Multiple Gateway network provides diverse access to
PSTN/PLMN567567Regional Gateways operate independently.
Centralized Billing, Customer Administration and Clearing House Services that minimize investment required by
Service Providers and Gateway operators. The design of the regional gateways, which will be based upon that of

the Primary Gateway, will provide the necessary interface with other Thuraya gateways (via satellite) and public
terrestrial networks. Regional gateways will be set up to meet the specific requirements of the local markets.

Segment Dimensions
1,750,000 expected subscribers.
13,750 Satellite Traffic Channels
One Primary Gateway (PGW).
Regional Gateways (RGW).

Segment Services

Telecommunications Services:

Voice.
Fax at 2.4, 4.8 and 9.6 Kbps.
Data at 2.4, 4.8 and 9.6 Kbps.
GSM Standard Supplementary Services:
Call Forwarding
Call Barring.
Calling Line Identification.
Closed User Group, Multiparty.
Call Waiting.
Short Messages Service.
SM Beam Broadcast
Value Added Services/Intelligent Network Services

Pre-paid SIM Card Services.


Hot Billing Services..
Free Phone Service.
Premium Rate Service.
IVR Services.
Voice Mailbox Service.
Thuraya Design Features

Optimized Routing to provide most economic call routing567567Single hop for UT-UT calls, anywhere in the
coverage area.
Thuraya Country Code: + 882 16 X….X.
Accurate definition of country and Service Provider boundaries.
Network Access and Call Tariff are based on caller terminal GPS position.
Use of Common Air Interface: CAI is "open standard".
Strong Supplier Support

HUGHES : Main contractor for design and installation of the system on turnkey basis.
ERICSSON: Network switching subsystem supplier.
7LHS: Billing and Customer Care and Clearing House supplier.
ALCATEL: Contractor for Intelligent Network & SMS/VMS Systems.

SERVICE FEATURES:

Voice telephony
Fax
Data
Short Messaging
Location Determination
Emergency Services
High Power Alerting
Regulatory Data

The Primary Gateway, situated in Sharjah, UAE, is responsible for Thuraya’s entire network, in addition to
serving as the mobile satellite system’s main digital exchange. The Primary Gateway houses the Satellite
Operation Centre, which monitors and controls satellite movement, ensuring the overall and ongoing maintenance
of satellites in geo-synchronous orbit.

The striking glass structure comprises the satellite control facilities and the Gateway Station. The satellite control
facilities includes the Satellite Operations Center, Uplink Beacon Station and the Satellite Payload Central Point,
while the Gateway Station includes the gateway station subsystem, network switching subsystem and the
advanced operations center and operations support subsystem. Outside the Primary Gateway building are the
primary dish (c-band antennae) and the back up dish whose function is to command the satellite.

Billed as the only such facility in the Middle East region, Thuraya’s Primary Gateway station provides the
necessary interface with other Thuraya Gateways (via satellite) and public terrestrial networks.

USER SEGMENT:

The User Segment comprises the user terminals which enables subscribers to interface with the satellite system
and obtain network access.

Thuraya offers hand-held, vehicular and fixed terminals to cater to the needs of its subscribers.
Thuraya’s dual mode handsets –GSM and satellite integrates terrestrial and satellite services, expanding the
boundaries of local telecom providers and allowing customers to roam vast areas without transmission
interruption or failure.

The mobile communication services offered by Thuraya supports the use of advanced dual-mode terminals (GSM
and Satellite) that is small and elegant in shape. Thuraya’s services are voice, fax, data, short messaging and
location determination (GPS).
User Terminal Development
Two manufacturers, Hughes Network Systems and Ascom, are contracted for the supply of the user terminals.

User Terminal Types


Hand-held. Similar to GSM terminal in appearance, size and weight. GSM and satellite mode.
Vehicular. Consists of handheld terminal and vehicular fixed kit. GSM and satellite mode.
Fixed terminal, Consists of handheld terminal and indoor fixed Kit, Satellite Mode Only.

Thuraya Services
Voice Comparable to GSM (Mean Opnion Score better than3.4)
Fax/Data of 2.4, 4.8 and 9.6 kpbs
Standard GSM Phase 2 services
CLIP facility

prominent telecommunications company in Egypt. The Almaadi installation is one of the leading earth stations in
the Middle East providing satellite communications. Thuraya’s first UBS is located in the Primary Gateway
(PGW) in Sharjah, UAE.

SYSTEM COMPONENTS:

Geo-Synchronous Satellite
Primary Gateway
Main System Gateway
Network Management System
Satellite Operation Centre
Operation Support System
Customer Care and Billing System
Clearing House
Centralized Operation and Maintenance
Regional Gateways.
THURAYA Satellite and GSM Integrate Dual - Mode Technology

THURAYA offers subscribers freedom of mobility and uninterrupted service. Thuraya’s satellite technology
supplements conventional terrestrial networks, overcoming the challenges of large geographical areas and
insurmountable terrain.

Advantage is that outside Thuraya’s coverage area, subscribers would still have the convenience of roaming in
other GSM networks areas. This combination of advanced and flexible system designs ensures total mobility and
reliability to its subscribers. Thuraya’s dual mode services enables the users to use GSM service any time in local
networks, yet automatically transfer on to satellite mode whenever out of local terrestrial coverage area.

THURAYA supports the following types of user terminals:


Hand-held: Similar to GSM terminal in appearance, size and weight. GSM and satellite mode.
Vehicular: Consists of handheld terminal and vehicular fixed kit. GSM and satellite mode.
Fixed terminal: Consists of handheld terminal and indoor fixed kit. Satellite mode only.

Hand-held Terminal Features:


Similar in size, weight and features to the GSM terminal
Location determination capability using GPS with an accuracy of 100m
Standard GSM Encryption Algorithm in GSM mode
GSM standard Encryption in THURAYA mode
3V and 3/5V Plug-in SIM card compatible with the GSM
Quadrifilar Helix L-band Antenna
Talk time in the satellite mode is 2.4 hours using the 650 mAh batter and 4.5 hours using the 1200 mAh battery
Standards time in the satellite mode is 34.1 hours using the 650 mAh battery and 63 hours using the 1200 mAh
battery
Serial port PC interface
Li-Ion Battery with capacity 650 & 1200 mAh
(Thuraya Satellite Telecommunications Company)[ O n l i n e ] . [ D e c , 2 0 0 3 ] . Av a i l a b l e f r o m w o r l d
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CHAPTER# 4

GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM

THE GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS)

What is GPS? Is a worldwide radio-navigation system formed from a constellation of 24 satellites and ground
stations GPS uses these “man-made stars” as reference points to calculate positions accurate to a matter of meters.
In fact, with advanced forms of GPS you can make measurements to better than a centimeter!

Figure: GPS receiver

A network of satellite that continuously transmit coded information which makes it possible to identify locations
on earth. In a sense it’s like giving every square meter on the planet a unique address. GPS receivers have been
miniaturized to just a few integrated circuits and so are becoming very economical. And that makes the
technology accessible to virtually everyone.
These days GPS is finding its way into cars, boats, planes, construction equipment, movie making gear, farm
machinery, even laptop computers.

Soon GPS will become almost as basic as the telephone. Indeed, at Trimble, we think it just may become a
universal utility. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system made up of a
network of 24 satellites placed into orbit by the U.S. Department of Defense. GPS was originally intended for
military applications, but in the 1980s, the government made the system available for civilian use. GPS works in
any weather conditions, any where in the world, 24 hours a day. There are no subscription fees or setup charges to
use GPS.
(The GPS system) [ O n l i n e ] . [ D e c , 2 0 0 3 ] . Av a i l a b l e f r o m w o r l d Wi d e We b
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HOW GPS WORKS:


GPS satellites circle the earth twice a day in a very precise orbit and transmit signal information to earth. GPS
receivers take this information and use triangulation to calculate the user’s exact location. Essentially, the GPS
receiver compares the time a signal was transmitted by a satellite with the time it was received. The time
difference tells the GPS receiver how far away the satellite is. Now, with distance measurements from a few more
satellites, the receiver can determine the user’s position and display it on the unit’s electronic map.

A GPS receiver must be locked on to the signal of at least three satellites to calculate a 2D position (latitude and
longitude) and track movement. With four or more satellites in view, the receiver can determine the user’s 3D
position (latitude, longitude and altitude0. once the user’s position has been determined, the GPS unit can
calculate other information, such as speed, bearing, track, trip distance, distance to destination, sunrise and sunset
time and more.
(Garmin: What is GPS?) [ O n l i n e ] . [ D e c , 2 0 0 3 ] . Av a i l a b l e f r o m w o r l d Wi d e We b
h t t p : / / w w w. g a r m i n . c o m / a b o u t G P S /

HOW ACCURATE IS GPS?


Today’s GPS receivers are extremely accurate, thanks to their parallel multi-channel design. GARMIN’s 12
parallel channel receivers are quick to lock onto satellites when first turned on and they maintain strong locks,
even in dense foliage or urban settings with tall buildings. Certain atmospheric factors and other sources of error
can affect the accuracy of GPS receivers. GARMIN GPS receivers are accurate to within 15 meters on average.
Newer GARMIN GPS receivers with WAAS (Wide Area Augmentation System) capability can improve
accuracy to less than three meters on average. No additional equipment or fees are required to take advantage of
WAAS. Users can also get better accuracy with Differential GPS (DGPS), which corrects GPS signals to within
an average of three to five meters. The U.S. Coast Guard operates the most common DGPS correction service.
This system consists of a network of towers that receive GPS signals and transmit a corrected signal by beacon
transmitters. In order to get the corrected signal, users must have a differential beacon receiver and beacon
antenna in addition to their GPS.
(Garmin: What is GPS?) [ O n l i n e ] . [ D e c , 2 0 0 3 ] . Av a i l a b l e f r o m Wo r l d Wi d e We b
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THE GPS SATELLITE SYSTEM:

The 24 satellites that make up the GPS space segment are orbiting the earth about 12,000 miles above us. They
are constantly moving, making two complete orbits in less than 24 hours. These satellites are traveling at speeds
of roughly 7,000 miles an hour. GPS satellites are powered by solar energy. The have backup batteries onboard to
keep them running in the event of a solar eclipse, when there’s no solar power. Small rocket boosters on each
satellite keep them flying in the correct path.

Here are some other interesting facts about the GPS satellites (also called NAVSTAR, the official U.S.
Department of Defense name for GPS):
The first GPS satellite was launched in 1978.
A full constellation of 24 satellites was achieved in 1994.
Each satellite is built to last about 10 years. Replacements are constantly being built and launched into orbit.
A GPS satellite weights approximately 2,000 pounds and is about 17 feet across with the solar panels extended.
Transmitter power is only 50 watts or less.

WHAT’S THE SIGNAL?


GPS satellites transmit two low power radio signals, designated L1 and L2. Civilian GPS uses the L1 frequency
of 1575.42 MHz in the UHF band. The signals travel by lien of sight, meaning they will pass through clouds,
glass and plastic but will not go through most solid objects such as buildings and mountains. A GPS signal
contains three different bits of information – a pseudorandom code, ephemeris data and almanac data. The
pseudorandom code is simply an I.D. code that identifies which satellite is transmitting information. You can
view this number on your GARMIN GPS unit’s satellite page, as it identifies which satellites it’s receiving.
Ephemeris data, which is constantly transmitted by each satellite, contains important information about the status
of the satellite (healthy or unhealthy), current date and time. This part of the signal is essential for determining a
position. The almanac data tells the GPS receiver where each GPS satellite should be at any time throughout the
day. Each satellite transmits almanac data showing the orbital information for that satellite and for every other
satellite in the system. Satellites are located at wide angles relative to each other. Poor geometry results when the
satellites are located in a line or in a tight grouping. Intentional degradation of the satellite signal – Selective
Availability (SA) is an intentional degradation of the signal once imposed by the U.S. Department of Defense. SA
was intended to prevent military adversaries from using the highly accurate GPS signals. The government turned
off SA in May 2000, which significantly improved the accuracy of civilian GPS receivers.
(Garmin: What is GPS?) [ O n l i n e ] . [ D e c , 2 0 0 3 ] . Av a i l a b l e f r o m Wo r l d Wi d e We b
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CHAPTER# 5

CELLULAR NETWORK

INTRODUCTION OF CELLULAR NETWORK

Tring! Tring! Tring! Tring! Page


“Hello! I’m in middle of a lecture.”
“I’ll have to call you back later.”
Everybody in the lecture hall starts bursting into laughter.

The above is a very typical scene at our university and undoubtedly at other places too. This goes so much to
show that mobile phones are increasingly becoming a necessity to most people who see it as the most brilliant
invention of the century. What they do not realize is that the mobile phone only uses one of the possible
capabilities (voice transmission) of a cellular network, which is a far more important invention. Besides the
commercially available voice transmission for mobile phones, a cellular network could also be used to transmit
data, images, text and video. A lot of research has been done and is still in progress to realize the ability to
transmit these other form of information via cellular network commercially available. This article briefly explains
the workings of the cellular network with respect to existing voice transmission. In addition brief description on
how mobile phones work is included.

What is a Cellular Network?

A cellular network allows cellular subscribers to wander anywhere in the country and remain connected to the
Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) via their mobile phones. A cellular network has a hierarchical
structure and it is formed by connecting the major components mentioned below: -
Mobile phones –
Main piece of equipment as far as a subscriber is concerned.

Base Station
Mobile Switching Center (MSC)

Base Station (BS)

All BSC within a cluster are connected to a Mobile Switching Center (MSC) using landlines. Each MSC of a
cluster is then connected to the MSC of other clusters and a PSTN main switching center. The MSC stores
information about the subscribers located within the cluster and is responsible for directing calls to them.
(Cellular networks systems) [ O n l i n e ] . [ D e c , 2 0 0 3 ] . Av a i l a b l e f r o m Wo r l d Wi d e We b
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ARRANGEMENT OF CELLS IN A CLUSTER

The number of cells per cluster is restricted by the requirement that the clusters must fit together like jigsaw
pieces. The possible cell clusters are the 4-, 7-, 12- and 21 cell clusters.
(Garmin: What is GPS?) [ O n l i n e ] . [ D e c , 2 0 0 3 ] . Av a i l a b l e f r o m Wo r l d Wi d e We b
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RE-USING FREQUENCY:

By taking an example of UK’s network


In the UK the bandwidth made available for cellular networks ranges from 890 to 915MHz for bas transmission
and 935 to 960MHz for mobile transmission. All transmissions are made via channels. A channel consists of a pair
of frequencies, one for each direction of transmission that is used for full-duplex operation. In the UK at 1992, the
cellular networks had in total 1000 channels (300 allocated to Cell net and another 300 allocated to Vodaphone,
leaving 400 in reserve for pan-European systems. This would suggest that fewer than 600 subscribers
could access the system simultaneously when in fact the number of subscribers is in the range of millions.
Research undertaken by Bell Labs has found a solution, which involves re-using the same channel frequency in
many different clusters. The cells in these different clusters using the same channel frequency must be separated
far enough so that co-channel interference would not occur.

CELL: SHAPE AND SIZE

SHAPES

Hexagonal shaped cells shown in diagram 5 are artificial and cannot be generated in the real world. However this
shape is chosen to simplify planning and design of a cellular system as hexagons fit together without any overlap
or gap in between them. Another advantage of using hexagons is that it approaches a circular shape, which is the
ideal power coverage area. The real cell shape is as shown above and its shape will keep changing due to
prevailing conditions.

SIZE:

The size of the cell largely depends on the area in which the cells is located. Generally, rural areas have less
subscribers compared to urban areas. So in an urban area more channels are needed to accommodate the larger
number of subscribers. If each cells in a given rural and urban area had fixed number of channels, the cell size in
the urban area would have to be smaller to allow more channels in the given area. Reducing the cell size would
result in cells, using similar channel frequency, to be located closer to each other. Therefore reducing the size to
much would cause an increase in co-channel interference.

Size of the cell can be varied by varying the power and sensitivity of the base station.

An alternative way to change the size of the cell is to split the cell. This involves reducing the radius of a cell by
half and splitting an old cell into four small cells as shown below.
ALLOWING MOBILITY OF SUBSCRIBER:

In order to allow mobility to a subscriber

The cellular network has to have the ability to track the subscriber down when a call is made to him/her.
Allow the subscriber to make calls while he/she is not in his/her home market.

Tracking down is only possible.

The system maintains information about the location of the subscriber’s mobile phone.
The mobile phone knows the appropriate channels to await signals from the system.

In order for both the cellular system and the mobile phone to have these required knowledge, there are two main
procedures to follow when a mobile phone is turned on they are:

Searching for channels

There are two channels that are searched by the mobile phone.
Strong Dedicated A channel used for the transmission of digital
control information from a base station to the
Control mobile phone or vice versa.

Channel (DCC)
A channel used by the MSC for seeking the
Strong Paging mobile phone when a call made to it.

Channel
This procedure enables the mobile phone to identify the correct channels to wait signals from the system (e.g.
when a call is made to the owner of the mobile phone)
REGISTER TO THE NEAREST BASE STATION:

The mobile phone registers by sending


Mobile Identification The telephone number of the cellular
instrument assigned to the subscriber
Number (MIN)
Electronic Serial This is assigned to the mobile phone by the
manufacturer.
Number (ESN)

The picture below illustrates this graphically.

MOVING THE MOBILE PHONE FROM ONE CELL TO ANOTHER

During a call, the base station would monitor the signal level from the mobile phone. When the mobile phone is
moved into a new cell, the signal level will fall to a critical value causing the base station to inform the MSC
about this even. The MSC would instruct all the surrounding base stations to measure the mobile phone’s signal
level and transfer control to the base station receiving the strongest signal level. This is known as hand-over and
occurs within 400ms, so the subscribers are hardly aware of a break.

Now registration is done again with the new BS. Location information stored in the MSC about this mobile
telephone is updated. If the mobile telephone is moved into a cell belonging to a different cluster it would also
have to register with the new MSC.
THE FUTURE:

The usage of cellular network is becoming increasingly popular and more diversified. As pointed out earlier,
mobile phones are extremely common today. In the near future or even tomorrow there would be more devices
that uses the cellular network. Currently the police force in the USA use mobile computers to check license
numbers. Who knows, in the future we might be carrying a hand held device that displays the contents of
newspapers and magazines. All these new invention would require the existing cellular network to be improved.

One of the most important improvements is to create a single global standard for cellular network to transmit all
forms of information. This would allow information to be transmitted throughout the world and eventually make
the world smaller and more united.
(Existing technology of cellular networks - mobile phones) [ O n l i n e ] . [ D e c 2 0 0 3 ] . Av a i l a b l e f r o m
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ABOUT CELLULAR:

In October of 1983, the first cellular system in the United States was in full operation in Chicago, Illinois. By
June of 1984, Verizon Wireless Los Angeles system was up and operating. Today more than 40 million people
from coast to coast subscribe to cellular service. By the year 2002, we expect that number of subscribers to triple.
Of course, once you use a cellular phone, you’ll understand why. For one thing a cellular phone can do wonders
for improving business and personal productivity. But more importantly, it can give you greater personal security
and safety.One of the most common questions asked by a first time cellular users ask is, “Is it a radio or is it a
phone?” First, cellular phones are sophisticated two-way radios. They use radio waves to transmit and receive
calls. Which means as you talk on your cellular phone your conversation gets transmitted by radio waves between
operating areas knows as cells. Each cell has a transmission tower and these towers are hooked up to a mobile
telephone switching office, which connects your calls to the public landline telephone network. By the way, on
occasion you may experience static, cross talk, or even a “dropped call” because of these radio waves!
(The history of UMTS and 3G development) [ O n l i n e ] . [ D e c , 2 0 0 3 ] . Av a i l a b l e f r o m Wo r l d Wi d e
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HOW THE CELLULAR SYSTEM WORKS:

Cellular technology is based on a grid of hexagons, or cells, that cover specific geographic areas. Each cell
contains a low-powered radio transmitter/receiver and control equipment located in a building called a cell site.
The cell site is connected by landline and/or microwave and antenna facilities to a Mobile Telephone Switching
Office (MTSO), which is connected to the regular landline network through the telephone central office. With its
electronic switching capability, the MTSO monitors the mobile units and automatically switches or “hands-off”
conversations in progress as the mobile unit moves from one cell to another. Each cell has a set of radio
frequencies, allowing reuse of every channel for many different simultaneous conversations in the give service
area. As demand for the service grows, dividing into smaller cells can meet customer needs even in the most
densely populated areas.
(Privateline.com: Cellular Telephone Basics) [ O n l i n e ] . [ D e c , 2 0 0 3 ] . Av a i l a b l e f r o m Wo r l d Wi d e
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CHAPTER# 6

GLOBAL SYSTEMS FOR MOBILE

GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR MOBILES (GSM)

WHAT IS GSM TECHNOLOGY?


GSM is the Global System for Mobile Communications. GSM is an international digital cellular
telecommunications standard. The GSM standard was released by ETSI (European Standard and Technology
Institute) back in 1989. The first commercial GSM services were launched in 1991 and after its early introduction
in Europe, the standard went global in 1992. Since then, GSM has become the most widely adopted and fastest-
growing digital cellular standard, and it is positioned to become the world’s dominant cellular standard. Today’s
second-generation GSM networks deliver high quality and secure mobile voice and data services (such as SMS-
Text Messaging) with full roaming capabilities across the world. Today’s GSM platform is a hugely successful
wireless technology and an unprecedented story of global achievement. In less than ten years since the first GSM
network was commercially launched, it became the world’s leading and fastest growing mobile standard,
spanning over 174 countries. Today, GSM technology is in use by more than one in ten of the world’s population
and growth continues to soar with the number of subscribers worldwide expected to surpass one billion by the end
of 2003.The progress hasn’t stopped there. Today’s GSM platform is living, growing and evolving and already
offers an expanded and feature-rich ‘family’ of voice and data enabling services. The GSM family of wireless
communication platforms which include today’s GSM, GPRS, EDGE and 3GSM, fit together to create GSM –
The Wireless Evolution. The Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) network is a cellular
telecommunication network with a versatile architecture complying with the ETSI (European Telecommunication
Standard Institute) GSM 900/GSM1800 standard. Siemens’ implementation is the digital cellular mobile
communication system D900/1800/1900 that uses the very latest technology to meet every requirement of the
standard.
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GSM FACTS

GSM is the most rapidly growing wireless technology today reporting 646.5 million subscribers or 71% or the
total digital cellular wireless market as of January 2002. (source: EMC) GSM represents 67% of the world’s
wireless market. (Source: EMC) GSM grew by 40% in 2001, (191.4 Million subscribers) compared to a 33%
growth rate (30 Million subscribers ) for the CDMA subscription base. Year 2000 growth rates equaled 75% for
GSM and 55% for CDMA. (Source: EMC) GSM is the system of choice in more than 174 countries of the world.
(Source: GSMA).There are over 400 second and third generation GSM wireless network operators. (Source:
GSMA).SM strengths include its international roaming capability, and its ability to provide consumers the
convenience of a single number, a single bill, and a single phone with worldwide access. GSM customers can use
their tri-band or “world” phones seamlessly in more than countries. GSM offers unmatched economies of scale.
GSM offers flexibility and multiple options for the delivery of 3G services through its family of technologies.
(GPRS, EDGE, and UMTS) Offering GSM enhanced with GPRS and EDGE will bring new 3G opportunities to
carriers operating in the 800, 900, 1800 and 1900 MHz bands, and will enable full global roaming between, and
within, the Americas, Europe, and Asia. GSM satellite roaming has extended service access to areas where
terrestrial coverage is not available.
(3 G A m e r i c a s : u n i f y i n g t h e A m e r i c a s t h r o u g h w i r e l e s s t e c h n o l o g y ) [ O n l i n e ] . [ D e c ,
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GSM (The Global System For Mobile Communications)

Pan-European digital cellular standard published by ETSI (the European Telecommunications Standards
Institute). World’s most popular second-generation cellular system. In 1997, there are more than 40 million GSM
subscribers in more than 100 countries. GSM technology is used in the 900 MHz, 1800 MHz and 1900 MHz
personal communications frequency bands. In these bands the technology is referred to as Digital Cellular System
at 1800 and 1900 MHz, or DCS1800 and DCS1900, respectively [2].
Technology Creation For GSM

Proceeded in three phases

Phase 1:

The technology standardized in phase 1 was sufficient for the introduction of commercial GSM services,
including telephony and short message services, in 1992[1].

Phase2:

In 1996, phase 2 completed the original GSM design Task and established a framework for ongoing technology
enhancement. GPRS technology lies in second phase extension.

Phase 2 extension (2+)

GSM standardization is now in phase 2+, which consists of a large number of projects including
Improved voice coding and advanced data transmission services.

General GSM Architecture


Figure shows the GSM architecture.
The GSM functionality is divided between the:
Mobile stations (MS),
Base station subsystem (BSS), and
Mobile switching center (MSC).
Figure: The GSM system architecture includes three standard interfaces:

The BSS (Base Station Sub System)


Includes two types of elements:
Base transceiver station (BTS),
Which handles the radio interfaces toward the MS, and the
Base station controller (BSC),
Which manages the radio resources and controls handovers. A BSC can manage several BTSs. through the MSC.

HLR (Home Location Register)

The HLR is the database, which contain subscriber’s information and location information for each user who
resides in the same city as the MSC. Each subscriber in a particular GSM market is assigned a unique
international Mobile subscriber Identity (IMSI), and this number is used to identify each home user.
VLR (Visitor Location Register)

The VLR is a database, which temporarily stores the IMSI and costumer information for each roaming subscriber
who is visiting the coverage area of a particular MSC. The VLR is linked between several adjoining MSC’s in a
particular market or geographic region and contains subscriber information of every visiting user in the area.
Once a roaming mobile is logged in the VLR, the MSC sends the necessary information to the visiting
subscriber’s HLR so that calls to the roaming mobile can be appropriate routed over the PSTN by the roaming
user’s HLR.

AUC (Authentication center)

Authentication center is a strongly protected database, which handles the authentication and encryption keys for
every single subscriber in the HLR and VLR. The authentication center contain a register called the Equipment
Identity Register (EIR) which identifies stolen or fraudulently altered phones that transmit identity data that does
not match with the information contained in either the HLR or VLR.

GPRS BASICS

Initial work on GPRS began in 1994 with the published standard expected at the end of 1997.
GPRS air interface protocol proposed by the Special Mobile Group (SMG) in March 1996[3].
COMPONENTS OF GPRS
Two major new core network elements are introduced:
The Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) and
The Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN).

SGSN

SGSN monitors the state of the mobile station and tracks its movements within a given geographical area. It is
also responsible for establishing and managing the data connections between the mobile user and the destination
network.

The location register of the SGSN stores location information (e.g., current cell, current VLR) and user profiles
(e.g., IMSI, address used in the packet data network) of all GPRS users registered with this SGSN.

GGSN

Provides the point of attachment between the GPRS domain and external data networks such as the Internet and
Corporate Intranets. Each external network is given a unique Access Point Name (APN), which is used by the
mobile user to establish the connection to the required destination network. It converts the GPRS packets coming
from the SGSN into the appropriate packet data protocol (PDP) format (e.g., IP or X.25) and sends them out on
the corresponding packet data network. In the other direction, PDP addresses of incoming data packets are
converted to the GSM address of the destination user. The re addressed packets are sent to the responsible SGSN.
The GGSN stores the current SGSN address of the user and his or her profile in its location register.

The GGSN also performs authentication and charging functions In general, there is a many-to-many relationship
between t he SGSNs and the GGSNs: A GGSN is the interface to external packet data networks for several
SGSNs; an SGSN may route its packets over different GGSNs to reach Different packet data networks.
(GPRS news, tariffs, contracts and handsets) [Online]. [Dec, 2003]. Available from World Wide Web
h t t p : / / w w w. c e l l u l a r - n e w s . c o m / g p r s / w h a t _ i s _ g p r s . s h t m l
PACKET CONTROL UNIT (PCU)

GSM Base Station Subsystem (BSS) has been adapted to support the GPRS connectionless packet mode of
operation. A new functional node called the Packet Control Unit has been introduced (as part of the BSS) to
control and manage the allocation of GPRS radio resources to the mobile users.

There are two kinds of GPRS backbones:


Intra-PLMN backbone networks connect GGSNs of the same PLMN and are therefore private IP-based networks
of the GPRS network provider.

Inter-PLMN backbone networks connect GGSNs of different PLMNs. A roaming agreement between two GPRS
network providers is necessary to install such a backbone.

The gateways between the PLMNs and the external inter-PLMN backbone are called border gateways. Among
other things, it performs security functions to protect the private inter PLMN backbone against unauthorized user
and attack. The HLR stores the user profile, the current SGSN address, and the PDP address for each GPRS user
in the PLMN.
Figure: The GPRS system architecture
SGSN informs the HLR about the current location of the MS. When the MS registers with a new SGSN, the HLR
will send the user profile to the new SGSN. The signaling path between GGSN and HLR (Gc interface) may be
used by the GGSN to query a user’s location and profile in order to update its location register. In addition, the
MSC/VLR may be extended with functions and register entries that allow efficient coordination between packet
switched (GPRS) and circuit switched (conventional GSM) services. Examples of this are combined GPRS and
non-GPRS location updates and combined attachment procedures

The modifications to the radio infrastructure and additional functionality introduced by GPRS means that new
mobile stations (MS) are required.

There are a number of new standardized network interfaces introduced:


Gb - Frame relay connection between the SGSN and the PCU within the BSS.
This transports both user data and signaling messages to/from the SGSN.
Gn - The GPRS backbone network implemented using IP LAN/WAN
technology. Used to provide virtual connections between the SGSN and
GGSN.
Gi - The point of connection between GPRS and the external networks each
referenced by the Access Point Name. This will normally be implemented
using IP WAN technology.
Gr - Interface between the HLR and SGSN that allows access to customer
subscription information. This has been implemented using enhancements
to the existing GSM C7 MAP interface.
Gs - Optional interface that allows closer co-ordination between the GSM and
GPRS networks.
Gc - Optional interface that allows the GGSN access to customer location
information [3].

(GPRS news, tariffs, contracts and handsets) [Online]. [Dec, 2003]. Available from World Wide Web
h t t p : / / w w w. c e l l u l a r - n e w s . c o m / g p r s / w h a t _ i s _ g p r s . s h t m l
PURPOSE AND ADVANTAGES OF GPRS

Like other packet data services, is to efficiently accommodate data sources that are bursty in nature. Another
important goal of the technology is to make it possible for GSM license holders to share physical resources on a
dynamic, flexible basis between packet data services and other GSM services. Users of GPRS benefit from
shorter access times and higher Data rates. In conventional GSM, the connection set up Takes several seconds and
rates for data transmission are restricted to 9.6 k bit/s. GPRS in practice offers session establishment times below
one second and ISDN-like data rates up to several 10 kbit/s.GPRS packet transmission offers a user-friendlier
billing than that offered by circuit switched services. In circuit switched services, billing is based on the duration
of the connection. This is unsuitable for applications with bursty traffic. The user must pay for the entire airtime,
even for idle periods when no packets are sent (e.g., when the user reads a Web page). In contrast to this, with
packet switched services, billing can be based on the amount of transmitted data. The advantage for the user is
that he or she can be “online” over a long period of time but will be billed based on the transmitted data volume.
To sum up, GPRS improves the utilization of the radio resources, offers volume-based billing, higher transfer
rates, shorter access times, and simplifies the access to packet data networks.
(Handspring: GPRS Upgrade 1.1.2 : FAQs)[ O n l i n e ] . [ D e c , 2 0 0 3 ] . Av a i l a b l e f r o m Wo r l d Wi d e
We b h t t p : / / w w w. h a n d s p r i n g . c o . u k / p r o d u c t s / g p r s / f a q s . a s p

INTEGRATION OF GPRS WITH GSM

GPRS shares GSM frequency bands with telephone and circuit-switched data traffic, and makes use of many
properties of the physical layer of the original GSM system.Importantly the time-division multiple access
(TDMA) frame structure, modulation technique, and structure of GSM time slots.Figure shows the connection of
GPRS network to the different external networks like, PSPDN, PSTN and ISDN.
PROTOCOL ARCHITECTURE

In the following, we consider the data link layer and the physical layer. Figure shows a general view of the
protocol architecture of GPRS. Data Link Layer: The data link layer between the MS and the network is divided
into two sub layers: the LLC layer (between MS-SGSN) and the RLC/MAC layer (between MS-BSS). The logical
link control (LLC) layer provides a highly reliable logical link between an MS and its assigned SGSN. Its
functionality is based on the well-known HDLC protocol and includes sequence control, in-order delivery, flow
control, detection of transmission errors, and retransmission (automatic repeat request (ARQ)). The data
confidentiality is ensured by ciphering functions. Variable frame lengths are possible. Both acknowledged and
unacknowledged data transmission modes are supported. The protocol is mainly an adapted version of the LAPD
protocol used in GSM. The RLC/MAC layer at the air interface includes two functions.
(GSM Phase 2+ General Packet Radio Service GPRS: Architecture, Protocols, and Air Interface) [ O n l i n e ] .
[ D e c , 2 0 0 3 ] . Av a i l a b l e f r o m Wo r l d Wi d e We b
h t t p : / / w w w. c o m s o c . o r g / l i v e p u b s / s u r v e y s / p u b l i c / 3 q 9 9 i s s u e / b e t t s t e t t e r. h t m l
purpose of the radio link control (RLC) layer is to establish a reliable link between the MS and the BSS. This
includes the segmentation and reassembly of LLC frames into RLC data blocks and ARQ of uncorrectable
codeword. The medium access control (MAC) layer controls the access attempts of an MS on the radio channel
shared by several MSs. It employs algorithms for contention resolution, multi-user multiplexing on a PDTCH,
and scheduling and prioritizing based on the negotiated Quos. The GPRS MAC protocol is based on the principle
of slotted Aloha. In the RLC/MAC layer, both the acknowledged and unacknowledged modes of operation are
supported.

Physical Layer: The physical layer between MS and BSS is divided into the two sub layers: the physical link layer
(PLL) and the physical RF Layer (RFL). The PLL provides a physical channel between the MS and the BSS. Its
tasks include channel coding (detection of transmission errors, forward error correction (FEC), indication of
uncorrectable codeword), interleaving, and detection of physical link congestion. The RFL operates below the
PLL. Among other things, it includes modulation and demodulation.
Figure:
Connection of GPRS network to different external networks
CHAPTER#7

CASE STUDY RESEARCH

Introduction: -
This chapter contributes the knowledge of some companies that are using mobile phone
technolog y in Pakistan. It also contributes knowledge that what are the ways that companies in
Pakistan could use mobile phone technology in their departments and what are the
opportunities for business for using mobile phone technology. During the completion of this
study I visited five companies and practically joined a company, which provides mobile phone
communication.

USAGE OF MOBILE COMMUNICATION IN PAKISTAN: -

Usage of mobile phone technology is very important In Pakistan. There are lots of companies in Pakistan that uses
mobile phone technology to boost their business. But in now days weather it’s a small, medium or a big
organization mobile phone technology is utilized and even if personals are not provided with mobile phones they
have there own mobile phones, in order to communicate with their surrounding.

WAYS OF USING MOBILE PHONE TECHNOLOGY IN PAKISTAN: -


In Pakistan Mobile phone technology is used every where almost 40 percent people in the cities are using mobile
phone technology in order to communicate with each other weather it’s a small business or big organization.
There are number of ways to use mobile phone technology in Pakistan, some of them are listed below.
1. Stock exchange.
2. Pharmaceutical companies.
3. Trackers.
4. Hospitals.
5. News channels.
6. Insurance companies.
7. Bank sector.
These are some key areas that are using and should utilize the mobile phone technology; all most every singe
business or organization can use mobile phone technology. Where there is mobility you are more connected to the
global village.

THE OPPERTUNITIES FOR BUSINESS BY USING MOBILE PHONES OR


SATELLITE PHONES: -

Every company has their external threats to their business but these threats are of no use if companies have
maximum market share. To have maximum market share companies must provide best customer or dealer
services, and this can be done if they are in contact with the customer, after sales services, new updates in prizes
can be done through communication, so for companies should use mobile phone communication because mobile
phone communication in now days is the fastest way to communicate with each other. Mobile phone
communication has changed the ways of working, by taking an example if any of the board of directors are away
form there business they are always in contact with there business even if they are on roaming, on roaming they
are just one call away from there business and they even can take decision by staying away from there business.
all the important decision are made by upper managerial staff of a company or any organization, so by providing
mobile phones to the upper managerial staff, there business is also on mobility.

By talking examples of the company visited in completion of this study, “MOBILINKGSM”, which has
the maximum market share at the moment and has reached 2 Million customers in Karachi. They can loose there
customers if they don’t provide better services to customers, so they have provided mobile phone in almost all the
departments for internal usage, and for external usage. Except that they have a 24 hours 7 days week help line for
the customers and customers abroad on roaming.

As we all know mobile phone communication is a must for all most all ages and business, but to be in the
market, better customer services should be provided, via a call back process in order to satisfy the customer that
he or she has chosen the right place for his or her communication. VODAPHONE.UK is planning to launch their
services in Pakistan, so MOBILINK will have to provide the best customer services, to the consumers. If not they
might loose a big area of mobile phone users, which will be a loss to the business and they will have to look for
the alternatives.
So by talking these examples of mobile phone usage in the industry, it clearly states that there is a major
role of using mobile phones communication, in all types of companies and organization, which can help a
business to be more completive, healthy in the market.

PRACTICAL APPROACH: -
During the study I visited some companies and organizations to know how they are using and utilizing mobile
phone technology in their departments.

COMPANIES: -

SUI SOTHEREN GAS COMPANY LIMITED (SSGC): -

INTRODUCTION: -
Sui southern gas company was formed on march 30, 1989 following a series of mergers of three
pioneering companies, namely Sui Gas Transmission Company Limited, Karachi Gas Company Limited and
Indus Gas Company Limited. Sui southern gas company is an integrate gas undertaking and a major energy sector
company in Pakistan with a monopolistic market position in the southern part of the country. The company is
engaged in the purification and transmission of natural gas ex-sui field along with gas transmission. The company
also purifies gas at Sui for its sister concern Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Limited. Sui southern gas company is
involved in the distribution of natural gas in Sindh and Balochistan provinces with appropriate infrastructure
facilities comprising of gas purification facilities at the sui gas field, compressor stations at various locations in
there pipe-line network and transmission /distribution pipelines.

Following are the departments of SSGC.


1. Transmission.
2. Information technology.
3. Distribution.
4. Gas measurements.
5. Consumer services.
6. Sales.
7. Procurement.
8. Health and safety.
9. Finance.
10. Audit.
11. Services.
12. Telecommunication
13. Administration.
14. Human resources.
15. Pipeline construction.
16. Quality control.
17. Planning and development.
18. Medical.
19. Gas measurement.
20. Security.

Usage of Mobile Phone Technology in its departments: -

Mr. Imdad Hussain Baloch who is General Manager (Transmission) helped me and defined how Sui southern gas
company limited is using mobile communication in their departments. SSGC is using mobile phone
communication in their transmission, consumer services, and pipeline construction departments. Though they
have there own microwave, system which more or less provides coverage to all Pakistan. Mobile phones are
provided on the upper managerial level or those who are always in the fields that is because in order to reach the
upper managerial staff on any mishaps occurred in the fields, through mobile phone they are always connected to
the staff and other managerial levels 24/7. Now sui southern gas company limited is planning to provide satellite
phones to their managerial staff or to those who are always out of station, so that if they are not in reach through
there microwave system or their mobile phones coverage they can be located at any points in case of emergency.
LEVER BROTHRES PAKISTEN LIMITED: -

INTRODUCTION: -
Lever brothers Pakistan limited is the leading consumer good company in Pakistan. A lever brother
is part of unilever a global corporation. Lever brothers is the largest and most experienced fast food moving
consumer goods firm in Pakistan. The company was incorporated in 1948. Unilever overseas holdings, U.K. holds
67 percent shareholding in the company. Lever brother manufactures and markets foods, beverages, detergents
and personal care products. It enjoys a very large market share in consumer goods segment and is particularly
dominant in tea, ice cream and vanaspati, all high volume sale categories. A liver brother manufactures and
markets more than 50 brands. Total product range comprises of 29 consumers products and 7 industrial products.
It runs five factories located in Karachi, Rahimyar khan and Karamabad Khairpur. The company processes the
capacity of product 80.000 MT of edible facts and oil, 77,450 MT of detergents and personal products 71,182 MT
beverages and 37 MT of ice cream. Lever brother has invested into a pilot tea growing and processing project at
Shinikiari, which has started producing tea. The company has also established a ice-cream factory in the city of
Lahore.

Following are the departments of Lever Brothers Pakistan: -


1. Human resources.
2. Channel and Customer development.
3. Customer Services.
4. Personnel.
5. Finance.
6. Marketing and Research.
7. Marketing and Media.
8. Production.
9. Procurement.
10. Buying.
11. Sales.
12. Quality and Control.
13. Health and Safety.
14. Planning.
15. Administration.
16. Distribution.
17. Medical.
18. Information technology.

Usage of Mobile Phone Technology in its departments: -

Mr. Malik Rehan Saeed who is distribution manage in uni-lever Pakistan. Lever brothers are using
mobile phone technology in their CNCD (channel and customer development) department, CSD (customers
services department), MRD (marketing and research department), sales and in Marketing and media departments.
Like all other companies customer services is the most important area in the company. So company has provided
mobile phones in their CNCD and CSD, which are related to customers. Sales personals are also provided with
mobile phones like marketing people have, because they are always on the move and they have to be in contact
with the customers or dealers. Other than that company paid mobile phones are provided to some of the other
staff, and at managerial levels so that they can be in contact with the staff for further decision-making.
MOBILINKGSM: -

INTRODUCTION: -
Mobilink was the first mobile phone operator in Pakistan, which was providing GSM technology.
Mobilink has the maximum market share and is the largest cellular company in Pakistan at the moment. Company
was working with Motorola when they were launched. When company was launched in early 90,s there were no
other company in the market providing GSM technology they ware the first to launch international roaming
though satellite communication. At the end of 19th century company started working with and Egyptian
multinational company “ORACSCOM TELECOMMUNICATION” that is based in Egypt and is working as a
partner of Mobilink in Pakistan. Company has over 170 countries in its roaming list and is providing coverage
over 160 cities across Pakistan. Company is involved in the operations of mobile phones communication and
trackers, which are used in vehicles for their current locations in or out of city.

Following are the departments of MobilinkGSM: -


1. Customer services.
2. Sales.
3. Marketing.
4. Engineering.
5. Finance.
6. Administration.
7. Human resources.
8. Procurement.
9. Credit and Collection.
10. Finance.
Usage of Mobile Phone Technology in its departments: -
As being a mobile phone communication provider, all the employees have their own mobile phones
provided by the company, so mobile phone communication is involved in all the departments, most of the usage
of mobile phone in Mobilink is in the customer services, marketing, credit and collection, sales engineering
departments. These departments have the most usage of mobile phone communication; in customer services
mobile phones are used for both internal customers and external customers with the operational side. It is a must
for operational side to use mobile phone communication in order to communicate with the managerial staff,
concerned personnel with in departments, or to communicate with the customer via a call back procedure. 24/7
help line is provided to customers, who can be used on station or out of station, i.e. if a user is out of county (on
roaming) they have a different help line number through that customers can communicate with the officials. Sales
and marketing department have use mobile communication so that they can be in contact with the customers for
further updates, i.e. Mobilink has club 300 for corporate customers who are very important to the company, so
they have to entertain the complaints or other issues though mobile communication. Credit and Collection
departments have usage of mobile phone communication in different ways, they call the customers for unpaid
amounts and they have the authority to discontinue services at any stage with the customer.
PARKE DAVIS & COMPANY LIMITED: -

INTRODUCTION: -
Parke Davis & company limited. (PDCL) manufactures pharmaceutical formulation, both ethical and over
the counter products. Parke Davis & company, USA, incorporated Parke Davis & company limited in 1960 as a
private limited company. In 1970 Parke davis & company, USA was acquired by Warner Lambert company, USA
making Parke davis & company limited a subsidiary of the later. During June 2000, Pfizer Inc, a company
incorporated in USA, acquired Warner Lambert company, USA. As a consequence of the acquisition the ultimate
company holding company of Parke Davis & company limited is Pfizer Inc, USA. Pfizer laboratories limited and
the company have, become associated companies and the swap ratio valuation for the amalgamation of both
companies is in process. PDCL’s. Major products categories are analgesic, anti malarial, antibiotic and cough
syrup. Its major brands include ponstan and analgesic, anti pyretic and anti inflammatory, which accounts nearly
52 percent of the total sales; Benadryl, a cough syrup; Chloromycetin, an antibiotic and Basoquin anti malarial are
the other major brands of Parke davis & company limited. The company introduced LIPTOR atorvastin, a
cholesterol reducer and it was very well received in the market. The company operates a plant at Karachi, which
was started in 1960 where pharma, health care and consumer products are being manufactured.

Following are the departments of Parke Davis & company limited (PDCL): -
1. Finance.
2. Information technology.
3. Marketing.
4. Sales.
5. Operations.
6. Engineering.
7. Productions.
8. Health and safety.
9. Human resources.
10. Administration.
Usage of Mobile Phone Technology in its departments: -
Like all other companies Parke Davis & company limited (PDCL) do use mobile phone communication in
their departments but only on the upper managerial levels, for decision-making process. But in some
departments line marketing and sales departments these people are always on the move and they have to be in
contact with the distributors or customers for the current price and availability of the stock. Parke Davis &
company limited, doesn’t provide company paid mobile phone to other departments, like engineers,
administration, human resource and all other departments. They don’t have customer services department so
that is the big relief for the company, of reducing mobile phone budgets.
AMAAN INTERNATIONAL: -

INTRODUCTION: -
Amaan international is marketing oriented company, which started its operation in 1995 with a philosophy
to utilize and set its mission to serve the humanity by introducing quality drugs. It is the endeavor of the company
to improve the quality of life of patients and to make every effort to ensure the availability of the life saving
medicines with in the reach of common man. Company has also got the supply contract of NICVD (national
institute of cardiovascular disease) for angiographie, angioplasty, and bypass surgery etc. Managing Director of
the company is also a project coordinator of Lions Club and running a non-prophet pharmacy at NICVD.
Company is sole distributor and marketer for Sam Chun Dang Pharma Co. Ltd (Korea), Macter, Atco
Laboratories, Medisure pharma international and Johnson and Johnson. Company is also supplying products to
following prestigious institutions in Karachi i.e. State Bank of Pakistan, Karachi port trust, shipyard, Pakistan
telecommunication company limited, Baqai general hospital, city government Hospital, OMI, SSGC etc.

Following are the departments of Amaan International: -


1. Distribution.
2. Finance.
3. Information Technology
4. Human resources.
5. Administration.
6. Security.
7. Recovery.
8. Marketing.
9. Sales.
Usage of Mobile Phone Technology in its departments: -
Amaan international consist of fifty members, Mobile phones are used in different departments in the
company, like all other companies mentioned above mobile phones are provided on the upper managerial levels,
for decision making if they are not available in the country or away from the office. Most important utilization of
mobile phone in the company is with the Marketing, Sales and recovery people. Mostly it is very useful for tender
participation team who utilizes the technology, for an example sales staff working and participating in different
institution & Hospitals in tender and at the time of negotiation the sales people use mobile phone communication
to take a guidance from there upper managerial levels and the upper managerial level guide them as per
competitor rates which could be known at the time of negotiations. As per utilization of mobile phone
communication for the company is very important in getting business from tender participation.
M.R. TRADERS:

INTRODUCTION
M.R Traders was founded in 1996 and started off as customer brokers and over the past eight years after
entering in to freight forwarding established itself as the fastest growing freight forwarding and transportation
company in Pakistan. The country experiencing consistent growth in all sectors of its economy due to good cotton
crops which is the backbone of the company’s export. MRT through its shipping innovations grew into
acknowledged force in the shipping industry and was instrumental in moving more freight than any other
company in Pakistan. As being one of the leading freight forwarders in Pakistan, Company has extensive
resources, contacts, fully equipped with modern information technology and vast experience than it employees to
the benefit of their clients both local and global. Company geographically cover 80 percent of the country having
branch offices in all major cities covering seaports, airports, and dry ports i.e. Karachi, Lahore, Sialkot, Peshawar,
Faisalabad, and Multan. Company strives to ensure swift movement of cargo from origin to destination with very
competitive rates and maximum possible services. Company also strive to provide a highest level of Global
Logistics Service to their customers through a professional dedicated and knowledgeable staff equipped with the
most modern technology allowing company to perform beyond the expectations of our customers.

Following are the services which company provides.

1. Sea Freight.
2. Air Freight.
3. Surface Transport (road /rail)
4. Information Services.
5. Custom Clarence.
Following are the departments of M.R.Traders: -
1. Export (Air and sea)
2. Import (Air and Sea)
3. Operations.
4. Pricing.
5. Marketing (import and export)
6. Documentation.
7. Custom clearance.
8. Administration.
9. Customer Services.
10. Port Operations.
11. Accounts.
12. Information Technology.

Usage of Mobile Phone Technology in its departments: -


As being a freight forwarding company M.R Traders has a lot of work through communication via mobile
phones and through other resources. Like all other companies, company has provided mobile phones on there
upper managerial levels, in customer services, export, import marketing, custom clearance etc departments. But
company is also utilizing another way of communication which is e-mail (electronic mail) through Internet to
communicate with their offices and clients based in other cities or countries. Company has also provided mobile
phones to their out door staff so that they can communicate with their managerial staff for any decisions to be
made. So they haven’t got big a budget for communication regarding mobile phones.
CHAPTER#8
CONCLUSIONS

As can be seen from the preceding case studies, usage of mobile phone has changed the way of doing business,
running an organization and working on jobs. People are relaxed even if they are away from their businesses or
jobs, but the fact is that more they are away from their business more they are connected to their business. There
are not much companies providing mobile phone communication in Pakistan, the usage is very high we can
conceder the usage of mobile phone communication by talking a simple example i.e. If a baby is born in a family,
and some of the family members are out of country, like resident or on roaming, the first fastest way of
communication to inform them comes in to mind is mobile phone communication, to inform them they can make
a call, send SMS (short messaging service) or an MMS (multimedia messaging) from their mobile phone.

Companies are using mobile phones technology as a tool but if they utilize this technology in the right
way they can save lot of cost and time. All above companies are using mobile phone communication in their
departments, but they have only provided technology to limited personals, if companies provide mobile phones to
all the employees, and all the employees are on the same network, companies can cut down there communication
cost, and at the end of the day company will save lot of communication cost. By taking few examples that how
companies can use their existing mobile phone technology in their departments. As shown above majority of the
companies provide mobile phones to their upper managerial levels or in there sales, marketing and customer
services departments, but if companies provide mobile phones to almost all employees in the companies, with
limited credit limit for calls. Companies can provide them mobile phones with usage of SMS (short messaging
service) and MMS (multimedia messaging service) that will be very cheap as compared to make a call and current
communication system in their company. Companies have different ways of communication. If companies had lot
of communication to do on emails, they even can utilize mobile phone communication technology to view their
emails on their mobile phones through WAP (wireless application technology) that is related to GPRS. Through
WAP mobile phones are connected to the Internet world and can receive their emails any where in the coverage
area. Current cost of SMS (short messaging service) in Pakistan is very cheap as compared to calls. One SMS
costs around 2 Rupees and 50 paisa for local SMS 5 Rupees and 75 paisa for international SMS in MOBILINK
with is less than three and six UK Cents, so if they have some communication in abroad they even can save a lot
of communication cost on international cost. So if companies utilize mobile phone technology in there
departments they can surely save lot of money in long term and which will give benefit to the company and they
can use that money in building their business.
APPENDIX & GLOSSARY FOR THIS PROJECT

ACTS (ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SATELLITE):

The NASA experimental satellite project, which demonstrated the use of the Ka Band (30/20 GHz) services; on-
board processing with multiple beams, electronic hopping antenna beams, and dynamic adjustment of power to
cope with rain attenuation. The experimental network supported low to medium rate mobile services to high data
rate HDTV fixed services.

AM (AMPLITUDE MODULATION):

Modulation, which is accomplished by varying the amplitude (height of the carrier wave) of the carrier signal in
accordance with the information to be transmitted.

APERTURE:

In image scanning, the size of the sensitive spot that moves over the image. In an antenna, an imaginary cylinder
in space surrounding the radiating elements.

APOGEE:

The point in an elliptical satellite orbit, which is farthest from the center of the earth ( the opposite of perigee).

ARTIFACT:

Any anomaly, distortion or unnatural component in an image – usually associated with digital video transmission.

BACKHAUL:

A process where a television signal is transmitted from a remote site to a central site where the backhaul signal is
integrated into a program, which is being broadcast from the central site.
BANDWIDTH:

A measure of radio frequency (RF) use or capacity. A terrestrial broadcast television channel, for example
occupies a RF bandwidth of 6 MHz or six million cycles per second while a telephone voice transmission requires
a RF bandwidth of only 3 KHz or 3,000 cycles per second.

BASEBAND:

The bandwidth of the Modulating (message) signal. A transmission medium through which digital signals are sent
without frequency shifting. In general, only one communication channel is available at any given time. Ethernet is
an example of a base band network.

BAUD:
A description of the rate of data transmission usually expressed in bit rate measurements of thousand bits per
second (Kb/s). A 14.4 Baud modem for example will accommodate a bit rate of 14,400 bits per second.

B-ISDN (BROADBAND ISDN):


An ISDN ( Integrated Services Digital Network) offering broadband capabilities. B-ISDN is a CCITT –proposed
service that may(a) include interfaces operating at data rates from 150 to 600 Mb/s, (b) use ATM (Asynchronous
Transfer Mode) to carry all services over a single, integrated, high-speed packet-switched network, (c) have LAN
interconnection capability, (d0 provide access to a remote, shared disk server, (e) provide voice /video/data
teleconferencing, (f) provide transport for programming services such as cable TV, (g) provide single-user
controlled access to remote video sources, (h) handle voice/video telephone calls and (i) access shop-at-home and
other information services.

BASS (BROADCAST SATELLITE SERVICE):


The segment of Ku-band satellite service established by the FCC, which is provided by high power satellites (or
clusters of satellites), which must be separated in orbit by 9 degrees. The frequencies of RF signals transmitted to
and received from the BSS satellites are higher than those permitted for FSS satellites. The BSS transmission
frequency from high-power satellites to satellite receivers has been established by the FCC between 12.2 – 12.7
GHz.
C-BAND

A portion of the Radio Frequency (RF) spectrum located between 4 GHz and 8 GHz, a part of which is dedicated
to satellite communications. Satellite downlink frequencies are located between 3.7 GHz and 4.2 GHz and uplink
frequencies are located between 5.925 GHz and 6.425 Ghz.

CDMA (CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS):

Db (decibel):

An analog unit of measure of signal strength volume or signal loss due to resistance as expressed in logarithmic
form.

DIGITAL ARTIFACTS:

Error in a digital transmission of data which result from digital compression applications which remove
information from a data inventory in an amount sufficient to cause noticeable anomalies.

DS-LEVEL: DIGITAL SIGNAL LEVEL:

DS-0: 64 Kb/s.
DS-0A: A DS-0 signal containing data from a single sub rate station. The bytes are repeated as necessary to match
the sender’s speed to the speed of the DS-0 line.
DS-0B: A DS-0 signal containing data from several sub rate stations. The octets contain a sub rate synchronizing
bit (bit#1) and six data bits (bits 2 through 7). The eighth bit is set to 1 to ensure meeting the 1s density
requirement.
DS-1: 1.544 Mb/s.
Ds-1C: 3.152 Mb/s.
DS-2: 6.312 Mb/s
S-3: 44.736 Mb/s
DS-4: 274.176 Mb/s
DS-4A: 139.264 Mb/s
EIRP (EFFECTIVE ISOTROPIC RADIATED POWER):

The arithmetic product (expressed as dBW) of, (a) power supplied to an antenna and (b) its gain.

ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM:

The entire range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation from zero to infinity, which measure electromagnetic
energy. The Radio spectrum ( less than 300 GHz bandwidth) is divided into subsets of various bandwidths, which
are identified by their frequency characteristics. For example, the Ku-band subset includes those frequencies of
the radio frequency (RF) spectrum between 10.7 GHz and 17.8 GHz while the C-band subset includes those
frequencies between 3600 MHz and 7075 MHz.

FDMA (FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS):


FM (FREQUENCY MODULATION):

Modulation in which the instantaneous frequency of a sine wave carrier is caused to depart from the center
frequency by a amount proportional to the instantaneous value of the modulating signal. In FM, the carrier
frequency is called the center frequency. In optical communications, even if the electrical base band signal is used
to frequency-modulate an electrical carrier, it is still the intensity of the light wave that is varied (modulated) by
the electrical FM carrier. The light wave is varied in intensity at an instantaneous rate corresponding to the
instantaneous frequency of the electrical carrier.

FSS (FIXED SATELLITE SERVICE)

The segment of Ku-band satellite service established by the FCC to be provided from medium power satellites.
These satellites are separated in orbit by at least 2 degrees. RF signals are transmitted to FSS satellites in the 14
GHz to 14.5 GHz range and received from the satellite in the 11.7 GHz to 12.2. GHz range.

GAIN:

The ratio of output current, voltage or power to input current, voltage or power, respectively. Gain is usually
expressed in dB. If the ratio is less than unity, the gain expressed in dB, will be negative, in which case there is a
loss between input and output.
GEO (GEOSYNCHRONOUS EARTH ORBIT):

This is the orbital altitude of 35,580 km (22,237 miles) above the earth’s surface where a satellite’s velocity
matches with the rotation of the earth. A satellite which is in a GEO position above the earth’s equator
(geostationary) will appear from the earth to be occupying a stationary position. The GEOSYNCHRONOUS earth
orbit is also referred to as the Clark Orbit (named in honor of Arthur C. Clarke, a science fiction writer who first
postulated the characteristics of this orbit in 1945).

GROUND SEGMENT:

A term which describes that portion of the total communications satellite system which is situated on the earth
such as transmitting and receiving antenna, RF (radio frequency) signal generating facilities, RF receivers and
digital encoding equipment and decoders.

G/T (GAIN TO NOISE TEMPERATURE):

In the characterization of antenna performance, a figure of merit, where G is the antenna gain in dB (decibels) at
the receive frequency, and T is the equivalent noise temperature of the receiving system in Kelvin.

GUARD BAND:

Referring to the frequency that is left vacant between two channels. The margin of safety that is provided helps to
insure that adjacent signals do not interfere with one another.

HIGH-POWER SATELLITE:

A satellite with greater than 100 Watts of transponder radio frequency (RF) transmitting power.

INCLINED ORBIT:

A condition in which a satellite is unable to maintain a geostationary position above the earth’s equator. Almost all
satellites generate electrical power to operate their transponders by converting the sun’s energy to electricity.
Energy used for station keeping, that is keeping the satellite within a very narrow range of movement north or
south of the equator, is stored on board the spacecraft and over time is dissipated, usually after passage of the
design life of between 8-15 years. When this fuel runs out, the satellite is no longer able to keep station above the
equator. Since satellite uplink and downlink antenna are aimed at a particular point above the equator, a satellite in
inclined orbit will move in and out of the antenna’s “range of vision” as the satellite’s orbit fluctuates north and
south of the equator.

IRD ( INTEGRATED RECEIVER/DECODER):

Satellite ground segment equipment which receives and decodes digital information transmitted via satellite RF
signals. Manufactures have until now incorporated proprietary algorithms in to digital transmission systems
which result in the lack of interoperability among the differing systems. An IRD will only operate successfully
within the particular proprietary system of which it is a part.

ISL (INTER-SATELLITE LINK)

A satellite architecture whereby two or more satellites are configured in such a way that they may communicate
directly with one another. This architecture is used in the TRESS system of satellites and is a component of the
design of Big LEO communications satellite system.

ITU (INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS UNION)

A United Nations treaty organization (originally created in 1865 as the International Telegraph Union with a
membership of twenty nations … current name adopted in 1932) which supports procedures for the international
allocation of the radio frequency (RF) spectrum and provides the platform for the World Radio Conference
(WRC), a biannual meeting of world communication leaders. The WRC publishes ‘International Radio
Regulations’ for the RF spectrum. The ITU conducts ongoing policy and study group sessions.

KA-BAND:

A portion of the RF spectrum located between 18 GHz and 31 GHz. Downlink frequencies for satellite
communications are located in the 20 GHz range and uplink frequencies are located in the 30 GHz range.
KU-BAND:

A portion of the RF spectrum located between 10.98 GHz and 17 GHz, a part of which is dedicated to satellite
communications. Satellite downlink frequency are located between 11.7 GHz and 12.2 GHz and uplink
frequencies are located between 14 GHz and 14.5 GHz.

L-BAND:

A portion of the RF spectrum located between 500 MHz and 1500 MHz. the RF (radio frequency) spectrum
between 950 MHz and 1450 MHz is dedicated to mobile communications.

LEO (LOW EARTH ORBIT):

Until recently, a distinction was made between LEO and MEO ( Medium Earth Orbit) orbital classifications. LEO
was classified as an earth orbit with an altitude of between 200-2400 kms. The MEO designation classified orbits
between 2,400 and 10,000 km. current literature frequently refers to any orbital distances from earth of less than
that for geostationary orbit as being LEO. Almost all of the Big LEO and Little LEO systems which are currently
planned will operate inorbits ranging between 640 km and 2,500 km above the earth. Satellites which are placed
in LEO orbits move rather swiftly in relation to the earth, generally from a westerly to an easterly direction.

Some of the newly designed LEO communications satellite networks will launch some of the satellites in the
network constellation into polar earth orbits. The relative motion of the satellite in relation to the earth slows as
the altitude of the satellite increases. The rapid relative movement in low earth orbit enables data gathering and
communication satellites to cover large areas of the earth’s surface in short periods of time. The space shuttle is
injected into a low earth orbit for example.

BIG LEO:

A space segment architecture which consists of a constellation of many satellites in Low Earth Orbit in a
configuration which will permit the deliver of global mobile telephony and data services. The system is served by
a network of ground stations which provides gateway access from terrestrial network as well as management,
control and orbital correction functions. This system is intended to provide telecommunication service to remote
sites, high latitude geographic locations which are not accessible by GEO satellites and to omni directional
antenna on handset transceivers. Examples of Big LEO systems include Teledesic and Iridium.

LITTLE LEO:

A space segment architecture which is similar to that of Big LEO systems but which carries data only. The remote
collection and transmission of utility meter data would be an example of a service provided by a Little LEO
satellite system. Often, store and forward technology is used to facilitate communication with the ground
segment.

LOW-POWER SATELLITE:

A satellite with less than 30 Watts of transponder radio frequency (RF) transmitting power.

MEDIUM-POWER SATELLITE:

A satellite with greater than 30 Watts but less than 100 Watts of transponder radio frequency (RF) transmitting
power.

MEO (MEDIUM EARTH ORBIT):

MODULATION:

The process of modifying the channel signal (often called the “carrier”) to represent information to be transmitted.
Typical modulation methods involve the frequency, amplitude or phase of the carrier.

MULTIPLE ACCESS:

Techniques have been developed in the satellite industry, which allow satellite spectrum and power to be shared
efficiently among multiple users of a satellite transponder. CDMA (CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS): A
multiple access scheme whereby ground station uplinks access a satellite transponder using spread-spectrum
modulations and orthogonal codes to avoid interfering with other transmissions using the same transponder. In
Contrast with the FDMA scheme which attempts to minimize the transmitted bandwidth, in this scheme all users
transmit signals simultaneously across all of the dedicated multiple access channel. Receivers use a code
corresponding to the transmission code to demodulate the signal or separate it from other signals on the channel.

FDMA (FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS): A multiple access scheme whereby each ground
station uplink is assigned a specific frequency slot and bandwidth for one of the multiple carriers within a specific
satellite transponder. This scheme is usually used in conjunction with Frequency Modulation. The FDMA scheme
may be divided into two categories, Multiple Channel Per Carrier and Single Channel Per Carrier.

TDMA (TIME DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS): A multiple access scheme whereby many users may access a
single carrier by time-sharing. A digital signal is compressed in packets which are transmitted to the carrier in
bursts. These packets are processed into consecutive time segments which do not overlap. Instructions are sent to
a receiver which identify the packets representing a particular transmission. (i.e., every 4th packet).

MULTIPLEXING:

A process in the transmission of RF (radio frequency) signals whereby a number of simultaneous transmissions
can be accommodated on a single circuit.

PERIGEE:

The point in an elliptical satellite orbit where it is closest to the center of the earth (the opposite of APOGEE).

RF (RADIO FREQUENCY):

Any frequency within the electromagnetic spectrum normally associated with radio wave propagation.
Organizations such as the FCC and ITU have divided the radio frequency spectrum into subdivisions for
management purpose.

SAR (SPECIFIC ABSORPTION RATE):

Measures the maximum quantity of radiation absorbed by one Kilogram of tissue from a cell phone. Nokia,
Motorola and Ericsson are working to establish international benchmark standards.
SDH (SYNCHRONOUS DIGITAL HIERARCHY):

An international digital telecommunications network hierarchy which standardizes transmission around the bit
rate of 51.84 megabits per second, which is also called STS-1. Multiples of this bit rate comprise higher bit rate
streams. SONET is the American version of SDH.

SECAM (SEQUENTIAL ENCODED COOR AMPLITUDE

MODULATION): A French developed color television standard which is common in Francophile countries
and the former Soviet Union. The system operates with a screen density of 625 scan lines per picture and 50
cycles per second but inverts the signal making it incompatible with the PAL and NTSC video standards.

SPACE SEGMENT:

A term which describes the portion of the total communications satellite system which is physically located in
orbit around the earth.

SPECTRUM:

A shorthand reference to the ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM.

STS-N (SYNCHRONOUS TRANSPORT SIGNAL – LEVEL N):

In SONET, a frame of N x 6480 bits that is transported at N x 51.84 Mb/s. STS-N signals are created by
interleaving N STS-1 signals, octet-by-octet. For various reasons, the values of N + 3, 12, 24, 48 and 96 are
preferred. The optical equivalent OF STS Levels are expressed as OC-N levels.

T-1 LINE:

A transmission medium with a transmission bit rate of 1.544 million bits per second (Mb/s), equivalent to the
ISDN Primary Rate Interface (PRI) for the United States. The European T-1 transmission bit rate is 2.048 Mb/s.
TDMA (TIME DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS):

A LAN in which each station is connected to two others so as to form a single-thread loop that connects all of the
stations. Data is transferred around the ring from station to station.

TRANSPONDER:

A combination receiving and transmitting antenna on a communications satellite. A frequency converter is also
including in the transmit/receive package which converts the unlinked signal frequency to a transmission or
downlink frequency.

USAT (ULTRA SMALL APERTURE TERMINAL):

Earth station satellite antenna with a diameter or cross-section dimension of about 50 cm or less.

VSAT (VERY SMALL APERTURE TERMINAL):


Earth station satellite antenna with a diameter or cross-section dimension in the general range of 1.2 to 2.4 meters.

WIDBAND:

The property of any communications facility, equipment, channel or system in which the range of frequencies
used for transmission is greater than 0.1% of the midband frequency. Wideband is often used to distinguish it
from “narrowband”, where both terms are subjectively defined relative to the implied context. The term also
applies to the property of a circuit that has a bandwidth wider than normal for the type of circuit, frequency of
operation or type of modulation. Synonymous with Broadband.

X-BAND:

A portion of the RF spectrum locate between 7.25 GHz and 8.4 GHz which is dedicated to the United States
Military for satellite communications.
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(Handspring: GPRS Upgrade 1.1.2 : FAQs)[ O n l i n e ] . [ D e c , 2 0 0 3 ] . Av a i l a b l e f r o m Wo r l d Wi d e


We b h t t p : / / w w w. h a n d s p r i n g . c o . u k / p r o d u c t s / g p r s / f a q s . a s p

(GSM Phase 2+ General Packet Radio Service GPRS: Architecture, Protocols, and Air Interface) [Online].[Dec,
2003]. Available from World Wide Web www.comsoc.org/livepubs/surveys/public/3q99issue/bettstetter.html
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Me Muhammad Immad Mohsin khan student No# 0220116 of MBIS in Bolton institute have completed this
project report based on “working and technology of satellite phones in Pakistan”.

During this project first of all my teacher Mr. Mathew Shafagi and Mr. Julian coalman helped me in every way.
Other then my teacher I have taken help in collecting data from different websites such as
www.mobilinkgsm.com.pk
www.gsmworld.com
www.iee.com.
www.Thuraya.com.pk
www.thuraya.com
www.cellular.co.za
www.howstuffworks.com.

Related books, which were consulted during this report: -


Communication Electronics,
Simulation of communication system and Principles and applications of GSM.

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