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Volume 24

Managing Editor
Mahabir Singh

May 2016

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CONTENTS

Editor
Anil Ahlawat
(BE, MBA)

No. 5

Physics Musing Problem Set 34

JEE Advanced Practice Paper

10

JEE Main Solved Paper 2016

22

PMT Practice Paper

31

BITSAT Practice Paper

39

Brain Map

46

Exam Prep 2016

51

AIIMS Practice Paper

56

Olympiad Problems

65

JIPMER Practice Paper

69

Core Concept

74

Live Physics

81

Physics Musing Solution Set 33

82

You Ask We Answer

84

Crossword

85

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Physics For you | may 16

PHYSICS

MUSING

hysics Musing was started in August 2013 issue of Physics For You with the suggestion of Shri Mahabir Singh. The aim of Physics Musing is to augment
the chances of bright students preparing for JEE (Main and Advanced) / AIIMS / Other PMTs with additional study material.
In every issue of Physics For You, 10 challenging problems are proposed in various topics of JEE (Main and Advanced) / various PMTs. The detailed
solutions of these problems will be published in next issue of Physics For You.
The readers who have solved five or more problems may send their detailed solutions with their names and complete address. The names of those who
send atleast five correct solutions will be published in the next issue.
We hope that our readers will enrich their problem solving skills through Physics Musing and stand in better stead while facing the competitive exams.

1. A particle is projected from ground in vertical


direction at t = 0. At t = 0.8 s, it reaches h = 14 m. It
will again come to same height at t = (g = 10 m s2)
14
7
s (c) 3 s
(a) 2 s
(b)
(d)
s
5
2
2. In the figure shown, the blocks A and C are pulled
down with constant velocities u . Acceleration of
block B is
b

(a)

u2
tan2 sec
b

(b)

u2
tan3
b

u2 2
(d) zero
sec tan
b
3. Two particles A and B each of mass m are attached
by a light inextensible string of length 2l. The
whole system lies on a smooth horizontal table
with B initially at a distance l from A. The particle
at end B is projected across the table with speed u
perpendicular to AB. Velocity of ball A just after the
jerk is
u 3
(a)
(b) u 3
4
u
u 3
(c)
(d)
2
2
4. A particle initially at rest starts moving from point
A on the surface of a fixed smooth hemisphere of
radius r as shown in the figure. The particle looses
its contact with hemisphere at point B. C is centre of
the hemisphere. The equation relating a and b is
(c)

A
B

r
C

(a) 3 sin a = 2 cos b (b) 2 sin a = 3 cos b


(c) 3 sin b = 2 cos a (d) 2 sin b = 3 cos a
5. The intensity of radiation emitted by the Sun has its
maximum value at a wavelength of 510 nm and that
emitted by the North star has the maximum value
at 350 nm. If these stars behave like black bodies,
then the ratio of the surface temperatures of the
Sun and the North star is
(a) 1.46 (b) 0.69 (c) 1.21 (d) 0.83
6. N(< 100) molecules of a gas have velocities
1, 2, 3........ N km s1 respectively. Then
(a) rms speed and average speed of molecules is
same
(b) ratio of rms speed to average speed of molecules
is (2N + 1)(N + 1) / 6N
(c) ratio of rms speed to average speed of molecules
is (2N + 1)(N + 1) / 6
(d) ratio of rms speed to average speed of molecules
(2N + 1)
6(N + 1)
7. A thermodynamic process of one mole ideal
gas is shown in the V
4T0
figure. The efficiency 2V
C
0
of cyclic process ABCA
will be
A
B
V0
T0
(a) 25%
2T0
(b) 12.5%
2P0 P
P0
(c) 50%
(d) 7.7%
Contd. on page no. 80
is 2

By Akhil Tewari, author Foundation of Physics for JEE main & advanced, Senior Professor Physics, RaO IIT aCaDEmy, mumbai.

Physics For you | may 16

JEE Advanced
exam on
22nd May
2016

PRACTICE
PRACTICE PAPER
PAPER 2016
2016
PaPer-1

Section 1 (MaxiMuM MarkS : 32)

This section contains EIGHT questions


The answer to each question is a SINGLE DIGIT
INTEGER ranging from 0 to 9, both inclusive

1. A current I flows in a rectangularly shaped wire


whose center lies at (x0, 0, 0) and whose vertices
are located at the points A(x0 + d, a, b),
B(x0 d, a, b), C(x0 d, a, b), and D(x0 + d, a, b)
respectively. Assume that a, b, d << x0. Find the
magnitude of magnetic dipole moment vector of the
rectangular wire frame in J T1. (Given: b = 10 m,
d = 4 m, a = 3 m, I = 0.01 A)
2. A very long, straight, thin wire carries 3.60 nC m1
of fixed negative charge. The wire is to be surrounded
by a uniform cylinder of positive charge, radius
1.50 cm, coaxial with the wire. The volume charge
density r of the cylinder is to be selected so that
the net electric field outside the cylinder is zero.
Calculate the required positive charge density r
(in mC m3).
3. A long coaxial cable consists of two thin-walled
conducting cylinders with inner radius 2 cm and
outer radius 8 cm. The inner cylinder carries a steady
current 0.1 A, and the outer cylinder provides the
return path for that current. The current produces a
magnetic field between the two cylinders. Find the
energy stored in the magnetic field for length 5 m of
the cable. Express answer in nJ (use ln 2 = 0.7).
4. A 0.5 kg block slides from the point A on a horizontal
track with an initial speed 3 m s1 towards a weightless
horizontal spring of length 1 m and force constant
2 N m1. The part AB of the track is frictionless and
the part BC has the coefficient of static and kinetic
friction as 0.22 and 0.20 respectively. If the distance
AB and BD are 2 m and 2.14 m respectively, find the
10

Physics For you | may 16

total distance (nearest integer) in m through which


the block moves before it comes to rest completely.
[g = 10 m s2]

5. An open organ pipe containing air resonates in


fundamental mode due to a tuning fork. The
measured values of length l (in cm) of the pipe
and radius r (in cm) of the pipe are l = 94 0.1,
r = 5 0.05. The velocity of the sound in air is
accurately known. The maximum percentage error
in the measurement of the frequency of that tuning
fork by this experiment is given by a2%. Find the
value of 10 a.
6. An initially uncharged capacitor C is fully charged
by a constant emf e in series with a resistor R. Rate
of energy dissipation in the resistor is equal to rate
of energy stored in capacitor at time CR ln k. Find
the value of k.
7. You are at a distance of R = 1.5 106 m from the
centre of an unknown planet. You notice that if you
throw a ball horizontally it goes completely around
the planet hitting you in the back 90,000 s later with
exactly the same speed that you originally threw it.
The length of semi major axis of the motion of ball
is 2R. The mass of the planet in scientific notation is
a 1021 kg. Find a.
8. In a certain polytropic process, the volume of
argon was increased four times. Simultaneously,
the pressure decreased eight times. Find the molar
heat capacity (in SI unit) of argon in this process,
assuming the gas to be ideal.

Section 2 (Maximum Marks : 40)



This section contains TEN questions


Each question has FOUR options (a), (b), (c) and (d).
ONE OR MORE THAN ONE of these four option(s)
is(are) correct

9. For a certain radioactive substance, it is observed


that after 4 h, only 6.25% of the original sample is
left undecayed. It follows that
(a) the half-life of the sample is 1 h
1
(b) the mean life of the sample is
h
ln 2
(c) the decay constant of the sample is ln(2) h1
(d) after a further 4 h, the amount of the substance
left over would by only 0.39% of the original
amount.
10. A system consists of two identical
cubes, each of mass m, linked
together by the compressed
weightless spring of stiffness k. The
cubes are also connected by a thread
which is burned through at a certain
moment.

(a) The lower cube will bounce up after the thread


has been burned through when the initial
2mg
compression of the spring is
.
k
(b) If the initial compression of the spring is
7 mg/k, then centre of gravity of this system will
8mg
rise to height
.
k
(c) The lower cube will bounce up after the thread
has been burned through when the initial
5mg
compression of the spring is
.
k
(d) All are correct.
11. It is desired to make a long cylindrical conductor
whose temperature coefficient of resistivity at 20C
will be close to zero. If such a conductor is made by
assembling alternate disks of iron and carbon, find
the ratio of the thickness of a carbon disk to that an
iron disk.
(For carbon, r = 3500 108 W m and
a = 0.50 103 C1 for iron, r = 9.68 108 W m
and a = 6.5 103 C1)
(a) 0.36

(b) 0.036 (c) 1.0

(d) 2.0

12. A rocket set for vertical firing weighs 50 kg and


contains 450 kg of fuel. It can have a maximum
exhaust velocity of 2 km s1.
12

Physics For you | may 16

(a) Minimum rate of fuel consumption to just lift


it off the launching pad is 2.45 kg s1.
(b) Minimum rate of fuel consumption to give it an
acceleration of 20 m s2 is 3.5 kg s1.
(c) The speed of the rocket is 4.2 km s1 when the
rate of consumption of fuel is 10 kg s1 after
whole of the fuel is consumed.
(d) All are correct.
13. One mole of a diatomic ideal gas ( = 1.4) is taken
through a cyclic process starting from point A.
The process A B is an adiabatic compression,
B C is isobaric expansion, C D is an adiabatic
expansion, and D A is isochoric. The volume
ratios are VA/VB = 16 and VC/VB = 2 and the
temperature at A is TA = 300 K.
(a) Temperature of the gas at B is 909 K.
(b) Temperature of the gas at D is 791 K.
(c) The efficiency of the cycle is 61.4%.
(d) The efficiency of the cycle is 38.6%.
14. A point charge q is located
at centre O of a spherical
uncharged conducting
b
a
layer provided with a
Oq
small orifice as shown
in the figure. The inside
and outside radii of the
layer are equal to a and b
respectively. What amount of work has to be
performed to slowly transfer the charge q from the
point O through the orifice and into infinity ?
q2 1 1
q2 1 1
(a)
(b)


8pe 0 a b
8pe0 b a
2

q 1 1
q2 1 1
(c)
(d)


4
pe0 b a
4 pe0 a b
15. n drops of a liquid each with surface energy E join
to form a single drop. Then
(a) some energy will be released in the process
(b) some energy will be absorbed in the process
(c) the energy released will be E(n n2/3)
(d) the energy absorbed will be nE(22/3 1)
16. A 30 cm violin string with linear mass density
0.652 g m1 is placed near a loudspeaker that is fed
by an audio oscillator variable frequency. It is found
that the string is set into oscillation only at the
frequencies 880 Hz and 1320 Hz as the frequency of
the oscillator is varied continuously over the range
500-1500 Hz. What is the tension in the string ?
(a) 120 N (b) 60 N (c) 90.8 N (d) 45.4 N

Column-I

(A) Frequency of orbiting (P) is


directly
electron
proportional
to Z2
(B) Angular momentum (Q) is
directly
of orbiting electron
proportional
to n
(C) Magnetic moment of (R) is
inversely
orbiting electron
proportional
to n3
(D) The average current (S)
due to orbiting of
electron

S1

S
2 mm

S2

(b) Fmin = We+p


(d) Fmin = Wep

Section 3 (Maximum Marks : 16)



P
y = 10 mm

1m

(a) Fmin = Wep


(c) Fmin = Wep

is independent
of Z

20. In Young's double-slit experiment, the point source


S is placed slightly off the central axis as shown in the
figure. If l = 500 nm, then match the following.

Column-II

20 mm

17. A particle of mass m moves in a certain plane due


to a force F whose vector rotates in that place with a
constant angular velocity w. Assuming the particle
to be stationary at the moment t = 0, then
(a) its velocity as a function of time is
F wt

sin
mw 2
(b) its velocity as a function of time is
2 F wt

sin
mw 2
(c) the distance covered by the particle between
8F
two successive stops is
mw2
(d) the mean velocity over two successive stops
4F
.
is
pmw
18. A massless rope is tossed over a wooden dowel of
radius r in order to lift a heavy object of weight W
off the floor, as shown in the figure. The coefficient
of sliding friction between the rope and the dowel
is m. Which of the following relation is correct
for minimum downward pull (Fmin) on the rope
necessary to lift the object ?

This section contains TWO questions


Each question contains two columns, Column I and
Column II
Match the entries in Column I with the entries in
Column II
One or more entries in Column I may match with one
or more entries in Column II

19. In each situation of Column I, a physical quantity


related to orbiting electron in hydrogen-like atom
is given. The terms Z and n given in Column II
have usual meaning in Bohr's theory. Match the
quantities in Column I with the terms they depend
on in Column II.

2m

Column-I

Column-II

(A) Nature and order of (P) Bright fringe


interference at point P,
of order 80
OP = 10 mm
(B) Nature and order of (Q) Bright fringe
interference at point O
of order 262
(C) If a transparent paper (R) Bright fringe of
order 62
(refractive index =
1.45) of thickness t =
0.02 mm is pasted on S1,
i.e., one of the slits, the
nature and order of the
interference at P
(D) After
inserting
the (S)
transparent paper in
front of slit S1, the nature
and order of interference
at O

Bright fringe of
order 280

Physics For you | may 16

13

PaPer-2
Section 1 (MaxiMuM MarkS : 32)

This section contains EIGHT questions


The answer to each question is a SINGLE DIGIT
INTEGER ranging from 0 to 9, both inclusive

1. For the given circuit in the steady state condition,


charge on the capacitor is q0 = 16 C. If now the
battery is removed and the nodes A and C are
shorted. The time during which charge on the
capacitor becomes 4 C is t(s) and emf of battery
3t
is e(V). Find the value of
.
e ln 2
2

+
C = 4 F

1
A

3
C

+24 V

2. A glass of refractive index 1.5 is coated with a


thin layer of thickness t of refractive index 1.8.
Light of wavelength l travelling in air is incident
normally on the layer. It is partly reflected at the
upper and the lower surfaces of the layer and the
two reflected rays interfere. If l = 648 nm, obtain
the least value of t(in 108 m) for which the rays
interfere constructively.
3. A charged particle enters a uniform magnetic field
with velocity v0 = 4 m s1 perpendicular to it, the
3
R, where R is the
2
radius of the circular path of the particle in the field.
Find the magnitude of change in velocity (in m s1)
of the particle when it comes out of the field.
4. Two tuning forks A and B each
B
A
of natural frequency 85 Hz move
with velocity 10 m s1 relative to
O
stationary observer O. Fork A
moves away from the observer
while the fork B moves towards
him as shown in the figure. A wind
with a speed 10 m s1 is blowing in the direction of
motion of fork A. Find the beat frequency measured
by the observer in Hz. [Take speed of sound in air
as 340 m s1]
length of magnetic field is x =

14

Physics For you | may 16

5. In two calorimeters, we poured 200 g of water each


at temperatures of +30 C and +40 C. From the
hot calorimeter 50 g of water, is poured into cold
calorimeter and stirred. Then from cold calorimeter
50 g of water is poured in hot and again stirred. How
many times do you have to pour the same portion
of water back and forth so that the temperature
difference between water in the calorimeters
becomes less than 3 C ? Heat loss during the transfer
and head capacity of calorimeters is neglected.
6. The tap in the garden was
closed inappropriately
resulting in the water
flowing
freely
out
of it which forms a
downward narrowing
d1 = 6 mm
beam. The beam of water
3 cm
d2 = 3 mm
has a circular crosssection, the diameter
of the circle is 6 mm at one point and 3 cm below it
is only 3 mm as shown in figure. If the rate of water
wasted is 55.65 10n L s1 then find the value of n.
(Neglect the effect of viscosity and surface tension
of the flowing water.)
7. Nuclei A and B convert into a stable nucleus
C. Nucleus A is converted into C by emitting 2
a-particles and 3 b-particles. Nucleus B is converted
into C by emitting one a-particle and 5 b-particles.
At time t = 0, nuclei of A are 4N0 and nuclei of B
are N0. Initially, number of nuclei of C are zero.
Half-life of A (into conversion of C) is 1 min and
that of B is 2 min. Find the time (in minutes) at
which rate of disintegration of A and B are equal.
8. A block of mass m is being pulled up the rough
incline, inclined at an angle 37 with horizontal by
an agent delivering constant power P. The coefficient
of friction between the block and the incline is .
Find the maximum speed (in m s1) of the block
during the course of ascent.
[Take: P = 60 W, m = 1 kg, m = 0.5]

Section 2 (Maximum Marks : 32)



This section contains EIGHT questions


Each question has FOUR options (a), (b), (c) and (d).
ONE OR MORE THAN ONE of these four option(s)
is(are) correct

9. A thin uniform bar lies on a


frictionless horizontal surface
and is free to move in any
way on the surface. Its mass is
0.16 kg and length 3 m.

A
10 m s1
B
6 m s1

Two particles, each of mass 0.08 kg, are moving on


the same surface and towards the bar in a direction
perpendicular to the bar, one with a velocity of
10 m s1, and other with 6 m s1 as shown in the
figure. The first particle strikes the bar at point A and
the other at point B. Points A and B are at a distance
of 0.5 m from the centre of the bar. The particles
strike the bar at the same instant of time and stick
to the bar on collision. The loss of the kinetic energy
of the system in the collision process is
(a) 2 J
(b) 4 J
(c) 2.72 J
(d) 5.44 J
10. Consider the earth as a uniform sphere of mass
M and radius R. Imagine a straight smooth tunnel
made through the earth which connects any two
points on its surface. The time taken by a particle to
go from one end to other through the tunnel is
(a) 2p

R3
GM

(b) p

12. A conducting wire of length l and mass m is placed


on two inclined rails as shown in the figure. A
current I is flowing in the wire in the direction
shown. When no magnetic field is present in the
region, the wire is just on the verge of sliding. When
a vertically upward magnetic field is switched on,
the wire starts moving up the incline. The distance
travelled by the wire as a function of time t will be

R3
GM

R3
R3
(d)
2GM
GM
11. A linear object of size 1.5 cm is placed at 10 cm
from a lens of focal length 20 cm. The optic centre
of lens and the object are displaced a distance D.
The magnification of the image formed is m. (Take
optic centre as origin). The coordinates of image of
A and B are (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) respectively. Then
(c)

y
I

C
x

1 IBl
2
2g t

2 m

1 IBl
1
2
(b)

2 g sin q t
2 m cos q

1 IBl
2
(c)
2 g sin q t
2 m

1 IBl cos 2q
2
(d)
2 g sin q t
2 m cos q

(a)

13. For a certain metal, the K absorption edge is at


0.172 . The wavelength of Ka, Kb and Kg lines of K
series are 0.210 , 0.192 , and 0.180 , respectively.
The energies of K, L and M orbits are EK, EL and EM,
respectively. Then
(a) EK = 13.07 keV (b) EL = 7.52 keV
(c) EM = 3.21 keV (d) EK = 13.04 keV
14. Two light springs of force constants k1 and k2 and
a block of mass m are in one line AB on a smooth
horizontal table such that one ends of each spring
is fixed on rigid supports and the other end is free
as shown in the figure.
60cm

k1
A

(a) (x1, y1) = (20 cm, 1 cm)


(b) (x2, y2) = (20 cm, 2 cm)
(c) m = 3
(d) m = 2

k2

v
C

The distance CD between the free ends of the


springs is 60 cm. If the block moves along AB with a
velocity 120 cm s1 in between the springs, calculate
the period of oscillation of the block.
(k1 = 1.8 N m1, k2 = 3.2 N m1, m = 200 g)
(a) 3 s
(b) 4 s
(c) 2.83 s
(d) 4.35 s
Physics For you | may 16

15

15. PQR is an equilateral triangular frame of mass m


and side r. It is at rest under the action of horizontal
magnetic field B as shown in the figure and the
gravitational field.

The temperature difference across the unit is 13 K. It has


a cross-sectional area of 1.3 m2 and the rate of heat flow
through it is 65 W. Glass has a thermal conductivity of
1 W m1 K1.

r 3
4

(a) The frame remains at rest if the current in the


2mg
frame is
.
rB
(b) The frame remains at rest if the current in the
2mg
frame is
.
rB 3
(c) The frame is in simple harmonic motion
when frame is slightly displaced in its plane
perpendicular to PQ. The period of oscillation
1/ 2

is p r 3
g
(d) For same as in above option, the period of
1/ 2

oscillation is p 3r
2g

16. Two identical cylindrical vessels with their bases at
the same level each contain a liquid of density r.
The height of the liquid in one vessel is h1 and in
other vessel is h2. The area of either base is A. What
is the work done by gravity in equalizing the levels
when the two vessels are connected ?
rAg
rAg
(a)
(h1 h2)2
(b)
(h1 + h2)2
4
4
rAg
rAg
(c)
(h1 h2)2
(d)
(h1 + h2)2
2
2

17. Select the correct statement.


(a) The unit is in steady state and in thermal
equilibrium.
(b) The unit is in steady state but not in thermal
equilibrium.
(c) The unit is not in steady state but is in thermal
equilibrium.
(d) The unit neither in steady state nor in thermal
equilibrium.
18. The thermal conductivity of air is
1
1
(a)
W m1K1
(b)
W m1K1
10
12
1
9
(c)
W m1K1
(d)
W m1K1
14
130
PARAGRAPH 2
In the given setup, the parallel plate capacitor AB
has vertical plates with separation, d = 50 mm and
capacitance C0. From the plate A a small conducting
ball hangs on a non-conducting silk thread of
length L = 100 mm. The mass of the ball is m and
capacitance is C1. It initially touches the plate A, as
shown in the figure. The plate B is grounded while plate
A is connected to a power supply of potential V0 for a
short time by closing the switch S and then opening
it again.

Section 3 (Maximum Marks : 16)




This section contains TWO paragraphs


Based on each paragraph, there will be TWO questions
Each question has FOUR options (a), (b), (c) and (d).
ONE OR MORE THAN ONE of these four options(s)
is(are) correct

PARAGRAPH 1
The figure shows a cross-section of a double glass unit of
a window on a vertical wall. A graph of the temperatures
at different points within the unit is shown next to it.
16

Physics For you | may 16

The motion of the conducting ball was observed. It was


found that due to the charge deposited on the plate
and the ball, the ball swings across, touches the plate
B, swings back, touches A and finally swings out again
such that it almost touches plate B. Take g = 10 m s2.

19. The ratio of the charge carried by the plates and the
ball finally is
(a) C1 : C0
(b) C12 : C02
2
2
(c) C0 : C1
(d) C0 : C1
20. Based on the description given in the passage, the
required power supply voltage (V0) is given by
C1
m
(a) V0 = 1 +
C
0 2 3C1

C
m
(b) V0 = 1 + 0
C1 2 3C1
C
(c) V0 = 1 + 0
C1

5m

C
(d) V0 = 1 + 1
C0

5m

3C1
3C1

solutions
paper-1

1. (2) : Magnetic moment of a current carrying loop,

m = IS

Area of the loop, S = AB BC

Here, AB = 2d i + 2a j, BC = 2b k

\ S = ( 2d i + 2a j) (2b k ) = 4bd j + 4ab i

\ | m |= I | S |= 4 Ib a2 + d 2
= 4 0.01 10 32 + 42
= 0.4 5 = 2 J T1
2. (5) : We don't really need to write an integral, we
just need the charge per unit length in the cylinder
to be equal to zero. This means that the positive
charge in cylinder must be +3.60 nC m1. This
positive charge is uniformly distributed in a circle
of radius R = 1.50 cm, so
3.60 nC m 1 3.60 nC m 1
r=
=
5 C m3.
pR2
p(0.015 m)2
3. (7) : The magnetic field inside
is only due to the current of the
mi
r
inner cylinder. B = 0
2pr
Magnetic field energy density
is not uniform in the space
between the cylinders. At a
distance r from the centre
m i2
B2
= 02 2
uB =
2m0 8p r

Energy in volume of element (length l)


m i2
m i 2 l dr
dUB = uB dV = 02 2 (2prl)dr = 0
4p r
8p r
2 b
2
m i l dr m i l b
UB = 0 = 0 ln
4p a r
4p
a
Using values, we get UB = 7 nJ
4. (4) : As the track AB is frictionless, the block moves
1
this distance without loss in its initial KE = mv2
2
1
= 0.5 32 = 2.25 J.
2
In the path BD as friction is present, so work done
against friction
= kmg (BD) = 0.2 0.5 10 2.14 = 2.14 J
So, at D the KE of the block = 2.25 2.14 = 0.11 J.
Now, if the spring is compressed by x
1
0.11 = k x2 + k mgx
2
1
or 0.11 = 2 x2 + 0.2 0.5 10x
2
or x2 + x 0.11 = 0
On solving, x = 0.1 m or 1.1 m
x 1.1 m, so, x = 0.1 m
After moving the distance x = 0.1 m the block comes
to rest. Now the compressed spring exerts a force:
F = kx = 2 0.1 = 0.2 N
on the block while limiting frictional force between
block and track is fL = s mg = 0.22 0.5 10 = 1.1 N.
Since, F < fL. The block will not move back. So, the
total distance moved by the block
= AB + BD + 0.1 = 2 + 2.14 + 0.1 = 4.24 m
v
5. (4) : u =
2(l + 2e)
v
v
=
\ u=
2(l + 2 0.6r ) 2(l + 1.2r )
Du Dv D(l + 1.2r ) Dv Dl + 1.2 Dr
\
=

v
l + 1.2r
v
l + 1.2r
u
Du
Dl + 1.2 Dr
Dv
Here
100 =
100%
=0;
u
l + 1.2r
v
For maximum % error: Dl = 0.1 cm, Dr = 0.05 cm
0.1 + 1.2 0.05
Du

100%
100% =

max
94 + 1.2 5
u

= 0.16% = a2%

\ a = 0.4. Hence, 10a = 4.


6. (2) : The capacitor charge as a function of time is
given by
q = Ce(1 et/RC),
Physics For you | may 16

17

While the current through the circuit (and the


resistor) is given by
e
i = e t / RC
R
The energy stored in the capacitor is given by
q2
U=
2C
So the rate that energy is being stored in the
capacitor is
dU q dq q
PC =
=
= i.
dt C dt C
The rate of energy dissipation in the resistor is
PR = i2R
So the time at which the rate of energy dissipation
in the resistor is equal to the rate of energy storage
in the capacitor can be found by solving
q
PC =PR or, i2R = i or, iRC = q,
C
t/RC

eCe

t/RC

t/RC

= Ce(1 e

),

e
= 1/2 or, t = RC ln 2.
7. (2) : For the ball, centripetal force = gravitational
force
GMm
mw2(2R) =
(2R)2
2p
8w2 R3 32p2 R3

or M =
=
w =
2

T
G
TG
2
6 3
32 (3.14) (1.5 10 )
\ M=
(90000)2 6.67 1011
= 1.97 1021 2 1021 kg
8. (4) : Let the process is polytropic. According to the
law pVn = constant
n
Vf
p
n
n
Thus, pfV f = piVi
or, = i
pf
Vi
Vf
p
Given
= a = 4 and i = b = 8
Vi
pf
ln b
So, an = b or ln b = n ln a or n =
ln a
In the polytropic process, molar heat capacity is
given by
R(n )
R
R
Cn =
=

(n 1)( 1) 1 n 1
R ln a
R
=

1 ln b ln a
8.314 8.314 ln 4

So, Cn =
= 4.16 4 J mol1K1
1.4 1 ln 8 ln 4
18

Physics For you | may 16

6.25 1
1
= = 4
100 16 2
The given time of 4 h thus equals 4 half-lives so the
half-life is 1 h.
ln2
Since half-life =
decay constant
1
and mean life =
decay constant
decay constant, l = ln2 h1
1
mean life, t =
h
ln 2
After further 4 h, the amount left over would be
100
1 1 , i.e., 1
or
% or 0.39% of original
4
4
256 256
2 2
amount.

9. (a, b, c, d) : We have, 6.25% =

10. (b, c) : The initial compression in the spring (Dl)


must be such that after burning of the thread, the
upper cube rises to a height that produces a tension
in the spring that is atleast equal to the weight of the
lower cube. Actually, the spring will first go from
its compressed state to its natural length and then
get elongated beyond this natural length. Let l be
the maximum elongation produced under these
circumstances.
Then
kl = mg
...(i)
Now, from energy conservation,
1
1
kDl2 =mg (Dl + l) + kl2
...(ii)
2
2
(Because at maximum elongation of the spring, the
speed of upper cube becomes zero)
From equations (i) and (ii),
2mg Dl 3m2 g 2
3mg mg
Dl 2

= 0 or, Dl =
,
k
k
k
k2
3mg
Therefore, acceptable solution of Dl equals
.
k
Let v be the velocity of upper cube at the position
(say, at C) when the lower block breaks off the floor,
then from energy conservation
7mg
1 2 1

mv = k(Dl2 l2) mg(l + Dl) Dl =

k
2
2
mg 2
or, v2 = 32
k
At the position C, the velocity of CM,
mv + 0 v
vc =
= . Let the CM of the system (spring
2m
2
+ two cubes) further rises up to Dyc2.

Now, from energy conservation,


Cv
1
2
l
(2m)v c = (2m)g Dyc2
2
B
v 2 v 2 4mg
=
or, Dyc2 = c =
l
k
2g 8g
But, uptil position C, the C.M. of
the system has already elevated by,
(Dl + l )m + 0 4mg
Dyc1 =
=
2m
k
Hence, the net displacement of
the C.M. of the system, in upward
direction
8mg
Dyc = Dyc1 + Dyc2 =
k
11. (b) : Change in the resistance of the conductor on
increasing its temperature,
R R0 = R0aav(T T0).
The disks will be effectively in series, so we will add
the resistances to get the total. Looking only at one
pair of disk, we have
Rc + Ri = R0c (ac(T T0) + 1) + R0i (ai(T T0) + 1)
= R0c + R0i + (R0c ac + R0i ai) (T T0).
This equation will only be constant if the coefficient
for the term (T T0) vanishes.
Then R0cac + R0iai = 0,
but R = rL/A, and the disks have the same cross
sectional area, so
Lcrcac + Liriai = 0
9.68 108 6.5 103
ra
Lc
or
= i i =
3500 108 (0.50 103 )
rc a c
Li
= 0.036
12. (a, c) : To just lift off the rocket the launching pad,
weight = thrust force
dm mg
dm
or mg = vr
=
or
dt vr
dt
Substituting the values, we get
dm (450 + 50)(9.8) = 2.45 kg s1

=
2 103
dt
Net acceleration, a = 20 m s2
v dm
\ ma = Ft mg or a = r
g
m dt
dm m( g + a)
This gives
=
vr
dt
Substituting the values, we get
dm (450 + 50)(9.8 + 20)
= 7.45 kg s1

=
2 103
dt

The rate of fuel consumption is 10 kg s1. So, the


time for the consumption of entire fuel is
450
t=
= 45 s
10
Speed of the rocket after t = 45 s
m
v = u gt + vr ln 0
m
Here, u = 0, vr = 2 103 m s1, m0 = 500 kg and
m = 50 kg
Substituting the values, we get
500
v = 0 (9.8)(45) + (2 103) ln

50
or v = 441 + 4605.17
or v = 4164.17 m s1= 4.164 km s1 4.2 km s1
13. (a, b, c) : Given: n = 1 mole
= 1.4 for diatomic gas.
VA

TA = 300 K ,

VB

= 16,

VC

VB

=2

A B : adiabatic compression
B C : isobaric expansion
C D : adiabatic expansion
D A : isochoric process.
P
To find TB
B
C
Process A B is adiabatic
1

TB VA
T = V
A B

or

TB
= (16)1.4 1
TA
2/5

= (16)
\
or

\
or
\

1/5

= (256)

= 3.03

16V0 V

2V0

TB = TA 3.03 or TB = 300 3.03


TB = 909 K
To find TD
B C is an isobaric process.
V
VB
V
or TC = TB C
= C
TB
TC
VB
TC = 909 2 or TC = 1818 K
C D is an adiabatic process.
TD
TC

VC

VD

or
1.4 1

or

V0

2
TD = 1818
16

(ii)

V
TD = TC C
VD
1
= 1818
8

(i)

2/5

or TD = 1818 0.435 or TD = 791.4 K (iii)


To find efficiency of the cycle.
Physics For you | may 16

19

% efficiency (h) =
or

h=

Q1 Q2
Q1

Net work done

100%

Heat absorbed

100%

where Q2 = Heat released in the cycle


Q1 = Heat absorbed in the cycle
For adiabatic process AB and CD, DQ = 0
or QAB = QCD = 0
5R
Now QDA = nCV dT or QDA = (1) (TA TD)
2
5 8.31
Q2 =
(300 791.4) = 10208.8 J

2
Negative sign shows that heat is lost by the system
Again QBC = nCp DT
7R
Q1 = (1) (TC TB)
2
7 8.31
(1818 909)
Q1 = 1
2
7 8.31 909
Q1 =
= 26438.3 J
2
Q2

\ h = 1
100%
Q1

10208.8
or h = 1
100% or h = 61.4%
26438.3
Hence TB = 909 K, TD = 791.4 K 791 K
h = 61.4%
14. (a) : Initially, there will be induced charges of
magnitude q and +q on the inner and outer surface
of the spherical layer respectively. Hence, the total
electrical energy of the system is the sum of self
energies of spherical shells, having radii a and b, and
their mutual energies including the point charge q.
qq
qq
qq
1 q2
1 (q)2
+
+
+
+
Ui =
2 4 pe0b 2 4 pe0 a 4 pe0 a 4 pe0b 4 pe0b
q2 1 1

or, Ui =
8pe0 b a
Finally, charge q is at infinity hence, Uf = 0
Now, work done by the agent = increment in the
q2 1 1

energy = Uf Ui =
8pe0 a b
15. (a, c) : Surface tension = Surface energy per unit area
r = Radius of each small drop
R = Radius of big drop
1

4
4
n pr3 = pR3 or R = n 3 r
3
3
20

Physics For you | may 16

Initial surface energy = Ei = n 4pr2 T = nE


Final surface energy = Ef = 4pR2 T = 4pr2n2/3T
Ef = n2/3E
Energy released = Ei Ef = E(n n2/3)
16. (d) : A 30 cm string fixed at both ends will resonate
if the frequency is given by u = nv/2L, where n
is an integer, L the length of the string, and v the
wave-speed on the string. The string is observed to
resonate at 880 Hz and then again at 1320 Hz, so the
two corresponding values of n must differ by 1. We
can then write two equations
nv
(n +1)v
(880 Hz) =
and (1320 Hz) =
2L
2L
(880 Hz) v
(1320 Hz) v
or,
.
= and
=
n
2L
n +1
2L
Combining these two equations, we get
(880 Hz )

(1320 Hz)

,
n
n +1
(n + 1) (880 Hz) = n(1320 Hz),
(880 Hz)
n=
= 2.
(1320 Hz) (880 Hz)
=

For a string fixed at both ends (or a pipe closed


or opened at both ends), the frequency difference
between two adjacent harmonics is the same as the
fundamental frequency, i.e., u1 = un + 1 un
(880)
\ v = 2(0.3)
= 264 m s1
2
The tension, in the string
T = mv2 = 0.652 103 (264)2 = 45.4 N
17. (b, c, d) : Let us fix the x-y co-ordinate system to
the given plane, taking x-axis in the direction along
which the force vector was oriented at the moment
t = 0, then the fundamental equation of dynamics
expressed via the projection on x and y-axis gives at
latter time t,
dv
F cos wt = m x
...(i)
dt
dv y
and F sin wt = m
...(ii)
dt
vx
t
F
From (i), dv x = cos wt dt
...(iii)
m0
0
F
or vx =
sin wt
mw
and similarly from (ii),
F
vy =
(1 cos wt)
...(iv)
mw

2 F wt
Hence, v = v x2 + v 2y =
sin
mw 2
It is seen from this that the velocity v turns into zero
after the time interval Dt, which can be found from
the relation,
y

F
= t
x

Dt
w
= p. Consequently, the sought distance, is
2
Dt
2 p/w
2F
8F
wt
s = v dt =
sin dt =

mw 0
mw2
2
0
Average velocity,
<v> =

v dt = w

dt 2p

2p /w

2F
4F
wt
sin dt =

mw
pmw
2

18. (b) : The rope wraps around the dowel and there is
a contribution to the frictional force Df from each
small segment of the rope where it touches the
dowel. There is also a normal force DN at each point
where the contact occurs.
In the figure we can form a triangle with long side T
and short side DN. In another we see a triangle with
long side r and short side rDq. These triangles are
similar, so rDq/r = DN/T.
T

T
r

Now Df = mDN and T(q) + Df T(q + Dq). Combining,


and taking the limit as Dq 0, dT = df
1 dT
m T = dq
Integrating both sides of this expression,
T2

1 dT
1
T m T = 0 dq ; m [ln T ]TT12 = p
1
T2 = T1ep.
In this case T1 is the weight and T2 is the downward
force.
\ F = Wep

19. A (P, R), B (Q, S), C (Q, S), D (P, R).


mZ 2 e 4
Z2
A. u = 2 3 3 u 3
4e0 h n
n
nh
B. L =
Ln
2p
e
C. Magnetic moment: M = IA =
vpr2
2pr
e
e
e
= vr =
(mvr ) =
L
2
2m
2m
e nh
M=
Mn
2m 2p
ev
e pmZe 2 Ze 2
Z2
D. i =
i 3
= 2 2
2pr 2p n h e0 2e0nh
n
20. A (S), B (P), C (Q), D (R)
The optical path difference between the two waves
arriving at P is
d = (SS2 + S2P) (SS1 + S1P)
= (SS2 SS1) + (S2P S1P)
dy0 dy
+
= d sinq0 + d sinq =
.
D1 D2

d = 20 mm, y0 = 2 mm, D2 = 2 m, D1 = 1 m, y = 10 mm
20 2 20 10
+
\ d=
= 0.14 mm
1000
2000
For a bright fringe, d = nl
d
0.14
n= =
= 280
l 0.5 103
dy
At the origin O, d' = 0 = 0.04 mm
D1
d
0.04
n' = =
= 80
l 0.5 103
Due to transparent paper, the change in optical
path is
( 1)t = (1.45 1) (0.02) mm = 0.009 mm
d" = 0.14 mm 0.009 mm = 0.131 mm
0.131
n=
= 262
0.5 103
Due to transparent paper, the path difference at O,
d''' = d' ( 1)t = (0.04 0.009) mm = 0.031 mm
0.031
n=
= 62
0.5 103

Contd. on page no. 78

Physics For you | may 16

21

1. A student measures the time period of 100


oscillations of a simple pendulum four times. The
data set is 90 s, 91 s, 95 s and 92 s. If the minimum
division in the measuring clock is 1 s, then the
reported mean time should be :
(a) 92 2 s
(b) 92 5.0 s
(c) 92 1.8 s
(d) 92 3 s

a point R. The energies, lost by the ball, over the


parts, PQ and QR, of the track, are equal to each
other, and no energy is lost when particle changes
direction from PQ to QR.
The values of the coefficient of friction m and the
distance x (= QR), are, respectively close to :

2. A particle of mass m is
moving along the side of
a square of side a, with
a uniform speed v in the
x-y plane as shown in
the figure.
Which of the following statements is false for the

angular momentum L about the origin?

mv ^
(a) L =
R k when the particle is moving from
2
A to B.

R
^
a k when the particle is moving
(b) L = mv
2

from C to D.

R
^
(c) L = mv
+ a k when the particle is moving
2

from B to C.
mv ^
(d) L =
R k when the particle is moving from
2
D to A.
3. A point particle of mass m, moves along the
uniformly rough track PQR as shown in the figure.
The coefficient of friction, between the particle and
the rough track equals m. The particle is released,
from rest, from the point P and it comes to rest at
22

Physics For you | may 16

(a) 0.2 and 6.5 m


(c) 0.29 and 3.5 m

(b) 0.2 and 3.5 m


(d) 0.29 and 6.5 m

4. A person trying to lose weight by burning fat lifts


a mass of 10 kg upto a height of 1 m 1000 times.
Assume that the potential energy lost each time he
lowers the mass is dissipated. How much fat will he
use up considering the work done only when the
weight is lifted up? Fat supplies 3.8 107 J of energy
per kg which is converted to mechanical energy
with a 20% efficiency rate. Take g = 9.8 m s 2.
(a) 2.45 103 kg
(b) 6.45 103 kg
3
(c) 9.89 10 kg
(d) 12.89 103 kg
5. A roller is made by joining together two cones at
their vertices O. It is kept on two rails AB and CD
which are placed asymmetrically (see figure), with
its axis perpendicular to CD and its centre O at the
centre of line joining AB and CD (see figure). It is
given a light push so that it starts rolling with its
centre O moving parallel to CD in the direction
shown. As it moves, the roller will tend to :

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

turn left
turn right
go straight
turn left and right alternately

6. A satellite is revolving in a circular orbit at a height


h from the earths surface (radius of earth R;
h << R). The minimum increase in its orbital velocity
required, so that the satellite could escape from the
earths gravitational field, is close to : (Neglect the
effect of atmosphere.)
(a)

2gR

(b)

gR

(c)

gR/2

(d)

gR ( 2 1)

7. A pendulum clock loses 12 s a day if the temperature


is 40 C and gains 4 s a day if the temperature is
20 C. The temperature at which the clock will
show correct time, and the co-efficient of linear
expansion (a) of the metal of the pendulum shaft
are respectively.
(a) 25C; a = 1.85 105/C
(b) 60C; a = 1.85 104/C
(c) 30C; a = 1.85 103/C
(d) 55C; a = 1.85 102/C
8. An ideal gas undergoes a quasi static, reversible
process in which its molar heat capacity C remains
constant. If during this process the relation of
pressure P and volume V is given by PVn = constant,
then n is given by (Here CP and CV are molar specific
heat at constant pressure and constant volume,
respectively) :
(a) n =
(c) n =

CP
CV
CP C

C CV

(b) n =
(d) n =

C CP

C CV

C CV
C CP

9. n moles of an ideal gas undergoes a process A B


as shown in the figure. The maximum temperature
of the gas during the process will be :

(a) 9P0V0
4nR
3P0V0
(b)
2nR
9P0V0
(c)
2nR
(d) 9P0V0
nR
10. A particle performs simple harmonic motion with
amplitude A. Its speed is trebled at the instant that it
2A
from equilibrium position. The
is at a distance
3
new amplitude of the motion is :
A
(a)
(b) 3A
41
3
7A
(c) A 3
(d)
3
11. A uniform string of length 20 m is suspended from
a rigid support. A short wave pulse is introduced at
its lowest end. It starts moving up the string. The
time taken to reach the support is :
(take g = 10 m s2)
(a) 2 p 2 s
(b) 2 s
(c) 2 2 s

(d)

2s

12. The region between two concentric spheres of radii


a and b, respectively (see figure), has volume
A
charge density = , where A is a constant and r
r
is the distance from the centre. At the centre of the
spheres is a point charge Q. The value of A such that
the electric field in the region between the spheres
will be constant, is :
Q
(a)
2 pa2
(b)
(c)

Q
2

2 p(b a2 )
2Q
2

p( a b2 )

(d)

2Q
pa2

13. A combination of capacitors is set up as shown in


the figure. The magnitude of the electric field due to
a point charge Q (having a charge equal to the sum
of the charges on the 4 mF and 9 mF capacitors), at a
point distant 30 m from it, would equal :
Physics For you | may 16

23

50 Hz AC supply, the series inductor needed for it


to work is close to :
(a) 80 H
(b) 0.08 H
(c) 0.044 H
(d) 0.065 H

(a) 240 N/C


(c) 420 N/C

(b) 360 N/C


(d) 480 N/C

14. The temperature dependence of resistances of


Cu and undoped Si in the temperature range
300-400 K, is best described by :
(a) Linear increase for Cu, linear increase for Si.
(b) Linear increase for Cu, exponential increase for Si.
(c) Linear increase for Cu, exponential decrease
for Si.
(d) Linear decrease for Cu, linear decrease for Si.
15. Two identical wires A and B, each of length l , carry
the same current I. Wire A is bent into a circle of
radius R and wire B is bent to form a square of side
a. If BA and BB are the values of magnetic field at
the centres of the circle and square respectively,
B
then the ratio A is :
BB
p2
p2
(a)
(b)
8
16 2
2
(c) p
16

(d)

p2

8 2
16. Hysteresis loops for two magnetic materials A and
B are given below :

18. Arrange the following electromagnetic radiations


per quantum in the order of increasing energy :
A : Blue light
B : Yellow light
C : X-ray
D : Radiowave
(a) D, B, A, C
(b) A, B, D, C
(c) C, A, B, D
(d) B, A, D, C
19. An observer looks at a distant tree of height 10 m
with a telescope of magnifying power of 20. To the
observer the tree appears :
(a) 10 times taller
(b) 10 times nearer
(c) 20 times taller
(d) 20 times nearer
20. The box of a pin hole camera, of length L, has a
hole of radius a. It is assumed that when the hole is
illuminated by a parallel beam of light of wavelength
l the spread of the spot (obtained on the opposite
wall of the camera) is the sum of its geometrical
spread and the spread due to diffraction. The spot
would then have its minimum size (say bmin) when :
2 l2
l2
(a) a =
and bmin =
L
L
2 l2
(b) a = lL and bmin =

L
(c) a = lL and bmin = 4 lL

l2
and bmin = 4 lL
L
21. Radiation of wavelength l, is incident on a
photocell. The fastest emitted electron has speed v.
3l
If the wavelength is changed to
, the speed of
4
the fastest emitted electron will be :
(d) a =

1/2

These materials are used to make magnets for electric


generators, transformer core and electromagnet
core. Then it is proper to use :
(a) A for electric generators and transformers.
(b) A for electromagnets and B for electric generators.
(c) A for transformers and B for electric generators.
(d) B for electromagnets and transformers.
17. An arc lamp requires a direct current of 10 A at
80 V to function. If it is connected to a 220 V (rms),
24

Physics For you | may 16

4
(a) > v
3

1/2

1/2

4
(b) < v
3

1/2

3
4
(c) = v
(d) = v
4
3
22. Half-lives of two radioactive elements A and B are
20 minutes and 40 minutes, respectively. Initially,
the samples have equal number of nuclei. After
80 minutes, the ratio of decayed numbers of A and
B nuclei will be :
(a) 1 : 16 (b) 4 : 1 (c) 1 : 4 (d) 5 : 4

23. If a, b, c, d are inputs to a gate and x is its output,


then, as per the following time graph, the gate is :

(a) NOT
(b) AND
(c) OR
(d) NAND
24. Choose the correct statement :
(a) In amplitude modulation the amplitude of the
high frequency carrier wave is made to vary
in proportion to the amplitude of the audio
signal.
(b) In amplitude modulation the frequency of the
high frequency carrier wave is made to vary
in proportion to the amplitude of the audio
signal.
(c) In frequency modulation the amplitude of the
high frequency carrier wave is made to vary
in proportion to the amplitude of the audio
signal.
(d) In frequency modulation the amplitude of the
high frequency carrier wave is made to vary
in proportion to the frequency of the audio
signal.
25. A screw gauge with a pitch of 0.5 mm and a circular
scale with 50 divisions is used to measure the
thickness of a thin sheet of Aluminium. Before
starting the measurement, it is found that when the
two jaws of the screw gauge are brought in contact,
the 45th division coincides with the main scale line
and that the zero of the main scale is barely visible.
What is the thickness of the sheet if the main scale
reading is 0.5 mm and the 25th division coincides
with the main scale line?
(a) 0.75 mm
(b) 0.80 mm
(c) 0.70 mm
(d) 0.50 mm
26. A pipe open at both ends has a fundamental
frequency f in air. The pipe is dipped vertically in
water so that half of it is in water. The fundamental
frequency of the air column is now :
3f
f
(a)
(b)
(c) 2f
(d) f
4
2

27. A galvanometer having a coil resistance of 100 W


gives a full scale deflection, when a current of 1 mA
is passed through it. The value of the resistance,
which can convert this galvanometer into ammeter
giving a full scale deflection for a current of 10 A, is :
(a) 0.01 W
(b) 2 W
(c) 0.1 W
(d) 3 W
28. In an experiment for determination of refractive
index of glass of a prism by i d, plot, it was found
that a ray incident at angle 35, suffers a deviation
of 40 and that it emerges at angle 79. In that case
which of the following is closest to the maximum
possible value of the refractive index?
(a) 1.5
(b) 1.6
(c) 1.7
(d) 1.8
29. Identify the semiconductor devices whose
characteristics are given below, in the order (i), (ii),
(iii), (iv) :

(a) Simple diode, Zener diode, Solar cell, Light


dependent resistance
(b) Zener diode, Simple diode, Light dependent
resistance, Solar cell
(c) Solar cell, Light dependent resistance, Zener
diode, Simple diode
(d) Zener diode, Solar cell, Simple diode, Light
dependent resistance.
30. For a common emitter configuration, if a and b have
their usual meanings, the incorrect relationship
between a and b is :
(a)

1 1
= +1
a b

(c) a =

b
1+b

(b) a =
(d) a =

b
1b
b2
1 + b2

Physics For you | may 16

25

SolutionS

1. (a) : Here, t1 = 90 s, t2 = 91 s, t3 = 95 s, t4 = 92 s
L.C. = 1 s
ti

Mean of the measurements, t = i


N
90 + 91 + 95 + 92
t =
= 92 s
4
t ti 2 + 1 + 3 + 0
Mean deviation = i
=
= 1. 5 s
N
4
Since the least count of the instrument is 1 s, so
reported mean time = (92 2) s.
2. (b, d) : Here v = speed of the particle
a = side of square
R
AE = R sin 45 =
2
R
OE = R cos 45 =
2
We know,

L = r p = rp sin qn

L = (r sin q) p = r p
When the particle is moving along AB,

mv
L = ( AE )( p)(k ) =
Rk
2
When the particle is moving along BC,

R
L = (OF )( p)(k ) = mv
+ a k

2
When the particle is moving along CD,

R
L = (DE )( p)(k ) = mv
+ a k

2
When the particle is moving along DA,

mv
L = (OE )( p)(k ) =
Rk
2
Hence, options (b) and (d) are incorrect.
h
= 2h = 4 m
sin 30
QR = x = ?, m = ?

3. (c): Here, PQ =

According to the question,


Energy lost by the particle over the part PQ =
Energy lost by the particle over the part QR
or, f PQ = f QR
or, m mg cos 30 4 = m mg x
3
or, x = 4 cos 30 = 4
= 2 3 m 3.5 m
2
Using work energy theorem for the motion of the
particle, mgh (f PQ) f (QR) = 0 0
or mgh 2 f (QR) = 0 or, mgh 2mmg x = 0
h
2
\ m=
=
= 0.288 0.29
2x 2 2 3
4. (d) : Here, m = 10 kg, h = 1 m, g = 9.8 m s2
n = 1000
Energy of fat = 3.8 107 J kg1
1
Efficiency, h = 20% =
5
Net work done by the man in lifting the mass
= n (Gain in potential energy of the mass)
= n(mgh) = 1000 10 9.8 1 = 98000 J
Net work done by the man
h=
Energy in the fat
98000 5
1
98000
or, m =
=
7
5 m 3.8 10
3.8 107
\ m = 12.89 103 kg
5. (a)
GM
6. (d) : Orbital velocity of the satellite, v0 =
R+h
GM
v0
(... h << R)
R
Let ve be the minimum velocity required by the
satellite to escape from its orbit.
1 2 GmM
\
mv =
2 e R+h
2GM
2GM
ve =

(... h << R)
R+h
R
so, required increment in the orbital velocity
= ve v0 =

GM
2GM

R
R

GM
( 2 1) = gR ( 2 1)
R
7. (a) : Time period of the pendulum clock at
temperature q is given by
=

Energy of the particle is lost only due to friction


between the track and the particle.
26

Physics For you | may 16

l (1 + aq)
l
l
Tq = 2 p q = 2 p 0
= 2 p 0 (1 + aq) 2
g
g
g

1
...(i)
Tq T0 1 + aq
2
Assume pendulum clock gives correct time at
temperature q0
1

\ Tq = T0 1 + aq0
...(ii)
0
2

At q = 40C > q0 as clock loses time.


1

...(iii)
T40 = T0 1 + a 40
2

At q = 20C < q0 as clock gains time.


1

...(iv)
T20 = T0 1 + a 20
2

From equations (ii) and (iii), we get


T40 Tq
1
0
= a(40 q0 )
T0
2
or 12 s = a(40 q0) (12 h)
...(v)
From equations (ii) and (iv), we get
Tq T20 1
0
= a(q0 20)
T0
2
or, 4 s = a(q0 20)(12 h)
...(vi)
From equations (v) and (vi), we get
3(q0 20) = (40 q0)
3q0 + q0 = 40 + 60
100
q0 =
= 25C
4
From equation (vi), 4 s = a(25 20)(12 3600 s)
4
a=
= 1.85 105 C 1
5 12 3600
8. (b) : Here, PVn = constant or, PnVn1 dV + Vn dP = 0
or, nPdV = V dP
Also, from ideal gas equation PV = nRT
PdV + VdP = nR dT or, PdV nPdV = nRdT
nRdT
or, PdV =
...(i)
(1 n)
Also, dQ = dU + dW nC dT = nCVdT + PdV
nRdT
nCdT = nCV dT +
(1 n)
R
R
or, C = CV +
or, (1 n) =
(1 n)
C CV
C (CV + R) C CP
R
or, n = 1
=
=
C CV
C CV
C CV
9. (a) : Equation of line AB is given by
y y
y y1 = 2 1 (x x1 )
x2 x1
2P P
P P0 = 0 0 (V 2V0 )
V0 2V0

P
P
or, P = 0 V + 3P0 or, PV = 0 V 2 + 3P0V
V0
V0
P0 2
or, nRT = V + 3P0V
V0

1 P0 2
or, T =
V + 3P0V
...(i)
nR V

For maximum value of T, dT = 0


dV
P
3
or, 0 (2V ) + 3P0 = 0
\ V = V0
V0
2
So, from equation (i)
9 P0V0
1 P0 9 2 9
Tmax =
V0 + P0V0 =
.

nR V0 4
2
4 nR
10. (d) : Speed of a particle performing SHM is given
by v = w A2 x 2
2A
At x =
, initial speed of the particle,
3
2

wA 5
5
2A
v = w A2 = w A2 =
3
9
3

2A
from
3
equilibrium position, then new amplitude of the
SHM is A (say).
Now, its speed is trebled at the instant x =

2A
Hence, v = 3v = w A
3
2

4
or, wA 5 = w A 2 A2
9
7
2 49 2
2
2 4 2
or, 5 A = A A or, A = A \ A = A.
9
3
9
11. (c): Speed of the wave pulse (wave) in the string,
v=

T
m

m
m
y g and m =
l
l
m
yg
= gy
\ v= l
m/l
20
t
dy
dy
Also, v =
= gy or,
= gdt
dt
y
Here, T =

1/2

20

y
t
or,
= g [t ]0
1 / 2 0

2( 20 0) = 10 t

\ t =2 2 s

Physics For you | may 16

27

12. (a) : Using Gausss theorem for radius r


1
E d s = e0 (Q + q)
1
E 4 pr 2 = (Q + q) ...(i)
e0
q = charge enclosed between
x = a and x = r.
r

A
4 px 2dx = 4 pA xdx
x
a
a
r
x2
= 4 pA = 2 pA(r 2 a2 )
2 a
Putting the value of q in equation (i), we get
1
E 4 pr 2 = Q + 2 pA(r 2 a2 )
e0

1
Q
2 pAa2
E=
2 + 2 pA

4 pe0 r
r2
E will be constant if it is independent of r
Q
Q 2 pAa2
\
or A =
=
2 pa2
r2
r2
13. (c): 3 mF and 9 mF are in parallel combination so
their equivalent capacitance = (3 + 9) = 12 mF
q=

Now, 4 mF and 12 mF are in series so their equivalent


4 12
capacitance =
= 3 mF
16
Charge on 3 mF = (3 mF) (8 V) = 24 mC
\ charge on 4 mF and 12 mF are same (24 mC) as
they are in series.
9
Charge on 9 mF =
24 mC = 18 mC
9 + 3
Required charge Q = Charge on 4 mF + Charge on 9 mF
Q = (24 + 18) mC = 42 mC
28

Physics For you | may 16

Required electric field, E =


E = 9 109

42 106
2

(30)

1
Q

4 pe0 r 2

= 420 N C 1

14. (c): Resistivity of Cu increases linearly with increase


in temperature because relaxation time decreases.
Resistivity of semiconductor decreases exponentially
( E /k T )
with increase in temperature, as T = o e g B
15. (d) : Wire A is bent into a circle of radius R,
l
l = 2 pR R =
2p
m0 I
m0 I
m pI
BA =
=
= 0
l
2R
l
2
2p
Wire B is bent into a square of side a,
l
l = 4a a =
4
m0 I

(sin 45 + sin 45)


BB = 4
4 p(a / 2)

2m I 2 16m0 I
= 0
=
pa
2
2 pl
m
p
BA
p2
0 I /l
\
=
=
BB 16m0 I / 2 pl 8 2

16. (d) : For both, the electromagnet and transformer,


the magnetic field changes with time. Hence the
energy losses must be less in both devices. Hysteresis
loop represented in B has less area which means it
dissipates less energy.
17. (d) : For a dc source
I = 10 A, V = 80 V
Resistance of the arc lamp,
V 80
R= = =8 W
I 10
For an ac source,
erms = 220 V
u = 50 Hz
w = 2p 50 = 100 p rad s1
Arc lamp will glow if I = 10 A,
2

e
erms
\ I=
or, R2 + w2 L2 = rms
I
R2 + w2 L2
2
2
2
220
2 22 8
L
=
or, 82 + (100 p)2 L2 =
or,
10
(100 p)2
30 14
\ L=
= 0.065 H.
100 p

18. (a) : Eradiowave < Eyellow < Eblue < Ex-ray


(D)
(B)
(A)
(C)
19. (d) : Telescope resolves and brings the objects
closer which is far away from the telescope. Hence
for telescope with magnifying power 20, the tree
appears 20 times nearer.
20. (c):

According to question, for incident radiation of


wavelength l maximum speed of photoelectron is v.
1 2 hc
\
mv =
...(i)
l
2
Assume speed of fastest photoelectron is v when
3l
incident photon has wavelength
.
4
hc
1
4
\
mv 2 =

2
3l
1
4 1

or, mv 2 = mv 2 +

2
3 2
or,

Size of spot, b
= Geometrical spread + diffraction spread
l
\ b=a+L
a
db
Now, value of b would be minimum if
=0
da
l
1 + L = 0 a2 = lL a = lL
a2
bmin = lL +

lL

= 2 lL = 4 lL
lL
21. (a) : According to Einsteins photoelectric effect
maximum kinetic energy of a photoelectron,
1
hc
KE = mv 2 =
2
l
\

4 2 2

1
2
v +
mv 2 = mv 2 + or, v =
3
3m
2
3
3

v >

4
v
3

22. (d) : Half life of A, T1/2(A) = 20 min


Half life of B, T1/2(B) = 40 min
Initially, number of nuclei in each sample = N
Now, 80 min = 4T1/2(A) = 2T1/2(B)
Number of active nuclei after four half lives of A,
N N
NA =
=
24 16
15
\ Number of decayed nuclei = N NA =
N
16
Number of active nuclei after two half lives of B,
N N
NB =
=
22 4
3
\ Number of decayed nuclei = N NB = N
4

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Physics For you | may 16

29

15
N
5
\ Required ratio = 16 =
3
4
N
4
23. (c): Output (x) is high when atleast one of the inputs
is high. Hence, x is the output of OR gate.
24. (a) : Carrier wave : yc = Ac sin wct
Message signal : ym = Am sin wmt
Amplitude modulated carrier wave :
y = (Ac + Am sin wmt) sin wct
25. (b) : Screw gauge has negative zero error.
Least count of screw gauge
LC =

Pitch
Number of divisions on circular scale

LC =

0.5 mm
= 0.01 mm
50

Zero error = (45 50) 0.01 mm = 0.05 mm


Thickness of sheet = Main scale reading + (circular
scale reading LC) zero error
= 0.5 + (25 0.01) (0.05)
= 0.50 + 0.30 = 0.80 mm
26. (d) : Fundamental frequency
produced in an open pipe
v v
f = =
l 2l
Now, half portion of pipe is dipped vertically in
water as shown in the figure, then it behaves as a
closed pipe of length l/2. So fundamental frequency
produced by it,
v
v
v
f= =
= =f
l 4l 2l

(i ig)S = igG
\

S=

ig G
i ig

1 103 100
3

(10 10 )

102 W = 0.01 W

28. (a) : Here, i = 35, e = 79, d = 40


We know, d = i + e A A = i + e d
\ A = 35 + 79 40 = 74
A + dm
sin
2
Refractive index of prism, m =
A
sin
2
d

sin 37 + m

2 = 5 sin 37 + dm
m=

sin 37
3
2
Maximum value of m can be

5
, so required value of
3

5
.
3
Also, dm will be less than 40, so
m should be less than

5
40 5
m < sin 37 +
= sin 57

3
2 3
5
5
m < sin 57 < sin 60 = 1.44
3
3
\ m < 1.44
So the nearest possible value of m for the given
arrangement should be 1.5.

29. (a)
Ic
Ic
30. (b, d) : We know a = , b =
Ie
Ib
a=

bIb
b
b
=
=
Ib + I c 1 + I c / Ib 1 + b

1 1
= + 1.
a b
Hence options (b) and (d) are incorrect.
or,

nn

OPINION POll

27. (a) : Given ig = 1 mA, G = 100 W, i = 10 A, S = ?

30

Physics For you | may 16

Do you agree with the govts decision to not give


weightage to Class XII board marks in JEE (Main)?
A

Yes
67%

No
29%

Cant say
4%

PRACTICE PAPER
CLASS XII

aip
m
K-C t
: 1 st
ET
M
CO
: 4 th ay
ME
DK
& 5 th
J&
:
KC
May
8 th M
E
wb
jee T : 14 th ay
aiim
: 1 t & 15 th
S
7 hM
May
JIP
:
ME
29 th ay
R
M
ay
: 5 th
June

*K P Singh

1. Three charges 2q, q, q are located at the vertices


of an equilateral triangle. At the circumcentre of the
triangle,
(a) the field is zero but potential is non-zero
(b) potential is zero and the field is infinity
(c) both the field and potential are zero
(d) the field is non-zero but potential is zero.
2. Three charges Q0, q and q are
placed at the vertices of an
isosceles right angle triangle
as shown in the figure. The net
electrostatic potential energy is
zero if Q0 is equal to
q
2q
(a)
(b)
(c) 2q (d) q
4
32
3. A cylindrical capacitor has charge Q and length L.
If both the charge and length of the capacitor are
doubled, by keeping other parameters fixed, the
energy stored in the capacitor
(a) remains same
(b) increases two times
(c) decreases two times (d) increases four times.
4. In given circuit, when switch S has been closed then
charge on capacitor A and B respectively are

(a) 3q, 6q
(c) 4.5q, 4.5q

(b) 6q, 3q
(d) 5q, 4q

5. The resistance of a galvanometer is 50 W and it


shows full scale deflection for a current of 1 mA. To
convert it into a voltmeter to measure 1 V as well as
10 V, the resistance R1 and R2 respectively are

(a) 950 W and 9150 W (b) 900 W and 9950 W


(c) 900 W and 9900 W (d) 950 W and 9000 W
6. If the total emf in a thermocouple is a parabolic
1
function expressed as E = at + bt 2 , which of the
2
following relation does not hold good?
a
(a) Neutral temperature, tn =
b
2a
(b) Temperature of inversion, ti =
b
(c) Thermoelectric power, p = a + bt
a
(d) tn =
b
7. A circular current carrying coil has a radius R. The
distance from the centre of the coil on the axis of
the coil, where the magnetic induction is (1/8)th of
its value at the centre of the coil is
R
(a) 3R
(b)
3
R
2
(c)
(d)
R
3
2 3
8. A circular coil of 5 turns and 10 cm mean diameter
is connected to a voltage source. If the resistance
of the coil is 10 W, the voltage of the source so as
to nullify the horizontal component of earths
magnetic field of 30 A turn m1 at the centre of the
coil should be
(a) 6 V, plane of the coil normal to magnetic
meridian

*A renowned physics expert, KP Institute of Physics, Chandigarh, 09872662552


physics for you | MAY 16

31

(b) 2 V, plane of the coil normal to magnetic


meridian
(c) 6 V, plane of the coil along the magnetic
meridian
(d) 2 V, plane of the coil along the magnetic
meridian.
9. In a magnetic field of 0.05 T area of coil changes
from 101 cm2 and 100 cm2 without changing the
resistance which is 2 W. The amount of charge that
flow during this period is
(a) 2.5 106 C
(b) 2 106 C
6
(c) 10 C
(d) 8 106 C
10. A tangent galvanometer is connected directly to an
ideal battery. If the number of turns in the coil is
doubled, the deflection will
(a) increase
(b) decrease
(c) remain unchanged
(d) either increase or decrease
11. A short bar magnet placed with its axis at 30 with
a uniform external magnetic field of 0.16 tesla
experiences a torque of magnitude 0.032 J. The
magnetic moment of bar magnet will be
(a) 0.23 J T1
(b) 0.40 J T1
1
(c) 0.80 J T
(d) zero
12. The magnetic needle of a vibration magnetometer
makes 12 oscillations per minute in the horizontal
component of earths magnetic field. When an
external short bar magnet is placed at some distance
along the axis of the needle in the same line, it makes
15 oscillations per minute. If the poles of the bar
magnet are interchanged the number of oscillations
it makes per minute is
(a)

61 (b) 63 (c) 65 (d) 67


13. A uniformly wound solenoid coil of self-inductance
1.8 104 H and resistance 6 W is broken up into
two identical coils. These identical coils are then
connected in parallel across a 12 V battery of
negligible resistance. The time constant for the
current in the circuit is
(a) 0.1 104 s
(b) 0.2 104 s
(c) 0.3 104 s
(d) 0.4 104 s
14. What should be the value of self inductance of an
inductor that should be connected to 220 V, 50 Hz
supply so that a maximum current of 0.9 A flows
through it?
(a) 11 H (b) 2 H (c) 1.1 H (d) 5 H
32

physics for you | MAY 16

15. The figure shows three circuits with identical


batteries, inductors and resistances. Rank the
circuits according to the currents through the
battery just after the switch is closed, greatest first.

(a) i2 > i3 > i1


(c) i1 > i2 > i3

(b) i2 > i1 > i3


(d) i1 > i3 > i2

16. The impedance of a RC circuit is Z1 for frequency f


Z
and Z2 for frequency 2f. Then, 1 is
Z2
(a) between 1 and 2 (b) 2
(c) between 1/2 and 1 (d) 1/2
17. The resistance of an R-L circuit is 10 W. An emf
E0 applied across the circuit at w = 20 rad s1. If the
i
current in the circuit is 0 , what is the value of L?
2
(a) 0.5 H (b) 2.25 H (c) 3.9 H (d) 1.0 H
18. If a, b and g rays carry same momentum, which has
the longest wavelength?
(a) a rays
(b) b rays
(c) g rays
(d) All the three rays have same wavelength
19. A radiation of energy E falls normally on a perfectly
reflecting surface. The momentum transferred to
the surface is
2E
E
E
(a)
(b)
(c) Ec
(d)
c
c
c2
20. A concave lens of focal length 20 cm placed in
contact with a plane mirror acts as a convex mirror
of focal length
(a) 10 cm (b) 40 cm (c) 60 cm (d) 20 cm
21. For a real object, which of the following can produce
a real image?
(a) Plane mirror
(b) Concave lens
(c) Convex mirror
(d) Concave mirror
22. A ray of light is incident on a surface of glass slab
at an angle 45. If the lateral shift produced per unit
1
thickness is
m, the angle of refraction produced is
3
3
2
1
(a) tan 1
(b) tan 1

2
2
(c) sin 1 1
(d) tan 1

3
3 1

23. A ray of light passes from vacuum into a medium


of refractive index m, the angle of incidence is found
to be twice the angle of refraction. Then angle of
incidence is
1 m
1 m
(a) cos
(b) 2 cos
2
2
m

(c) 2 sin1(m)
(d) 2 sin 1
2
24. The diameter of objective of a telescope is 1 m. Its
resolving limit for the light of wavelength 4538
will be
(a) 5.54 107 rad
(b) 2.54 104 rad
7
(c) 6.54 10 rad
(d) None of these
25. In a given direction, the intensities of the scattered
light by a scattering substance for two beams of
light are in the ratio of 256 : 81. The ratio of the
frequency of the first beam to the frequency of the
second beam is
(a) 64 : 127
(b) 1 : 2
(c) 64 : 27
(d) None of these
26. In Youngs double slit experiment if the slits widths
are in the ratio 1 : 9, the ratio of the intensities at
minima to that at maxima will be
(a) 1
(b) 1/9
(c) 1/4 (d) 1/3
27. In a Fraunhofer diffraction experiment at a single
slit using a light of wavelength 400 nm, the first
minimum is formed at an angle of 30. The direction
q of the first secondary maximum is given by
1 2
1 3
(a) sin
(b) sin
3
4
1

1
(c) sin 1
(d) sin 1
4
3
28. Maximum diffraction takes place in a given slit for
(a) g-rays
(b) ultraviolet light
(c) infrared light
(d) radio-waves
29. An unpolarised beam of intensity I0 is incident on
a pair of nicols making an angle of 60 with each
other. The intensity of light emerging from the pair is
I
I
I
(a) I0
(b) 0
(c) 0
(d) 0
8
2
4
30. The temperature at which protons in proton gas
would have enough energy to overcome Coulomb
barrier of 4.14 1014 J is
(Boltzmann constant = 1.38 1023 JK1)
(a) 2 109 K
(b) 109 K
9
(c) 6 10 K
(d) 3 109 K

31. A uniform electric field and a uniform magnetic


field exist in a region in the same direction. An
electron is projected with a velocity pointed in the
same direction. Then the electron will
(a) be deflected to the left without increase in
speed
(b) be deflected to the right without increase in
speed
(c) not be deflected but its speed will decrease
(d) not be deflected but its speed will increase
32. In Millikans oil drop experiment, a charged drop
of mass 1.8 1014 kg is stationary between the
plates. The distance between the plates is 0.9 cm
and potential difference between the plates is
2000 V. The number of electrons on the oil drop is
(a) 10
(b) 5
(c) 50
(d) 20
33. An a-particle and a proton are accelerated from rest
by a potential difference of 100 V. After this, their
de Broglie wavelengths are la and lp respectively.
lp
The ratio
to the nearest integer, is
la
(a) 3

(b) 4

(c) 2

(d) 5

34. The de-Broglie wavelength of the electron in the


ground state of the hydrogen atom is (Radius of the
first orbit of hydrogen atom = 0.53 )
(a) 1.67 (b) 3.33 (c) 1.06 (d) 0.53
35. If the kinetic energy of a free electron doubles its
de-Broglie wavelength changes by the factor
1
1
(a) 2
(b)
(c) 2
(d)
2
2
36. When a piece of metal is illuminated by a
monochromatic light of wavelength l, then stopping
potential is 3 Vs. When same surface is illuminated
by light of wavelength 2l, then stopping potential
becomes Vs. The value of threshold wavelength for
photoelectric emission will be
4
(a) 4l
(b) 8l
(c) l (d) 6l
3
37. When a monochromatic point source of light is
at a distance 0.2 m from a photoelectric cell, the
saturation current and cut-off voltage are 12.0 mA
and 0.5 V. If the same source is placed 0.4 m away
from the photoelectric cell, then the saturation
current and the stopping potential respectively are
(a) 4 mA and 1 V
(b) 12 mA and 1 V
(c) 3 mA and 1 V
(d) 3 mA and 0.5 V
physics for you | MAY 16

33

38. In an inelastic collision an electron excites a


hydrogen atom from its ground state to a M-shell
state. A second electron collides instantaneously
with the excited hydrogen atom in the M-state and
ionizes it. At least how much energy the second
electron transfers to the atom in the M-state?
(a) + 3.4 eV
(b) + 1.51 eV
(c) 3.4 eV
(d) 1.51 eV
39. A compound microscope has an eyepiece of focal
length 10 cm and an objective of focal length 4 cm.
Calculate the magnification, if an object is kept at
a distance of 5 cm from the objective, so that final
image is formed at the least distance of distinct
vision 25 cm.
(a) 14
(b) 11
(c) 10
(d) 13
40. The angular speed of the electron in the Bohr orbit
of hydrogen atom is
(a) directly proportional to n
(b) inversely proportional to n
(c) inversely proportional to n2
(d) inversely proportional to n3
41. The radioactivity of a certain material drops to 1/16
of the initial value in 2 h. The half-life of this radio
nuclide is
(a) 10 min
(b) 20 min
(c) 30 min
(d) 40 min
42. Consider the nuclear reaction 200X 110A + 80B. If
the binding energy per nucleon for X, A and B are
7.4 MeV, 8.2 MeV and 8.1 MeV respectively, then
the energy released in the reaction is
(a) 70 MeV
(b) 200 MeV
(c) 190 MeV
(d) 10 MeV
43. If a full wave rectifier circuit is operating from
50 Hz mains, the fundamental frequency in the
ripple will be
(a) 70.7 Hz
(b) 100 Hz
(c) 25 Hz
(d) 59 Hz
44. The diode used in the circuit shown in the figure has
a constant voltage drop of 0.5 V at all currents and
a maximum power rating of 100 mW. What should
be the value of the resistance R, connected in series
with the diode, for obtaining maximum current?

45. Any digital circuit can be realised by repetitive use


of only
(a) NOT gate
(b) OR gate
(c) AND gate
(d) NOR gate
SOLUTIONS

k(2q)
r
k(q)
k(q)
VOB =
, VOC =
r
r
Total potential at centre,
V = VOA + VOB + VOC = 0
From charge configuration, at the center electric
field is non zero.
2. (b) : Here, total electrostatic potential energy is zero.
Q q qQ
q2
i.e., k 0 0 +
=0
L
2L
L
2q
q
Q0 =
=
2 2
32
1. (d) : VOA =

3. (b) : Energy of a charged capacitor, E = 1 Q


2 C
If length is doubled, the capacitance will also be
doubled.
22 E
Thus, E =
E = 2E
2
4. (b) : Using charge conservation,

3q + 6q = (6C + 3C) V
q
V=
C
Charge on A and B after closing switch are
q
q
q A = CAV = 6C = 6q, qB = CBV = 3C = 3q
C
C
5. (d) : Given, V = 1 V, V = 10 V
Ig = 1 103 A
Resistance of galvanometer, Rg = 50 W
V
As R1 + R g =
Ig
V
1
Rg =
50
Ig
103
or R1 = 50 W
10
V
or 950 + R2 + 50 =
Also R1 + R2 + R g =
Ig
103
R2 = 9000 W
R1 =

(a) 1.5 W (b) 5 W


34

(c) 6.67 W

physics for you | MAY 16

(d) 200 W

1
6. (d) : E = at + bt 2
2
dE
By differentiating,
= a + bt
dt
When t = tn, (neutral temperature), then
a
dE
= 0, or a + btn = 0 or tn =
b
dt
The temperature of inversion
2a
ti = 2tn t0 = 2tn 0 =
b
dE
= a + bt
Thermoelectric power, p =
dt
kI
1kI
7. (a) :
=
2
2 3/2
(R + x )
8R3
(R2 + x2)3/2 = 8R3

R + x = 2R

R2 + x2 = 4R2, x = R 3
8. (a) : Magnetic field of 1 A turn m1
= 4p 107 T
m
m N V
Field at centre, B = 0 NI = 0
2r
2r
R
2rRB
or V =
m0 N
2 (5 102 ) 10 (30 4 p 107 )
\ V=
(4 p 107 ) 5
or V = 6 volt
To nullify the horizontal component of magnetic
field of earth, plane of the coil should be normal to
magnetic meridian.

9. (a) : q = dq = idt = dt
R
1 d
D B DA
=
=
dt =

R dt
R
R
4
0.05 (101 10 100 104 )
=
2
0.05 1 104
=
= 2.5 106 C
2
10. (a) : For a tangent galvanometer
B = BH tanq
m 2 pni
Here, B = 0
4p a
m0 2 pni

= BH tan q
4p a
or q n
\ If the number of turns in the coil are doubled,
the deflection will increase.

11. (b) : Torque, t = mB sinq


0.032 = m 0.16 sin30 m = 0.4 J T 1
12. (b) : Let n number of oscillations per minute.
for 1st case : n =

1 MBH
2p
I

n
BH
n BH 1 =
n2
BH + BH

BH
12
=
BH + BH
15

BH =
1

for

2nd

9
B
16 H

case :

n2

n3

BH + BH
1
BH BH

15

=
n3

9
B
16 H
9
BH BH
16

BH +

\ n3 = 63

Lnet L / 2 L 1.8 104


=
= =
= 0.3 104 s
13. (c): t =
Rnet R / 2 R
6
V 2
I
220 2
2 p 50 L =
0. 9
L = 1.1 H

14. (c): 2 pL =

15. (a) : I max =

V
will be highest when R is lowest.
R

16. (a) : Z = R2 +

1
(2 pfC )2

On doubling f, Z is halved only if R is zero.


Z
For non zero R, 1 < 1 < 2
Z2
17. (a) : XL = wL
or L =

X L 10
= = 0. 5 H
w 20

18. (d) : If p is the momentum of the particle, the


h
wavelength of the wave associated with it is l =
p
where h is Plancks constant. Since, it is given that
alpha, beta and gamma rays carry same momentum,
so they will have same wavelength.
physics for you | MAY 16

35

E
c
Since, the surface is perfectly reflecting, so the same
momentum will be reflected completely.
Final momentum
E
pf =
(negative value)
c
Change in momentum
Dp = pf pi = E E = 2 E
c c
c
Thus, momentum transferred to the surface is
2E
| Dp | =
c
20. (a) : It is like polishing the plane side of a plano
concave lens. For lens-mirror combination,
combined focal length is given by
1 2
1
= +
F f fm
Here, fm =
19. (b) : Initial momentum of surface pi =

1 2
=
F f

or F =

f
20
f = + 10 cm
=
2
2

21. (d) : Out of the given choices, concave mirror can


produce real image. When the object is not placed
between the pole and focus of concave mirror.
22. (b) : Here, angle of incidence i = 45

sin(i r ) 1
Lateral shift (d )
=
=
(given)
thickness of glass slab (t )
cos r
3
d sin i cos r cos i sin r
or
=
t
cos r
d sin 45 cos r cos 45 sin r cos r sin r
=
or
=
t
cos r
2 cos r
d
1
1
1
or
=
(1 tan r ) or
=
(1 tan r )
t
2
3
2

2
2
or tan r = 1
or r = tan 1 1

3
3

23. (b) : Given, i = 2r


sin i sin 2r 2 sin r cos r
m=
=
=
sin r sin r
sin r
36

physics for you | MAY 16

m
m
or r = cos 1
2
2
m
i = 2r = 2 cos 1
2
24. (a) : Here D = 1 m, l = 4538 = 4.538 107 m
1.22 l
Resolving limit, q =
D
1.22 4.538 107
= 5.54 107 rad
=
1
25. (d) : According to Rayleigh scattering formula,
intensity of scattered light
cos r =

1/ 4

1/ 4
I
f
f 4 , 1 = 1 = 256 = 4
81
f2 I2
3
(l)4

26. (c): Amplitude of the superimposing waves are


a1
1 1 I min (a1 a2 )2 1
=
= ,
=
=
a2
9 3 I max (a + a )2 4

27. (b) : For first diffraction minimum


asinq = l
l
a=
sin q
For first secondary maximum
3l
a sin q =
2
3l 1 3l sin q
or sin q =
=

2 a 2
l
3
3
3
= sin 30 = or q = sin 1
4
2
4
28. (d) : Greater is the wavelength of wave higher
will be its degree of diffraction. Radio waves have
maximum wavelength.
29. (d) : According to Malus law
2
I0
I0
I0 1
I
2
2
I = cos q = (cos 60) = = 0

2
2
2
2
8
30. (a) : Given, k = 1.38 1023 J K1
The energy of proton gas = 4.14 1014 J
3
E = kT
2
3
\ 4.14 1014 = 1.38 1023 T
2
T = 2 109 K
31. (c): As electron is moving parallel to both the fields,
so magnetic force does not affect the electrons
motion. But electric force (qE) acts opposite to
motion of electron. Hence, electron will not be
deflected but its speed decreases.

32. (b) : In equilibrium, qE = mg


V
Also E = and q = ne
d
mgd
V
\ ne = mg n =
d
eV
n=

1.8 1014 10 0.9 102


1.6 1019 2000

33. (a) : l =

= 5 electrons

h
h
1
=
or l
p
2qVm
qm

v0 = 20 cm

lp

q m
(2)(4)
= a a =
= 2.828
q p mp
(1)(1)
la
The nearest integer is 3.
34. (b) : Wavelength, l =

2 pr 2 p 0.53 A

=
= 3.33 A
1
n

35. (b) : We know


h
h
1
l=
=
l=
mv
2Km
K
\

to

Einsteins

or I =

(0.2)

and I

1
2

(0.4)

photoelectric
...(i)
...(ii)

I (0.2)
1
=
=
12 (0.4)2 4

12
= 3 mA
4

38. (b) : For M shell, En = 3 =

13.6
(3)2

= 1.51

Hence, the energy transferred must be 1.51 eV.


38

physics for you | MAY 16

v Z /n
1
=
w
2
r n /Z
n3

37. (d) : The cut-off voltage or stopping potential


measure maximum kinetic energy of the electron. It
depends on the frequency of incident light whereas
the current depends on the number of photons
incident. Hence, cut-off voltage will be 0.5 V. Now
by inverse square law,
1

40. (d) : w =

substance left (un-decayed) is 1


2

1 1
1st case : 3eVs = hc
l l0
1
1
2nd case : eVs = hc
2 l l0
Dividing two equations, l0 = 4l

12

v
D
Magnification, M = 0 1 +
u0
fe
20 25
=
1+
= 14 cm
5 10

41. (c): After n half-lives the quantity of a radioactive

K1
l2
l
1
=
=
l2 = 1
l1
K2
2
2

36. (a) : According


equation

39. (a) : The following ray


diagram shows the
formation of images by
compound microscope.
Given, fe = 10 cm,
f0 = 4 cm, u0 = 5 cm,
D = 25 cm
For objective lens
1
1
1 1 1
1
= , =
f0 v0 u0 4 v0 5

1
1
1
Here = = N 0
2 16
2
1

2

2/T1/2

1 1
=
16 2

t /T1/2

2
1

= 4 T1/2 = 2 hr
T
1/2
42. (a) : For X, energy = 200 7.4 = 1480 MeV
For A, energy = 110 8.2 = 902 MeV
For B, energy = 80 8.1 = 648 MeV
Therefore, energy released
= (902 + 648) 1480 = 70 MeV
43. (b) : A full wave rectifier rectifies both half of input
cycles making ripple frequency double than the
frequency of applied input.
44. (b) : R =

voltage drop
current

3
P 100 10
Current in circuit, I = =
= 0. 2 A
V
0. 5
1
\ R=
=5W
0. 2
45. (d) : NOR and NAND gates are universal gates.
Any digital circuit can be realised by repetitive use
of these (NOR and NAND) gates.

nn

(c) 10 V
(d) 13 V

30 V

2. The mass of a proton is 1847 times that of electron.


If an electron and a proton are injected in uniform
electric field at right angle to the direction of the
field, with the same kinetic energy, then
(a) the proton trajectory will be less curved than
that of electron
(b) both the trajectories will be straight
(c) both the trajectories will be equally curved
(d) the electron trajectory will be less curved than
that of proton.
3. A coil of area 10 m2 is placed in a uniform magnetic
field of 0.3 Wb m2, with its plane perpendicular
to the field. The coil rotates at a uniform rate to
complete one revolution in 8 s. Find the average
e.m.f. in the coil during intervals when the coil
rotates from
(i) 0 to 90 position
(ii) 90 to 180 position
(iii) 180 to 270 position
(iv) 270 to 360 position.
3 3
3
3
(a)
V, V,
V,
V
2 2
2
2
3
3 3
3
(b) V,
V, V,
V
2
2
2
2
(c) Zero
3
3 3 3
(d)
V,
V, V, V
2
2
2 2

4. A long straight hollow conductor


(tube) carrying a current has two
A
1
sections A and C of unequal cross B
2
sections joined by a conical section B.
i
C
3
1, 2 and 3 are the points on a line
parallel to the axis of the conductor,
as shown in the figure. The magnetic fields at 1, 2
and 3 have magnitudes B1, B2 and B3. Then
(a) B1 = B2 = B3
(b) B1 = B2 B3
(c) B1 < B2 < B3
(d) B2 cannot be found unless the dimensions of
the section B are known.
5. Two plane mirrors A and B are aligned parallel
to each other, as shown in figure. A light ray is
incident at an angle of 30 at a point just inside one
end of A. The plane of incidence coincides with the
plane of figure. The maximum number of times the
ray undergoes reflections (including the first one)
before it emerges out is
(a) 28
2 3m
(b) 30
B
0.2
m
(c) 32
A
(d) 34
30

1. Four capacitors with capacitance C1 = 1 mF,


C2 = 1.5 mF, C3 = 2.5 mF and C4 = 0.5 mF are
connected as shown in the figure and are connected
to a 30 V source. The potential difference between
points a and b is
C1
C2
a
(a) 5 V
B
A
C3
C4
(b) 9 V

6. Match the physical quantities given in column I with


dimensions expressed in terms of mass (M), length
(L), time (T) and charge (Q) given in column II.
Column I
Column II
(A) Angular
(p) [ML2T2]
momentum
(B) Torque
(q) [ML2T1]
(C) Inductance
(r) [M1 L2 T2Q2]
(D) Latent heat
(s) [ML2Q2]
(E) Capacitance
(t) [ML3T1Q2]
(F) Resistivity
(u) [L2T2]
Physics For you | may 16

39

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

A
q
q
p
s

B
s
p
s
u

C
p
s
u
r

D
t
u
r
t

E
r
r
t
q

F
u
t
q
p

(a)

7. A ball is thrown upwards with a speed u from a


height h above the ground. The time taken by the
ball to hit the ground is
(a)

2h
g

(b)

(c)

u 2 + 2 gh
g

(d)

8h
g
u
u 2 + 2 gh
+
g
g

8. A particle of mass m is initially situated at the point


P inside a hemispherical surface of radius r as shown
in figure. A horizontal acceleration of magnitude a0
is suddenly produced on the particle in the
horizontal direction. If gravitational
acceleration is neglected, the time

taken by the particle to touch the P


sphere again is
4r tan a
a0

(a)

4r sina
a0

(b)

(c)

4 r cos a
a0

(d) None of these

9. A particle moves in the xy-plane with velocity


vx = (8t 2) m s1 and vy = 2 m s1. If it passes
through the point x = 14 m and y = 4 m at t = 2 s,
find the equation (x-y relation) of the path.
(a) x = y2 y + 2
(b) x = 2y2 + 2y 3
(c) x = 3y2 + 5
(d) Cannot be found from above data
10. A machine gun fires 360 bullets per minute, with
a velocity of 600 m s1. If the power of the gun is
5.4 kW, mass of each bullet is
(a) 5 kg (b) 0.5 kg (c) 5 g
(d) 0.5 g
11. The wavefront of a distant source of unknown shape
is approximately
(a) spherical
(b) cylindrical
(c) elliptical
(d) plane
12. The ratio of lengths, radii and Youngs modulus of
steel and brass wires shown in the figure are a, b
and c respectively. The ratio between the increase in
length of brass and steel wire would be
40

Physics For you | may 16

b 2a
2c

Brass

2b 2c
(b)
a
ba 2
(c)
2c
c
(d)
2b 2a

2 kg
Steel
2 kg

13. The diameter of a pipe at two points, where a


venturimeter is connected is 8 cm and 5 cm and
the difference of levels in it is 4 cm. The volume of
water flowing through the pipe per second is
(a) 1889 cc s1
(b) 1520 cc s1
1
(c) 1321 cc s
(d) 1125 cc s1
14. A non viscous liquid is flowing through a frictionless
duct, with cross-section varying as shown in figure.
o

Which of the following graph represents the


variation of pressure p along the axis of tube?
p

(a)

(b)
x

(c)

(d)
x

15. A particle is executing SHM of amplitude 25 cm


and time period 3 s. What is the minimum time
required for the particle to move between two
points 12.5 cm on either side of the mean position?
(a) 0.5 s (b) 1 s
(c) 1.5 s
(d) 2 s
16. An oil drop of 12 excess electrons is held stationary
under a constant electric field of 2.55 104 N C1 in
Milikans oil drop experiment. The density of the oil
is 1.26 g cm3. Estimate the radius of the drop.
(g = 9.81 m s2; e = 1.60 1019 C).
(a) 4.91 104 m
(b) 4.91 107 m
4
(c) 9.82 10 mm (d) 9.82 107 mm
17. A charge of 8 mC is located at the origin. Calculate
the work done in taking a small charge of 2 109 C

Physics For you | may 16

41

from a point P(0, 0, 3 cm) to a point Q(0, 4 cm, 0),


via a point R(0, 6 cm, 9 cm).
(a) 5 J
(b) 10 J
(c) 2.4 J
(d) 1.2 J
18. If a resistance R2 is connected in
parallel with the resistance R in
the circuit shown, then possible
value of current through R and the I
possible value of R2 will be
(a) I, R
I
(c) , 2R
3

(b) I, 2R
I
(d) , R
2

R2
R
A

19. If the focal length of objective and eye lens are


1.2 cm and 3 cm respectively and the object is put
1.25 cm away from the objective lens and the final
image is formed at infinity. The magnifying power
of the compound microscope is
(a) 150 (b) 200
(c) 250
(d) 400
20. In the fusion reaction 12 H +12 H 32 He +10 n, the
masses of deuteron, helium and neutron expressed
in amu are 2.015, 3.017 and 1.009 respectively.
If 1 kg of deuterium undergoes complete
fusion, find the amount of total energy released.
1 amu = 931.5 MeV c2.
(a) 9 1013 J
(b) 6 1010 J
10
(c) 9 10 J
(d) 6 1013 J
21. The ratio of the velocity of sound in hydrogen
7
5

= to that in helium = at the same


5
3
temperature is
(a)

5
42

(b)

5
21

(c)

42
5

(d)

21
5

22. Consider the quantities, pressure, power, energy,


impulse, gravitational potential, electrical charge,
temperature, acceleration. Out of these, the only
vector quantities are
(a) impulse, pressure and acceleration
(b) impulse and acceleration
(c) acceleration and gravitational potential
(d) impulse and pressure
23. A travelling wave is represented by the equation
1
y = sin(60t + 2 x ), where x and y are in metres
10
and t is in seconds. This represents a wave
(1) travelling with a velocity of 30 m s1
30
(2) of frequency
Hz
p
42

Physics For you | may 16

(3) of wavelength p m
(4) of amplitude 10 cm
(5) moving in the positive x direction
Pick out the correct statements from the above.
(a) 1, 2, 4 (b) 3, 4, 5 (c) 1, 2, 3, 4 (d) All
24. Two sitar strings A and B playing the note Ga are
slightly out of tune and produce beats of frequency
6 Hz. The tension in the string A is slightly reduced
and the beat frequency is found to reduce to
3 Hz. If the original frequency of A is 324 Hz, what
is the frequency of B?
(a) 330 Hz
(b) 318 Hz
(c) 324 Hz
(d) 321 Hz
25. Two identical ball bearings in contact with each
other and resting on a frictionless table are hit
head-on by another ball bearing of the same mass
moving initially with a speed v as shown in figure.
1

If the collision is elastic, which of the following is a


possible result after collision?
1

(a)
v/2

v=0
1

(b)

v=0
1

(c)
v/3
1

v/1

v/2

v/3

(d)
26. A metal cylinder of length L is
F
subjected to a uniform compressive
force F as shown in the figure.
The material of the cylinder has
Youngs modulus Y and Poissons
ratio s. The change in volume of the cylinder is
(1 s)FL
sFL
(a)
(b)
Y
Y
(1 + 2s)FL
(1 2s)FL
(c)
(d)
Y
Y

27. A double star consists of two stars having masses


m and 2m separated by a distance r. Which of the
following statement is correct?
2r
(a) Radius of circular path of star of mass 2m is .
3
(b) Kinetic energy of 2m mass star is double that of
lighter star.
(c) Time period of revolution of both are not same.
(d) Angular momentum of lighter star is more.
28. The power radiated by a black body is P and it
radiates maximum energy around the wavelength
l0. Now the temperature of the black body is
changed so that it radiates maximum energy around
l
wavelength 0 . The power radiated by it will now
2
increase by a factor of
(a) 2
(b) 16
(c) 8
(d) 64
29. A body of mass M suspended from two springs
separately executes simple harmonic motion.
During oscillation the maximum velocity is equal
A
in both cases. The ratio of amplitude 1 is
A2
k
(b) 2
k1

k
(a) 1
k2

k12

k2
(d) 2
k1
k2

(c)

30. Figures show regular hexagon, with charge at the


vertices. In which of the following cases the electric
field at the centre is not zero?
q

q
q

q
q

(1)

(a) 1

q
q

(b) 2

2q

2q

(2)

q
2q

(c) 3

2q

q
(3)

2q

q
2q

(d) 4

2q
(4)

31. Consider the situation as


Normal
shown in figure. The point
Light ray
O is the centre. The light ray
forms an angle of 60 with the
60
O
normal. The normal makes an
angle 60 with the horizontal and the mirror makes
an angle 60 with the normal. The value of refractive
index of that spherical portion so that light ray
retraces its path is
2
3
(a) 2 (b)
(c)
(d) 3
2
3
32. In the standard Youngs double slit experiment the
intensity on the screen at a point distant 1.25 fringe

widths from the central maximum is (assuming


slits to be identical and Imax = Maximum intensity
at central maxima)
1
1
1
(a) I max (b) I max (c) I max
(d) Imax
2
4
3
33. In the given nuclear reaction A, B, C, D, E represents
92 U

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

238

B Th A
D PaC
92 U234

A = 234, B = 90, C = 234, D = 91, E = b


A = 234, B = 90, C = 238, D = 94, E = a
A = 238, B = 93, C = 234, D = 91, E = b
A = 234, B = 90, C = 234, D = 93, E = a

34. In the figures shown, which of the diodes are


forward biased?
+5 V
R

+5 V

(1)

+10 V

(2)

(3)

R
(4)

5V

R
(5)

(a) 1, 2, 3 (b) 2, 4, 5 (c) 1, 3, 4

(d) 2, 3, 4

35. Which of the following does not depict the correct


link between technology and physics?
(a) Optical fibres total internal reflection of light.
(b) Nuclear reactor nuclear fusion.
(c) Electron microscope wave nature of electrons.
(d) Electric generator laws of electromagnetic
induction.
36. White light is incident on a soap film of thickness
5 105 cm and refractive index 1.33. Which
wavelength is reflected maximum in the visible
region?
(a) 26000
(b) 8866
(c) 5320
(d) 3800
37. The magnitude of the de-Broglie wavelength (l) of
electron (e), proton (p), neutron (n) and a-particle
(a) all having the same energy of 1 MeV, in the
increasing order will follow the sequence
(a) le, lp, ln, la
(b) le, ln, lp, la
(c) la, ln, lp, le
(d) lp, le, la, ln
38. In an electron tube, an electron enters an electric
field E between the two plates with a velocity vx as
shown in the figure. Now assuming that it emerges
from the field with a velocity v so as to strike the
Physics For you | may 16

43

screen. The separation of screen from the centre


of plate is d and the length of the plates is L. If the
charge on the electron is e, then deflection y on the
screen is (m is the mass of electron)
eLdE
(a)
mv 2
P
y
eLdE
(b)
vx
M
2
mv x
d
eL2 E
mv x2

(d)

2eLd
mv x2

39. An ideal choke takes a current of 8 ampere when


connected to an AC supply of 100 volt and 50 Hz.
A pure resistor under the same conditions takes
a current of 10 ampere. If the two are connected
to an AC supply of 150 volts and 40 Hz, then the
current in a series combination of the resistor and
inductor is
(a) 10 2 A
(b) 8 A
15
(c) 18 A
(d)
A
2
40. A magnetised wire of magnetic moment M is bent
into an arc of a circle that subtends an angle of 60
at the centre. The equivalent magnetic moment is
M
3M
2M
4M
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
p
p
p
p
solutions

1. (d) : Let q mC be the charge on two capacitors


C1 and C2.
q
q
q q
\
+
= 30 or +
= 30
1 1. 5
C1 C2
or q = 18 mC
q 18
\ VA Va =
...(i)
= = 18 V
C1 1
Similarly, let q mC be the charge on capacitors C3
and C4.
q q
\
+
= 30
C3 C4
or
\

44

q q
25
+
= 30 or q =
mC
2. 5 0. 5
2
q
25
VA Vb =
=
=5 V
C3 2 2.5
Physics For you | may 16

qE x 2
1 qE x 2
From (i), y =

=
2 m v 2 2 2 Ek
As y is independent of m, hence both the trajectories
will be equally curved.
3. (a) : In turning from 0 to 90 position
8
t = =2s
4
AB [cos 90 cos 0] 10 0.3[0 1] 3
=
=
= V
2
2
2
In turning from 90 to 180 position, t = 2 s
=

AB [cos 180 cos 90]

2
10 0.3[1 0] 3
=
= V
2
2
3
Similarly, from 180 to 270 position, =
V
2
3
and from 270 to 360 position, =
V
2
4. (a) : To find the magnetic field outside a thick
conductor, the current is assumed to flow along the
axis of the conductor. As points 1, 2 and 3 are at
equal distance from the axis, therefore
B1 = B2 = B3.
5. (b) : As it is clear from the figure,
l=2 3m

...(ii)

0.2 m

B
A

30

30

(c)

Subtract (ii) from (i)


Vb Va = 18 5 = 13 V
1
2. (c) : Kinetic energy, Ek = mv 2 or mv 2 = 2 Ek .
2
Force on the charged particle in electric filed, F = qE.
Acceleration of the charged particle in the direction
of electric field, a = qE/m.
Taking the motion of charged particle at right angle
to the initial direction of motion, i.e., motion along
the direction of electric field for the displacement y
in the electric field.
u = 0, a = qE/m, t = t, s = y.
1
As s = ut + at 2
2
\ y = 0 t + 1 qE t 2 = 1 qE t 2
...(i)
2 m
2 m
If x is the length of region of electric field, then t = x/v

distance covered along the mirror in one reflection


0. 2
d = 0.2 tan 30 =
;
3
l 2 3 3
\ Number of reflections, n = =
= 30
d
0. 2
\ Maximum number of reflections = 30
6. (b) : Angular momentum [ML2T1]
Torque
[ML2T2]
Inductance
[ML2Q2]
Latent heat
[M0L2T2]
Capacitance
[M1L2T2Q2]
Resistivity
[ML3T1Q2]
7. (d) : Time taken to reach the highest point from the
height h is obtained from v = u + at
u
0 = u gt , t =
g
Height attained above h is obtained from
v2 u2 = 2as
u2
0 u 2 = 2( g )s or, s =
2g
u2
Total height, h =
+h
2g
Time taken by the ball to cover height h
1 2
u2
1
h = ut + at 2 2 g + h = 0 + 2 gt
2
2

t =

(u + 2 g h)
g

Time taken by the ball to hit the ground


= t +t =

14

2l
2 2r cos a
4r cos a
=
=
a0
a0
a0

or x 14 = [4t2 2t]t2 = 4t2 2t 12


or x = 4t2 2t + 2
...(i)
Further, vy = 2
y
t
dy
or
= 2 \ 4 dy = 2 2dt
dt
or y 4 = [2t]t2 = 2t 4 or y = 2t
or t = y
...(ii)
2
Substituting the value of t from eq. (ii) in eq. (i)
we have x = y2 y + 2
360
= 6 bullets s 1 ,
60
v = 600 m s1, m =?
Power of gun = Power of bullets
1
2
5.4 103 = (nm)v 2 2 5400 = 6 m (600)
2
2 5400
1
1000
or m =
=
kg =
g=5 g
6 600 600 200
200

10. (c) : Here, n =

11. (d) : From a distant source, the shape of wavefront


is approximately plane.
12. (b) : Y =
l
Here, s
lb

u2 + 2 gh
u
+
g
g

8. (c) : Let the particle touches the sphere at the point A.


Let PA = l, \ PB = l
O
2

PB
r
r
In DOPB,cos a =

r
P
A
B
\ PB = r cosa
l
or
= r cos a l = 2r cosa
2
1
But l = a0t 2
2
\ t=

9. (a) : vx = 8t 2
dx
or
= 8t 2
dt
x
t
or
dx = (8t 2)dt

F/A
F l
F l
; Dl =
=
Dl / l
YA Y pr 2
r
Y
Dlb
= a , s = b, s = c ,
=?
rb
Yb
Dls
FS
2 kg

FB
2 kg
FS
2g

2g

Fs = 2g N, Fb = 4g N

Dlb Fb lb Ys rs
=
Dls Fs ls Yb rb

2b2c
4g 1
= (c)(b2 ) =
a
2g a
13. (a) : Here, r1 = 8/2 = 4.0 cm;
r2 = 5/2 = 2.5 cm; h = 4 cm
Now, A1 = pr21 = p (4)2 = 16p cm2
And A2 = pr22 = p(2.5)2 = 6.25p cm2
Physics For you | may 16

45

Parallel plate capacitor


(Partially filled dielectric)

Capacitance,

Energy stored in a capacitor,

Spherical capacitor, C = 4pe0R


Dipole field

Torque and work done


t = pE sin q
U = pE cos q

Electric flux and Gauss's law

Due to a long straight wire

Electric field
=
Coulomb's law
Electric force between two
point charges

Electrostatic potential
=
=

Electric potential due


to electric dipole

Electric flux,
Gauss's law:

Equipotential surface
l W
net = 0
l E ^ ds
l Do not intersect
each other

Electric field due to charged


Due to an infinite
plane sheet

for r > R (Outside point)


where, q =

=
Magnetic force

Cyclotron
Accelerates charged particles
so they acquire high energies,

Broadside-on,

Biot Savart law


Ampere's circuital law

Moving Coil Galvanometer


Current sensitivity,

Net magnetic field,


Here, BH = B cos d, BV = B sin d
d is the dip angle at the place.

Applications of Ampere's
circuital law

Applications of BiotSavart law

Magnetic field due to a


straight wire of infinite length,

Field on the axis of a circular


loop

Curie law,
Magnetic field inside a long
solenoid, B = 0nI

Curie-Weiss law,

Ohm's law
V = IR,
Resistivity
Heat energy, H = I 2Rt
P = I 2R =

For transmission cable, power loss

Drift speed,
I = neAvd ,

Temperature dependence
RT = R0[1 + a(T T0)]
Temperature coefficient of
resistance,

Kirchhoffs rules
Junction Rule : Current entering =
Current leaving,
Loop Rule : Total potential around any
closed loop must be zero,
Potentiometer
Fall of potential , V l , V = Kl
Here,

Voltage sensitivity,

Galvanometer into
voltmeter

Field at the centre of a loop

Based on principle of
Electromagnetic
Induction

Power,

Magnetic field due


to a bar magnet
End-on,

fc

Earths magnetism and


magnetic properties of
substances

sphere

Faraday law of EMI

Electric generator and electric motor

Flux linked, f = NBA coswt


Instantaneous induced emf, e = e0sinwt

e = e0 sinwt
Lenz's law
T h e d i re c t i o n o f t h e
induced current is such
that it opposes the change
that has induced it.
Eddy current
The current induced in
conductors when the
magnetic flux linked with
the conductor changes.

Motional emf
On a straight conducting
wire, e = Bvl
On a rotating conducting
wire about one end

Meter bridge
Resistance of unknown resistor,

Self inductance of a long


solenoid

Mutual inductance of two


long coaxial solenoids

Transformer
Efficiency of transformer,

When efficiency of
transformer is 100%,

Emf induced in the


coil/conductor,

= k (transformer ratio)

Coefficient of self
induction,

Wheatstone bridge
In balanced condition,

Galvanometer into
ammeter

Energy stored in an inductor

Mutual inductance,

Series LCR circuit


Impedance of series LCR circuit

= potential gradient

Electric resonance
Comparision of emfs
of two cells,

Internal resistance of a cell

At resonance, XL = XC
\ Resonance frequency

Power factor

Q-factor of LCR circuit

So, the rate of flow of water in venturimeter is given


by
2 gh
V = A1A2
2
(A1 A22)
= 6.25p 16p
=

2 980 4
(16p)2 (6.25p)2

100p 2 28 10
(16p 6.25p)(16p + 6.25p)

= 1889 cc s 1

14. (b) : As we know according to equation of continuity,


when cross-section of duct decreases, the velocity
of flow of liquid increases and in accordance with
Bernoullis theorem, in a horizontal pipe, the place
where speed of liquid is maximum, the value of
pressure is minimum. Hence the second graph
correctly represents the variation of pressure.
15. (a) : Here, A = 25 cm, T = 3 s
Let the particle be at the location 12.5 cm at time
t1 and + 12.5 cm at time t2.
2pt

Using the relation, x = A cos


+ f
T

2pt
First condition, 12.5 = 25 cos 1 + f
...(i)
3

2pt 2

Second condition, 12.5 = 25 cos


+ f
...(ii)
3

2pt
1
2p
12.5
From eq. (i), cos 1 + f =
= = cos
25
2
3
3

2pt1
2p
\
+f=
3
3
or 2pt1 + 3f = 2p
...(iii)
p
2pt 2
12.5 1
= = cos
+ f =
From eq. (ii), cos
25 2
3
3

2pt 2
p
\
+f=
or 2pt2 + 3f = p
...(iv)
3
3
Subtracting eq. (iv) from eq. (iii), we get
2p(t1 t2) = p
or (t1 t2) = p/2p = 1/2 = 0.5 s
16. (c) : If q = charge on the drop, then
q = ne = 12 1.6 1019 C = 19.2 1019 C
If Fe be the electrostatic force on the oil drop due to
electric field.
Then Fe = qE = 19.2 1019 2.55 104 N
...(i)
Let Fg = Force on the drop due to gravity, then
4
Fg = mg = pr 3rg
...(ii)
3
48

Physics For you | may 16

Here r = density of oil = 1.26 g cm3


= 1.26 103 kg m3
Putting these values in eq. (ii), we get
4
...(iii)
Fg = pr 3 1.26 103 9.81
3
As the drop remains stationary,
Fe = Fg
4
or 19.2 1019 2.55 104 = pr 3 1.26 103 9.81
3
After solving we get, r = 9.82 104 mm
17. (d) : Here q = charge at origin O = 8 mC = 8 103 C
q0 = charge to be carried from P to Q via R
= 2 109 C
\ r1 = 3 cm = 3 102 m
r2 = 4 cm = 4 102 m
As electrostatic forces are conservative forces, the
work done in moving q0 is independent of the path
followed. Thus there is no relevance of the point R.
Let WPQ be the work done in moving q0 from P to
Q, then using the relation,
1
1 1
WPQ =
qq
, we get
4p 0 0 r2 r1
WPQ = 9 109 ( 2 109)
1
1
8 10 3

= 1.2 J

2
4 10
3 10 2
18. (d) : In parallel, current distributes in inverse ratio
of resistance.
19. (b) : When final image is formed at infinity, then
magnifying power of compound microscope
v
D
1 1 1
M = 0 . From,
=
f 0 v 0 u0
u0 fe
1
1
1
=
v0 = 30 cm
+ 1.2 v 0 (1.25)
\ | M | =

30 25
= 200
1.25 3

20. (a) : Dm = 2 (2.015) (3.017 + 1.009) = 0.004 amu


\ Energy released = (0.004 931.5) MeV
= 3.726 MeV
3.726
Energy released per deuteron =
= 1.863 MeV
2
Number of deuterons in 1 kg =
\

6.02 1026
= 3.01 1026
2

Energy released per kg of deuterium fusion


= (3.01 1026 1.863)
= 5.6 1026 MeV 9.0 1013 J

21. (c) : Velocity of sound in a gas, v =


For the same temperature

RT
M

v
M

7
4
42
5
=
\
5
5
2
3
22. (b) : Among the given physical quantities
pressure, power, energy, gravitational potential,
electrical charge, temperature are scalar quantities
whereas only impulse and acceleration are vector
quantities.
H M
He
2
2
=
=
He MH
vHe
2

vH

23. (c)
24. (b) : Let original frequency of sitar string A be uA
and original frequency of sitar string B be uB.
Number of beats per second = 6
\ uB = uA 6 = 324 6 = 330 or 318 Hz
When tension in A is reduced, its frequency reduces
( u T )
Number of beats per second reduces to 3.
Therefore, frequency of B = 324 6 = 318 Hz.
25. (b)
26. (d) : Volume of the cylinder, V = pr2L
Volumetric strain =

DV D(pr 2 L)
=
V
pr 2 L

2
DV pr DL + 2 pr L Dr DL 2Dr
=
+
=
L
r
V
pr 2 L

... (i)

(Dr / r )
Dr
sDL
or
=
(DL / L)
r
L
Dr
On substituting this value of
in eq. (i), we get
r
DV DL
... (ii)
=
(1 2s)
V
L
(F / pr 2 )
DL
F
Youngs modulus, Y =
or
=
(DL / L)
L pr 2Y
DL
On substituting this value of
in eq. (ii), we get
L
DV
F
DV
F
(1 2s) ,
=
=
(1 2s)
2
2
V
pr Y
pr L pr 2Y

Poissons ratio, s =

DV =

FL
(1 2s)
Y

r
2r
and r2 =
3
3
w will be same for both the stars. 2m
1
1
K1 = I1w2 and K 2 = I2 w2
2
2
2
2r
m

K1 I1 mr12
3
\
= =
=
=2
2
2
K 2 I2 2mr2
r
2m
3
L1 = I1w and L2 = I2w

27. (d) : r1 =

r2

r1
CM
r

L1 I1
= =2
L2 I2
28. (b) : At temperature T, energy is maximum around
the wavelength l0.
According to Wiens law
b
l0T = b or T =
... (i)
l0
\

Power radiated by a black body at temperature T is


4

b
P = sT A = s A
(Using (i))
l0
b4
...(ii)
=s
A
l04
Now at new temperature T, energy is maximum
l
around wavelength 0 .
2
l0
2b
...(iii)
T = b or T =
\
2
l0
Now power radiated by the same black body at
temperature T is
4

2b
P = sT A = s A
l0
b4
P = 16 s
A = 16 P
l04
4

(Using (iii))
(Using (ii))

29. (c) : For SHM,


Maximum velocity, vmax = Aw
k
For 1st case, vmax = A1w1 = A1 1
1
M

...(i)

k
For IInd case, vmax = A2 w2 = A2 2
2
M
v
=
v
max
max
According to question,
1

\ A1

k1
k
= A2 2
M
M

or

...(ii)

A1
k
= 2
A2
k1

Physics For you | may 16

49

30. (b) : In figures (1), (3) and (4) net electric field is
zero, because electric field at a point due to positive
charge acts away from the charge and due to negative
charge it acts towards the charge. For figure, (2) net
electric field is not zero.
E

E
120
E

Here, net electric field in figure, (2) is


(2E)2 + (2E)2 + (2E)2 2 cos 120 = 2E
31. (d) :
30

60

If q is the angle which the velocity v of electron


while leaving the electric field makes with the initial
direction of motion (i.e., along X-direction), then
vy y
tan q =
=
vx d
vy
eE Ld
Ee L
1
or y = d =
d=
vx
m vx vx
mv 2x
39. (d) : For pure inductor,

100 25
XL = u =
=
Iu
8
2
25
25
25
1
wL = ; L =
=
=
H
2
2w 2 2 p 50 8 p
V 100
R= =
= 10
I 10
For the combination, the supply is 150 V, 40 Hz
1
\ XL = wL = 2p 40
= 10
8p

90
60 60

Using snells law at the interface,


sin 60
3 /2
m=
=
= 3
sin 30 1 / 2
32. (a) : Path difference between two waves
yd 1.25lD d
=
D d D
5
= 1.25l = l
4
2p
Corresponding phase difference, f = Dx
l
2p 5
5
f 5
=
l = p , = p = 225
l 4
2
2 4
f 1
I = I max cos 2 = I max
2 2
Dx = d sin q d tan q =

33. (a) : 92 U

238

90 Th

234

91 Pa

234

1 b

92 U

234

So, A = 234, B = 90, C = 234, D = 91 and E = b


34. (b)
35. (b)
36. (c) : In reflected light, condition for maximum
intensity is
l
2mt cos r = (2n + 1)
2
4mt cos r 4 1.33 5 10 7 1
\ l=
=
2n + 1
(2n + 1)
Putting n = 0, 1, 2, 3, ... we get
l0 = 26600 , l1 = 8866
l2 = 5320 , l4 = 3800
Among these wavelengths, l = 5320 is in the
visible region.
50

Physics For you | may 16

37. (c)
38. (b) : When electron is subjected to a perpendicular
electric field, it will describe a parabolic path in the
electric field. While leaving the electric field, it flies
off tangentially to the parabolic path and meets the
screen at point P, where MP = y.
Let vx, vy be the rectangular components of velocity
when the electron just going to leave the electric field.
If t is the time taken by electron to cross the electric
field, then vx t = L or t = L/vx
Ee
Ee L
vy = 0 + t =

m
m vx

Z = X L2 + R2 = 102 + 102 = 10 2
E
150
15
Iu = u =
=
A
Z 10 2
2
40. (b) : If m is strength of each pole of wire of length l,
A
then M = m l
When the wire is bent
r
x
such that AOB = 60
30
l
O
30
2 pr pr
x
l=
=
r
6
3
pr
B
\ M =m
3
In the figure linear distance between A and B
= 2x = 2 r sin30 = r
3M
\ M = m(2 x ) = mr =
p
nn

chapterwise McQs for practice

Useful for All National and State Level Medical/Engg. Entrance Exams
alternating current

1. An alternating emf is applied across a parallel


combination of a resistance R, capacitance C and
an inductance L. If IR, IL and IC are the currents
through R, L and C respectively, then the diagram
which correctly represents the phase relationship
among IR, IL, IC and source emf e, is given by
IR

IL

(a)

IR

(b)

IL

IC

IC

IC

IR

(c)

IR
IL

(d)

IC

IL

2. In the circuit shown, the AC source has voltage


V = 20 cos(wt) volt with w = 2000 rad s1, the
amplitude of the current will be nearest to

(a) 2 A
(c) 2/ 5 A

(b) 3.3 A
(d) 5 A

3. The voltage across a pure inductor


is represented in figure. Which one
of the following curves in the figure
will represent the current ?

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

4. A direct current of 2 A and an alternating current


having a maximum value of 2 A flow through two
identical resistances. The ratio of heat produced in
the two resistances will be
(a) 1 : 1 (b) 1 : 2 (c) 2 : 1 (d) 4 : 1
5. A 750 Hz, 20 V source is connected to a resistance of
100 W, an inductance of 0.1803 H and a capacitance
of 10 F all in series. Calculate the time in which
the resistance (thermal capacity 2 JC1) will get
heated by 10C.
(a) 348 s (b) 353 s (c) 365 s (d) 370 s
6. A power transmission line feeds input power at
2300 V to a step-down transformer, with its primary
windings having 4000 turns. What should be the
number of turns in the secondary winding in order
to get output power at 230 V ?
(a) 300 (b) 250
(c) 400
(d) 450
7. An inductance and a resistance are connected in
series with an AC potential. In this circuit
(a) the current and the potential difference across
the resistance lead the potential difference across
the inductance by phase angle p/2
(b) the current and the potential difference across
the resistance lag behind potential difference
across the inductance by an angle p/2
physics for you | MAY 16

51

(c) the current and the potential difference across


the resistance lag behind the potential difference
across the inductance by an angle p
(d) the potential difference across the resistance
lags behind the potential difference across the
inductance by an angle p/2 but the current in
the resistance leads the potential difference
across inductance by p/2.
8. An AC source is connected to a capacitor. The current
in the circuit is I. Now a dielectric slab is inserted
into the capacitor, then the new current is
(a) equal to I
(b) more than I
(c) less than I
(d) may be more than or less than I
9. In the given AC circuit

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

current I2 and V are in same phase


current I2 leads I1 by 90
current I leads I2 by q < 90
current I leads I1 by q < 90

10. If the rms current in a 50 Hz AC circuit is 5 A, the


value of the current 1/300 seconds after its value
becomes zero is
(a) 5 2 A
(b) 5 3 / 2 A
(c) 5/6 A
(d) 5 / 2 A
11. A transformer is used to light 140 W, 24 V lamp
from 240 V AC mains. The current in the mains is
0.7 A. The efficiency of transformer is nearest to
(a) 90% (b) 80% (c) 70% (d) 60%
12. An L-C circuit has capacitance C1 = C and inductance
C
and L2 = 2L
L1 = L. A second circuit has C2 =
2
and a third circuit has C3 = 2C and L3 = L/2. All the
three capacitors are charged to the same potential
V, and then made to oscillate. Then
(a) maximum current is greatest in second circuit
(b) angular frequency of oscillation is different for
all the three circuits.
(c) maximum current is greatest in first circuit
(d) angular frequency of oscillation is same for all
the three circuits.
52

physics for you | MAY 16

13. An alternating voltage is given by


e = e1 sinwt + e2 coswt
Then the root mean square value of voltage is given by
(a) e12 + e22
(b) e1 + e 2
e1e2
e12 + e22
(d)
2
2
14. An AC voltage source of variable angular frequency
w and fixed amplitude V0 is connected in series with
a capacitance C and an electric bulb of resistance R
(inductance zero). When w is increased
(a) the bulb glows dimmer
(b) the bulb glows brighter
(c) total impedance of the circuit is unchanged
(d) total impedance of the circuit increases.
(c)

15. An electric bulb has a rated power of 50 W at 100 V.


If it is used on an AC source of 200 V, 50 Hz, a choke
has to be used in series with it. This choke should
have an inductance of
(a) 1 mH (b) 0.1 mH (c) 0.1 H (d) 1.1 H
16. When a DC voltage of 200 V is applied to a coil of
self inductance (2 3 / p) H, a current of 1 A flows
through it. But by replacing DC source with AC
source of 200 V, the current in the coil is reduced to
0.5 A. Then the frequency of AC supply is
(a) 100 Hz (b) 75 Hz (c) 50 Hz (d) 30 Hz
17. For the circuit shown in figure,
the current through the inductor
is 0.9 A while the current through
the condenser is 0.4 A. Hence the
current drawn from the generator is
(a) 1.13 A
(b) 0.5 A
(c) 0.6 A
(d) 0.9 A
18. Series AC circuit has inductance L, resistance R and
angular frequency w. The quality factor, Q is
2

wL
wL
(a)
(b)

R
R
2
R
R
(c)
(d)

wL
wL
19. Current in a circuit is wattless if
(a) inductance in the circuit is zero
(b) resistance in the circuit is zero
(c) current is alternating
(d) resistance and inductance both are zero
20. In the circuit shown in figure, the key K is closed at
t = 0.

R1
R2

The current through the battery is


(a)
(b)

V (R1 + R2 )
V
at t = 0 and at t =
R1R2
R2
VR1R2
2
1

2
2

at t = 0 and

V
at t =
R2

R +R
V (R1 + R2 )
V
at t = 0 and
at t =
(c)
R1R2
R2
(d)

VR1R2
V
at t = 0 and
at t =
R2
R12 + R22
electromagnetic waves

21. The dimensions of (0 e0)1/2 are


(a) [L1/2 T1/2]
(b) [L1 T]
1
(c) [LT ]
(d) [L1/2 T1/2]
22. The charge of a parallel plate capacitor is varying as
q = q0 sin2put. The plates are very large and close
together. Neglecting edge effects, the displacement
current through the capacitor is
q
q
(a)
(b)
sin2put
Ae0
e0
2p u q0
(c) 2puq0 cos2put
(d)
cos2put.
e0
23. Molybdenum is used as a target element for the
production of X-rays because it is
(a) light and can easily deflect electrons
(b) light and can absorb electrons
(c) a heavy element with a high melting point
(d) an element having high thermal conductivity.
24. The electric field part of an electromagnetic wave in
a medium is represented by Ex = 0 ;
Ey = 2.5 N C1
cos[(2p 106 rad s1)t (p 102 rad m1)x];
Ez = 0. The wave is
(a) moving along the x-direction with frequency
106 Hz and wavelength 100 m
(b) moving along x-direction with frequency
106 Hz and wavelength 200 m
(c) moving along x-direction with frequency
106 Hz and wavelength 200 m

(d) moving along y-direction with frequency


2p 106 Hz and wavelength 200 m.
25. The amplitude of magnetic field in a parallel beam
of light of intensity 2.0 W m2 is
(a) 1.3 107 T
(b) 1.3 106 T
5
(c) 1.3 10 T
(d) 1.3 108 T
26. Light with an energy flux of 18 W cm2 falls on a
non-reflecting surface at normal incidence. If the
surface has an area of 20 cm2, the total momentum
delivered to the surface during a span of 30 minutes
is
(a) 2.16 103 kg m s1
(b) 2.16 104 kg m s1
(c) 4.32 103 kg m s1
(d) 4.32 104 kg m s1
27. If lv, lx and lm represent the wavelengths of visible
light, X-rays and microwaves respectively, then
(a) lm > lx > lv
(b) lv > lm > lx
(c) lv > lx > lm
(d) lm > lv > lx
28. The electric field associated with an electromagnetic

wave in vacuum is given by E = i 40 cos(kz 6 108 t),


where E, z and t are in volt metre1, metre and
second respectively. The value of wave vector k is
(a) 2 m1
(b) 0.5 m1
1
(c) 6 m
(d) 3 m1
29. An earth orbiting satellite has solar energy collecting
panel with total area 5 m2. If solar radiations are
perpendicular and completely absorbed, the average
force associated with the radiation pressure is
(solar constant = 1.4 kW m2).
(a) 2.33 103 N
(b) 2.33 104 N
5
(c) 2.33 10 N
(d) 2.33 106 N
30. In a region of free space the electric field at some

instant of time is E = (40i + 16 j 32k) V m1 and

the magnetic field is B = (0.1i + 0.04 j + 0.145k ) T.


The poynting vector for these fields in W m2 is
7

10
107
[3.6i 9.0 j]
[3.6i 9.0 j] (b)
2p
p
107
107
[3.6i 9.0 j]
[3.6i 9.0 j] (d)
(c)
8p
4p
solutions
1. (c) : Current in inductance IL lags behind the emf
in phase by p/2, current in resistance IR is in phase
with emf, while current in capacitance IC leads by
a phase of p/2.
(a)

physics for you | MAY 16

53

2. (a) : Total resistance of the circuit


R = 6 + 4 = 10 W
Capacitive reactance
1
1
=
XC =
= 10 W
wC 2000 50 106
Inductive reactance
XL = wL = 2000 5 103 = 10 W
\ Z = R2 + ( X L XC )2 = 10 W
Amplitude of current
V0 20
=
I0 =
=2A
Z 10
p
3. (d) : Current lags behind the voltage by .
2
4. (c) : As, H = I2Rt
For DC circuit
HDC = I2DCRt
(i)
For AC circuit
HAC = I2rms Rt
(ii)
For same time t, from (i) and (ii)
2
2
I0

H DC I DC 2 2
=
= 2 I rms =
=

2
H AC I rms 2

5. (a) : As,
XL = wL = 2puL = 2p 750 0.1803 = 849.2 W
1
1
1
= 21.2 W
and XC =
=
=
wC 2puC 2p 750 105
So, X = XL XC = 849.2 21.2 = 828 W
Hence, Z = R2 + X 2 = (100)2 + (828)2 = 834 W
But as in case of AC,
Vrms R

Pav = VrmsIrms cosf = Vrms


Z
Z
2
2
Vrms
20
i.e., Pav =
100 = 0.0575 W
R =
834
Z
And as, U = P t = mcDq
mc Dq 2 10
=
= 348 s
\ t=
P
0.0575
6. (c) : Here, Vp = 2300 V, np = 4000, Vs = 230 V
Now,
\

Vs ns
=
Vp n p

ns =

n
230
= s
2300 4000

230 4000
= 400
2300

7. (b)
8. (b) : By introducing the slab, C will increase.
Therefore, XC will decrease or I will increase.
9. (a) : The given AC circuit is the combination of two
pure parallel circuits with the applied voltage. In
which I2 is in phase with V and I1 leads V by 90.
54

physics for you | MAY 16

10. (b) : Here, u = 50 Hz, Irms = 5 A, t =

1
s
300

I0 = 2 Irms = 2 5 A
From I = I0 sin wt
1
p
3
3
= 5 2 sin 100p
= 5 2 sin = 5 2
=5
A
300
3
2
2
11. (b) : Pi = 240 0.7 = 168 W, P0 = 140 W
P
140
= 0 100 =
100 = 83.3% 80%
Pi
168
1
12. (d) : Angular frequency, w =
.
LC
As L1C1 = L2C2 = L3C3, therefore, angular frequency
of oscillation is same for all the three circuits.
13. (d) : e = e1 sinwt + e2 coswt
The two components are 90 out of phase with each
other.
e12 + e22

e0 =
ev =

e0
2

e12 + e22
2

14. (b) : In RC circuit, the impedance is


1
, as w increases, Z decreases.
w2C 2
1
Since, power
,
impedance
therefore the bulb glows brighter.
Z=

R2 +

15. (d) : Here, P = 50 W, V = 100 V


P 50
V 100
I= =
= 0.5 A, R = =
= 200 W
V 100
I 0. 5
Let L be the inductance of the choke coil
Ev 200
E
=
= 400 W
\ Iv = v or Z =
I v 0. 5
Z
Now, XL =

Z 2 R2 = 4002 2002 = 100 12

and XL= wL = 100 2 3


200 3 200 3 200 3 2 1.732
L =
= 1.1 H
=
=
=
w
2pu
100p
3.14
V 200
2 3
= 200 W ; L =
H
=
I
1
p
E 200
Z= v =
= 400 W
I v 0. 5

16. (c) : R =

XL =

Z 2 R2 = 4002 2002 = 200 3

Now, XL = wL = 2puL = 200 3

200 3
200 3
= 50 Hz
=
2pL
2 3
2p
p
17. (b) : The current drawn by capacitor and inductor
are always in opposite phase. Therefore, net current
drawn from the generator
= IL IC
= 0.9 0.4 = 0.5 A
u=

18. (b) : Quality factor of a series LCR circuit is defined


as the ratio of the voltage drop across the inductance
(or capacitance) at resonance to the applied voltage,
wL
i.e., Q =
R
19. (b) : The current in AC circuit is said to be wattless
if the average power consumed in the circuit is
zero, i.e., Pav = 0
Thus the current in the circuit has no power. It
flows sometimes along the voltage and sometimes
against the voltage, so that the net work done per
cycle is zero.
20. (c) : At t = 0, inductor (L) offers an infinite resistance,
so no current flows through L and R1.
V
R2
At t = , inductor offers zero resistance, i.e., behaves
like a conducting wire. Thus,
V (R1 + R2 )
V
V
=
=
I=
Req R1R2 / (R1 + R2 )
R1R2
Thus, I =

21. (c) :

= c (speed of light) and dimensions

0 0
of c are [LT1].

22. (c) : I =

dq d
= (q0 sin2put) = q0 2pu cos2put
dt dt

23. (c)
24. (b) : Given, Ex = 0,
Ey = 2.5 N C1
cos[(2p 106 rad s1)t (p 102 rad m1)x],
Ez = 0. This shows that the wave is propagating
along x-axis. Comparing the given equation with
E = E0 cos (wt kx), we have
w = 2p 106
or 2pu = 2p 106 u = 106 Hz
2p
2p
and
= k = p 102 l =
= 200 m
l
p 102

25. (a) : Intensity of a wave =


or

I = uav c =
B0 =

power
energy/time
=
area
area

1 2
B0 c B0 =
20

20 I
c

2 (4 p 107 ) 2
= 1.3 107 T
3 108

26. (a) : Total energy falling on the surface =


Energy flux time area
U = (18 W cm2) (30 60 s) (20 cm2)
= 6.48 105 J
Total momentum delivered to the surface
U 6.48 105
p= =
= 2.16 103 kg m s1
c
3 108
27. (d) : As wavelength range of
microwaves is from 0.1 m to 1mm,
visible light is from 700 nm to 400 nm and
X-rays is from 1 nm to 103 nm
\ lm > lv > lx
28. (a) : Given, electric field associated with an
electromagnetic wave,

E = i 40 cos(kx 6 108t)
Comparing the given equation with
E = E0 cos(kx-wt), we have
w = 6 108 s1, v = c = 3 108 m s1
w
6 108 s 1
k= =
= 2 m1
v 3 108 m s 1

29. (c) : As, power = solar constant area


= (1.4 103) 5
solar constant area
\ Force =
speed of light
1.4 103 5
= 2.33 105 N
3 108
1
30. (c) : Poynting vector, P = [E B]
0
1

(40i + 16 j 32k ) (0.1i + 0.04 j + 0.145k )


=
0
=

i
j
k
1
1
[3.6i 9.0 j]
40 16
32 =
=
0
4 p 107
0.1 0.04 0.145
=

107
[3.6i 9.0 j] W m2
4p
physics for you | MAY 16

nn
55

1. Which of the following is not dimensionless?


(a) Relative density
(b) Relative velocity
(c) Relative refractive index
(d) Relative permittivity

6. The terminal velocity v of a spherical ball of radius


r falling through a viscous fluid varies with r such
that
(a) v/r = constant
(b) vr = constant
(c) vr2 = constant
(d) v/r2 = constant.

2. Two projectiles A and B are projected with angle of


projection 30 for the projectile A and 45 for the
projectile B. If RA and RB are the horizontal ranges
for the two projectiles, then
(a) RA = RB
(b) RA > RB
(c) RA < RB
(d) the information is insufficient to decide the
relation between RA and RB.

7. At NTP, water boils at 100C. Deep down a mine,


water will boil at a temperature
(a) 100C
(b) > 100C
(c) < 100C
(d) will not boil at all.

3. The additional kinetic energy to be provided to


a satellite of mass m revolving around a planet of
mass M to transfer it from a circular orbit of radius
R1 to another of radius R2 (R2 > R1) is
1
1
1 1
(a) GmM 2 2 (b) GmM
R1 R2
R1 R2
1 1
1
1 1
(c) 2GmM (d) GmM
2
R1 R2
R1 R2
4. Wires A and B are made from the same material. A
has twice the diameter and three times the length
of B. If the elastic limits are not reached when each
wire is stretched by the same tension, the ratio of
energy stored in A to that in B is
(a) 2 : 3 (b) 3 : 4
(c) 3 : 2 (d) 6 : 1
5. At critical temperature, the surface tension of a
liquid is
(a) zero
(b) infinity
(c) the same as that at any other temperature
(d) cannot be determined.
56

physics for you | MAY 16

8. The equation of a progressive wave is given by


t x p
y = 4 sin p + . Which of the following is
5 9 6
correct? (Assume SI units)
(a) v = 5 cm s1
(b) A = 0.04 cm
(c) l = 18 m
(d) u = 50 Hz
9. A particle has two equal accelerations in two given
directions. If one of the acceleration is halved, then
the angle which the resultant makes with the other
is also halved. The angle between the accelerations
is
(a) 120 (b) 90
(c) 60
(d) 45
10. The amount of work done in stretching a spring
from a stretched length of 10 cm to a stretched
length of 20 cm is
(a) equal to the work done in stretching it from 20 cm
to 30 cm
(b) less than the work done in stretching it from 20 cm
to 30 cm
(c) more than the work done in stretching it from
20 cm to 30 cm
(d) equal to the work done in stretching it from 0 to
30 cm.
11. A body of mass m strikes a stationary body of mass
M and undergoes an elastic collision. After collision,

m has a speed one-third its initial speed. The ratio


M/m is
(a) 1 : 2 (b) 2 : 1
(c) 1 : 3 (d) 3 : 1
12. A man throws the bricks to a height of 12 m where
they reach with a speed of 12 m s1. If he throws
the bricks such that they just reach that height, what
percentage of energy will be saved? (g = 9.8 m s2)
(a) 50% (b) 46%
(c) 38% (d) 32%
13. A can filled with water is revolved in a vertical circle
of radius 4 m and the water just does not fall down.
The time period of revolution will be
(a) 1 s (b) 10 s
(c) 8 s
(d) 4 s
14. The moment of inertia of a thin uniform annular
disc about one of the diameters is I. Its moment of
inertia about an axis perpendicular to the annular
surface and passing through its centre is
I
I
(a) 2 I (b) 2I
(c)
(d)
2
2

(d) both the flux and e.m.f. have their respective


maximum values.
19. In Youngs double slit experiment, the central bright
fringe can be identified
(a) as it has greater intensity than the other bright
fringes
(b) as it is wider than the other bright fringes
(c) as it is narrower than the other bright fringes
(d) by using white light instead of monochromatic
light.
20. An optical fibre made of glass with a core of refractive
index of 1.55 and is clad with another glass with a
refractive index of 1.51. Launching takes place from
air. What is the value of critical angle for core-clad
boundary?
(a) 65 (b) 72
(c) 77
(d) 82

15. A body rolls down an inclined plane. If its kinetic


energy of rotational motion is 40% of its kinetic
energy of translation, then the body is
(a) cylinder
(b) ring
(c) solid disc
(d) solid sphere

21. Heat is flowing through two cylindrical rods of


the same material. The diameter of the rods are in
the ratio 1 : 2 and the lengths in the ratio 2 : 1. If
the temperature difference between the ends be
the same, then the ratio of the rates of flow of heat
through the two rods will be
(a) 1 : 1 (b) 1 : 2
(c) 2 : 1 (d) 1 : 8

16. Force acting upon a charged particle kept between


the plates of a charge condenser is F. If one of the
plates of the condenser is removed then the force
acting on the same particle will become
(a) zero (b) F/2
(c) F
(d) 2F

22. Three moles of oxygen are mixed with two moles


of helium. What will be the ratio of specific heats
at constant pressure and constant volume for the
mixture?
(a) 6.76 (b) 1.52
(c) 4.21 (d) 1.48

17. The capacitance of arrangement of 4 plates of area A


at a distance d shown in figure, is

23. A tuning fork vibrating with a sonometer having


20 cm wire produces 5 beat s1. The beat frequency
does not change if the length of the wire is changed
to 21 cm. The frequency of the tuning fork must be
(a) 200 Hz
(b) 210 Hz
(c) 205 Hz
(d) 215 Hz

d
A

2e 0 A
d
4e 0 A
(c) 3 e0A/d
(d)
d
18. When the plane of the armature of an a.c. generator
is parallel to the field, in which it is rotating,
(a) both the flux linked and induced e.m.f. in the
coil are zero
(b) the flux linked with it is zero, while induced
e.m.f. is maximum
(c) flux linked is maximum while induced e.m.f. is
zero
(a) e0/d

(b)

24. The damping force of an oscillator is directly


proportional to the velocity. The unit of the constant
of proportionality is
(a) kg m s1
(b) kg m s2
1
(c) kg s
(d) kg s
25. Ultrasonics are used in SONAR with greatest
advantage because ultrasonics
(a) have low frequency
(b) have short wavelength
(c) are electromagnetic waves
(d) can be easily produced
physics for you | MAY 16

57

26. If dielectric constant and dielectric strength be


denoted by K and X respectively, then a material
suitable for use as a dielectric in a capacitor must
have
(a) high K and high X (b) high K and low X
(c) low K and high X (d) low K and low X
27. The figure shows a parallel circuit, in which the
wires have no resistance. As more identical resistors
are added to the circuit, the resistance between A
and B
R
R
A

increases and approaches a finite value


increases and approaches infinity
decreases and approaches zero
decreases and approaches a non-zero value.

28. In a region there exist both uniform magnetic field

B and electric field E . An electric charge moving


in region experiences no force. This implies that

(a) E, B and v are coplanar


(b) E, B and v are collinear



(c) E = v B

(d) E = B v

29. The earths magnetic field may be considered to be


due to a short magnet placed at the centre of earth
and oriented along magnetic south north direction.
The ratio of magnitude of magnetic field on earths
surface at magnetic equator to that at magnetic
poles is
(a) 1 : 2 (b) 2 : 1
(c) 1 : 4 (d) 4 : 1
30. In the circuit shown in figure, what will be the
reading of the voltmeter?
V

100 V

100 V

200 V, 100 Hz

58

physics for you | MAY 16

(b) 900 V
(d) 400 V

31. What is the rms value of an alternating current


which when passed through a resistor produces
heat, which is thrice that produced by a current of
2 A in the same resistor?
(a) 6 A
(b) 2 A
(c) 3.46 A
(d) 0.65 A
32. Electromagnetic radiation of frequency u, of
velocity c and wavelength l in air enters a glass slab
of refractive index m. The frequency, wavelength
and velocity of radiation in glass slab will be
c
u l
(a) , ,c
(b) u, l,
m
m m
l c
(c) u, ,
m m

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

(a) 300 V
(c) 200 V

(d)

u l c
, ,
m m m

33. If the ratio of the concentration of electrons to that


of holes in a semiconductor is 7/5 and the ratio of
current is 7/4, then the ratio of their drift velocities
is
(a) 5/8
(b) 4/5
(c) 5/4
(d) 4/7
34. A forward biased diode is
(a) 0 V
2V
(b) 4 V
3V
(c) 3 V
5V
(d) 2 V
+2V
35. A signal wave of frequency 12 kHz is modulated with
a carrier wave of frequency 2.51 MHz. The upper
and lower sideband frequencies are respectively
(a) 2512 kHz and 2508 kHz
(b) 2522 kHz and 2488 kHz
(c) 2502 kHz and 2498 kHz
(d) 2522 kHz and 2498 kHz
36. The velocity of the a-particle emitted from uranium
of atomic weight 238 is 1.4 107 m s1. The velocity
of the remaining nucleus is
1.4 107
(a)
4 m s 1 in the same direction
238
1.4 107
(b)
4 m s 1 in the same direction
234
1.4 107
(c)
4 m s 1 in the opposite direction
234
1.4 107
(d)
4 m s 1 in the opposite direction
238

37. A bubble in glass slab (m = 1.5) when viewed from


one side appears at 5 cm and 2 cm from other side,
then thickness of slab is
(a) 3.75 cm
(b) 3 cm
(c) 10.5 cm
(d) 2.5 cm
38. The wavelength of radiation emitted is l0 when an
electron in hydrogen atom jumps from 3rd to 2nd
orbit. If in the hydrogen atom itself, the electron
jumps from fourth orbit to second orbit, then
wavelength of emitted radiation will be
25
27
(a)
l
(b)
l
16 0
20 0
16
20
(c)
(d)
l
l
25 0
27 0
39. Consider two nuclei of the same radioactive nuclide.
One of the nuclei was created in a supernova
explosion 5 billion years ago. The other was created
in a nuclear reactor 5 minutes ago. The probability
of decay during the next time is
(a) different for each nucleus
(b) nucleus created in explosion decays first
(c) nucleus created in the reactor decays first
(d) independent of the time of creation.
40. The half-life of a radioactive nucleus is 50 days. The
time interval (t2 t1) between the time t2 when
(2/3) of it has decayed and the time t1 when (1/3) of
it has decayed is
(a) 30 days
(b) 50 days
(c) 60 days
(d) 15 days
Directions : In the following questions (41-60), a statement
of assertion is followed by a statement of reason. Mark the
correct choice as :
(a) If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the
correct explanation of assertion.
(b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the
correct explanation of assertion.
(c) If assertion is true but reason is false.
(d) If both assertion and reason are false.

41. Assertion : For a given time interval, average


velocity is single valued while average speed can
have many values.
Reason : Velocity is a vector quantity and speed is
a scalar quantity.
42. Assertion : If a rod having resistance 4 W is turned
as half cycle, then its resistance along its diameter is
1.0 W.

Reason : On bending a rod, its length decreases and


hence resistance decreases.
43. Assertion : The energy of X-ray photon is greater
than that of light photon.
Reason : X-ray photon in vacuum travels faster
than light photon.
44. Assertion : Refractive index of a medium varies
inversely as the temperature of the medium.
Reason : Refractive index of a medium varies
directly as the density of medium.
45. Assertion : If ice cap of the pole melts, the day
length will shorten.
Reason : Ice will flow towards the equator and
decrease the moment of inertia of the Earth. This
increases the frequency of rotation of the Earth.
46. Assertion : Equal masses of helium and oxygen
gases are given equal quantities of heat. The rise in
temperature of helium is greater than that in the
case of oxygen.
Reason : The molecular mass of oxygen is more
than the molecular mass of helium.
47. Assertion : Two longitudinal waves given by
equations :
y1 (x, t) = 2a sin (wt kx), and
y2 (x, t) = a sin (2wt 2kx)
will have equal intensity.
Reason : Intensity of waves of given frequency in
same medium is proportional to the square of the
amplitude only.
48. Assertion : When a pendulum is made to oscillate on
the surface of the Moon, its time period increases.
Reason : Moon is much smaller as compared to
Earth.
49. Assertion : On a banked curved track, vertical
component of normal reaction provides the
necessary centripetal force.
Reason : Centripetal force is not always required
for turning.
50. Assertion : The logic gate NOT can be built using
diode.
Reason : The output voltage and input voltage of
the diode have 180 phase difference.
51. Assertion : Sky wave signals are used for long
distance radio communication. These signals are in
general less stable than ground wave signals.
physics for you | MAY 16

59

Reason : The state of ionosphere varies from hour


to hour, day to day and season to season.
52. Assertion : Charge never flows from a condenser of
higher capacity to the condenser of lower capacity.
Reason : Flow of charge is determined by the
charge.
53. Assertion : Absolute zero temperature is also a zero
energy temperature of gas molecules.
Reason : At absolute zero temperature molecules of
a gas come to rest, hence possess no energy of any
form.

54. Assertion : If q is the angle between A and B , then



AB
tan q = .
AB


Reason : A B is perpendicular to A B.
55. Assertion : A spaceship while entering the earths
atmosphere is likely to catch fire.
Reason : The temperature of upper atmosphere is
very high.
56. Assertion : The sun looks bigger in size at sunrise
and sunset than during day.
Reason : The phenomenon of diffraction bends
light rays.
57. Assertion: Only a change in magnetic flux will
maintain an induced current in the coil.
Reason: The presence of large magnetic flux
through a coil maintains a current in the coil if the
circuit is continuous.
58. Assertion : The resistivity of a semiconductor
increases with temperature.
Reason : The atoms of a semiconductor vibrate with
larger amplitude at higher temperatures thereby
increasing its resistivity.
59. Assertion : A thin stainless steel needle can lay
floating on a still water surface.
Reason : Any object floats when the buoyancy force
balances the weight of the object.
60. Assertion : Heavy water is a better moderator than
normal water.
Reason : Heavy water absorbs neutrons more
efficiently than normal water.
60

physics for you | MAY 16

solutions

1. (b) : Relative velocity has the dimensions of velocity.


2

2. (d) : Horizontal range, R = u sin 2q ,


g
As u for both projectiles A and B are not given, hence
relation between RA and RB cannot be decided.
3. (d) : As

GMm
GMm
+ KE =
2R1
2R2

1
1
1
KE = GMm .
2
R1 R2
1
4. (b) : Energy stored = stress strain volume
2
1
stress
= stress
volume
2
Y
1 (stress)2
=
volume
2
Y
\

EA
=
EB

F
1
p(2D/2)2 3L

2
2Y p(2D/2)
2

1 F
p(D/2)2 L
2Y p(D/2)2

3
4

5. (a)
6. (d)
7. (b) : With increase in pressure deep down the mine,
boiling point of water increases, i.e., >100C.
t x p
8. (c) : y = 4 sin p +
5 9 6
Comparing this equation with
y = A sin (wt kx + f0),
p
2p p
k = or
= or l = 18 m
9
l 9
B sin q
A sin q
=
(A = B)
A + B cos q A + A cos q
sin q
=
...(i)
1 + cos q

(B / 2)sin q
sin q
...(ii)
tan =
=
2 A + (B / 2)cos q 2 + cos q
The equations are satisfied if q = 120
10. (b) : Work done in stretching a string from 10 cm to
20 cm,
1
1
W = k(x 22 x12 ) = k(202 102 ) = 150k,
2
2
Work done in stretching it from 20 cm to 30 cm
1
W = k(302 202 ) = 250 k W > W
2
9. (a) : tan =

u (m M )u1
(m1 m2)u1
, \ 1=
m+ M
3
m1 + m2
or m + M = 3 m 3 M
M 2 1
or 4 M = 2 m or
= =
m 4 2
12. (c) : The energy saved is kinetic energy of bricks.
KE
Percentage of energy saved =
100%
PE + KE
1 2
mv
v2
2
=
100% =
100%
1
2 gh + v 2
mgh + mv 2
2
122
=
100% 38%
2 9.8 12 + 122
13. (d) : Water does not fall down, when
m r w2 = mg
g 2p
w=
=
r T
11. (a) : As v1 =

T = 2p

r
22 4
=2
=4s
g
7 9.8

14. (b) : According to the theorem of perpendicular axes,


I = IAB + ICD = I + I = 2I
C
A

B
D

KE of rotation
40 2
=
=
KE of translation 100 5
1 2
1 2
Iw
Iw
2
2
2

= 2
= or I = mr 2
1 2 1
5
5
mv
m r 2w 2
2
2
Hence, the body is a solid sphere.
(b) : As one of the plates is removed. E becomes half,
therefore, F = qE will also become half i.e. F/2.
(b) : The arrangement is equivalent to two capacitors
joined in parallel.
\ C = 2 e0 A/d
(b) : f = NAB cos90 = 0
e = e0 sin90 = e0 = maximum. q is angle between
the field and normal to the plane of the coil.
(d) : When white light is used instead of
monochromatic light, the central bright fringe
becomes white, while other are coloured. Hence
distinction can be made.

15. (d) :

16.
17.

18.

19.

62

physics for you | MAY 16

20. (c) : qc = sin 1 m 2 = sin 1 1.51 = 77.


m1
1.55
21. (d) : The rate of flow of heat through the rod,
H = kA (dT/dx) = k(pD2/4) (T1 T2)/l,
H D2/l
2

Thus,

H1 D1 l2 1 1 1
=
=
=
H 2 D2 l1 2 2 8

22. (d) : g for the mixture is given by


n1 + n2
n
n
= 1 + 2
g 1 g1 1 g 2 1
Here, n1 = 3, n2 = 2, g1 = 7/5 and g2 = 5/3
31
= 1.48
21
23. (c) : ... ul = constant
(u 5) 21 = (u + 5)20
or u = 205 Hz
hence, we get g =

24. (c) : As F v, F = kv
[kg m s 2]
hence k = F =
= [kg s 1]
v
[m s 1]
25. (b) : Since the frequency of ultrasonic waves is
greater than audible sound, then their wavelength
will be shorter than the audible sound.
26. (a) : The material suitable for use as dielectric must
have high dielectric strength X and large dielectric
constant K.
27. (c) : The resistors in parallel will provide multiple
paths for the current. Due to it, the total resistance
will decrease and approach to zero when more
resistors in parallel are added.
28. (d) : Total Lorentz force on the charged particle q in
the electric and magnetic field is


F = qE + q(v B)


If F = 0, then qE + q(v B) = 0


or E = (v B) = B v
29. (a) : Point on magnetic equator is on equatorial line
of magnet and at poles, it is on axial line
\

Bequatorial 1 / 2 1
=
=
Baxial
1
2

30. (c) : Here, VL = VC = 100 V, V = 200 V, VR = ?


As V = VR2 + (VL VC )2
\ 200 = VR2 + (100 100)2 = VR i.e., VR = 200 V

31. (c) : H1 = 3 H2 I2rms R = 3 I2R


I rms = I 3 = 2 1.732 = 3.46 A
32. (c) : Frequency of radiation does not change with
change of medium. Wavelength and velocity of
radiation change with change of medium.
In medium, wavelength of radiation = l/m
velocity of radiation = c/m
33. (c) :

I e neeAv e
=
= (ne / nh )(v e / v h )
I h nheAv h

v e I e nh 7 5 5
=
=
=
v h I h ne 4 7 4
(a) : For a p-n junction to be forward-biased,
p-side must be at a higher potential than the n-side.
(0 V > 2 V, whereas 4 V < 3 V, 3 V < 5 V, 2 V < + 2V)
(d) : USB = 2.51 MHz + 12 kHz = 2510 kHz + 12 kHz
= 2522 kHz
LSB = 2.51 MHz 12 kHz = 2510 kHz 12 kHz
= 2498 kHz
(c) : a-particle has 4 units mass. Therefore, the
mass of remaining nucleus after a-emission
= 238 4 = 234. If v is the velocity of remaining
nucleus, according to law of conservation of linear
momentum, we have
238 0 = 4 1.4 107 + 234 v
4 1.4 107
or v =
m s 1
234
(c) : Total apparent depth, dA = 5 cm + 2 cm = 7 cm
As m = dR/dA, dR = mdA = 1.5 7 cm = 10.5 cm
or

34.

35.

36.

37.

1
1 1 5R
= R 2 2 =
l0
2 3 36
1
1 1 3R
,
and = R 2 2 =
l
2 4 16
l 5R / 36 20
20
\
or l = l 0
=
=
l 0 3R / 16 27
27
39. (d) : The probability of radioactive decay does
not depend on the time of creation of radioactive
material.
38. (c) : As

40. (b) : As N = N 0e lt
2
1

lt 2
i.e., = e lt 2
N 0 3 N 0 = N 0e
3
1
2

and N 0 N 0 = N 0e lt1 , i.e., = e lt1


3
3

From equations (i) and (ii)


2 / 3 e lt1
=
or el(t2 t1) = 2
1 / 3 e lt 2

ln2
= T1/2 = 50 days
l
41. (b) : For a given interval of time, the body in motion
may go from one position to another through
different paths, where displacement in a given
time has one value but distance travelled can have
many values. Due to which, assertion is correct. The
reason is also correct but not a true explanation of
assertion.
or l(t2 t1) = ln 2 or t2 t1 =

...(i)
...(ii)

42. (d) : When the rod is turned as half cycle there is


no change in the dimension of the rod, i.e., length
of the rod and its area of cross-section remains the
same. Hence, resistance of bent rod is equal to the
original resistance. Thus, assertion is wrong. As
resistance (R) l/A, thus reason is also wrong.
hc
43. (c) : Energy of a photon E = . As l for X-ray is
l
smaller than light, so energy of X-rays is greater
than that of light. Therefore, assertion is true. Here,
reason is false as X-rays and light travel with same
speed in vacuum.
44. (b) : With rise in temperature, density of medium
usually decreases. Therefore, refractive index of the
medium decreases. The reason is true, but it does
not explain the assertion correctly.
45. (d) : As the polar ice melts, it spreads out near the
axis of rotation of the Earth. On account of this,
moment of inertia (I) of Earth increases. Since there
is no external torque, L = Iw = I (2p/T) = constant.
With increase in I, T will increase, i.e., length of the
day will increase.
46. (b) : Heat given to helium is totally used up in
increasing the translation energy of its molecules
since it is a monoatomic gas. On the other hand,
in case of oxygen, which is a diatomic gas, heat is
used up in increasing the translational, rotational
and vibrational energies of its molecules. The rise
in temperature of a gas is due to only increase in
translational energy of its molecules.
47. (c) : As intensity, I w2A2
I1 w 2(2a)2
=
=1
I 2 (2w)2(a)2
As apart from A, intensity also depends on w (i.e.,
frequency u). So, assertion is true, reason is false.

48. (b) : As T = 2p L / g , T increases due to smaller


value of g on Moon.
physics for you | MAY 16

63

49. (d) : Centripetal force is provided by the horizontal


component of normal reaction. Vertical component
balances the weight of the vehicle. Centripetal force
is required for turning. Both, assertion and reason
are false.
50. (d) : In diode, the output is in phase with the input.
Thus, it cannot be used to build NOT gate.
51. (a) : Since ionospheric properties change with
time, sky wave signals are in general less stable than
ground wave signals.
52. (d) : Charge flows from a body at higher potential
to the body at lower potential. A condenser of
higher capacity may be at higher potential. So the
charge may flow from it to the condenser of lower
capacity, which may be at lower potential. Therefore,
assertion and reason are wrong.
53. (d) : At absolute zero temperature, rms velocity of
gas molecules becomes zero i.e., molecules cease to
translate but they have potential energy. Thus, both
assertion and reason are false.

54. (d) : AB = AB sin n = tan n


AB cos
AB

Thus assertion is wrong and (A B) is a vector
quantity and A B is a scalar quantity. Thus reason
is also wrong.
55. (c) : Here, assertion is true but the reason is false because
the spaceship while entering the earths atmosphere
may catch fire due to atmospheric air friction.

64

physics for you | MAY 16

56. (b) : During sunrise and sunset, the ray of light


from the sun has to travel a longer distance to
reach the eyes. As only longer wavelengths can
reach the eyes, the angle subtended by the rays of
light on the retina is greater than that during the
day. Thats why the sun looks bigger during sunrise
and sunset.
57. (c) : Induced current (emf) in a coil is directly
proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux
linked with the coil. If there is no change in the flux,
there is no induced current also.
58. (d) : With the increase of temperature, the average
energy exchanged in a collision increases and so
more valence electrons can cross the energy gap,
thereby increasing the electron-hole pairs. As in a
semiconductor, conduction occurs mainly through
electron-hole pairs, so conductivity increases with
increase of temperature. Which in turn implies that
the resistivity of a semiconductor decreases with
rise in temperature.
59. (b) : A thin stainless steel needle on a still water may
float due to surface tension as upward force due to
surface tension balances the weight of the needle.
60. (c) : The assertion is true because heavy water is
a better moderator than ordinary water. This is
because heavy water absorbs fewer neutrons than
normal water. The reason is false.
nn

OLYMPIAD
PROBLEMS
1. A submarine made of steel weighing 109 g has to
take 108 g of water in order to submerge when
the temperature of the sea is 10C. How much
less water it will have to take in when the sea is at
15C? (Coefficient of cubic expansion of sea water =
2 104 C1, coefficient of linear expansion of steel
= 1.2 105 C1)
(a) 1.20 102 g
(c) 7.91 104 g

(b) 3.14 103 g

(d) 9.01 105 g

2. A ship reaches the entrance to a harbour at noon.


The depth of water over the harbour bar is 4 meter
at low tide and 10 meter at high tide. Low tide is at
11:20 AM and high tide is at 5:40 PM. Assume that
the water surface moves in S.H.M.. The ship requires
a depth of 9.4 metre. At what earliest time can the
ship cross the bar so as to enter the harbour?

8 times per minute. With what slow vertical speed


is the ionospheric layer moving? (Assume the Earth
is flat and ignore atmospheric disturbances.)
(a) 2.3 cm s1
(b) 3.2 cm s1
(c) 2.3 m s1

(d) 3.2 m s1

4. Two holes are drilled in the wall of a vessel filled


with water. The distances of the holes from the level
of water are h and h + H. Find the distances x and y
as shown in figure, where the streams flowing out of
the holes intersect. Assume that the level of water is
maintained in the vessel by regular supply of water.
A
B
C
D

(a) 12:49 PM
(c) 4:18 PM

(b) 2:30 PM
(d) 5:16 PM

3. A short wave (HF) radio receiver receives


simultaneously two signals from a transmitter
500 km away, one by a path along the surface of the
Earth, and one by reflection from a portion of the
ionospheric layer situated at a height of 200 km. The
layer acts as a perfect horizontal reflector. When the
frequency of the transmitted wave is 10 MHz, it is
observed that the combined signal strength varies
from maximum to minimum and back to maximum

x
y

H
P

(a) 2 h (H + h)

H + 2h

(b) 2 H (H + h)

H + 2h

(c) 2 h (H + 2h)

H + 2h

(d) 2 H (H + 2h)

H + 2h

5. A segment of a charged wire of length l, charge


density l2, and an infinitely long charged wire,
charge density l1, lie in a plane at right angles to
each other. The separation between the wires is r0.
Determine the force of interaction between the
wires.
(a)
(c)

l1 l2

ln 1 +
4 0
r0

l1 l2

ln 1 +
2 0
r0

(b)
(d)

l1 l2

ln 1
4 0
r0

l1 l2

ln 1
2 0
r0

Physics For you | may 16

65

++++

solutions

1. (d):

wV0g

++++

Shell
6. A solid conducting sphere
having a
charge Q is
Sphere
surrounded by an uncharged
+++
a Q
concentric conducting hollow
b
spherical shell. Let the potential
difference between the surface
of the solid sphere and that of
the outer surface of hollow shell be V. What will be
the new potential difference between the same two
surfaces if the shell given a charge 3Q?

+++

(a) V
(b) 2V
(c) 3V
(d) 4V
7. Non-relativistic protons move rectilinearly in the
region of space where there are uniform mutually
perpendicular electric and magnetic fields. The
trajectory of the protons lie in the plane X-Z as
shown in figure and forms an angle f with X-axis.
Find the pitch of the helical trajectory along which
the protons will move after the electric field is
switched off.

Mg = sV0 g = 109g

Mwg = 108g

rwV0 g = Mw g + Mg
rwV0 g = 108 g + 109 g
...(i)
rwV0 = 11 108
Condition when temperature rised from 10C to
15C.

rw V 0 g = rs V 0 g + mg

(a)
(c)

2 mE
qB

2 mE
qB

(b)

cos f

(d)

2 mE
qB 2
2 mE
qB 2

sin f
tan f

8. A metal wire PQ of mass 10 g lies at rest on two


horizontal metal rails separated by 5 cm. A
vertically downward magnetic field of magnitude
0.800 T exists in the space. The resistance of the
circuit is slowly decreased and it is found that when
the resistance goes below 20 W, the wire PQ starts
sliding on the rails. Find the coefficient of friction.

(a) 0.12
(c) 0.36
66

(b) 0.50
(d) 0.78

Physics For you | may 16

...(ii)
rw V0 g = 109 g + mg
rw
, V 0 = V0 (1 + s DT )
Now, rw =
(1 + w DT )
w = 2 104 C 1, s = 3 s = 3 1.2 105C 1
DT = 5C,
rwV0 (1 + s DT )
\
...(iii)
= 109 + m
(1 + w DT )
Putting rwV0 from eqn. (i) in (iii), we get
11 108 (1 + s DT )
= 109 + m
(1 + w DT )

[1 + 5 3.6 10 5 ]
= 109 + m
[1 + 5 2 10 4 ]
11 108 (1 + 1.8 10 4 )
= 109 + m
(1 + 10 10 4 )

11 108

11 108 + 1.8 11 104 = 109 + 106 + m + m 103


or
108 80.2 104 = m (1 + .001)
4
or 10 (10000 80.2) = m (1.001)
\
m = 99098901.1
So at this position, mass will be 99098901.1 g. So
finally reduction in the mass will be
= 108 99098901.1 = 901098.9 g
= 9.01 105 g

2. (c) : Time interval between low tide and high


tide is half the time period of oscillation. Interval
between 11:20 AM and 5:40 PM is 380 minute.
Time period = 760 minute. Amplitude of oscillation
is 3 m. Centre of oscillation is at a height 7 m above
the bar.
Water is at half tide point after an interval of
T/4 = 190 minute, i.e., at 2:30 PM.
x = a sin wt
2

where,
a = 3 m, w =
=
.
760 380
The ship can cross the bar when the depth is 9.4 m,
i.e., x = 2.4 m
\
2.4 = 3 sin wt or sin wt = 0.8
380 1

t =
sin (0.8)

= 107.1 minute.
Hence the earliest time is 2:30 PM + 1 h 48 min,
i.e., at 4:18 PM.
3. (d) : Taking height of ionospheric layer H, length
of direct path on the Earths surface D, the path
difference between two routes is
Ionosphere

f =

2Hv u 2 D 2
H +
c
4

v=

fc 2 D 2
H +
2H u
4

1/ 2

(8 / 60) (3 108 )
(5 105 )2
5 2
2
10
(

)
+

2 2 105 107
4

1
= 3.2 m s

1/2

4. (a) : At the point P, point of intersection of streams,


the range of the two streams are same. As the ranges
of liquid issuing from a depth h from the surface
and from the base is same, hence
CD = AB = h
y = H + h + h = H + 2h

or

Time taken by water coming out of C to reach P,


2h
g
Velocity of water coming out of C,
t =

2g (H + h)

Hence required value of x = vt

Transmitter Earth's Receiver


surface
1/ 2

1/2

dH
dt

2h
2 g ( H + h) = 2 h ( H + h)
g
5. (c) : Electric field near a long wire is given by
l
E=
20r
The second wire lies in the non-uniform field of
first wire. Each element of second wire experiences
=

D2
...(i)
Dx = 2 H 2 +
D

4
The fluctuation in intensity takes place due to
interference between the two signals arriving at
the receiver. Each time path difference Dx changes
by l (wavelength of the radiation), the received
signal strength will vary through one cycle, thus
the frequency of the observed fluctuation is
1 d(Dx ) u d (Dx )
...(ii)
f =
=
l dt
c dt
where u is the frequency of the radiation and c is
speed of light.
Differentiating the expression for path difference
Dx with respect to time gives

Physics For you | may 16

...(iv)

dH
is the vertical velocity of the layer.
dt
On solving the eqn. (iv) for v, we have

v =

d(Dx )
D2
= 2H H 2 +

4
dt
From eqns. (ii) and (iii),

1/ 2

where v =

H 2 + D2 / 4

67

The fluctuation frequency,

...(iii)

Wire 1
1

x
r0

dx
l

Wire 2

Have the courage to follow


your heart and intuition. They
somehow know what you truly
want to become.
Steve Jobs
Physics For you | may 16

67

different magnitude of field. Therefore we consider


a differential element dx, charge dQ = l2dx, at a
distance x from the long wire. The force acting on
this element dF is
l
dF = EdQ = 1 l 2 dx
2 0 x
The force acting on each element depends on x, the
separation between wires 1 and 2.
Integrating the expression for dF in the limits x = r0
to x = r0 + l, we obtain
r0 + l

F = r

l1l 2 dx l1l 2
l
=
ln 1 +
20 x 20 r0

6. (a) : As a and b are the radii of sphere and spherical


shell respectively, potential at their surfaces will be,
1 Q
Vsphere =
4 0 a
1 Q
4 0 b
And so according to given problem
Q 1 1
V = Vsphere Vshell =

4 0 a b
Now when the shell is given a charge (3Q) the
potential at its surface and also inside will change by
Vshell =

and

V0 =

7. (d) : When electric field is switched off, the path


followed by the particle will be helical.
Pitch = v||T
...(i)
where v|| = vcos (90 f) = vsin f
Hence, from eq. (i)
2 m
...(ii)
Pitch = (v sin f)
qB
When both fields are present
qE = qv Bcosf
E
...(iii)
B cos f
Substituting the value of v from eq. (iii) in eq. (ii),
we get
2 m 2 mE
E
=
Pitch =
sin f
tan f
qB
B cos f
qB2
8. (a) : The wire starts sliding when magnetic force
on the wire overcomes friction force.
or

v=

mN = F mmg = IlB
6
m 10 103 10 = 5 102 0.8
20
or

m=

6 5 102 0.8

20 10 103 10

= 0.12

1 3Q
4 0 b

So, now
Vsphere =
and Vshell =

1 Q
+V
4 0 a 0

1 Q
+V
4 0 b 0

and hence
V sphere V shell =

Q 1 1
=V
4 0 a b

i.e., if any charge is given to external


shell, the potential difference between
sphere and shell will not change. This
is because by presence of charge on
outer shell, potential everywhere
inside and on the surface of shell will
change by same amount and hence
potential difference between sphere
and shell will remain unchanged.
68

Physics For you | may 16

Physics For you | may 16

68

Exam
on
th
5 June

PRACTICE PAPER 2016


1. A coastguard ship locates a pirate ship at a distance
560 m. It fires a cannon ball with an initial speed
82 m s1. At what angle from horizontal the ball
must be fired so that it hits the pirate ship?
(Take g = 10 m s2)
(a) 54
(b) 125 (c) 28
(d) 18
2. A particle is projected vertically upwards from a
point A on the ground. It takes time t1 to reach a
point B, but it still continues to move up. If it takes
further time t2 to reach the ground from point B.
Then height of point B from the ground is
1
(a) g (t1 + t 2 )2
(b) gt1t2
2
1
1
(c) g (t1 + t 2 )2
(d) gt1t 2
2
8
3. A hollow cylinder has a charge q coulomb within it.
If f is electric flux in units of volt meter associated
with the curved surface B, the flux linked with the
plane surface A in units of volt meter will be
B
A

(a)

q
2e0

(b)

f
3

1 q
(c) f
(d) f
2 e0

e0

4. A thin metal disc of radius 0.25 m and mass 2 kg


starts from rest and rolls down an inclined plane. If its
rotational kinetic energy is 4 J at the foot of the inclined
plane, then its linear velocity at the same point is
(a) 1.2 m s1
(b) 2 2 m s 1
(c) 20 m s1

(d) 2 m s 1

5. Two radioactive elements X and Y have half lives of


50 minutes and 100 minutes respectively. Initially

both of them have same numbers of atoms. After 200


minutes what is the value of following fraction ? Number
of atoms of X unchanged/Number of atoms of Y
unchanged.
1
1
(a) 4
(b) 2
(c)
(d)
2
4
6. For the circuit shown in figure, the current through
the inductor is 0.9 A. While the current through
the capacitor is 0.4 A. The current drawn from the
generator is
C
(a) I = 1.13 A
L
(b) I = 0.9 A
(c) I = 0.5 A
(d) I = 0.6 A
7. A boy of mass 50 kg is standing on a weighing
machine placed on the floor of a lift. The machine
reads his weight in N. What is the reading of the
machine if the lift is moving upwards with a uniform
speed of 10 m s1? (Take g = 10 m s2)
(a) 510 N (b) 480 N (c) 490 N (d) 500 N
8. Two cells A and B are connected in the secondary
circuit of a potentiometer one at a time and the
balancing length are respectively 400 cm and
440 cm. The emf of the cell A is 1.08 V. The emf of
the second cell B is
(a) 1.08 V
(b) 1.188 V
(c) 11.88 V
(d) 12.8 V
9. A simple pendulum is executing SHM with a
period of 6 s between two extreme positions B and C
about a point O. If the length of the arc BC is 10
cm, how long will the pendulum take the move
from position C to a position D towards O exactly
midway between C and O.
(a) 0.5 s (b) 1 s
(c) 1.5 s
(d) 3 s
10. The critical angle of a transparent crystal is 45.
Then its polarising angle is
Physics For you | may 16

69

(a) q = tan 1 ( 2 )

(b) q = sin 1 ( 2 )

1
1
(c) q = cos 1
(d) q = cot ( 2 )
2

11. Two particles of equal mass m go around a circle


of radius R under the action of their mutual
gravitational attraction. The speed of each particle
with respect to their centre of mass is
Gm
Gm
(a)
(b)
R
4R
Gm
Gm
(d)
2R
3R
12. A man standing on a road has to hold his umbrella
at 30 with the vertical to keep the rain away.
He throws the umbrella and starts running at
10 km h1. He finds that raindrops are hitting his
head vertically. The actual speed of raindrops is
(a) 20 km h1
(b) 10 3 km h 1
(c)

(c) 20 3 km h 1

(d) 10 km h1

13. The combination of gates shown below yields


A
X
B

(a) NOT gate


(c) NAND gate

(b) XOR gate


(d) OR gate

14. A mass of 10 kg is suspended from a spring balance.


It is pulled a side by a horizontal string so that it
makes an angle of 60 with the vertical. The new
reading of the balance is
(a) 20 kg wt
(b) 10 kg wt
(c) 10 3 kg wt
(d) 20 3 kg wt
15. A garden hose having an internal diameter 2.0 cm
is connected to a lawn sprinkler that consists of an
enclosure with 24 holes, each 0.125 cm in diameter.
If water in the hose has a speed of 90.0 cm s1, find
the speed of the water having the sprinkler hole.
(a) 860 cm s1
(b) 960 cm s1
1
(c) 760 cm s
(d) 660 cm s1
16. The radius of a thin wire is 0.16 mm. The area of
cross-section of wire in mm2 with correct number
of significant figures is
(a) 0.081
(b) 0.080
(c) 0.0804
(d) 0.080457
70

Physics For you | may 16

17. A transistor is operated in common emitter


configuration at VC = 2 V such that a change in
the base current from 100 mA to 300 mA produces
a change in the collector current from 10 mA to
20 mA. The current gain is
(a) 75
(b) 100 (c) 25
(d) 50
18. 1% of 1012 Hz of a satellite link was used from
telephony. Find the number of channels (or
subscribers) if band width of each channel is
8 kHz.
(a) 2.5 107
(b) 1.25 107
8
(c) 2.5 10
(d) 1.25 106
19. A stone tied to the end of a string 80 cm long is
whirled in a horizontal circle with a constant speed.
If the stone makes 25 revolutions in 14 s, what is the
magnitude of acceleration of the stone?
(a) 60 m s2
(b) 100 m s2
2
(c) 110 m s
(d) 120 m s2
20. At 27 C, a gas is suddenly compressed such that
1
its pressure becomes
8

th

of original pressure.

Temperature of the gas will be g =


3

(a) 420 K (b) 327C (c) 300 K (d) 142C

21. A solenoid of 0.4 m length with 500 turns carries a


current of 3 A. A coil of 10 turns and of radius 0.01 m
carries a current of 0.4 A. The torque required to
hold the coil with its axis at right angles to that of
solenoid in the middle part of it, is
(a) 6p2 107 N m (b) 3p2 107 N m
(c) 9p2 107 N m (d) 12p2 107 N m
22. A solid cylinder of mass 3 kg is rolling on a
horizontal surface with velocity 4 m s1. It
collides with a horizontal spring of force constant
200 N m1. The maximum compression produced
in the spring will be
(a) 0.5 m (b) 0.6 m (c) 0.7 m (d) 0.2 m
23. Two objects of mass 20 g and 30 g are connected by
a light rod of length 1 m and move in a horizontal
circle as shown in the figure. The speed of each is
2 m s1. What is the total angular momentum of the
objects about the centre?
(a) 0.05 kg m2 s1
(b) 0.01 kg m2 s1
30 g
20 g
(c) 0.15 kg m2 s1
1m
(d) 0.25 kg m2 s1

24. Electric field on the axis of a small electric dipole at

a distance r is E1 and E2 at a distance of 2r on a line


of perpendicular bisector. Then

E
E1
(a) E2 =
(b) E2 = 1
16
8

E1
E
(c) E2 =
(d) E2 = 1
4
8
25. The fundamental frequency of a sonometer wire
of length l is u0. A bridge is now introduced at a
distance Dl(<< l) from the centre of the wire. The
number of beats heard if both sides of the bridges
are set into vibration in their fundamental modes
are
Dl
Dl
(a) 4 u0
(b) 2u0
l
l
Dl
Dl
(c) 8u0
(d) u0
l
l
26. P-V diagram of a diatomic gas is a straight line
passing through origin. The molar heat capacity of
the gas in the process will be
(a) 4R

(d) 4R

(b) 2.5R (c) 3R

27. The equivalent resistance between points A and B is


A
2
2
2
2

(a) 2 W

(b) 4 W

(c) 1 W

(d) 6 W

28. A magnetising field of 2 10 A m1 produces a


magnetic flux density of 8p T in an iron rod. The
relative permeability of the rod will be
(a) 102
(b) 100 (c) 104
(d) 101
29. The period of oscillation of a mass 1.6 kg suspended
from a spring is 2 s. If along with it another mass
m kg is also suspended, the period of oscillation
increases by one second. The mass m will be
(a) 1 kg (b) 2 kg (c) 1.6 kg (d) 2.6 kg
30. Two bodies of masses m and 4m are placed at a
distance r. The gravitational potential at a point on
the line joining them where the gravitational field is
zero is

6Gm
(a) 4Gm
(b)
r
r
9Gm
(c)
(d) zero
r
31. The radii and Youngs moduli of two uniform wires
A and B are in the ratio 2 : 1 and 1 : 2 respectively.
Both wires are subjected to the same longitudinal
force. If the increase in length of the wire A is one
percent, the percentage increase in length of the
wire B is
(a) 1.0
(b) 1.5 (c) 2.0
(d) 3.0
7
of it decays
8
into Zn in 15 minutes. The corresponding half life is
(a) 7 1 minutes
(b) 5 minutes
2
(c) 15 minutes
(d) 10 minutes

32. Starting with a sample of pure 66Cu,

33. Two masses M and M/2 are joined


together by means of light inextensible
string passed over a frictionless pulley
as shown in figure. When the bigger M/2
mass is released, the small one will
M
ascend with an acceleration of
g
3g
g
(a)
(b)
(c) g
(d)
3
2
2
34. A circuit has a resistance of 11 W, an inductive
reactance of 25 W and a capacitance reactance of
18 W. It is connected to an ac source of 260 V and
50 Hz. The current through the circuit is
(a) 11 A (b) 15 A (c) 18 A
(d) 20 A
35. Which of the following characteristics is not
associated with a ferromagnetic material?
(a) It is strongly attracted by a magnet.
(b) It tends to move from a region of strong magnetic
field to a region of weak magnetic field.
(c) Its origin is the spin of electrons.
(d) Above the Curie temperature, it exhibits
paramagnetic properties.
36. Light of certain colour has 2000 waves to the
millimetre in air. What will be the wavelength of
this light in medium of refractive index 1.25?
(a) 1000
(b) 2000
(c) 3000
(d) 4000
37. A coil of resistance 10 W and inductance 5 H is
connected to a 100 V battery. Then the energy
stored in the coil is
Physics For you | may 16

71

(a) 250 J
(c) 125 J

(b) 250 erg


(d) 125 erg

38. A step-down transformer is used on a 1000 V line


to deliver 20 A at 120 V at the secondary coil. If
the efficiency of the transformer is 80%, the current
drawn from the line is
(a) 3 A
(b) 30 A (c) 0.3 A (d) 2.4 A
39. A radioactive nucleus of mass M emits a photon
of frequency u and the nucleus recoils. The recoil
energy will be
h2 u2
(a) Mc2 hu
(b)
2 Mc 2
(c) zero

(d) hu

40. The decreasing order of wavelength of infrared,


microwaves, ultraviolet and gamma rays is
(a) microwaves, infrared, ultraviolet, gamma rays
(b) gamma rays, ultraviolet, infrared, microwaves
(c) microwaves, gamma rays, infrared, ultraviolet
(d) infrared, microwaves, ultraviolet, gamma rays
41. In the Davisson and Germer experiment, the
velocity of electrons emitted from the electron gun
can be increased by
(a) increasing the potential difference between the
anode and filament
(b) increasing the filament current
(c) decreasing the filament current
(d) decreasing the potential difference between the
anode and filament
42. In a hydrogen atom, the magnetic field at the centre
of the atom produced by an electron in the nth orbit
is proportional to
1
1
1
1
(a) 2
(b) 3
(c) 4
(d) 5
n
n
n
n
43. A force F acting on a body depends on its
displacement S as F S1/3. The power delivered by
F will depend on displacement as
(a) S2/3
(b) S1/3 (c) S0
(d) S5/3
44. A ball of mass m is moving towards a batsman with
a speed v. The batsman strikes the ball and deflects
it by an angle q without changing its speed. The
impulse imparted to the ball is
(a) mvsinq
(b) mvcosq
q
q
(c) 2mv sin
(d) 2mv cos
2
2
45. When a plastic thin film of refractive index 1.45 is
placed in the path of one of the interfering waves
then the central fringe is displaced through width
72

Physics For you | may 16

of five fringes. The thickness of the film, if the


wavelength of light is 5890 , will be
(a) 6.54 104 cm
(b) 6.54 103 cm
5
(c) 6.54 10 cm
(d) 6.54 102 cm
46. An infinite number of charges each equal to 0.2 mC
are arranged in a line at distances 1, 2, 4, 8 .... metre
from a fixed point. The potential at the fixed point is
(a) 1800 V
(b) 2000 V
(c) 3600 V
(d) 2250 V
47. When a lens of refractive index m1 is placed in a
liquid of refractive index m2, the lens looks to be
disappeared only if
m
3
(a) m1 = 2
(b) m1 = m 2
2
2
5
(c) m1 = m2
(d) m1 = m2
2
1 1
48. Dimensions [ML T ] are related to
(a) torque
(b) work
(c) energy
(d) coefficient of viscosity
49. A Carnot engine whose efficiency is 40%, receives
heat at 500 K. If the efficiency is to be 50%, the source
temperature for the same exhaust temperature is
(a) 900 K (b) 600 K (c) 700 K (d) 800 K
50. A doubly ionized lithium atom is hydrogen like
with atomic number 3. Find the wavelength of the
radiation required to excite the electron in Li2+ from
the first to the third Bohr orbit. The ionization energy
of the hydrogen atom is 13.6 eV.
(Take hc = 1240 eV nm)
(a) 11.4 nm
(b) 10.7 nm
(c) 12.7 nm
(d) 13.4 nm
51. A rectangular vessel when full of water, takes 10 min
to be emptied through an orifice in its bottom. How
much time will it take to be emptied when half filled
with water?
(a) 9 min (b) 7 min (c) 5 min (d) 3 min
52. The work done by a force acting on a body is as
shown in the graph. The total work done in covering
an initial distance of 20 m is
20
15
F (in N)
10
5
0

(a) 225 J

10 15 20 25 30
S (in m)

(b) 200 J (c) 400 J

(d) 175 J

53. In a double slit experiment, with monochromatic


light, fringes are obtained on a screen placed at some
distance from the slits. If the screen is moved by
5 102 m towards the slits, the change in fringe
width is 103 m. Then the wavelength of light used is
(Given that distance between the slits is 0.03 mm)
(a) 4000
(b) 4500
(c) 5000
(d) 6000
54. A mixture consists of n1 moles of a monoatomic
gas and n2 moles of diatomic gas, then the g of the
mixture is
5n1 + 7n2
n
(a) 1
(b)
3n1 + 5n2
n2
7n2 + 3n1
3n1 + 5n2
(c)
(d)
5n1 + 3n2
5n1 + 7n2
55. If the value of g at the surface of the earth is 9.8 m s2,
then the value of g at a place 480 km above the
surface of the earth will be
(Radius of the earth is 6400 km)
(a) 8.5 m s2
(b) 9.8 m s2
2
(c) 7.2 m s
(d) 4.2 m s2

56. Resultant of two vectors A and B is of magnitude P.

If B is reversed, then resultant is of magnitude Q.


What is the value of P2 + Q2?
(a) 2(A2 + B2)
(b) 2(A2 B2)
2
2
(c) A B
(d) A2 + B2

60. Effective capacitance


between points A and B
as shown in the figure.
Here C1 = C2 = 20 mF and
C3 = C4 = 10 mF
(a) 10 mF
(b) 15 mF
(c) 20 mF
(d) 25 mF

ANSWER Keys
1.
6.
11.
16.
21.
26.
31.
36.
41.
46.
51.
56.

(c)
(c)
(b)
(b)
(a)
(c)
(c)
(d)
(a)
(c)
(b)
(a)

2.
7.
12.
17.
22.
27.
32.
37.
42.
47.
52.
57.

(d)
(d)
(a)
(d)
(b)
(c)
(b)
(a)
(d)
(c)
(b)
(c)

3.
8.
13.
18.
23.
28.
33.
38.
43.
48.
53.
58.

(d)
(b)
(d)
(d)
(a)
(c)
(a)
(a)
(c)
(d)
(d)
(d)

4.
9.
14.
19.
24.
29.
34.
39.
44.
49.
54.
59.

(b)
(b)
(a)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(d)
(b)
(d)
(b)
(b)
(b)

5.
10.
15.
20.
25.
30.
35.
40.
45.
50.
55.
60.

(d)
(a)
(b)
(d)
(c)
(c)
(b)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(b)

Solution of April 2016 CroSSWord

57. The speed of an electromagnetic wave in a material


medium of permeability m and permittivity e is
1
1
1
1
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
me
2me
2me
me
58. Magnetic field at the centre of a circular loop of area
A is B. The magnetic moment of the loop will be
2
3/ 2
(a) BA
(b) BA
m0 p
m0 p
(c)

BA3/2
m0 p1/2

(d)

2 BA3/2
m0 p1/2

59. The system as shown in figure is


released from rest with the
spring initially stretched 75 mm.
Calculate the velocity v of the
block after it has dropped 12 mm.
The spring has a spring constant
1050 N m1. Neglect the mass of
the pulley.
(a) 0.271 m s1
(b) 0.371 m s1
1
(c) 2.71 m s
(d) 3.71 m s1

Winners (April 2016)


1. Mohit Gupta (New Delhi)
2. Anusha Kotak (Odisha)
3. Disha Mondal (Madhya Pradesh)

Solution Senders (March 2016)


1. Deeraj Pandey (Uttar Pradesh)
2. Bittu Meena (Uttar Pradesh)
3. Saundarya P (Tamil Nadu)

Physics For you | may 16

73

We begin a complicated topic with a simple question.


What do you expect when a parallel beam of
monochromatic light is made to strike a slit (whose
dimension is comparable to wavelength) on a
screen?
The answer appears obvious, i.e. through the slit light
will pass through while from the remaining portion it
would be blocked.

But experimental results give contradictory results.

Screen

Slit
Light

Screen
Reality

Alternate illuminated
(bright fringes) and dark
regions with the intensity
of bright fringes decreasing
as we move away from the
central bright fringe.

This experimental result suggests that light spread


beyond the slit too, i.e., light bends on striking the slit
to reach regions which would have been impossible to
reach, had it travelled in a straight line.
The alternate bright and dark fringes suggest that
interference is also taking place. But unlike interference,
diffraction is a complicated phenomenon since here we
have infinite number of point sources within the slit
from which light waves are reaching on the screen.

Side view of the experimental arrangement shows this:

The intensity pattern shows that central bright fringe is


the most intense and wide fringe while for secondary
bright fringes the intensity decreases so largely that the
bright fringes become almost undetectable beyond 3
to 4 fringes on either side of central maxima.
We can mathematically calculate the approximate
locations of these fringes by using the concept of half
period zones (HPZs).
Each HPZ is a zone on the slit from the top and bottom
of which if we consider two rays, there will be a path
difference of l/2 (half period) between them.
To find out the locations of
1. Dark fringes - we divide the slit width into even
number of HPZs.
2. Bright fringes - we divide the slit width into odd
number of HPZs.
Why do we do so will be answered gradually in the
sections ahead.
Location of 1st dark fringe

We divide the slit width into 2 HPZs.


Considering slit width = b
\ b = 2 HPZs

Contributed By: Bishwajit Barnwal, Aakash Institute, Kolkata

74

Physics For you | may 16

Now the path difference between the two rays shown


in the figure is l/2 (definition of HPZ).

b/2
b/2

x
x

1
3
2
4

\ In pair, since the path difference between ray 1


l
and 2 is , therefore for every ray 3 chosen between
2
ray 1 and 2, there will be another ray 4 with which it
will have a path difference of l/2. Hence we can see
that the waves coming out from one HPZ undergoes
destructive interference with another HPZ beneath it.
Therefore, at the location P on the screen we get the
first dark fringe for which the condition would be
b
l
x = sin q1d =
b sin q1d = l
2
2
If q1d is very small, then sinq1d q1d
lD
y
\ b q1d = l b 1d = l y1d =
b
D
Till this location from the centre of the screen on either
side, we would get a gradually decreasing intensity,
with maximum intensity at the centre.
Hence the width of central maxima is
2lD
Wc = 2 y1d Wc =
b
Angular fringe width of the central maxima is the
angular separation between the two extremities of the
central maxima as seen
from the slit.
\ If Wc << D, then
W 2l
qc = c =
D
b
Location of 2nd dark fringe
Slit width = b = 4 HPZs

\ Here in pair, 1 st HPZ undergoes destructive


interference with the 2nd and 3rd with the 4th. So finally
we don't have any light source (secondary wavelets)
whose waves stand without undergoing destructive
interference with any other. So we get a dark fringe.
From diagram,
b
l
x = sin q2d = (definition of HPZ)
4
2
\ bsin q2d = 2l
\ Now we generalise and say, that for the location
of nth dark fringe,
Slit width = 2n HPZs
l
b
sin qnd =
\
b sin qnd = nl
2n
2
where qnd is angular position of the point on the screen
(where nth dark fringe is formed) measured with respect
to centre of the slit.
Similarly, for location of bright fringes we divide the
slit width into odd number of HPZs. This is done since,
one HPZ undergoes destructive interference with the
other while there would be one HPZ left over at last
which will stand alone. Hence the intensity will be
non-zero on the screen due to it. One more advantage
is that as we move towards higher order maxima, the
width of that single HPZ left over goes on decreasing
due to which we have less number of secondary sources
whose intensity will be seen for higher order maxima
which explains the decrease in the intensity for higher
order maxima.
Ist secondary maxima (bright fringe)

Slit width = 3 HPZs

\ From diagram,
3l
b
l
b sin q1B =
x = sin q1B =
2
3
2
\ Generalising, for nth order secondary maxima,
slit width = (2n + 1) HPZs
l
b
l
sin qnB =
\
b sin qnB = (2n + 1)
2n + 1
2
2
Note that the results for location of bright and dark
fringes are just the reverse of the results of Young's
double slit experiment (YDSE).
Physics For you | may 16

75

Another striking difference between YDSE and


diffraction through single slit is that we get large number
of fringes of almost equal intensity in YDSE whereas
in diffraction beyond 3rd to 4th order bright fringe the
intensity decreases to such a large extent that it almost
becomes invisible.
Hence, the angular position q of the bright/dark fringes
y
in YDSE is generally small for which sin q q
can
D
easily be used but in diffraction the angular position
in numericals are large, such as 30 for which sinq q.
Hence be careful on this front while solving
numericals.
Diffraction through circular aperture

If instead of slit, we have a


small hole of dimensions
comparable to wavelength
then the waves get diffracted
Screen
from the entire periphery
of the circle and hence the
f r i n g e s for m e d on t h e
screen are circular and alternately bright and dark with
gradually decreasing intensity of the bright fringes.
The central bright fringe is the most intense bright
fringe and is known as airy disc.
From side view if we redraw the set up we can see :

Unlike diffraction through single slit, here the first


minima is formed at angular position,
1.22l r
q=

(2a) D
Images formed by lens are also diffraction images, since
the aperture of the lens is circular. Hence if two point
objects are placed very close to each other, their airy
disc image might overlap with each other and hence we
would not be able to resolve (differentiate) them.
Rayleigh lays a criterion for resolvability and says that
if the airy disc images formed are such that the centre
of one airy disc coincides with the first minima, i.e.,
the boundary of the other airy disc, they would be
said to be just resolved. For better clarity let us try to
understand this with a pictorial representation.
76

Physics For you | may 16

I2

O1
O2

I1

The expected images are point images I1 and I2 for point


objects O1 and O2 but due to diffraction from boundary
of lens, airy disc images are formed and when viewed
different situations may arise as below:
I2
I1
Clearly resolved
images (since they
don't overlap)

I2
I1
Even though slightly
overlapped but is
considered to be
resolved

I2
I1
Just resolved
(According to
Rayleigh)

If we go on decreasing the separation between the


objects, separation between airy disc image also
decreases and hence this puts a limit on how close we
can place so that they can be resolved.
Two point objects separated by an angle q are said to
be resolved if
1.22 l
,
q
d
where d is diameter of aperture of lens.
The equality hold for just being resolved.
Limit of resolution of a telescope or human eye is
defined as the smallest angular separation at which
two point objects may be kept such that they can be
just resolved (according to Rayleigh criterion).
1.22l
\ qmin =
d
where d = diameter of objective lens in telescope or
diameter of eye lens in human eye.
Note that for human eye limit of resolution is
approximately
1

1
1 = 1 =
rad
60
60 180
Resolving power of any optical instrument is just the
inverse of limit of resolution. Hence greater the limit
of resolution, lesser is the resolving power.
nn

Physics For you | may 16

77

JEE Advanced
PRACTICE
PRACTICE PAPER
PAPER 2016
2016

Contd. from page no. 21

paper-2

1. (4) : Potential difference across the capacitor is


q0 16
=4V
=
C 4
emf of the battery, e = 24 V
Time constant, t = RC =(4 W) (4 F) = 16 s
Equation of discharge q = q0et/t
t

4 C = (16 C) e 16
t = 32 ln2 s
3 32 ln 2
3t
=4
=
\
e ln 2
24 ln 2
2. (9) : Path difference between rays reflected from
upper and lower faces of layer = 2 t cos r = 2 t
(for normal incidence). But there is abrupt change
of l/2 in path of light at upper surface. So actual
path difference is 2 t l/2
l
For constructive interference, 2 t
= nl
2
(2n + 1)l
. For least thickness n = 0.
t=
= 1.8
4m
l
648
= 1.5
\ tmin =
nm = 90 nm
=
4 m 4 1. 8
= 9 108 m
3. (4) : The particle will come out of the magnetic
field at an angle q = 60 with the original direction.
Y

x=

3
R
2

Dv = (v0 cos 60 i + v0 sin 60 j v0 i) | Dv | = v0

v vm
340 10
330
=
85 =
4. (5) : uA = u
Hz

+
v
v
v
340 10 + 10
4

m
s
v + vm
340 + 10
350
=
85 =
uB = u
Hz

v
v
v
340 + 10 10
4

m
s

ubeat = uB uA =

350 330 20
=
= 5 Hz

4
4
4

5. (5) : 200 S 30 + 50 S 40 = 250 S T1


T1 = 32 C
78

Physics For you | may 16

32 S 50 + 150 S 40 = 200 S T2
T2 = 38 C
200 S 32 + 50 S 38 = 250 S T3
T3 = 33.2 C
33.2 S 50 + 150 S 38 = 200 S T4
T4 = 36.8 C
36.8 S 50 + 200 S 33.2 = 250 S T5
T5 = 33.92 C
6. (3) : From continuity equation; A1v1 = A2v2
4v1 = v2
(i)
2
2
rv
rv
From Bernoulli's equation, 1 = 2 rgh (ii)
2
2
1
4
1
Solving (i) and (ii); v1 = m s , v2 = m s1
5
5
2
6 103
Total volume of wasted water = p
v
2 1
1
= p 9 106 = 5.65 106 m3 s1
5
= 5.65 cm3 s1 = 5.65 103 L s1
7. (6) : We have to find the time at which
lANA = lBNB
ln 2
ln 2 l Bt
l At
T (4 N 0 e ) = (N 0 ) T (e )
A
B
( l l )t

e A B = 8 (lA lB)t = ln 8 = 3 (ln 2)


ln 2 ln 2

t = 3 ln(2) t = 6 min.
1
2
8. (6) : Let the maximum speed be v.
P = (mg sinq + mg cosq)v
P
v=
mg sin q + mmg cos q
60
=
= 6 m s1
3 1
4
1 10 + 1 10
5 2
5
9. (c)
10. (b) : Suppose at some instant the particle is at radial
distance r from centre of earth O. Since, the particle
is constrained to move along the tunnel, we define
its position as distance x from C. Hence, equation of
motion of the particle is,
max = Fx
The gravitational force on mass m at distance r is,
GMmr
F=
(towards O)
R3
GMmr x
Therefore, Fx = F sinq =

R3 r
GMm
=
x
R3

x-axis

Since, Fx x, motion is simple harmonic in nature.


Further,
GMm
GM
max =
x or ax = 3 x
3
R
R
\ Time period of oscillation is,
x
R3
T = 2p
= 2p
ax
GM
The time taken by particle to go from one end to the
T
other is .
2
\

t=

T
R3
=p
2
GM

11. (a, b, d) : u = 10 cm, f = 20 cm

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1
v = 20 cm
= ; = =
=
v u f v 20 10 20 20
v 20
Magnification, m = =
=2
u 10
Height of image = 1.5 2 = 3 cm
The y1 coordinate of a point A on the image will be
y1 = (0.5) 2 = 1 cm
The y2 coordinate of a point B on the image will be
y2 = 1 2 = 2 cm
12. (d) : The front view of the arrangement is shown in
figure.
IBl

IBl
IBl

From initial condition, mg sinq = mg cosq


= tanq
ma = IBl cosq mg sinq N
N = mg cosq + IBl sinq
IBl sin2 q
IBl
cosq 2g sinq
a=
m cos q
m
IBl cos 2q
=
2g sinq
m cos q
1 2 1 IBl cos 2q

2 g sin q t2
Now, s = at =
2
2 m cos q

13. (a, b, c) : Energy of K absorption edge


1242 eVnm
=72.21 103 eV = 72.21 keV
E=
0.0172 nm
Energy of Ka line is
hc 1242 eVnm
EK a =
=
= 59.14 keV
la
0.021 nm
1242
Similarly, EKb =
= 64.69 keV
0.0192
1242
= 69 keV
EK =
0.0180
Energy of K shell = (EK a E )
= (59.14 72.21) KeV = 13.07 keV
Energy of L shell = EKb E
= 64.69 keV 72.21 keV = 7.52 keV
Energy of M shell = EK E
= 69 keV 72.21 keV = 3.21 keV
14. (c) : The block moves along AB with a velocity
of 120 cm s1, in between the springs. Since AB is
a smooth table, the journey from D to C or from
C to D is performed with the uniform speed of
120 cm s1. There is neither an acceleration nor a
retardation in this region.
The block moves to right and compresses the spring
along DB. The spring offers restoring force and the
block comes back to D. Thus half of oscillation is
completed in this journey. Let the time be t1.
For a spring, T = 2p
\

t1 =

T
2

2p 0.2
2

3.2

= 0.785 s

Now, t2 = Time to travel from D to C =


or

t2 =

60

120

Distance DC

= 0.5 s

velocity

Similarly t3 = Time taken at spring (C to A)


or

t3 =

T
2

2p 0.2
2

1.8

= 1.05 s

Physics For you | may 16

79

17. (b) : Temperature is not same every where so unit


is not in thermal equilibrium but heat is flowing at
constant rate.

Again t4 = Time to travel from C to D


t4 =

60

120

= 0.5 s

Total time taken to complete one oscillation = T


= t1 + t2 + t3 + t4
Time period = 0.785 + 0.5 + 1.05 + 0.5
\ Period of oscillation = 2.83 s approximately.

18. (c) : The temperature difference across the plate,


lplate
65 4 10 3
dQ
=
= 0.2 K
DTplate =

dt K plate A
1 1. 3

15. (a, c) : According to Lenz's law, current I is in


clockwise direction, in the loop.
2 r 3 r
P'Q' = 2P'O =

=
tan 60 4 2

dQ

lair 65 18 103 1
dt
Kair =
=
= W m1K1
1.3 12.6
14
ADTair

r
For equilibrium, mg = I B
2
2mg
I=
rB
If loop is displaced by x,
F = Restoring force
2 r 3

+ x B + mg
= I

tan 60 4
=

IrB
2 IB
2 IB
+ mg
x=
.x
2
3
3

a=
\
16. (a)

m 3

x
1

r 3 2
m 3
Time period, T = 2p
= p

2 IB
g

PHYSICS

MUSING

Contd. from page no. 8

8. A lake surface is exposed to an atmosphere where


the temperature is less than 0C. If the thickness
of the ice layer formed on the surface grows
from 2 cm to 4 cm in 1 hour, the atmospheric
temperature will be (Thermal conductivity of ice,
K = 4 103 cal cm1 s1 C1, density of ice = 0.9 g cc1.
Latent heat of fusion of ice = 80 cal g1. Neglect the
change of density during the state change. Assume
that the water below the ice has 0C temperature
every where.)
(a) 20 C
(b) 0 C
(c) 30 C
(d) 15 C
9. A particle is projected from a point (0, 1) on yaxis
(assume +y direction vertically upwards) aiming
80

Physics For you | may 16

DTair = 13 2DTplate = 12.6 K

19. (d)
20. (a) : Considering the F.B.D. of ball in its final
position,
qV
mg tanq = 1
d
C1V 2
mg tan q =
d
2
C1 C0V0
mg tanq =

d C0 + C1
C + C1 mgd tan q
V0 = 0

C0 C1

F x i.e., motion is SHM.


2 IB

1/ 2

C + C1 mgd d 2
= 0

C0 C1 L2 d 2
C
m
V0 = 1 + 1
C
0 2 3C1

qq

towards a point (4, 9). It fell on ground on x axis


in 1 s. Take g = 10 m s2 and all coordinates are in
metres. Find the xcoordinate where it fell.
(a) (3, 0)
(b) (4, 0)
(c) (2, 0)
(d) (2 5 , 0)
10. The molar heat capacity C for an ideal gas going
a
through a process is given by C = , where a is a
T
C
constant. If = P , the work done by one mole of
CV
gas during heating from T0 to hT0 will be
1
(a) a ln h
(b)
a ln h
h 1
RT
(c) a ln h
1 0
(d) a ln h ( 1)RT0

`Planet 9 linked to mass extinctions on Earth?


Hidden Celestial Body Triggers Comet Showers, Affecting Us
mysterious, hidden planet that could be sitting on the edge of our solar system
might be linked with periodic extinctions on Earth, according to a researcher.
The planet might trigger comet showers, bringing huge extinction events,
according to Daniel Whitmire, a retired astrophysics professor. His study links the
periodic extinction events -which fossil records say causes mass wipe outs on
Earth about every 27 million years -with the unknown Planet 9.
Planet 9 has been said by some to exist for years, with two scientists, in recent
months, claiming to have found strong evidence on its existence. If those
researchers are correct, then Planet 9 would be 10 times as big as Earth and 1,000
times further from the Sun than we are. The new theory proposes that as Planet 9 moves
around the solar system, it passes through the Kuiper Belt -an area of the outer solar system full
of icy objects -every 27 million years, knocking comets towards us and into the inner solar system.
Once they arrive there, they can smash into the Earth and reduce the sunlight getting to us, potentially
leading to the extinction events, the researchers claim.

Smallest diode created; molecular e-devices next?

cientists have developed the worlds smallest diode the size of a molecule, a breakthrough that may help develop molecular
electronic devices.
Demand for more computing power is pushing limitations of present day methods. This has fueled the need for
molecules with interesting properties and find ways to establish reliable contacts between molecular components and
bulk materials in an electrode, in order to mimic electronic elements at molecular scale.
It is a milestone in the development of molecular electronic devices and it may provide a way to overcome
Moores Law, said Yoni Dubi, a researcher in Israel.
Researchers took a DNA molecule constructed from 11 base pairs and connected it to an electronic circuit
a few nanometres in size. When they measured the current through the molecule, it did not show any
special behaviour.
However, when layers of a molecule called coralyne, were inserted between layers of DNA,
the behaviour of the circuit changed drastically and the current jumped to 15 times larger
negative vs positive voltages a necessary feature for a nano diode. We have constructed
a molecular rectifier by intercalating specific, small molecules into designed DNA strands, said
Bingqian Xu, from the University of Georgia.

US agencies prepare for solar storm that may cost us


$2.6tn

cientists are preparing for a solar storm that could break communications for years and potentially
put life on Earth in danger. Such a possibility is referred to as a low probability but high-impact event
that is being planned for by agencies including the US department of homeland security and Nasa.
An event like the infamous Carrington Event of 1859, which caused one of the worst known
geomagnetic storms, would throw off much communications technology if it happened today.
If such an event were to hit the Earth, it could stop communications satellites from working,
break GPS systems and stop planes from flying. It could also lead to even more lasting problems,
like wiping out data from computers memory . Estimates from Lloyds of London suggest that
fixing all of the problems could cost between $600 billion and $2.6 trillion.
We know there is a gap in our ability to assess vulnerability and consequences, said Jack Anderson, a
senior analyst for the US department for homeland security , at a conference held to plan for the big one in
storm events. Once systems start to fail, (the outages) could cascade in ways we cant even conceive, said Daniel
Baker, director of the laboratory for atmospheric and space physics at the University of Colorado.
Physics for you | april
16: The Times of 81
Courtesy
India

6. (a,c) : Potential inside,


Potential outside,

solution set-33

1. (a) : E =

Qx

Q / 16

7. (a,d) : T = 2

R
, E is minimum.
2
2. (c) : Radius should be (r2 r1)
mv
v
As r =
\ (r2 r1 ) =
sB
qB
At x =

I
= Nevd
A
I
2.56
\ vd =
=
ANe 106 8 1028 1.6 1019
= 2 104 m s1

8. (a) : J =

Thus v = sB(r2 r1)


3. (c) : E1 =

...(i)
...(ii)

Hence, t =
9. (a) :

s I
= (r1 r2 )
e0 A

sA = Ie0(r1 r2)
4. (a) : I = neAvd
I
J = = nevd
A
eE
sE = ne
m
\

sm
ne 2

KQ
(r > R)
r

m
, so quadrupling the mass does
k
double the period. 1st statement is true. However,
frequency and amplitude are independent of one
another. So the 2nd statement is false. Doubling
1
the amplitude means energy = kA2 goes up

2
by 4, so the 3rd statement is false.

2
4 3
R 3e0 4 e0 x
3
dE

=0 Q 1 2 = 0
3
3
dx
4 e0 R
16 x

I
I
r1 and E2 = r2
A
A
s
I
= r
E0 +
2e 0 A 1
s
I
E0 +
= r2
2e 0
A
From (i) and (ii)

KQ
(r < R)
R

\
=
...(i)
(From (i))
( J = sE)

1.0 102
2 104

1 Ne 2
=
r
m
m
=
r Ne 2

(1.6 10

1014

= 50 s

9.11031

8 1028 1.6 1019 1.6 1019

10. (a) : s = 2 104 10 = 2 103 m


2.56
E = rJ = 1.6 108
106
3
1
= 40 10 V m
\

V = Es = 80 mV

5. (c) : Charge on capacitor, q = 5 106 200 = 103 C


q2
106
=
= 101 J
2C 2 5 106
5
The fraction lost in 500 W is of total, so
8
5 1 1
H= = J
8 10 16
1
\ 3200 H = 3200 = 200 J
16

Solution Senders of Physics Musing

Total heat generated =

82

Physics For you | may 16

Set-33
1.

meetu Singhal (maharashtra)

2.

G. Geeth Nischal (andhra Pradesh)

3.

Varun Khare (Gujarat)


Set-32

1.

Zuben Sharman Joshi

2.

Vidya Sagar (Kerala)

nn

Readers can send their responses at editor@mtg.in or post us with complete address by 25th of every month to win exciting prizes.
Winners' name with their valuable feedback will be published in next issue.

ACROSS
3.
5.

6.
7.
10.
14.
15.
19.
21.
23.
25.
27.
28.

Shrillness of sound. [5]


A region on a radiation pattern
representing enhanced response of an
aerial. [4]
Work measured in terms of the quantity of
heat to which it is equivalent. [5]
Solid carbon dioxide, used as a refrigerant.
[3, 3]
A telephone transmitter and receiver
mounted in a single holder. [7]
An optical system that produces a beam of
parallel light. [10]
Waves of small amplitude on the surface
of a fluid. [7]
A series of nuclear transformations
initiated by a single nuclear fission. [5, 8]
A line on a diagram joining points of equal
flux density. [8]
The variation of the inclination of the axis
of a gyroscope to the vertical. [8]
A nickel-copper alloy that has high
resistivity. [10]
The aspect of a structure that renders that structure
distinguishable from its mirror image. [9]
CGS unit of kinematic viscosity. [6]

DOWN

A visible disruptive discharge of electricity between


two places at opposite high potential. [5]
2. SI unit of amount of substance. [4]
3. A hypothetical component of a quark. [5]
4. A pair of closely spaced lines in a spectrum. [7]
6. A prefix denoting 1018. [3]
8. The study of the production and effects of very low
temperatures. [10]
9. Microwave amplification by stimulated emission of
radiation. [5]
11. Ease of detection of a sound by ear. [10]
1.

12. An apparatus for studying thermal expansion. [11]


13. An optical illusion created by the refraction of light.

[6]

16. Centre of mass of two or more bodies that are orbiting

each other. [10]

17. Unit of action equal to one joule in one second. [6]


18. The maximum demand on a power generating source.

[4, 4]

20. The point directly above the seismic focus at which

the intensity of the earthquake is maximum. [9]

22. An instrument that measures time by the apparent

position of the sun. [7]


24. Nucleus of a tritium atom. [6]
26. A material with a strong chemical affinity for other
materials. [6]

nn

Physics For you | may 16

85

86

Physics For you | may 16