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Broadband Recommendations

Fauquier County
DRAFT

OCTOBER 2016

DESIGN NINE
broadband planners

Contents

Bringing Better Broadband to Fauquier .........................................................................1


Choosing the Right Business Model .........................................................................................3
How to Pay For It ........................................................................................................................5

Assessing Demand In Fauquier .....................................................................................8


Residential Survey Results..........................................................................................................9
Business Survey Results............................................................................................................. 21

Gap Analysis and Current Conditions .........................................................................32


Business Bandwidth Needs ..................................................................................................... 32
Residential Bandwidth Needs ................................................................................................33
Local Pricing Data ................................................................................................................... 34
Interviews and User Feedback............................................................................................... 41
Existing Assets and Demography ...........................................................................................45

Broadband Strategies ....................................................................................................51


Form a Broadband Authority ................................................................................................. 52
Public/Private Partnerships ..................................................................................................... 55
Tower Leasing ...........................................................................................................................56
Increased Wood Utility Pole Use.............................................................................................57
Meet-Me Box and Fiber Drop Strategy .................................................................................58
Demand Aggregation ............................................................................................................60
Referendum .............................................................................................................................61
Nano-cell Cellular Strategy ....................................................................................................62
Service District Strategy........................................................................................................... 63

Wireless Tower Cost Estimate Study ............................................................................. 64


Fiber-Wireless Hybrid Strategy ......................................................................................70
Overview of the Network ........................................................................................................70
Network Design Summary and Recommendation .............................................................74

Rural Fiber Cost Estimate ...............................................................................................75


Fiber Build Out Financial Analysis ................................................................................78
Next Steps: Implementation and Operations .............................................................82
Implementation Planning Phase ............................................................................................82
Construction Phase ................................................................................................................. 84
Operations Phase ....................................................................................................................85
i

Appendix A: Glossary...................................................................................................86
Appendix B: Residential SurveyOther items used ..................................................88
Appendix C: Residential Survey Other needs .......................................................92
Appendix D: Business Survey Affordable broadband and speed ..................... 103
Appendix E: Business Survey Other needs............................................................ 105
Appendix F: Business Survey Other Comments ...................................................106

ii

Bringing Better Broadband to


Fauquier
Broadband has, over the past twenty years, become critical infrastructure for communities.
Routine activities of both residents and businesses now often require Internet access. K12
schools continue to expand the use of Internet-enabled learning resources, and children in
households with inadequate Internet service are at a severe disadvantage. Libraries in the
county are reporting record numbers of people using Internet, and anecdotally, many mothers
report that it is common that they have to take their children to McDonalds or other free
WiFi locations so that children can complete their homework.
In Fauquier, the rural areas of the county are at a particular disadvantage, and the large number
of comments provided by residents and businesses oers a striking view of the frustration that
exists over poor broadband access and the associated high costs paid for poor service. The large
number of people trying to use the Internet for educational activities and job-related work
indicates that the Internet access in the county has become critical to community and economic
development. The availability of aordable and adequate broadband is has already begun to
influence both business location decisions and home-buying decisions.

Strategies for Fauquier County

Remove
Barriers

Update/modify
ordinances,
permitting, and
planning rules

Fiber Strategy

Plan to take
fiber access
into all rural
areas that
need it

Increased
Wireless
Access

Update utility
pole ordinances,
provide towers
and tower space
to WISPs

Work with
Providers

Coordinate grant
opportunities,
provide demand
information,
create incentives

In the summer of 2016,


Design Nine was hired
by Fauquier County to
assess current and future
broadband needs, collect
demand aggregation
data, identify public/
private partnership
opportunities with
service providers, and
recommend a
comprehensive of
strategies to improve
broadband connectivity.
There is no one size fits

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

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all solution for Fauquier. Instead, a set of successful solutions should be pursued and
developed as a set of complementary activities conducted in parallel.
The County can be eective at low cost by removing barriers as an early win. Fauquier
residents already have the by right ability to place wood utility poles on their property (within
specified guidelines) which makes it easier for service providers to make a business case to oer
improved access in rural areas of the county, as well as providing resident and rural businesses
with an aordable solution.
A fiber strategy would be to oer fiber to the home and/or fiber to the edge of the road in rural
areas of the County, using a demand-based strategy that only placed fiber in neighborhoods
and down rural roads where residents agreed in advance to buy services. While the capital
expenditure for such a venture would be substantial, this would generate a revenue stream over
the long term that would pay back bonds or other funds used to support the build out.
Because some areas of the county already have adequate Internet service from the cable
provider, we estimate that only about 10,000 households in the County would be candidates for
a rural fiber build out, and this approach could cost $20 million or more, spent over several
years.
It is worth noting that this could be funded by a $1/day strategy: if each household in an
rural fiber improvement zone agreed to pay $1/day for twelve years (about $32/month), the
entire capital cost of the eort would be fully funded.
Increased wireless access is an intermediate strategy that could produce improved access in a
year or less, providing space for WISPs on existing county towers and placing new towers in
underserved and unserved areas of the region and leasing space to wireless providers. This
would be most eective when coupled with ordinance changes that would give rural residents
and businesses by right ability to place wood utility poles on their property.
In all cases, the County or a newly formed Broadband Authority will find it necessary and
important to work with providers, especially providers that are open about their plans and
demonstrate a willingness to be flexible in their approach to collaboration.

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CHOOSING THE RIGHT BUSINESS MODEL


Governments build and manage roads, but dont own or manage the businesses that use those
roads to deliver goods and services. The tremendous versatility of the
Internet and the underlying technology bases now allows services that
used to require their own, separate (analog) road system (voice telephony
and TV services) to be delivered alongside other services like Internet
access on a single, integrated digital road system.
If we managed overnight package delivery the way we manage telecom,
UPS and Fedex would only deliver packages to residences and businesses
where each delivery firm had built a private road for their exclusive use.
We recognize immediately the limitations of such a business modelfew
of us would have overnight package delivery to our homes because the small number of
packages delivered would not justify the expense of building a private paved road.
Before the rise of the automobile,
most roads were built largely by
the private sector. After cars
became important to commerce
and economic development,
communities began building and
maintaining roads because it
became an economic development
imperative to have a modern
transportation system in
communities.

What business model?

Municipal
Retail

Direct competition with

Wholesale
Infrastructure

Creates private sector

Before the rise of the Internet,


the private sector.
business opportunities
Significant staffing and
with reduced
digital networks were built largely
operational costs.
operational costs.
by the private sector. As
broadband has become critical to
commerce and economic development, communities with digital roads are more competitive
globally.

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If the County is determined to move forward with a broadband initiative, there are two
business model options: municipal retail or wholesale infrastructure.
Features

Municipal
Retail

Basic
Concept

Typically just three services (voice,


video, data) with little or no sharing of
network capacity.

Improved efficiency because all providers share


network capacity.

Government
Involvement

Government competes directory with


the private sector. Government
decides what services are offered.

Government does not compete with private sector.


Government provides high performance digital
road system that benefits all public and private
users. Buyers have rich set of choices.

Governance

Owned and operated by local


government. Limited triple play
services sold directly by local
government.

May be owned by local government or by a


community enterprise like a broadband authority or
coop. Wide variety of services sold by private
sector companies.

Competition

Government picks providers of each


service. No incentive to lower prices.

Level playing field creates robust competition.


Service providers drive down costs and provide
great service to get customers.

Limited. Government resells triple


play services.

Determined by private sector service providers

Limited by triple play approach,


which keeps funds for expansion low.

Expansion developed organically based on funding


and revenue from infrastructure leasing.

Government officials must predict


business technology needs years in
advance.

If limited to primarily passive infrastructure,


operational costs and responsibilities are nominal.
It is important to identify prospective service
providers early in the process.

Service
Options
Service Area
Expansion
Risks

Wholesale Infrastructure

In the wholesale infrastructure business model, local government investments are designed to
provide local transport only. Services for businesses and residents are oered by private sector
providers oering Internet, TV, telephone and other data services. The components of the
transport network include conduit, handholes, cabinets and shelters, splice closures, and
network equipment.

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HOW TO PAY FOR IT


It is important to note that the bulk of the Countys investment in broadband infrastructure is
likely to be passive infrastructure that will have a conservative life span of thirty years or more
(e.g. wireless towers, conduit, fiber cable). These types of infrastructure investments create
hard assets that have tangible value and can then be leveraged for additional borrowing. The
demand for services and the associated fees paid for those services will provide the revenue
that will pay back loans over time. There is ample time to recoup not only the initial capital
investment, but also to receive regular income from the infrastructure.

Funding Options

Bonding

County G.O.
bonds or
Authority
revenue bonds

General
Fund/CIP

Allocations
from the
General Fund

Lease Fees

Special
Assessment

Grants

Private sector
providers pay
appropriate
fees to use the
infrastructure

Similar to a tax
increase but a
special, termlimited
assessment solely
for broadband

Seek grants
where available,
including DHCD,
USDA, FCC funds,
other sources

BONDING
Revenue bonds are repaid based on the expectation of receiving revenue from the network, and
do not obligate the local government or taxpayers if financial targets are not met. In that
respect, they are very dierent from general obligation bonds. Many kinds of regional projects
(water, sewer, solid waste, etc.) are routinely financed with revenue bonds. We believe most
community projects will finance a significant portion of the eort with revenue bonds.
Obtaining funding using revenue bonds requires an excellent municipal credit rating and an
investment quality financial plan for the operation and management of the network. In
Virginia, broadband authorities can bond, and the Roanoke Valley Broadband Authority used
the Virginia Resource Authority to assist with their bonding.
Revenue bonds must be used carefully, and a well-designed financial model is required to show
investors that sucient cash flow exists to pay back the loans.

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General obligation bonds are routinely used by local governments to finance municipal projects
of all kinds. G.O. bonds are guaranteed by the good faith and credit of the local government,
and are not tied to revenue generated by the project being funded (i.e. revenue bonds). G.O.
bonds obligate the issuing government and the taxpayers directly, and in some cases could lead
to increased local taxes to cover the interest and principal payments. Some bond underwriters
have indicated a willingness to include telecom funds as part of a larger bond initiative for
other kinds of government infrastructure (e.g. adding $1 million in telecom funds to a $10
million bond initiative for other improvements).
In discussions with bond underwriters, it has been suggested that it would be easier to obtain
bond funds for telecom if the telecom costs were rolled into a larger water or sewer bond, or
some other type of bond request that are more familiar to the bond market.

GENERAL FUND/CAPITAL IMPROVEMENT PLAN


Some local governments are now routinely including a line item for telecom materials and
expenditures in their Capital Improvement Plans (CIP). This creates a predictable, long term
source of funding for broadband improvements over time. CIP funds might be used to
maintain a modest inventory of handholes and conduit that could be placed when other
improvements are underway (e.g. sidewalk upgrades, street grinding and resurfacing, etc.).

LEASE FEES
Initiatives like tower access and access to local government or Authority-owned conduit and
fiber can create long term revenue streams from lease fees paid by service providers using that
infrastructure. The City of Danville has recovered their entire initial capital investment from
lease fees paid by providers on the nDanville fiber network.

SPECIAL ASSESSMENT
Communities like Bozeman, Montana and Leverett, Massachusetts have been funding
broadband infrastructure improvements with special assessments (in Leverett, $600/year for
five years), and in Bozeman, TIF (Tax Increment Funding) is being used in some areas to add
telecom conduit, handholes, and dark fiber.

GRANTS
Grant funding is limited and should be viewed as part of a larger basket of funding. Federal
funds from sources like the USDA and the FCC are highly competitive and often come with
substantial limitations on who can qualify and how the funds can be used. DHCD (VA Dept.
of Housing and Community Development) provides some funding for planning, and they also
administer CDBG (Community Development Block Grant) funds. CDBG funds can support
telecom infrastructure construction but must be tied to job creation and/or job retention. In
2017, DHCD will have $1.25 million in funds that can be requested by localities to give to
service providers to support their improvements. Rules for how to apply for and spend those
funds are still under development.
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NEW MARKETS TAX CREDIT


New markets tax credits are a form of private sector financing supported by tax credits supplied
by the Federal government. The New Markets Tax Credit (NMTC) Program permits taxpayers
to receive a credit against Federal income taxes for making qualified equity investments in
designated Community Development Entities (CDEs). The CDEs apply to the Federal
government for an allotment of tax credits, which can then be used by private investors who
supply funds for qualifying community projects. Substantially all of the qualified equity
investment must in turn be used by the CDE to provide investments in low-income
communities.
The credit provided to the investor totals 39 percent of the cost of the investment and is
claimed over a seven-year credit allowance period. In each of the first three years, the investor
receives a credit equal to five percent of the total amount paid for the stock or capital interest at
the time of purchase. For the final four years, the value of the credit is six percent annually.
Investors may not redeem their investments in CDEs prior to the conclusion of the seven-year
period.
Throughout the life of the NMTC Program, the Fund is authorized to allocate to CDEs the
authority to issue to their investors up to the aggregate amount of $19.5 billion in equity as to
which NMTCs can be claimed.
These tax credits can be quite useful, and there may be some areas that qualify. However, it can
take up to a year or more to apply and then finally receive NMTC-related cash. This can be a
useful long term source of funds.
Funding is going to be dependent upon the kinds of strategies the County and/or a new
Broadband Authority want to pursue in partnership with the private sector. Grant funds are at
best a supplement to local funds, and should not be viewed as a primary funding solution.

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Assessing Demand In Fauquier


A market research study was conducted to determine the market for improved broadband
access and aordability. The study was an online and paper survey of residents and businesses
in Fauquier County.
The surveying was primarily conducted through an online (Internet) survey. This method was
chosen due to a number of advantages which include faster results, lower costs, and a shorter
data collection period. Paper forms of the survey were also available to the community if
individuals did not have access to a computer or Internet. Paper submissions were mailed back
or dropped o at the Fauquier County Planning and Zoning Oce. Both the online survey as
well as the paper form were available to any business with no specific target group. Paper
surveys were distributed at the library and in several other locations to help capture data from
residents and businesses who may not have Internet access at home or the place of work.
The study was done to determine the following:
Satisfaction with current telephone, Internet/data, and TV service
Demographic information
Types of Internet connections
Current Internet usage and purpose
Importance of Internet access
Willingness to pay more for faster, higher quality Internet access
Cost of services
Current service providers for telephone, Internet/data and TV service
Information about residents who work from home
This market research can be very useful in setting priorities for next steps, and can be an
important part of state and Federal funding and grant opportunities.

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

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RESIDENTIAL SURVEY RESULTS


A total of 1424 responses were collected. Not all responders answered every question.
Some of the key data points that resulted in the survey include:
94% of the respondents desired better Internet/data service.
77% of the respondents desired better cellular telephone service.
94% of the respondents are not satisfied with all of their services.
95% of the respondents have an Internet connection.
96% reported that the Internet is very important to their household.
20% are paying more than $61-$80/month for their Internet service, and 57% are paying
more than $80/month.
68% of the respondents who were still on a dial-up connection said that they had no
other options in the area to switch to a dierent or better service.
28% of the respondents who have an Internet connection use wireless Internet.
34% are using satellite service, which typically means they have no or very poor DSL/
dial-up service in their area of the county.
Respondents of the survey use the Internet to check and send email, access news and
current events, perform homework and schoolwork, work from home, social network,
shop, and bank online.
43% of the respondents indicated that at least one individual in their household uses the
Internet to complete school assignments or job training at least several times a week.
26% of the respondents need nights and weekends access for the company business.
27% are self-employed and trying to work from home part or full time.
27% work for another company and are trying to work from home part or full time.
80% of respondents are trying to use their home Internet connection for work at least
part time.

CURRENT SATISFACTION OF EXISTING SERVICES

Overall, the respondents felt a need for better cellular telephone service, Internet/data service,
and Cable/TV service. 94% of the respondents desired better Internet/data service and 77% of
the respondents desired better cellular telephone service. In addition, over half of the
respondents felt the need for better Cable/TV service as well. 94% of the respondents are not
satisfied with all of their services. This data indicates that residents generally are in need of
better services that can oer reliability, speed, and a better price point.
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OWNERSHIP OF COMPUTERS AND CURRENT INTERNET USAGE

From the sample, 17% of the respondents live in a household of three individuals. 23% of the
respondents also live in a household of four individuals. 39% of the respondents live in a
household with two computer users and 17% of the respondents live in a household with 3
computer users. 95% of the respondents have an Internet connection.

EXISTING INTERNET CONNECTION TYPE AND PRICE

Of the respondents who have an Internet connection, 28% used wireless Internet and 10% were
on a DSL line. 2% of the respondents were still on a dial-up connection. 68% of the
respondents who were still on a dial-up connection said that they had no other options in the
area to switch to a dierent or better service. In terms of cost, 11% of the respondents paid
between $41 to $60 per month for Internet access. More than half of the respondents paid
more than $80 per month for Internet access.

USE OF THE INTERNET

The respondents of the survey used the Internet for a variety of reasons. Some of the main uses
of the Internet include checking and sending email, accessing news and current events,
performing homework and schoolwork, working from home, social networking, researching,
shopping, and banking online.
An open response question was asked following this question about any other additional uses of
the Internet. Many of the respondents who answered this question commented that they
essentially use the Internet for all of the activities listed. 43% of the respondents indicated that
at least one individual in their household use the Internet to complete school assignments or
job training at least several times a week.
When asked if the respondents work from home, 26% of the respondents need nights and
weekends access for the company business. 80% of the respondents work either part time or full
time from home remotely as self-employed or for another company.
The survey also indicates that the respondents do not seem to have diculties in finding help
and training on the computer or Internet. 54% of the respondents said that it was not dicult
to find help or training on the computer or Internet. Furthermore, 96% of the respondents
found accessibility to the Internet to be very important.
The respondents used personal computers, gaming consoles, hand held gaming consoles, ereaders, cell phones, smartphone, and iPads or other tablets to connect to the Internet. 27% of
the respondents connected to the Internet via a personal computer like a desktop, laptop,
netbook, or tablet. 10% of the respondents also connected to the Internet through a cell phone.

SATISFACTION WITH SPECIFIC SERVICES

Only 40% of the respondents were somewhat satisfied with their current telephone service, and
26% were not at all satisfied with their current telephone services. Similarly, 45% of the
respondents answered that they were only somewhat satisfied with their current TV service.
28% of the respondents also answered that they were only somewhat satisfied with their current
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Internet service and 63% of the respondents indicated that they were not at all satisfied with
their current Internet service.

CURRENT COSTS AND PROVIDERS

22% of the respondents pay between $150 to $200 for local and long distance telephone, TV,
and Internet per month. 43% of the respondents pay more than $200 per month for all three
services. 27% of residents use Verizon Internet. The majority of residents use Verizon telephone
service and Direct TV satellite cable/TV service. As for internet service, the majority of
residents use a variety of companies which includes Verizon, Hughes, or Comcast. The residents
of Fauquier County seem to lack satisfactory options in terms of price and providers.

WILLINGNESS TO PAY

When asked if the respondents would be willing to pay more for faster, higher quality Internet
access, 37% of the respondents said that they would be somewhat willing and 41% were very
willing to pay more.

SERVICE DESIRED

Respondents were asked if there were any additional telecommunication needs that were not
covered in the survey. A number of the respondents stated that they desired better, reliable
cellular phone coverage. In addition, almost all respondents desired a reliable Internet
connection that is not limited due to geographic location and oered at a fair price. Lastly,
many respondents indicated they would like to work from home, but can not due to slow,
unreliable internet speeds. The map below shows the distribution of residential survey responses
in the county.

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The map below shows the distribution of residential survey responses in the county.
Broadlands

Shenandoah
Farms

C
ar

la
r

re

ke

C
ou

ou

nt

nt

Lo u d
oun
Co u
Fauq
nty
u ie r
Co u
n ty

17

Brambleton

Loudoun
Valley
Estates

Middleburg
50
At o ka

Rd

Shenandoah
Shores

Arcola

Rd

a id

rC

ty
un
Gr
o

ve

Marshall

600

Ln

55

The Plains

15

245

i
H
st

re

Rd

ll

Chester
Gap

o
ier C unty
qu
au

Rd

Prince William County

ie
qu

Bull Run
Mountain
Estates

66

nt y

ty

F au

C ou

un
Co

n
rr e

nty

Wa

ou

ia

50

nC

ill

eR
st on

eW
in c

55

Pr

Skyland
Estates

Stone
Ridge

Lo

Halfw ay

66

ou
ud

Apple
Mountain
Lake

234
29
Haymarket

Bl
an

tyr

eR

Hu m e

600

66

66

Gainesville
15

Bull Run

17
Bl a

522

ck
well Rd

Flint
Hill

New Baltimore

Linton
Hall

600

28

Rt

Du
m

Rd

215
fr

ies

Bristow
Nokesville

Me

s R
d

Taylor R
d

Rd

Warrenton

211

Ol

Rd

S pr

ing

etz

Du
m

211

ir
l

Rd

Catlett

ay

es

la

h Rd

fri

d Dr

672
W

K eit

ie

Rd

605

Rd

Eastern Byp

Ra m p

Fr
yt
ow
n

Duhollow Rd

Bro

ve

D
r

Rd

Remington

Su

17

15
Love

rs Ln

C olle g

o Rd

e St

id

la n d

Rd

er
du
ck

Morrisville

15
G
re

15
Culpeper

en

Rd

Ln

17

Rd

oo

nt

643

d
ge R
s Rid

ro

nw

ou

15

av erly

h Rd

So w eg

15
Midland

Old A
ub
ur

L ee

L e ig

nD
r

Bealeton

229

522

El

Opal

t
un
Co
er
ui
uq
r
Fa
pe
lp e
Cu

Ln

Rd

802

Ru

Rd

t
hS

ard
s

Springs

n ton S
t

st
Ha
Av
e
vie
w
ad

ah
an
no r
lp
ep
ck
er
Co
Co
un
un
ty
ty

pp
Ra

St

H il

Brent To wn Rd

Cu

Warrenton
Le e

Le o
n

y
em

sR
es

R d

Av
e

t
Falm ou

S ai
nt

rle
y

Ac ad
St

c
Ac

k R un

Wate
rlo o

lker Dr

Sh
i

211

te
r

Wa

Rd

Lee Hwy

Rd

28

Rd

Waterloo

Sp
ur

Calverton

Jeffersonton

Pl

ix
D

pa

Rd

Th

St

ra

fal g a

17

Wa
llo
w

Winche s

gs

dar
Ce

in

Bea
r

Nor
d

Ivy H il l D
r

By p

Ln

17Th

ty

Lignum

2016 Fauquier County Residential Broadband Survey Results


Resident

Interstate

Secondary Highway

522Highway
Primary

Local Road

unty
ford C o

Goldvein

Staf

600

29

F a u q u ie r C o u n

29

09/07/2016
17
Credits: ESRI, Design Nine

15

Place

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

10

Miles

Page 12 of 106

SUMMARY DATA
Check the items you agree with below.
Question

Yes

No

I need better landline telephone service.

27%

73%

I need better cellular telephone service.

77%

23%

I need better Internet/data service.

94%

6%

I need better cable/satellite TV service.

67%

33%

I am satisfied with all of my services.

6%

94%

Number of people in household:


1

7+

103

493

243

326

143

52

29

7%

35%

17%

23%

10%

4%

2%

Number of computer users:


1

7+

114

533

237

317

120

40

24

8%

38%

17%

23%

9%

3%

2%

Do you have an Internet connection?


Yes

No
5%

No
1315

74

95%

5%

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Yes
95%

Page 13 of 106

If yes, what type?


Dial-up

29

2%

Cable Modem

182

13%

Satellite

489

34%

DSL Line

138

10%

T1 Line

19

1%

Dont Know

14

1%

Fiber

0%

Cellular wireless

398

28%

Broadband WISP

72

5%

Other

82

6%

How much do you pay now for Internet Access each month:
No Internet

$10-20

$21-40

$41 to $60

$61-80

More than
$80/month

Use free
local
hotspots

Dont
Know

46

10

53

149

286

798

19

41

3%

1%

4%

11%

20%

57%

1%

3%

How important is Internet Access to you or your household?


Somewhat Important
4%

Very important
96%

How satisfied are you with your current telephone service?


Not at all Satisfied

Somewhat Satisfied

Satisfied

Very Satisfied

350

535

409

58

26%

40%

30%

4%

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Page 14 of 106

How satisfied are you with your TV service?


Not at all Satisfied

Somewhat Satisfied

Satisfied

Very Satisfied

226

614

426

100

17%

45%

31%

7%

How satisfied are you with your current Internet service?


Not at all Satisfied

Somewhat Satisfied

Satisfied

Very Satisfied

865

381

106

24

63%

28%

8%

2%

If you are still on dial up, why are you?


Too expensive

Lack of help/support

Not interested

No other options in my
area

20

10

42

154

9%

4%

19%

68%

Would you be willing to pay more for faster, higher quality Internet access?
Not at all willing

Somewhat willing

Very willing

Not sure

178

509

561

128

13%

37%

41%

9%

What equipment do you currently connect to the Internet?


Personal computer (desktop, laptop, netbook, or tablet)

1,305

27%

Gaming console

335

7%

Hand held gaming console

162

3%

E-reader

495

10%

Cell phone

478

10%

Smartphone

1,006

21%

iPad or other tablet

985

20%

Other

138

3%

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Page 15 of 106

Check all items you use the Internet for now:


Email

1,383

11%

Access news and current events

1,285

10%

Homework / Schoolwork

693

5%

Work from home

988

8%

Watch movies and online video

700

5%

Download or listen to music online

771

6%

VoIP (Vonage, Skype, etc)

360

3%

Online Backup (files, photos, music)

696

5%

Telemedicine, telehealth

189

1%

Online Gaming

328

3%

Social networking -- Facebook, Myspace, LinkedIn, etc.

1,130

9%

Personal research

1,176

9%

Download books/audiobooks

722

6%

Shopping

1,254

10%

Online banking

1,185

9%

Other

73

1%

Other Items used for the Internet


Because of the huge number of written responses to this question, this data is provided in
Appendix C.

Does anyone in your household use the Internet to complete school assignments or job
training course work?

34%

43%

12% 11%
Yes, several times a week
Yes, at least once a week
Yes, at least once a month
No

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Page 16 of 106

Yes, several times a week

598

43%

Yes, at least once a week

145

11%

Yes, at least once a month

163

12%

No

471

34%

How difficult is it to find help and training for things you would like to do on the computer or on the Internet?
Very Difficult

Somewhat
Difficult

Not Difficult

230

391

736

17%

29%

54%

For your household, how much do you spend each month for local and long distance
telephone, TV, and Internet? (Do NOT include cellphones)
$50 or less

$50-75

$75-100

$100-150

$150-200

More than $200/


month

75

60

112

228

301

592

5%

4%

8%

17%

22%

43%

Who is your Internet Service provider?


Blank

110

8%

All Points

0%

AOL

1%

AT&T

76

5%

Blaze Broadband

43

3%

Comcast

189

13%

Direct TV

0%

DishNet

56

4%

Earthlink

10

1%

Exede

171

12%

Freedom Pop

0%

High Mountain Farm

0%

HughesNet

185

13%

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Page 17 of 106

Juno

0%

MSN

0%

NA

29

2%

Netscape

0%

Netzero

0%

None at the House

25

2%

Nova

10

1%

Piedmont

15

1%

RCN

0%

Sprint

61

4%

Straight Talk

0%

T1

0%

VA Broadband

1%

Verizon

378

27%

Wave 2 Net

0%

Wildblue

21

1%

Zonet

0%

Who is your cable/satellite TV provider?


Blank

101

7%

AT&T

0%

Comcast

138

10%

DIRECTV

739

52%

Dish Network

273

19%

Excede

0%

Hughes Net

11

1%

NA

27

2%

None

89

6%

Verizon

0%

Regular Antenna TV

30

2%

Wave 2 Net

0%

Wild Blue

0%

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Page 18 of 106

Who is your local telephone service provider?


Blank

116

8%

AT&T

69

5%

Bell

0%

Clear Rate

0%

Comcast

93

7%

Excede

1%

Hughes Net

0%

Juno

0%

Magic Jack

0%

NA

55

4%

None

71

5%

Ooma

0%

Sprint

30

2%

Straight Talk

0%

Tracphone

0%

Verizon

841

59%

Vonage

1%

Use Only Cellphone

106

7%

Do you use a VPN (Virtual Private Network) to obtain remote access for your work or for
access to a company network?
Yes

No

Dont Know

483

742

123

36%

55%

9%

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Page 19 of 106

Do you work from home?


I work part time at home for
another company.

20%

I work full time at home for


another company.

7%

I need nights and weekends


access for company business.

26%

I am self employed and work


part time from home.

16%

I am self employed and work


full time from home.

11%

I never work from home.

20%

Any Other Comments:


There was a very large response to this question, and many residents provided detailed answers.
Please see Appendix D for this data.

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Page 20 of 106

BUSINESS SURVEY RESULTS


A total of 118 responses were were collected. Not all responders answered every question.
Some of the key data points that resulted in the survey include:
87% of respondents are not satisfied with all their services.
87% of respondents answered that they needed better Internet/data service.
99% of respondents stated that they had an Internet connection.
23% of respondents use satellite service while 22% use wireless Internet. The number of
satellite business users is the highest we have ever seen. This is normally below 5%.
27% of respondents generally pay between $61 to $100 per month for Internet access.
18% spend between $151 and $300 for Internet.
Only 4% of respondents answered they were very satisfied with the current spend of
their Internet service. 50% of respondents replied that they were not at all satisfied with
the current speed of their Internet service.
78% of respondents indicated that they would be very willing or somewhat willing to pay
more for faster, higher quality Internet access.
92% of respondents indicated that they found Internet technology to be a very important
factor in the success of their company over the next five years.
61% of respondents answered that finding personnel with the needed computer, software,
and Internet skills to be somewhat dicult or very dicult.
98% of respondents indicated that Internet is essential to their business.
29% of respondents are self employed and work full time from home. 91% work at least
part time from home as either self-employed or for another company.

CURRENT SATISFACTION OF EXISTING SERVICES

Overall, respondents felt a need for better telephone service, Internet/data service, and TV
service. 75% of the respondents desired better cellular telephone service and 87% of the
respondents desired better Internet/data service. 87% of the respondents were not satisfied with
all of their services. This data indicates that businesses generally are in need of better services
that can oer reliability, speed, and a better price point.

ESTABLISHMENT INFORMATION & EMPLOYEE COMPUTER USAGE

99% of the businesses that responded to the survey indicated that an Internet connection
existed at the establishment. There are 1247 employees that are employed by the 118 businesses
that took the survey. There is an average of 12 employees per establishment that took the survey.
Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Page 21 of 106

Of the 1246 employees, there are 1925 computer users at these businesses. In addition, each
establishment typically has an average of 18 employees who use computers.
A variety of establishments responded to the survey, which include professional, government,
retail, medical, non-profit, educational and other. Professional (35%) made up the majority of
the establishments that responded followed by Other (21%) and Retail (14%). Other
establishments included agriculture, construction, government, manufacturing, and recreational.

EXISTING INTERNET CONNECTION TYPE, PRICE, AND SPEED

A DSL line provided Internet access to 11% of the respondents. Wireless Internet provided an
Internet connection to 22% of the respondents. Satellite provided Internet access to 23% of
respondents. More than half of the respondents pay between $61 and up for Internet access
each month. The largest proportion of respondents paid generally $61 to $100 for Internet
access each month. 14% of the respondents had Internet speeds between 1-3Mb, while 12% of
the respondents had Internet speeds between 3-10Mb. In addition, 50% of the respondents were
not at all satisfied with the current speed of their Internet service, while only 4% were very
satisfied with their current speed.

USE OF THE INTERNET

Respondents were asked how they currently used the Internet to serve their needs at their
respective establishments. The most common uses of the Internet were for communication via
email, access to news and current events, online backup, transfer of large files, research,
maintaining a web presence and ordering and managing inventory. 9% of the respondents used
the Internet to maintain a web presence with a blog or other site.

WILLINGNESS TO PAY

While only 14% were not at all willing to pay for faster, higher quality Internet access, 47%
were somewhat willing and 31% were very willing to pay more.

IMPORTANCE OF INTERNET TECHNOLOGY

Respondents of the 118 business establishments overwhelmingly found Internet technology to


be an important factor in the success of their company in the next five years. 7% found Internet
technology to be somewhat important. Furthermore, 41% of the respondents from business
establishments found that it was somewhat dicult to find personnel with the needed
computer, software, and Internet skills in the local area. 98% of the respondents indicated that
the Internet is essential to their business, and only 2% indicated that an the Internet is not
essential to their business.

EXISTING SERVICE PROVIDERS

Phone: Verizon provided phone service to 53% of the respondents and Comcast provided
phone service to 19% of respondents. Others service providers included AT&T, Hughes Net
and Sprint . 5% of the respondents answered they only use their cellphone.
Internet: Verizon provided Internet access to 25% of the respondents with Internet followed by
Comcast at 24%. Other providers included AT&T, Blaze Broadband, Dish Network, Excede
Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Page 22 of 106

and Hughes Net. None of these providers had more than 8% of the respondents use their
Internet services.
Television: The largest providers of cable/satellite TV were Comcast, Dish Network and Direct
TV. Comcast provided service to 20% of those with television service, while Dish Network
provided service to 25% of the respondents. 17% of the respondents either indicated no TV or
NA. 16% of respondents left the question blank.

SERVICES DESIRED

Respondents were asked if there were other telecommunication needs that they desired that
was not covered in the survey. This was an open ended question. Many respondents expressed
the need for more reliable Internet that was faster and oered at a fair price. Other respondents
commented the need for more reliable cell service.

JOB CREATION AND TELEWORK

The survey found that a portion of respondents generally work from home full time or part
time. Only 9% of the respondents stated that they never work from home. 25% of the
respondents stated that they are self employed and work part time from home. In addition, 29%
of the respondents noted that they are self employed and hold full time positions at home. The
map below shows the distribution of survey responses from businesses in the town and the
county.

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Page 23 of 106

The map below shows the distribution of business survey responses in the county.
Broadlands

Cl
a

W
ar

Shenandoah
Farms

re

Co
un
ou t y
nt
y

Moorefield
Station

do u

n Co
unt y
Fau q
uier
Co u
nty

50

rk
e

Lo u

X
Brambleton

Middleburg

Loudoun
Valley
Estates
Arcola

X
17

st

Co

Rd
e
tyr

Linton
Hall

X
15

Rd

XX
XX
X
X
X
X
XX
X
X
X
X
X
Warrenton

X
XX
X

D um fries

Rd

l ie

Bull Run

Rd

Bristow

Rt

ir

Gainesville

New
Baltimore

Bla
c k well R d

X
X
XX
X

600
V
U

Bla
n

X
X

Haymarket

Co unty

ty

17

Flint
Hill

un

W illiam

Hu m

X
X

Lo
Fa
ud
i rf
ou
ax
n
Co
Co
un
un
ty
t
Co y
un
ty

yR
d

Rd
Recto rtow n

lfw
a

XU
55
V

245
V
U

es
tH

ill R

u ie r

Rd

The
Plains

Prince

X
X

F au q

Chester
Gap

Ha

ai
d
M
d

Rd

X
X
XX

Bull Run
Mountain
Estates

ty

Ln Marshall

un

Co

n ty

i am

ou

ov

nC

South
Riding

ou

Stone
Ridge

ud

Rd

Gr

r Co

n ty

ill

un t y

F a u qu ie

L e eds Ma n

one

ka
to

eW

X X
X

Apple
Mountain
Lake

o
en C
ar r

Lo

nc
P ri

Skyland
Estates

Rd

Shenandoah
Shores

qu
ie

rC
ou
n ty
kC
oun
ty

15

X
X

Morrisville

e St
C o lleg

Rd

rs Ln

d
u
Aq ia R

en

Ln

Love

ck

Culpeper

17

X
Goldvein

10/07/2016
Credits: ESRI, Design Nine

Lignum

2016 Fauquier County Business Broadband Survey Results

Business

Interstate

Secondary Highway

Place

Primary Highway

Local Road

Culpep
er C
ou
an g
nt
eC
ou
nt y

Or

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

k
El

uq
ui
er
Co
rd
C o un
un ty
ty

17

er
du

G
re

od

fo

um

Rd

Fa

nR
d

Sow e go

af

ty
oun

un t y

r Co

ui e

uq

u nto
n S
t

rl

ur

Remington

Rd

nw

bu
rg

Midland

17

XXX

d
ge R
Rid

Ir o

Old Aub

28
V
U

Bealeton

15

Duhollow Rd

L ee s

Le i gh Rd

Fa

Mos
e

i tal

onar

sp

F ox

Leeton Ct

on St

eS
t

di s

X
X

r
er ly D

Cu lp ep er C

L
Rd

Ga
y

ds L

pp
Ra

Cu

Le

S aint

Ma

Ln

ver
Mo n Ln

ew

F ox

ah
an
no
lp
ck r
ep
er
Co
Co
un
un
n
ty
ty

av

il l R

Dr

Bre nt To w n Rd

ill

yH

X
R
d

ma d

ip
Sh

Le

A c ad em

Ru

Calverton
tz
e

t er s

Ho

St

211

ee

29 Opal

B r is

r St

Dr

os

Cu p

Rd

Dr
er

G old

Wa ter loo

Winc h e

Tr

Pl

X
X X lk
st
XW a
er
Kin g
St
X
X
X Warrenton
XXXX
X East St
EX

15

Jeffersonton

Dr

Rd

Catlett

rD
r

Nor
dix
Dr

r
r i n gs D

Rd

X
l
pa

X
X

Rd

fr
ies

X X

X
O

Oak S p
all
ow

te

ar
Ced

Be
Dr ar W

X678

lg a

D um

Rd

anc as

Nokesville

15

Iv y Hill D
r

vi

29

211
X

ir l ie

17

afa

St

nn
oc

F au
ha

Ol

Keith R

pa

R u n Rd

Ra
p

10

Miles

Page 24 of 106

SUMMARY DATA
Check the items you agree with below.
Question

Yes

No

I need better landline telephone service.

30%

70%

I need better cellular telephone service

75%

25%

I need better Internet/data service.

87%

13%

I need better cable/satellite TV service.

48%

52%

I am satisfied with all of my services.

13%

87%

Number of employees:
Total number of employees

1247

Average number of employees per establishment

12

Number of computer users:


Total number of computer users

1925

Average number of computer users per establishment

18

Types of organizational activities conducted at this facility:


Retail

14%

Professional

35%

Government

4%

Educational

11%

Medical

4%

Non Profit

10%

Other

21%

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Page 25 of 106

Does your organization have an Internet connection?


No
1%

Yes
99%
!

If yes, what type?


Dial-up

Cable
Modem

DSL
Line

Fiber

Satellite

T-1 Line

Cellular
Wireless

Broadband
WISP

Dont Know

26

14

29

27

10

4%

21%

11%

2%

23%

6%

22%

8%

2%

How much do you pay now for Internet access each month?
NoInternet

$0-20

$2140

$4160

$61100

$101150

$151-300

$301500

$5011000

$1001$5000

$5000

I dont
know

32

30

21

11

1%

2%

2%

3%

27%

26%

18%

9%

7%

2%

1%

3%

Speed of your Internet Connection?


No
Internet

Dial
up
only

56-2
56k

256512k

512-1
Mb

1-3
Mb

1.5-3
Mb

3-10
Mb

1050
Mb

50-1
00M
b

100+
Mb

Gigabit

I dont
Know

16

14

10

33

1%

3%

4%

6%

6%

14%

6%

12%

9%

7%

2%

1%

29%

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Page 26 of 106

How satisfied are you with the speed of your current Internet service?
Not at all Satisfied

Somewhat Satisfied

Satisfied

Very satisfied

56

35

17

50%

31%

15%

4%

Very satisfied
Satisfied
4%
15%
Not at all satisfied
50%
Somewhat satisfied
31%

!
Check all the items you use the Internet for now:
Email

14%

Access news and current events

13%

Business videoconferencing

6%

Connect to company VPN (Virtual Private


Network)

5%

VoIP (Vonage, Skype, etc)

4%

Online Backup (files, photos, music)

9%

Transfer large files

9%

Monitor / control security, alarms, health,


processes, etc.

4%

Telemedicine, telehealth

1%

Communication between headquarters and


remote sites

4%

Processing credit card / debit card transactions

7%

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Page 27 of 106

Research

9%

Ordering/managing inventory

8%

Maintaining a web presence with a blog or other


site

9%

Receiving and processing online orders

6%

Cloud-based business, accounting or other


services

6%

Other

1%

Would you be willing to pay more for faster, higher quality Internet access?
Not at all willing

Somewhat willing

Very willing

Not sure

16

54

36

14%

47%

31%

8%

Very willing

31% Not sure

8%
Not at all willing

14%
Somewhat willing

47%

How important do you think Internet technology will be for the success of your company
over the next five years?
Very
important

Somewhat
important

Not
important

107

92%

7%

1%

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Not important
1%
Somewhat important
7%
Very important
92%

Page 28 of 106

How difficult is it to find personnel with the needed computer, software, and Internet
skills from the local area?
Very difficult

Somewhat difficult

Not difficult

23

46

44

20%

41%

39%

Is the internet essential to your business?


Yes

No

112

98%

2%

No
2%

Yes
98%

If yes, briefly state what is affordable and at what speed:


There was a very large response to this question, and many businesses provided detailed
answers. Please see Appendix E for this data.

Who is your Internet Service provider?


Blank

8%

All Points

1%

AT&T

3%

Blaze Broadband

5%

Century Link

1%

Comcast

28

24%

DishNet

3%

Earthlink

2%

Exede

5%

Fiber Light

1%

HughesNet

8%

MSN

1%

NA

2%

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Page 29 of 106

None

2%

Nova

2%

Novec

1%

Piedmont

2%

Sprint

2%

Verizon

30

25%

Wave 2 Net

2%

Wildblue

1%

Who is your cable/satellite TV provider?


Blank

Comcast

Direct
TV

Dish
Network

Hughes
Net

N/A

None

Piedmont

Verizon

Regular
TV
Antenna

19

23

29

20

11

10

16%

19%

25%

17%

1%

9%

8%

1%

3%

1%

Who is your tone telephone service provider?


Blank

AT&T

Blaze
Boardband

Comcast

N/A

None

Hughes
Net

Sprint

Use
Cellphone

Verizon

10

22

62

8%

4%

1%

19%

2%

6%

1%

1%

5%

53%

Do you use a VPN (Virtual Private Network) to obtain remote access for your work or for
access to a company network?
Yes

No

I Dont
Know

40

63

36%

56%

8%

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Page 30 of 106

Do any of your employees work from home?


Fulltime

Occasionally

No

34

59

20

30%

52%

18%

Do the existing Internet service options in the county impact your decision to locate in or
stay in the county?
Yes

No

60

51

54%

46%

What other telecommunications needs do you have that were not covered in this survey?
There was a very large response to this question, and many businesses provided detailed
answers. Please see Appendix F for this data.

Any other comments?


There was a very large response to this question, and many businesses provided detailed
answers. Please see Appendix G for this data.

Do you work from home?


I work part time at home for another company.

7%

I work full time at home for another company.

6%

I need nights and weekends access for company business.

23%

I am self employed and work part time from home.

25%

I am self employed and work full time from home.

29%

I never work from home.

9%

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Page 31 of 106

Gap Analysis and Current Conditions


BUSINESS BANDWIDTH NEEDS
The table below shows bandwidth consumption for several types of businesses and a projection
of the bandwidth needed 5 and 10 years out. The cost of fuel is already aecting business travel
decisions, and more and more businesses will invest in HD quality business videoconference
systems to reduce the need for travel. These HD systems require substantial bandwidth; a two
way HD video conference requires 20-25 megabits during the conference, and a three way
conference requires 30-35 megabits during the conference. As more workers try to reduce the
cost of driving to and from work by working part or full time from home, the business location
must provide network access (Virtual Private Network, or VPN) to the employees working
from home. These home-based workers will make extensive use of videoconferencing to attend
routine oce meetings remotely and to enhance communications with co-workers, including
videoconferences with other home-based workers in the company. A VPN network providing
remote access to just two or three home-based employees could require 50 megabits of
bandwidth during normal work hours.

Description

Large Business

Small Business

A larger business
with about 50
workstations.

A small business
with 10 to 15
employees, and
7-10
workstations.

Home Based
Worker

A single employee A home business


working at home
with one or two
for his/her
employees working
company.
at home.

Concurrent
Concurrent
Concurrent
Mbps
Mbps
Mbps
Use
Use
Use

Telephone
TV

HDTV
Credit Card Validation
Security System
Internet
VPN Connection
Data Backup
Web Hosting

Workforce Training
(online classes)
HD
Videoconferencing
Telecommuting
workers
Totals
5 years from now
(megabits)
10 years from now
(megabits)

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

20

1.28
0
0
4
0.25
30

4
1
20
5
5
1

25
7.5
2

0.32
0
0
1
0.25
10.5

1
1
7
1

0
1.5
0

Business From
Home

0.064
0
0
0
0.25
1.5

1
1
1
1

5
1.5
0

Concurrent
Use

Mbps

0.064
0
0
0
0.25
1.5

1
1
1

0
1.5
0

20

10

10

10

100

20

10

10

15

205.0

49.6

18.3

23.3

615

149

55

70

1845

446

165

210

Page 32 of 106

RESIDENTIAL BANDWIDTH NEEDS


The table below depicts the bandwidth needed for typical residential services which are
available now or will be available in the near future. In a next generation network all services
will be delivered over a single network infrastructure which will require an access network that
can support providing most services to most consumers simultaneously. Todays shared
networks (cable and wireless in particular) rely on the bursty nature of trac to provide
services to end users. If all end users were consuming their advertised bandwidth todays cable
and DSL networks would grind to a halt.
In fact, they already are; some cable providers have begun to receive heavy criticism for
undocumented manipulation of data trac. Existing cable modem network users are
overwhelming the digital cable networks that were upgraded as little as three or four years ago,
and the firms have had to artificially reduce the bandwidth available for certain kinds of high
bandwidth services (e.g. peer to peer file sharing). Some cable providers have even run into
capacity issues with the TV portion of their networks, and some consumers have observed that
some HD TV channels have been so highly compressed that picture quality has been
noticeably degraded when compared to the same channel delivered by satellite.
Residential
Daytime

Description

Intermittent
Television and
Internet use across
a small percentage
of households.
Concurrent
Mbps
Use

Early Evening
Increased video,
voice and Internet
use as children
arrive home from
school and
employees from
work.

Evening and Late


Night

Snow Day

Peak television and On top of typical


Internet use.
daytime trac
Multiple TVs are children are home
on, phone and
from school, and
computer being
many employees
used.
are home working.

Concurrent
Use

Mbps

Concurrent
Use

Mbps

Concurrent
Mbps
Use

Telephone

0.064

0.064

0.064

0.064

Standard Definition TV

2.5

2.5

2.5

2.5

HD TV

12

Security System

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

Internet

1.5

Online Gaming
VPN Connection
Data Backup

Telehealth (subscriber)
Distance Learning /
Workforce Training
HD Videoconferencing

1.5

0.25
0
1

0.5

4.5

10

10

20

14

Totals

12.6

33.8

35.8

58.3

5 years from now (megabits)

38

101

107

175

10 years from now (megabits)

113

304

322

525

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

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LOCAL PRICING DATA


The information below provides pricing data and services available from providers in the area.
Pricing for Blaze Broadband services is still under development, but most Blaze customers pay
between $50/month and $200/month for service.

FOR ZIP CODE 22720, 22734, 22712, 22728


VERIZON DSL
$29.99/mo for 3 Mbps. 768 Kbps 1-year promo rate. Regular rate is $34.99. Verizon home
phone service required. Setup: Activation: Waived. Modem w/ WiFi: $59.99 one-time
purchase
$19.99/mo for 1 Mbps. 384 Kbps Regular rate is $24.99. Verizon home phone service
required. Modem w/ WiFi: $59.99 one-time purchase
XFINITY

$49.95/mo for 10 mbps. 10 mbps and 2.0 mbps Some areas have a 1TB data cap. Modem:
$10/mo
$39.99/mo for 25 mbps. 25 mbps and 5.0 mbps 1-year promo rate. Regular rate is $69.95.
Some areas have a 1TB data cap. Modem w/ WiFi: $10/mo
$82.95/mo for 150 mbps. 150 mbps and 10 mbps Some areas have a 1TB data cap.
Modem w/ WiFi: $10/mo.

VIRGINIA BROADBAND LLC


(Fixed Wireless speeds of 15mbps possible)
$19.99 for 1GB/mo * Install: $149.99
$34.99 for 2GB/mo * Install: $149.99
$49.99 for 5GB/mo * Install: $149.99
$64.99 for 10GB/mo * Install: $149.99
$79.99 for 25GB/mo * Install: $100 (discounted)
$114.99 for 50GB/mo *Install: FREE. Additional GBs can be added in blocks of 10 for just
$10/mo (thats $1/GB)
Residential and Small Businesses $225/mo with FREE Install
Large Businesses w/multiple connections $299/mo

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FOR ZIP CODE 22742


VERIZON DSL
$29.99/mo for 3 Mbps. 768 Kbps 1-year promo rate. Regular rate is $34.99. Verizon home
phone service required. Setup: Activation: Waived. Modem w/ WiFi: $59.99 one-time
purchase
$19.99/mo for 1 Mbps. 384 Kbps Regular rate is $24.99. Verizon home phone service
required. Modem w/ WiFi: $59.99 one-time purchase

VIRGINIA BROADBAND LLC

(Fixed Wireless speeds of 15mbps possible)


$19.99 for 1GB/mo * Install: $149.99
$34.99 for 2GB/mo * Install: $149.99
$49.99 for 5GB/mo * Install: $149.99
$64.99 for 10GB/mo * Install: $149.99
$79.99 for 25GB/mo * Install: $100 (discounted)
$114.99 for 50GB/mo *Install: FREE. Additional GBs can be added in blocks of 10 for just
$10/mo (thats $1/GB)
Residential and Small Businesses $225/mo with FREE Install
Large Businesses w/multiple connections $299/mo

FOR ZIP CODES 20119, 20137


VERIZON DSL
$29.99/mo for 3 Mbps. 768 Kbps 1-year promo rate. Regular rate is $34.99. Verizon home
phone service required. Setup: Activation: Waived. Modem w/ WiFi: $59.99 one-time
purchase
$19.99/mo for 1 Mbps. 384 Kbps Regular rate is $24.99. Verizon home phone service
required. Modem w/ WiFi: $59.99 one-time purchase
XFINITY

$49.95/mo for 10 mbps. 10 mbps and 2.0 mbps Some areas have a 1TB data cap. Modem:
$10/mo
$39.99/mo for 25 mbps. 25 mbps and 5.0 mbps 1-year promo rate. Regular rate is $69.95.
Some areas have a 1TB data cap. Modem w/ WiFi: $10/mo
$82.95/mo for 150 mbps. 150 mbps and 10 mbps Some areas have a 1TB data cap.
Modem w/ WiFi: $10/mo.
Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

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FOR ZIP CODE 20187


VERIZON DSL
$29.99/mo for 3 Mbps. 768 Kbps 1-year promo rate. Regular rate is $34.99. Verizon home
phone service required. Setup: Activation: Waived. Modem w/ WiFi: $59.99 one-time
purchase
$19.99/mo for 1 Mbps. 384 Kbps Regular rate is $24.99. Verizon home phone service
required. Modem w/ WiFi: $59.99 one-time purchase
XFINITY

$49.95/mo for 10 mbps. 10 mbps and 2.0 mbps Some areas have a 1TB data cap. Modem:
$10/mo
$39.99/mo for 25 mbps. 25 mbps and 5.0 mbps 1-year promo rate. Regular rate is $69.95.
Some areas have a 1TB data cap. Modem w/ WiFi: $10/mo
$82.95/mo for 150 mbps. 150 mbps and 10 mbps Some areas have a 1TB data cap.
Modem w/ WiFi: $10/mo.

SHENTEL
$99.95/mo for 25 mbps. 25 mbps and 5.0 mbps w/ a 500 GB/mo data cap.
$139.95/mo for 50 mbps. 50 mbps and 10 mbps w/ a 750 GB/mo data cap.
$199.95/mo for 101 mbps. 101 mbps and 10 mbps w/ a 1000 GB/mo data cap.

FOR ZIP CODE 20186, 20115


VERIZON DSL
$29.99/mo for 3 Mbps. 768 Kbps 1-year promo rate. Regular rate is $34.99. Verizon home
phone service required. Setup: Activation: Waived. Modem w/ WiFi: $59.99 one-time
purchase
$19.99/mo for 1 Mbps. 384 Kbps Regular rate is $24.99. Verizon home phone service
required. Modem w/ WiFi: $59.99 one-time purchase
XFINITY

$49.95/mo for 10 mbps. 10 mbps and 2.0 mbps Some areas have a 1TB data cap. Modem:
$10/mo
$39.99/mo for 25 mbps. 25 mbps and 5.0 mbps 1-year promo rate. Regular rate is $69.95.
Some areas have a 1TB data cap. Modem w/ WiFi: $10/mo
$82.95/mo for 150 mbps. 150 mbps and 10 mbps Some areas have a 1TB data cap.
Modem w/ WiFi: $10/mo.
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SHENTEL
$99.95/mo for 25 mbps. 25 mbps and 5.0 mbps w/ a 500 GB/mo data cap.
$139.95/mo for 50 mbps. 50 mbps and 10 mbps w/ a 750 GB/mo data cap.
$199.95/mo for 101 mbps. 101 mbps and 10 mbps w/ a 1000 GB/mo data cap.

VIRGINIA BROADBAND LLC

(Fixed Wireless speeds of 15mbps possible)


$19.99 for 1GB/mo * Install: $149.99
$34.99 for 2GB/mo * Install: $149.99
$49.99 for 5GB/mo * Install: $149.99
$64.99 for 10GB/mo * Install: $149.99
$79.99 for 25GB/mo * Install: $100 (discounted)
$114.99 for 50GB/mo *Install: FREE. Additional GBs can be added in blocks of 10 for just
$10/mo (thats $1/GB)
Residential and Small Businesses $225/mo with FREE Install
Large Businesses w/multiple connections $299/mo

FOR ZIP CODE 20198


VERIZON DSL
$29.99/mo for 3 Mbps. 768 Kbps 1-year promo rate. Regular rate is $34.99. Verizon home
phone service required. Setup: Activation: Waived. Modem w/ WiFi: $59.99 one-time
purchase
$19.99/mo for 1 Mbps. 384 Kbps Regular rate is $24.99. Verizon home phone service
required. Modem w/ WiFi: $59.99 one-time purchase
XFINITY

$49.95/mo for 10 mbps. 10 mbps and 2.0 mbps Some areas have a 1TB data cap. Modem:
$10/mo
$39.99/mo for 25 mbps. 25 mbps and 5.0 mbps 1-year promo rate. Regular rate is $69.95.
Some areas have a 1TB data cap. Modem w/ WiFi: $10/mo
$82.95/mo for 150 mbps. 150 mbps and 10 mbps Some areas have a 1TB data cap.
Modem w/ WiFi: $10/mo.

SHENTEL
$99.95/mo for 25 mbps. 25 mbps and 5.0 mbps w/ a 500 GB/mo data cap.
Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

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$139.95/mo for 50 mbps. 50 mbps and 10 mbps w/ a 750 GB/mo data cap.
$199.95/mo for 101 mbps. 101 mbps and 10 mbps w/ a 1000 GB/mo data cap.

ALL POINTS BROADBAND


Fixed Wireless

$199.00/mo for 15 mbps. 15 mbps and 4.0 mbps w/ no data cap. Contract Term: 1 year.
Setup: $49.00 (Includes installation and equipment.)

FOR ZIP CODE 20184


ALL POINTS BROADBAND
Fixed Wireless
$199.00/mo for 15 mbps. 15 mbps and 4.0 mbps w/ no data cap. Contract Term: 1 year.
Setup: $49.00 (Includes installation and equipment.)

FOR ZIP CODE 20144, 22643


VERIZON DSL
$29.99/mo for 3 Mbps. 768 Kbps 1-year promo rate. Regular rate is $34.99. Verizon home
phone service required. Setup: Activation: Waived. Modem w/ WiFi: $59.99 one-time
purchase
$19.99/mo for 1 Mbps. 384 Kbps Regular rate is $24.99. Verizon home phone service
required. Modem w/ WiFi: $59.99 one-time purchase.

SHENTEL
$99.95/mo for 25 mbps. 25 mbps and 5.0 mbps w/ a 500 GB/mo data cap.
$139.95/mo for 50 mbps. 50 mbps and 10 mbps w/ a 750 GB/mo data cap.
$199.95/mo for 101 mbps. 101 mbps and 10 mbps w/ a 1000 GB/mo data cap.

FOR ZIP CODE 22639


VERIZON DSL
$29.99/mo for 3 Mbps. 768 Kbps 1-year promo rate. Regular rate is $34.99. Verizon home
phone service required. Setup: Activation: Waived. Modem w/ WiFi: $59.99 one-time
purchase
$19.99/mo for 1 Mbps. 384 Kbps Regular rate is $24.99. Verizon home phone service
required. Modem w/ WiFi: $59.99 one-time purchase.

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CENTURYLINK
$34.95/mo for 10 mbps. 10 mbps and -- mbps 1-year promo rate. Contract Term: 1 year.
AutoPay enrollment and paperless billing required. Setup: $0 (Free internet activation. Free
modem shipping for self-installation option. Standard tech installation is $59.99.) Modem w/
WiFi: $9.99/mo or one-time $99.99
$44.95/mo for 25 mbps. 25 mbps and -- mbps . 1-year promo rate. Contract Term: 1 year.
AutoPay enrollment and paperless billing required. Setup: $0 (Free internet activation.
Standard tech installation is $59.99.) Modem w/ WiFi: $9.99/mo or one-time $99.99

FOR ZIP CODE 22642


CENTURYLINK
$34.95/mo for 10 mbps. 10 mbps and -- mbps 1-year promo rate. Contract Term: 1 year.
AutoPay enrollment and paperless billing required. Setup: $0 (Free internet activation. Free
modem shipping for self-installation option. Standard tech installation is $59.99.) Modem w/
WiFi: $9.99/mo or one-time $99.99
$44.95/mo for 25 mbps. 25 mbps and -- mbps . 1-year promo rate. Contract Term: 1 year.
AutoPay enrollment and paperless billing required. Setup: $0 (Free internet activation.
Standard tech installation is $59.99.) Modem w/ WiFi: $9.99/mo or one-time $99.99

SHENTEL
$99.95/mo for 25 mbps. 25 mbps and 5.0 mbps w/ a 500 GB/mo data cap.
$139.95/mo for 50 mbps. 50 mbps and 10 mbps w/ a 750 GB/mo data cap.
$199.95/mo for 101 mbps. 101 mbps and 10 mbps w/ a 1000 GB/mo data cap.

VERIZON DSL
$29.99/mo for 3 Mbps. 768 Kbps 1-year promo rate. Regular rate is $34.99. Verizon home
phone service required. Setup: Activation: Waived. Modem w/ WiFi: $59.99 one-time
purchase
$19.99/mo for 1 Mbps. 384 Kbps Regular rate is $24.99. Verizon home phone service
required. Modem w/ WiFi: $59.99 one-time purchase.

WINDSTREAM
$69.99/mo for 25 mbps and -- mbps . Bundled with unlimited phone. Setup: $0 (Free
professional installation. Activation is $50.) Modem w/ WiFi: $9.99/mo
$59.99/mo for 25 mbps and -- mbps . Bundled with unlimited phone. Setup: $0 (Free
shipping of equipment and self-install kit. Professional installation is $35. Activation is $50.)
Modem w/ WiFi: $9.99/mo

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

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$269.99/mo 500 mbps and 500 mbps w/ no data cap. 1-year promo rate. Regular rate is
$279.99. Contract Term: 2 years with $165 ETF. Setup: $80. Modem w/ WiFi: $10/mo or
one-time $199
XFINITY

$49.95/mo for 10 mbps. 10 mbps and 2.0 mbps Some areas have a 1TB data cap. Modem:
$10/mo
$39.99/mo for 25 mbps. 25 mbps and 5.0 mbps 1-year promo rate. Regular rate is $69.95.
Some areas have a 1TB data cap. Modem w/ WiFi: $10/mo
$82.95/mo for 150 mbps. 150 mbps and 10 mbps Some areas have a 1TB data cap.
Modem w/ WiFi: $10/mo.

FOR ZIP CODE 22642


VERIZON FIOS
$49.99/mo 50 mbps and 50 mbps w/ no data cap. 1-year promo rate. Regular rate is
$59.99. Contract Term: 2 years with $165 ETF. Setup: $80 (Setup fee) Modem w/ WiFi: $10/
mo or one-time $199.
$59.99/mo 100 mbps and 100 mbps w/ no data cap. 1-year promo rate. Regular rate is
$69.99. Contract Term: 2 years with $165 ETF. Setup: $80 (Setup fee) Modem w/ WiFi: $10/
mo or one-time $199
$269.99/mo for 500 mbps and 500 mbps w/ no data cap. 1-year promo rate. Regular rate is
$279.99. Contract Term: 2 years with $165 ETF. Setup: $80. Modem w/ WiFi: $10/mo or
one-time $199
XFINITY

$49.95/mo for 10 mbps. 10 mbps and 2.0 mbps Some areas have a 1TB data cap. Modem:
$10/mo
$39.99/mo for 25 mbps. 25 mbps and 5.0 mbps 1-year promo rate. Regular rate is $69.95.
Some areas have a 1TB data cap. Modem w/ WiFi: $10/mo
$82.95/mo for 150 mbps. 150 mbps and 10 mbps Some areas have a 1TB data cap.
Modem w/ WiFi: $10/mo.

VERIZON DSL
$29.99/mo for 3 Mbps. 768 Kbps 1-year promo rate. Regular rate is $34.99. Verizon home
phone service required. Setup: Activation: Waived. Modem w/ WiFi: $59.99 one-time
purchase
$19.99/mo for 1 Mbps. 384 Kbps Regular rate is $24.99. Verizon home phone service
required. Modem w/ WiFi: $59.99 one-time purchase.
Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

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INTERVIEWS AND USER FEEDBACK


Design Nine interviewed a variety of County ocials and met with a variety of interested
parties and stakeholders.
Dr. David Jeck (Superintendent), Louis McDonald (IT Director)
Louis is continuing the design of the wireless network for the schools. Two thirds of school
buildings are connected via a 200 Megabit/second circuit from Comcast and a 2 Gigabit/
second Internet connection. The school system pays Comcast $250,000/year through E-Rate
which provides about half the cost of the service. There are two plus years remaining on the
Comcast contract. The school system has only used up to 1 Gigabit on the 2 Gigabit Internet
connection so far. Louis said that it was recommended that the system be capable of providing
1 Gigabit per 1,000 students. The county school system would need 10 Gigabit/second
connection to meet this guideline. Louiss problem is that some elementary schools only have a
20 Megabit/second connection, so a much larger circuit will be needed in the near future to
meet the minimum recommended guidelines for Internet capacity at each school.
Meeting with Regina Miller (Owner) and Mike Overton (COO and IT Mgr) Miller Brothers
Miller Brothers, General Contractors in Marshall, VA acquired a business fiber-optic link from
Verizon which waived the minimum number of endpoints to run a quarter-mile length.
Verizon charged $60,000 for installation with Miller Brothers installing the conduit. The
regular monthly charge was $3,000/month, but Verizon has only charged $760/month, about
half of the $1,300/month Miller Brothers had been paying previously for an unreliable and
slow copper DSL line. There have been no additional problems after the fiber line was
installed. The process took four months for paperwork and another three months for approval.
Miller Brothers uses Verizon Wireless for communications at various job sites.
Ike Broadus, Vint Hill commercial property developer and business owner (Old Bust Head
Brewery)
Ike has tried to work as a home-based business but needs to commute to work to get better
broadband service through a Blaze Broadband wireless 20 Megabit/second connection. There is
a quarter mile line-of-site connection to a tower that serves all tenants in the Vint Hill business
park. Tenants use VoIP, PoS (Point of Sale) , graphic file uploads.
Eventually one park tenant got access to Comcast fiber which was installed to serve GRC
printing, but which was also stapled to the front of Ikes building. Comcast would not respond
to Ikes request to weave the fiber through Ikes building and wouldnt even move the fiber so
that Ike could renovate the front of his building.
Two other park tenants in another building now have Comcast fiber. Blaze Broadband has
taken over fiber in the park to connect to the wireless tower for backhaul. Blaze intends to
install more conduit and fiber. Novak Solutions got the fiber to the Blaze tower. Satellite service
Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

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is very bad, poor cell phone service. Cell cards are useless. Ike owns a software company with
many remote workers. Ike acquired a T1 service for $350/month and then replaced the T1 line
with Blaze Broadband.
Miles Friedman, Beverly Pullen, Catherine Payne, Laura Torpy from Fauquier County EDC
Miles emphasized the importance of better broadband for business development needs. Many
areas of Fauquier County are underserved with broadband business services. Comcast has
refused to improve broadband services to businesses. Mile said that County Commissioner
Gerhardt was committed to better broadband in the county. A creative solution is required to
create a viable public/private partnership. Miles said that fiber management will be a problem
since the county cannot get accurate fiber inventory status from the current fiber owners (ILEC
& CLEC).
Kevin Greeley, CEO OSSI, an IT management company in Marshall, VA
Kevin said Comcast is the primary cable provider in the county. There are few reliability or
latency problems for most Comcast users. T1 connections are available for $550/month for 1.5
Megabit/second connections. Exede Internet can provide connectivity with 12 Megabit/sec
download and 4 Megabit/second upload speeds for $130/month with up to 50 Gig/month
transmission cap. The biggest problem is in the residential market, but the topography is not
suited to wireless.
Broadband providers are not likely to be attracted to the low population density in much of the
county. If a network was installed and operated independent of the county, then it might be
successful. Many residents are opposed to tower construction and to business development in
general. Kevin feels that there are already adequate communications facilities for the
government sector. A new network needs to be apolitical. Thomasville, Georgia is a good
example of a municipal broadband network that functions well. Thomasville installed a fiber
ring that benefits all the residents of the town.
Dennis Taylor, Paradigm Solutions
Dennis is a member of the countys broadband committee and lives in Catlett. He had
Adelphia cable installed before Comcast acquired Adelphia. He now has a Comcast bundle
with VoIP, TV for $250/month. Broadband has a burst rate up to 100 Megabit/second. Hes
able to work successfully from home. The cost for new cable installations is high. Dennis feels
that the broadband committee has been very successful. The county has now become very probusiness. Previously residential growth was restricted to 3%/year.
Judy Olsen, Judy Olsen Design
Judy lives in Orlean and uses Exede for broadband wireless. She worked from home until two
years ago when she decided to move her business into Warrenton for better Internet
connectivity. She now has a 10 Gig/month transmission cap connection for $120/month and
reaches her data cap in about a week. She now makes her Internet connection at the Innovation
Center and gets better service with AT&T on her iPad. Judy cannot subscribe to Blaze
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Broadbands wireless service at home because she lives in a hollow. She thinks that Verizon
might have installed fiber in her house at some point. Judy lives nine miles outside of
Warrenton and evaluated every option available, even a T1 at $550/month, but none were
feasible or aordable.
Jennifer Goldman, Owner of Resonance
Jennifer manages two county enterprise centers in Vint Hill and Marshall where she lives. She
uses Exede Internet for broadband connectivity at $60/month, but finds the service unreliable.
Other services at higher speeds are cost prohibitive. The business incubators in Marshall now
has high speed Comcast service. The incubators have seven to eight oces each and could
have ten to twelve constant broadband users. The businesses include life insurance, digital
marketing, a Navy contractor, and a medical doctor. Blaze Broadband is used at the winery in
Marshall. Jennifer said many students in Marshall have diculty making useful Internet
connections to complete homework assignments.
Martha Kelly, U.S. State Department Consultant
Martha lives in a private community eight miles east of Warrenton near Rte 29. There are 15
land owners on 158 acres of land and 13 houses with no broadband service. She bought her
property 20 years ago when she worked in Washington, D.C. and she worked from home one
day a week using a T1 line. Her service at home is now very poor; she cannot use a modem.
Verizon said that it will not maintain the copper wire and the DSL service needs a boosting
station. Her house is in a hollow with no towers and no wireless connection. Some houses have
satellite service while some have a Comcast connection for which they paid a $10,000
installation fee.
Martha complained that Verizon was given a monopoly to provide ecient landline service, but
now all they want to sell is their wireless service. Martha has no TV at home and the copper
landline is more than forty years old. Martha now has a consulting practice and uses a George
Mason University facility for which she pays $200/month. For this she has a desk in an open
area, but also has a decent Internet connection.
Martha had previously been stationed in war-torn Goma in the Central African Republic
while she worked at the State Department. Her email service there was better than her current
service at home. She is currently working for the Congressional Quarterly and Highland
Financial Services but cant use her Internet connection to load and deliver product pictures.
She feels its ironic that she lives 45 miles west of Washington, D.C. and cant get a decent
Internet connection.
Joe Martin, President of Fauquier County Chamber of Commerce, Natalie Howard,
Warrenton Chamber of Commerce
Joe is also on the broadband committee with Rick Gerhardt. Joe is hoping to change height
restrictions on wireless towers 80 maximum to 120. Joe lives in Manassas and pays about $500/

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month for a Verizon FiOS bundled service. He pays $260 for a Comcast business service to his
oce in Warrenton.
Joe said that Marshall was bigger than the three incorporated municipalities (The Plaines,
Remington, Warrenton) in Fauquier County.
Joe would like to increase the partnership with the county and its municipalities. An
organization was formed to purchase most of Vint Hill. There are nine service districts
designated for growth, but there has not been much activity so far. The districts should have all
the services needed for growth, and high-speed broadband is one of those needs. Joe says the
Chamber wants to bring desirable businesses government contractors, light manufacturing,
tech companies to the county and increase telecommuting opportunities which could increase
the number of satellite or branch oces of larger businesses. The county needs more bricks and
mortar. Joes wife works for a company in North Carolina and all the sta work from home.
She rarely travels to North Carolina from Manassas.
Natalie has HughesNet satellite service at home for $91/month with Internet only. DirectTV
provides television.
Angie Thomas, Mgr Forecasting NERC; Bob Bisson, PE, VP Electric System Development
at Northern Virginia Electric Cooperative
Angie and Bob agreed that the broadband study is needed and that improved broadband
service will stimulate additional business in the county. NOVEC, Rappahannock and
Dominion provide electrical service in the county. NOVEC does not directly sell electrical
power; it only provides transmission. It has no conduit.
Ann Greene, Marshall Real Estate
Marshall Real Estate pays $310/month for Comcast internet and three phone lines. Comcast is
the primary broadband provider, but potential subscribers cant get them to move beyond the
providers current, static footprint.
Verizon DSL is also available, but only to existing customers in Marshall. Verizon also provides
Home Fusion rooftop antenna service costing $130/month for 30 Gig/month data caps and
additional $20/Gig beyond the basic data cap. This service can stream video acceptably but data
cap is reached rapidly.
Cell phone service can transmit data to some extent, but its very slow in rural areas. Piedmont
Broadband provides direct line of sight service for $80/month with unlimited data and a $400
equipment setup fee.
Marshall is currently undergoing a major Main Street renovation project and this would be an
ideal time to install additional broadband infrastructure. Real estate businesses in the area are
losing business because of the poor broadband service available.

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Joel Barkman, Owner, Golden Rule Builders, Catlett VA


Blaze Broadband installed an antenna on the Catlett water tower, but then Comcast came to
Catlett. Joel pays $160/month for 100 Megabit/second Comcast Internet service at home and
business. He did construction work for Comcast to get the service. There is an AT&T tower in
the town; Joel doesnt think there would be much resident opposition to new towers in the area.
Guy Hinkler, Owner of Inserity and Chair of Fauquier County Chamber of Commerce EDC
Committee
Guy owned an IT company in Manassas with fifty employees. He owns a fifty-acre farm in
Midland about six miles o Rte 28 and hes bored. Its dicult to work remotely from the farm
where he only has access to Excede ($50/month) or HughesNet ($70/month) Hes had
problems with both services but he has a two-year contract. He uses up his monthly quota in
two days.
Cell towers are inadequate for voice in his neighborhood. Guy acquired a hot spot for his
phone with Sprints service but its slow and undependable.
Guy has been waiting a long time for this broadband study. He says that it provides hope to the
community. It currently takes two and a half hours to commute to Tysons Corner along Rte 66.
Sean LaChance (Network Mgr, Fauquier County); Donna Cason (Asst Network Mgr,
Fauquier County)
County owns some fiber in Warrenton, so the county is connecting Warrenton sites, including
schools. Verizon and Comcast provide standard services. Verizon is servicing the library. The
IT department recently completed upgrading rescue services from ISDN. There are no other
plans for upgraded services. There are no charge backs to other departments for IT services. All
expenses are handled within the IT budget.

EXISTING ASSETS AND DEMOGRAPHY


The maps below and on the following pages include:
Points of interest, including household density (an important factor when evaluating new
service areas).
Unserved areas (data from the NTIA National Broadband Map), and areas of low and
moderate income, which can be important when applying for grants. CDBG (Community Development Block Grants) favor projects in LMI areas. Some Federal grants like
Community Connect are only available for unserved areas.
Towers in various parts of the county. These are taken from the FCC tower registry and
American Tower. The FCC registry which includes both cell towers and other kinds of
towers (e.g. radio/TV broadcast towers, public safety towers).
Fiber routes in the region, where the telcos have been willing to provide that data.
Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Page 45 of 106

nty
Fred erick Cou
nty
Warren Cou

Broadlands

340

Lo u
d

Cl
W a rk
eC
ar
re
o
n
C unt
ou
y
nt
y

Shenandoah
Farms

15

Middleburg

Shenandoah
Shores

Arcola

Rd
a

ay

nR
d

Rd

to
ai
ds

um

Rec t orto w

ill
R

Haymarket

Pr

Rd

ty

re

ty
un
Co
am
ty
il li
un
eW
Co
in c
i er
qu
F au

an

st

e
Cr

Bl

17

New
Baltimore

Rd

522

Flint

600
V
U

Bull Run
Linton
Hall

Bla

215
V
U

15

28
V
U

Rd

Du
m

Ra

es
ri

Fa
uq
uie
pa
rC
ha
ou
nt y
nn
oc
kC
oun
ty

29

66

Gainesville

c kwell

Hill

Bristow

Rd

Warrenton

211

234
V
U

Rd

Washington

nt

600
V
U

245
V
U

Rd
e

ou

Manor

55
V
U

ty

Bull Run
Mountain
Estates

al f

The
Plains

un

e L Marshall
n

ds

Chester
Gap

Co

Co

F a uq u ie r

ty
un

66

unty

am

o
en C

Gro v

arr

L ee

522

n
ou

i
ill

340

W
ce

600
V
U

in

55
U
V

ud

ok

Pr

At
Rd
ne

Stone
Ridge

Lo

Skyland
Estates

Apple Mountain
Lake
Front
Royal

Brambleton

17

66

Riverton

50

Rt

55
V
U

ou n

C ou
nty
50 Fau q u

ier C
o unty

Nokesville

ld

Du

f ri

600
V
U

r i ngs
n
Fo
Fo x T l
r
Leeton CtR d

522

Me
e tz

Rd

Old Aubu
rn
R

15

L e es Ri

Rd

17

dge
Rd

Culpeper

Run

Morrisville
15

15

10 - 61

Fire Station

Oakpark

522

Culpeper Co

College / University
O

ran g

Fire/Rescue Station

Government Office

Police Station

Hospital/Polyclinic

unt
y

e C o u n ty

3
V
U

Interstate

Primary Highway
Secondary Highway

62 - 111
112 - 161
230
V
U

15

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Lake
of the
Woods

10/07/2016
Credits: ESRI, VGIN

Wilderness

Rescue Squad

Library

Local Roads

Virginia Address Points

School

Railroad

162 - 212

20
V
U

17

Place

Sp
O
ot
r
s y a ng
lv
an e C
ou
ia
n
C
o u ty
nt
y

Household Density

Goldvein

Lignum

Points of Interest for Fauquier County, Virginia


Household Denisty/census tract(sq.mi.)

er d ck Rd
u

Stafford County

Brightwood

3
600 V
U
V
U

ge St
C ol le

F a uq u i e r C o u n t y

rs Ln

Rd

d
A qui a R

E lk

Su

Love

Rd

Remington

29

29

id
la
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to
w

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Bealeton

Rd

Fr
y

Rd

r
D

O ld

ig

15

29

o n St

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Leigh

Jack
so

Eq
u

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p
Ga
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Do
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rfo
lk
Dr

842

Fox
Iro e w D
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n
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Le

Sain

East St

Sow ego

bu
rg

Midland

nt To wn Rd
Bre

ty
un y
C o unt
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o
ep n C
lp
o
Cu a dis
M

Dr

ill

pma

Ma
d is

Ln

Le
a ve rl y

St

H
em y
ca d

Duhollow Rd

28
V
U

Rd

or

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Dr

Rd

s
dill

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Rd

Rd

Ho

EL

al

Shi

wo
i ll

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W

Warrenton

pit

V
U
229

St

211

Calverton

tz
e

rs
ste
Bri

St

Kin

ee

Opal

overn

F
an s
em
re
ty
un
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nt
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ou
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Cu

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15

29

ate
Est
ik e
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d ri A
an

Jeffersonton

Rd

29

N H ill D
r

Catlett

l
pa

y
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cc
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678

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231
V
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c

17

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522

Flet

15

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M

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Bea
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Fa
r
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Rd

es R

Rd

211

Sperryville

Lake
Wilderness

600
V
U

32.5
U
V

Five
Mile
Fork

Miles

Page 46 of 106


nty
Fred erick Cou
nty
Warren Cou

Broadlands
C
l
W ark
e
ar
C
re
o
n
C un t
ou
y
nt
y

Shenandoah
Farms

Shenandoah
Shores

50

L oud
oun
C oun
Fau q
ty
uier
Co u
nty

Middleburg

Brambleton

17

Arcola
Rd

Rd

t
un

ai
ds

to

Co

ty

m
ia

oun

ill

R e ctor t

ow

Bull Run
Mountain
Estates

600
U
V

The
Plains

55
V
U

Marshall

Ln

Rd

es
tH
ill
R

nC

Chester
Gap

ou
ud

rC

ty

e
Grov

ie
uqu

n
ou

Rd

s Manor
ed
Le

Fa

u nt
Co

Stone
Ridge

Lo

55
V
U

66

n
r re
Wa

ne

ce

At

Front
Royal

ka

in
Pr

Skyland
Estates

Apple Mountain Lake

Halfwa y R d

Riverton

245
U
V

Rd

Cr

Hu m

Pr

Haymarket

Rd

y
un t
Co
am
ty
il li
un
e W er Co
in c
i
qu
F au

600
V
U

an
ty

re

17

Bla c
kwell R d

Bl

Flint
Hill

New
Baltimore

Bull Run

Gainesville

Linton
Hall

15

Rd

211

Washington
Ra
pp

Fa

uq

ah
an

uie

no

s Rd

Bristow
rC

ou

Co

Warrenton
nt

29

211

Du

un t
y

Nokesville
Old

ck

D umfrie

Rt

ie

Ai

rl

ings
Rd

f ri
es

Rd

15

Catlett

Sp
r

Sperryville

Rd
R un

f ield Dr

er

El

ui Rd
Aq a

St

Morrisville
Duhollow Rd
Rd

O ld

ee
tz
e Culpeper
Rd

Fo
Fo x
T rl
R
Leeton Ct d

Old Aub

ur

17

S
n

Rd

rd

uc

k Rd

L ees Ri

Goldvein

ty

Ln

S t af f o r d C o u n

ht
on

on St

dis

F auq u ier C ou nty

15

Fr
y to

en

S
S t
5T
h

t
ith
S
Ke

St East S t

G
re

Remington

Le

Rd

17

i ll

eep

Jack
so

Fox
T im Ir
ew D
be o
Eq r F
ue

Ga
yR
Do
d
ve
No r Rd
rfo
lk D
r

M os

Ln

onard s

Town Rd

an

Bealeton

nt

Sain

Rd

B re

Sowego

R
d

ee

re s

Leigh

15

dge R

Brightwood

s ters
Bri

EL

Ma

Ln
Le
ig

R
ill

id l

yH

15

29

Fr
ee

e
um

bu
rg

a ve rl y

rL

F ry

pma

di
lly

he

Fis

Rd

al

l
pa

Ho

ty
un y
C o unt
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o
ep n C
lp
o
Cu a dis
M

pit

Dr

er
ov n

dem
A ca

St
Hig h

29

Warrenton

Shi

nd
xa

dR
or
ns F
ma
nt y
ou
y
nt
ou
rC

211

A le

St

oo

rC

King

w
i ll

ui e

St

ate
Est
e
P ik e
ria Av

uq
Fa

29

r
alke
W

Cup
D

Rd

s
ce
Ac

pe
l pe

c k Sw
Gold

Wat erloo

n St

211

678

17

rR

Ln

B la

uie

Rd

S p r i ng s D

Winches ter

ky
D re P Rd
B ite nc ian
r
st

Calverton
tz
e

28
V
U

d
sR

Cu

8 42

Opal
Midland

arr
M

Fa
uq

vi

Oa
k

ee

Jeffersonton
ty
un
Co
ty
c k ou n
no
C
n
r
ha
pe
pa
pe
ap Cu l
R

Lignum

Rd

St
lege
C ol
rs Ln

lp eper Co
Cu
re
en

Love

Or

a ng

unt
y

e C ou n t y

Oakpark

LMI for Fauquier County, Virginia


Less Than or Equal to 50%

Interstate

Secondary Highway

Place

Greater Than 50%

Primary Highway

Local Roads

Railroad

LMI data from 2006-2010 ACS

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

10/07/2016
Credits: ESRI, VGIN

Lake of
the Woods
Wilderness

Lake
Wilderness

10

Five
Mile
Fork

Miles

Page 47 of 106

FIBER ASSETS IN THE COUNTY


The map below shows the fiber assets that have been identified in the county. Incumbents like
Verizon and Comcast will not share their fiber route maps. The County have excellent access to
long haul carriers, including MBC (Mid-Atlantic Broadband), Zayo, and Paetec
Zayo is a Tier One national Internet provider, and Paetec is another large long haul provider
with assets from North Carolina up through New England and into the Midwest. Access to
the facilities and commodity pricing of these two companies is an important advantage in the
county. MBC is a Virginia-based open access fiber provider that brings additional large and
medium-sized Internet and telecom providers into the county.
nty
Fred erick Cou
nty
Warren Cou

Cl
W a rk
e
ar
Co
re
n
C unt
ou
y
nt
y

340

50

Lou
dou
n Co
Fau qu
unty
ier C
ount
y

50

Rd

ai
ds

to

m
ia

ow

15

R e ctor t

Ln

ll R
d

Rd

600
V
U

The
Plains

55
V
U

Marshall

234
V
U

245
V
U
66

tH
i

Rd

y
u nt
ty
Co
un
Co

ill

Gro v

u
r Co

n ty

Manor
eds

F au q u i e

ty
Le

C o un

un
do

Rd

rr en
Wa

522

ce

340

ne

in
Pr

600
V
U
55
V
U

u
Lo

66

R
Hal f way d

55
V
U

Ato k
a Rd

17

s
re

Hu m

re
nt y
B la

29

600
U
V
New
Baltimore

Bla kwell Rd
c

522

ty
un
Co
liam
ty
un
Wil
Co
ce
er
Pr in uqu i
Fa

Rd

17

215
V
U

15

Ai

rl

ie

Rd

Rd

28
V
U

Rt

Rd

211

D umfries

211

522

Ra

pp
a

Fa
ha

uq

uie

nn
o

rC

ou

nty

29

un t
y

Co

Ol

ck

Warrenton

Du

fri
es

Me e

211

d
tze R

229
V
U

231
V
U

Rd

15

Catlett

O
pa

Calverton

lR

Opal

d
Rd

d
nR
Frytow

Ln

Old Au

bu

rn

600

Goldvein

3
V
U

15

u nty

V
U

Rd

ford Co
Staf

Le

Rd

Run

ern
Mov

ield Dr

illf

er D r

G
re

en

a lk

St

S
S t
5T
h

Ln

ona rds

M os
er

h Vie w

Fox
T imIr o
ew D
be n
Eq r F
ue
s

eep
Ga
yR
d
Do
ver
Rd
No
rfo
lk D
r

Nort

Morrisville

F a uq u ier C ou n t y

Brent To w n Rd

Sain

Rd

15

ee
tz
e

d
u
A q ia R

k R

Le es

17

Remington

du
m er
Su

Rd

Leeton Ct

El

29

Leigh

di son St

29

Fo
Tr l

Rd

re s

Fo x

ill

rd

Fo

St East St

O ld
hto

Duhollow Rd
Ma

m
ade
Ac

ns

ee

ma

EL

ty

e St

Ln

Rd

17

29

15

ree
ty

Bealeton
F

a verl y

Ln
Le
ig

rL

n
ou

pm a

dil
ly

he

o un

Fis

rC

al

Shi

17

R i d ge

Rd

C ol

522

St
lege

Culpeper Cou

Rd

rs Ln

en

Love

G
re

15

Or

an g

nty

e C o u nty

10/07/2016
Credits: ESRI, Paetec, Zayo,
MBC, Lumos

Existing Fiber Routes for Fauquier County, Virginia

230
V
U

3
U
V

Lumos

Zayo Fiber

Interstate

Secondary Highway

Place

MBC Fiber

PAETEC Fiber

Primary Highway

Local Road

Railroad
20

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Rd

Fr y

ty
un y
C o unt
er
o
ep n C
lp
o
Cu a dis
M

Ho

W Le

p it

522

Dr

rC

Warrenton

211

un

dl
an
d

ui e

St

ik

St
Hig h

P
ria
nd
xa

uq

A le

Kin

rR

28
V
U

Fa

St

St

15

211

Cir
N Hil l D
r

pe

Rd

l pe

Wa terloo

r in g s D r

oe

Bla
ck Sw

678

Fletc
h
Oak S p

Rd

Cu

rR

Ce d a

17

uie

Dr

Fa
uq

Winch est e r
bling St

Bea
rW
r
al lo
w
y Rd
Pk
D rc e Rd
Bit en ian
tr

Soweg
o

bu
rg

Midland

er

vi

te rs

522

B ri s

ty
un
Co
ty
c k ou n
no
C
n
r
a
e
ah
ep
p p u lp
C
Ra

V
U

600
U
V

2.5

Miles

Page 48 of 106

TOWER ASSETS
There are a number of towers in the county, split between county ownership and private
ownership. The majority of the cell towers are clustered along the major roads (e.g. Route 29,
Route 15, Route 17, and Route 8). Rural areas of the county, therefore, lack both reliable cell
phone service and cellular data service). Cellular data service as the primary home or business
means for Internet access can be very expensive. One home-based businessperson we
interviewed indicated their monthly cellular bill exceeded $700 most months. At their location,
they had no other option for the bandwidth needed to conduct routine business and meet
nominal personal Internet use.
In the map below, one can see that the primary distribution of towers is along the primary
routes through the county, especially Route 29, Route 15 and Route 17. Cell coverage is poor
in large parts of the county because household density is low and it is dicult for the cellular
companies to make a business case to build additional towers.
The County can play an important role by making space available on existing county-owned
towers and building additional towers for broadband wireless services.
ty
Frederick Coun
ty
Warren Coun

340

Shenandoah
Shores

Loud
oun
Coun
Fauq
ty
uier
Co un
ty

50

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Rd

ow

d
eR
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ty

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l
pa

g St

bl i n

Dr

Roe

St

Fairf
ax

C le

nd

yS

Cla

St

St

Goldvein
Lignum

Tower utlized by County


15

FCC Registered Tower**

American Tower Site**


Railroad

ep er
Cu lp

Coun

u nt
O ra n g e C o

Place

#
# ## #

3
V
U

10/07/2016
Credits: ESRI, FCC,
AT,Fauquier County

Wilderness

Secondary Highway

ty

Interstate

*Tower230
owned by Fauquier County **Green and Blue ID numbers relate to separte Entity Tables

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Primary Highway

Lake of the Woods


Local Road

20
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U

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o ts ng
ylv e C
ou
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Tower Strucutures for Fauquier County, Virginia


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215
V
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1018735
1237733

ies Rd

p
lp e

#
#

Sperryville

D umfr

1209660

Fau
qu
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# #

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29

Old

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un

###

1017847

ie

15308

29

Gainesville

ty

qu

an

ah

Cu

Fau
pp

gs

Ra

Spri n

211

ir
l

Warrenton

15

1062715

Rt

Washington

##

88337
1242426

New
Baltimore

Rd

2491

# #

600
V
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an

Bl a ckwell Rd

US-VA-8500

Bl

234

S t a f f or d C o u n

R e cto r t

Flint
Hill

F au qu ier C ou nty

st
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aid

17

522

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Haymarket

um

66

410238

ty

245
V
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un

es
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Co

55
V
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600
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US-VA-2197

15

88302

The
Plains

ty
un
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am
ty
illi
un
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nc
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qu
Fau

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1024355

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375143

Arcola
Stone
Ridge

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ty

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Bull Run
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Royal

Apple Mountain
Lake

Half way Rd

17

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Middleburg

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Riverton

50

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Page 49 of 106

FAUQUIER COUNTY FCC ENTITY TABLE


1015406
1016110
1017847
1018735
1024355
1029336
1062715
1206654
1209660
1227051
1228316
1231158
1232393
1234743
1237733
1240611
1242426
1257143

American Towers, Inc.


Dettra Communications Inc
Virginia, Commonwealth Of
WTKF INC DBA = WKCW
Crown Atlantic Company, LLC
Norfolk Southern Corp.
Community Wireless Structures LLC
Virginia Department of State Police
Fauquier County Board of Supervisors
Crown Communication Inc.
STC Three LLC
Manakin Towers LLC
National Communication Towers, LLC
STC Three LLC
Vint Hill Economic Development Authority
Pinnacle Towers Acquisition LLC
Warrenton Fauquier Joint Communications
Commonwealth of Virginia Dept. of Aviation

FAUQUIER COUNTY AMERICAN TOWER ENTITY TABLE


375725
375005
375143
410238
88314
88337
90221
2491
15308
US-VA-2224
US-VA-2220
US-VA-2197
US-VA-2179
US-VA-8500
88302

Calverton VA
Delaplane
Delaplane II
The Plains VA
Morrisville @ Route 651
Warrenton 2
Morrisville VA
Warrenton (FIRST VA)
Moonrock
Warrenton Po VA
Sumerduck Po VA
Hume Po VA
Bealeton Po VA
Campbell Revocable Living Trust VA
Haymarket

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Page 50 of 106

Broadband Strategies
Fauquier County has a variety of options and strategies available to improve broadband
availability.
The following pages provide a set of strategies: some can be applied to meet very specific needs
in individual areas. Other strategies can be applied more broadly. These include:
Form an Authority The County would benefit from collaborating on broadband initiatives,
and collaboration with adjacent counties could also be very beneficial.
Public/Private Partnerships All telecom, at varying levels, involve both public and private
collaboration.

Tower Leasing Where space is available on existing county-owned towers, make that space
available to wireless providers. In rural areas where there are no towers, consider constructing
new towers for fixed wireless broadband use.
Encourage the Use of Wooden Utility Poles Wider use of wooden utility poles for access to
wireless fixed point broadband could improve Internet connectivity in rural areas of the county.
Fiber/Wireless Hybrid Network In some areas of the county, placing fiber on rural roads
and using a high performance wireless connection for the connection between the rural home
and the road could reduce costs and oer performance similar to an all fiber design.

Meet-me Box and Fiber Drop Strategy Meet-me boxes and inexpensive fiber drops to
nearby homes or business/retail locations could attract improved wireless services from service
providers and/or promote increased competition.

Demand Aggregation A simple ongoing Web-based survey managed by the County that
collects customer demand information (including location) could be distributed periodically to
service providers.
Referendum It may be useful to have a public vote on allocating funds for broadband
improvements in the county.

Nano-cell Cellular Strategy In some parts of the county where broadband service to the
home is adequate but cellular service is poor, wider use of nano-cell equipment can provide
improved cellular phone service in homes and rural businesses.

Service District Funding Strategy Coupled with the demand aggregation strategy, some
areas of the county could be designated as broadband service districts to provide a funding
mechanism for broadband infrastructure improvements.

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Page 51 of 106

FORM A BROADBAND AUTHORITY


In Virginia, broadband authorities are used for broadband network projects that require long
term oversight. The Commonwealth of Virginia has created enabling legislation specifically
for broadband authorities, and there about twenty that have been formed (about ten are active).
The Authority oers arms-length separation of routine decision-making from local government. A key benefit of an Authority is that provides the oversight and management structure
if participation from more than one local government entity is desirable. These regional
agreements are widely used by local governments for the ownership and control of essential
infrastructure that is better managed regionally.
The County could form a County-only Authority, but surrounding localities, including
Culpeper, the Town of Warrenton, Staord, Prince William, Loudoun and Rappahannock
counties may also be interested. Networks do not stop at political boundaries; Fauquier would
benefit from being part of a larger regional collaboration to develop better broadband infrastructure through cost sharing and improved grant funding opportunities.
The basic principle underlying this approach is to create an independent management and
governance entity that operates on a non-profit/cost-plus basis and which is firmly vested in
the community. Some of the advantages of this approach include:
A single entity has the primary responsibility for improving broadband access and aordability throughout the area.
Broadband authorities have revenue bonding authority, which provides a stable, long term
financing solution. Revenue bond financing is particularly attractive as it does not aect
the credit rating of the local governments involved and has little or no impact on local
property tax rates.
The enterprise is firmly vested in the community or region, as opposed to a private venture (e.g. a LLC or coop), and via the board of directors, the local governments can guide
the long term goals and objectives of the organization.

OWNERSHIP AND GOVERNANCE


If a regional authority is planned, each participating local government must advertise and pass a
resolution to join the Authority. The minimum amount of time needed for this process is sixty
to ninety days.
Broadband authorities are registered with the State Corporation Commission, which is a
straightforward process with minimal paperwork. The authority has to have a charter document and a set of bylaws. The charter and bylaws could be drafted easily from the documents
already developed by other Virginia broadband authorities.
A Board of Directors has to be appointed, with typically five to seven members. In a single
county authority, there is often a board member for each magisterial district. In a multi-jurisFauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Page 52 of 106

dictional authority, each locality typically appoints one or two members. Board members
should have substantial management and business experience. Not all members need to have a
telecom background.

COST DISCUSSION
The direct cost of forming an authority is nominal. On an ongoing basis, an authority needs to
have some funds available for a variety of projects if it is to be eective. Each participating locality should be prepared to provide a fair share of funding, with amounts based on mutually
agreed upon projects and initiatives.
If Authority investments are largely limited to passive infrastructure (e.g. dark fiber, conduit,
wireless towers), the operational costs and responsibilities will be limited. Conduit and dark
fiber would be leased to the private sector and lease prices would be structured to cover most or
all of the ongoing operational costs.

FUNDING OPTIONS
Authorities, as a political subdivision, are eligible to apply for many kinds of state and Federal
funding. For large projects with an appropriately identified revenue stream, an authority can
bond directly. The VRA (Virginia Resource Authority) is able to assist broadband authorities
with revenue bond development, but bonding is probably not an early funding possibility.
ARC and DHCD/CDBG grants may be the best first phase funding opportunities. Local
governments that choose to be members may need to make modest annual contributions. A key
reason for the region to form an broadband authority is to be able to show regional collaboration on broadband improvements. There is a marked preference in grant programs at both the
state and Federal level for collaborative funding requests.

OPERATION AND MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS


An Authority can be started and managed without any paid sta, but that will depend on the
level of support available from the County and/or other localities as well as any other funding
sources that the Authority can tap for support. The Authority is more likely to have a significant impact if it has at least one paid employee (which could be part time).
Operations and management tasks would be determined by the kind of infrastructure
improvements that are made. A focus on passive infrastructure would keep operational
responsibilities to a minimum.

RECOMMENDATION
Rural businesses and residents in the region need a strong advocate for broadband. Improvements to broadband access and aordability are more likely to be successful if there is a single
entity in the region that has primary responsibility for those improvements. Current activities
relating to broadband are spread across several several localities with limited individual resources. The local governments of the region (i.e. Fauquier county and the surrounding counties) should form an Authority and provide an appropriate level of initial funding.
Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Page 53 of 106

FORMING AN AUTHORITY
The legal formation of the Authority is straightforward, with a simple registration form and fee
submitted to the Virginia State Corporation Commission. Other steps prior to submitting the
application should include:
Consensus among leadership on whether or not to pursue a multi-jurisdictional Authority to include Fauquier County, and some or all of the adjacent/nearby counties of
Loudoun, Staord, Prince William, Warrenton, Culpeper, and Rappahannock.
Resolution passed by the Board of Supervisors/Town Council in each locality to create
the Authority.
A charter for the authority has to be created. The charter is relatively short, and there are
many samples available from existing authorities.
A set of bylaws are required. As with the charter document, many examples are available
from other authorities. Single county authorities typically appoint board members by
magisterial districts (e.g. each BoS member appoints a representative from their own district). Multi-jurisdictional authorities typically have one or two members from each participating locality. Authority boards meet monthly or quarterly depending on stang,
operational responsibilities, and funding.
The Authority will require both initial funding and some ongoing financial support from
the participating locality or localities. These funds may be relatively modest, but will be
needed to support early costs (e.g. hiring a grant writer on an as-needed basis for grant
opportunities, technical advice, and other start up expenses).
For many Virginia broadband authorities, locality sta often provide significant technical,
financial, and administrative support. Sta who are going to be directed to provide support will need direction on amount of time to allocate to the Authority and the kind of
support to provide. Some authorities have a part or full time sta member to provide
leadership and to manage day to day interactions with service providers, incumbents,
County/Town sta, citizens, and other stakeholders (e.g. economic development entities,
state agencies, etc.).

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

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PUBLIC/PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS
Because virtually any modern broadband network (and most older telecom networks) use
public right of way for a large portion of network distribution, ALL business models are
public/private partnerships. The notion of the public/private partnership is not a distinct
business model, but rather exists along a continuum, with minimal public involvement on one
end (i.e. only use of public right of way) to full public ownership on the other end.

SERVICE PROVIDERS
In the County, service providers have to be part of the solution, and some service providers have
been participating as part of the Broadband Advisory Committee. No matter what investments
the county chooses to make, service providers will have to use the new infrastructure to make
the local government investments successful. While in many respects telecom infrastructure
investments share many similarities with other public utilities (e.g. roads, water, sewer) there is
one fundamental dierence. Other public utilities like water and sewer have a captive audience
and the utility is able to operate as a monopolymeaning the customer base can be taken for
granted. Early discussions with service providers have been positive, with at least several
providers expressing a readiness to oer services if the county makes new infrastructure (like
tower access for WISPs) available at fair prices.
Regional telecom investments will be a public/private enterprise, and service providers are the
primary customers of the infrastructure. Service providers cannot be taken for granted.
Instead, a fair fee structure, high quality infrastructure, excellent maintenance and operations
(where needed), and flexibility on business agreements and pricing will be required to recruit
and retain service providers.
Projects that are not successful in attracting service providers will fail. Aordable lease rates for
tower space and/or fiber connections will attract service providers. Other open access projects
(Danville, The Wired Road, FastRoads, Utopia) have not had any diculty getting service
providers to use the infrastructure.

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Page 55 of 106

TOWER LEASING
Existing government-owned towers that have spare vertical space could be upgraded to support
wireless providers on those towers at relatively low cost. In unserved and underserved areas of
the County where there are no public safety towers, new towers could be erected and oered to
wireless service providers. Increased coordination among public service uses and broadband
uses could also reap benefits, with fewer towers providing better services for public safety, K12
broadband use, and general residential and business use.
Any placement of new towers should be preceded by a careful viewshed analysis (how much
area/users are likely to be able to receive service). Site acquisition and site preparation costs can
aect the overall cost of such a project. Existing local government properties (e.g. fire/rescue
stations, county parks, dump transfer sites, etc.) may be candidates for towers.
Tower space leased to wireless service providers (WISPs) can generate a small revenue stream,
but the high cost of acquiring new wireless customers and the relatively low profit margins for
in the wireless business will require only modest fees at best. The payback for the initial cost of
a new tower could be fifteen years or more. At least one Virginia county is contemplating
providing free or very low fee access to their towers with the goal of rapidly improving
broadband access in their underserved areas.
The maps on the following pages show what kind of service coverage would be possible by using either existing towers or placing new towers in some locations where service is currently
poor.

OWNERSHIP AND GOVERNANCE

Fauquier County government already successfully manages towers. There are no special
challenges to adding more towers (six to eight as a maximum).

COST DISCUSSION

Upgrades to existing towers typically may include adding or upgrading generators, additional
cabinet or shelter space for service provider equipment, and sometime fencing and physical
access changes.

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Page 56 of 106

INCREASED WOOD UTILITY POLE USE


Fauquier county has a rolling terrain and heavy tree cover that makes wireless broadband
service more dicult. The tree cover is a constant problem for rural residents and businesses, as
good line of site is required for fixed wireless Internet services.
Even newer technologies like white space and LTE systems
work better with clear line of sight to distant towers.
The increased use of wooden utility poles is already common in
some other Virginia counties, and increased use of this
technique to get the customer CPE radio/antenna above tree
cover is a relatively simple solution.

OWNERSHIP AND GOVERNANCE

The utility poles would normally be placed on private property,


subject to existing or updated ordinances governing the placement of wooden utility poles. The
County would have no responsibility for maintenance and repairs.

COST DISCUSSION

The cost of placing an eighty foot pole can range from a low of about $2,000 to $7,000 or
more, depending on permitting, engineering requirements, and the location of the pole.
Fauquiers by right permitting of these poles is a substantial benefit; it reduces the cost of
installing them. Some other Virginia localities have onerous permitting and engineering
requirements that make it more expensive for property owners to pursue this option.

FUNDING OPTIONS

Because these are placed on private land, local government would not have to provide any direct
funding. However, the County could encourage wider use of this option with a public
awareness campaign developed in partnership with wireless providers. Local banks could be
encouraged to provide low cost financing of the poles so that property owners could make a
small interest and principal payment monthly over several years to reduce the financial impact.

OPERATION AND MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

The County incurs no ongoing operational or management costs.

RECOMMENDATION AND NEXT STEPS

Given that this strategy requires minimal financial support from the County and has the
potential of improving broadband access in rural areas quickly, the County should promote the
use of this option. Existing wireless providers would also benefit, as they would be able to
provide service to more customers.

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Page 57 of 106

MEET-ME BOX AND FIBER DROP STRATEGY


In certain areas of the county, some smaller communities, and rural neighborhoods and
subdivisions, meet me boxes could be installed. A meet me box is a telecom cabinet with fiber
cables installed between the cabinet and nearby homes and/or buildings. Providers only have to
reach the meet-me box, lowering their costs. Both wireline and wireless providers can use this
infrastructure. This approach can also be used to provide fiber services in business and
industrial parks. Charles City County installed five miles of fiber in their business park and
was able to attract a Tier One provider to provide service to an existing business (a Home
Depot manufacturing plant that was going to leave if the County did not help them get better
Internet service).
A dark fiber approach is recommended to minimize operational costs. Service providers would
install their own equipment in the cabinet and would pay a small monthly lease fee for the fiber
strands they use to connect customers to their services.

OWNERSHIP AND GOVERNANCE


The meet-me boxes and related fiber, conduit, and handholes could be owned by the County or
a broadband authority.

COST DISCUSSION
For a meet-me box installed in a main street area (e.g in an alley behind commercial/retail
buildings) with relatively inexpensive and short fiber drop cables into nearby buildings, the
lower end of an installation might start at $35,000. For a box installed in a rural sub-division
that requires distribution conduit/fiber and drop cables, the cost to connect 25 homes might
start at $175,000 on the low end and increase as the number of homes connected increases.
Larger numbers of homes or businesses will each add to the cost, but adding more connected
premises also increases the value of the infrastructure and increases the revenue potential.

FUNDING OPTIONS
In some areas, where it can be shown that this infrastructure is going to keep existing jobs and/
or add new jobs, CDBG funds may be available to support the initial capital costs. Some local
match (e.g. 10% to 20%) may also be required.
Providers will pay monthly lease fees for the fiber strands they use to connect customers, and
these fees will cover some or all of the ongoing operational costs. The greater the number of
connected customers, the larger the revenue potential.

OPERATION AND MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS


The cabinet requires electric power and has integrated heating and cooling. Service providers
using the infrastructure would install their own equipment and be responsible for the
maintenance and repairs of their own equipment.

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Page 58 of 106

For routine and emergency break-fix maintenance on the fiber or the cabinet HVAC, a small
as-needed repair contract would be required with a firm qualified to make fiber splicing repairs
and related service work.
Emergency repairs would be rare, and routine maintenance would also be very limited. It
would be possible for the county IT department to support some of the routine management of
this infrastructure. Monitoring and repair management could also be outsourced. If an
Authority were formed, the Authority would probably choose to outsource all responsibilities
except contract management (i.e. contracts with repair and monitoring firms).

RECOMMENDATION AND NEXT STEPS


Because this requires owning and managing infrastructure, the County will need to discuss how
to handle the ownership of these assets and the ongoing operational responsibilities.

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Page 59 of 106

DEMAND AGGREGATION
A very brief survey that collects address information and bandwidth needs can collect valuable
demand data that can be passed on to ISPs and/or help direct County infrastructure
investments. For both wireline and
wireless services, neighborhoods (often
as few as a handful of homes) can
aggregate their demand to attract
improved service from ISPs. The
current broadband surveys that are part
of this study have collected responses
from more than 544 responses by midJuly.
The Commonwealth recently
announced a broadband survey
( RUOnline.virginia.gov) that collects
similar information. If that data is
available from the state or Virginia Tech
(Tech is managing the survey site), there
may not be a need to duplicate that
survey at the county level.

OWNERSHIP AND GOVERNANCE


No asset management is required. This eort could be managed by the County IT department.
Some additional marketing and public awareness work would be needed to collect enough data
from county residents and businesses to be useful.

COST DISCUSSION
A small amount of County sta time would be needed to support the data collection/
distribution task and the public awareness eort.

FUNDING OPTIONS
No special funding required.

OPERATION AND MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS


None.

RECOMMENDATION AND NEXT STEPS


Discussion by the Board of Supervisors.

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Page 60 of 106

REFERENDUM
It may be useful to have a public vote on allocating funds for broadband improvements in each
of the localities. Properly presented to the public, it could be an excellent opportunity to educate the public on the cost of demanding that local government do something. This approach
could have two very dierent but positive outcomes.
If the voters were asked to support a tax increase or special assessment to support improved broadband in rural areas and they voted no, it could take some of the pressure o
Supervisors to do something.
The special assessment could be allocated by creating service districts. By using the demand aggregation strategy to identify areas where homeowners and businesses are willing
to pay an extra fee for improved broadband, the assessment would only be levied based on
demand.
If the voters agreed to support a tax increase or special assessment, then the Supervisors
would have a mandate to fund solutions.

COST DISCUSSION
Sta time would be needed to develop the cost proposition that would be placed on the ballot.
Additional eort would be required to provide an appropriate public awareness campaign to
educate the public on the meaning and purpose of the referendum.

FUNDING OPTIONS
No special funding required.

OPERATION AND MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS


None.

RECOMMENDATION AND NEXT STEPS


Discussion by the Board of Supervisors.

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Page 61 of 106

NANO-CELL CELLULAR STRATEGY


A common complaint in the county is the poor cell service in some areas. In some parts of
Fauquier, there may be adequate broadband service via DSL or broadband wireless, but poor
cellular phone/data service. This problem can be addressed by promoting the wider use of
nano-cell devices. These small pieces of equipment are connected to the DSL modem and
provide improved cell service in the home or business. The working distance of these devices is
limited, and service generally drops o once you leave the house itself (it may work for some
short distance in the yard).
These devices work very well and do not require a large amount of
bandwidth. They would work with both the DSL and wireless
broadband services available in the county.
The cellular providers do not always promote the use of these devices, so many cellular users who would benefit from their use are
not aware that this option is available. The device averages around
$200 retail, but the cellular providers often provide substantial rebates (50% discount or more) and in some cases may provide them
at no charge.
This strategy is interesting because improved broadband service can
also improve cellular service without the need for more cellular towers,
especially in parts of the county where cellular providers have not been able to make the business case for more towers.

COST DISCUSSION
This strategy does not require any direct funding from the County, but if an Authority is
formed, the Authority could develop play role educating residents and businesses about this
option. Prior to formal development of the Authority, the County could post information on
its Web site, and the local libraries could provide information about this as well.

FUNDING OPTIONS
No special funding required.

OPERATION AND MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS


None.

RECOMMENDATION AND NEXT STEPS


This should be developed as a short term strategy whether or not an Authority is formed.

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Page 62 of 106

SERVICE DISTRICT STRATEGY


In the Commonwealth, local governments are authorized to form service districts for the purpose of funding various kinds of services and/or infrastructure improvements. If the demand
aggregation strategy were used to identify areas of the county
where a majority of citizens were willing to pay a special assessment for improved broadband infrastructure, the service district
could be created only in that area.
The service district approach allows fees or special levies to be
assessed only where voters agree to support it, giving supervisors
a tool to selectively develop funding for broadband improvements.

COST DISCUSSION
The County attorney will be required to assist elected ocials with the creation of the service
district.

FUNDING OPTIONS
No special funding required.

OPERATION AND MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS


Service districts should be created based on defined geographic areas. Some care would have to
be taken to define how the funds will be used, and an awareness campaign, coupled with the
demand aggregation strategy (e.g. a survey and/or referendum) would be required to determine
where the service district(s) would be created.

RECOMMENDATION AND NEXT STEPS


Discussion by the Board of Supervisors and review by the county attorney.

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Page 63 of 106

Wireless Tower Cost Estimate Study


Any placement of new towers should be preceded by a careful viewshed analysis (how much
area/users are likely to be able to receive service). Site acquisition and site preparation costs can
aect the overall cost of such a project. Existing county properties (e.g. fire/rescue stations,
county parks, dump transfer sites, etc.) may be candidates for towers.
Tower space leased to wireless service providers (WISPs) can generate a small revenue stream,
but the high cost of acquiring new wireless customers and the relatively low profit margins for
in the wireless business will require only modest fees at best. The payback for the initial cost of
a new tower could be fifteen years or more. At least one Virginia county is contemplating
providing free or very low fee access to their towers with the goal of rapidly improving
broadband access in their underserved areas.
The map below shows what might be possible placing new towers on existing county-owned
sites (fire/rescue locations and county parks). If some existing county towers have available
space that could be made available to wireless providers, the number of new towers could be
reduced.
The map below shows the potential coverage areas for 180 foot towers in the rural parts of the
county when the customer receiving antenna is located 15 feet o the ground.

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Page 64 of 106

The map below shows the potential coverage areas for 180 foot towers in the same locations as
the previous map, but this study assumes that the customer receiving antenna is located 70 feet
o the groundattached to a wooden utility pole. The area covered by the towers is
significantly increased when the receiving antenna can be located above existing tree cover.

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Page 65 of 106

COST DISCUSSION
Upgrades to existing towers typically may include adding or upgrading generators, additional
cabinet or shelter space for service provider equipment, and sometime fencing and physical
access changes.

TOWER UPGRADE COST TABLE

Small Telecom Cabinet

BEST ESTIMATE
(WEIGHTED
AVERAGE)
$6,000
$6,000

10kW Liquid Propane Generator

$6,000

$6,000

Cabinet Foundation and Installation

$800

$800

Spare Fuses

$20

$20

Power System Installation Materials

$40

$40

Samlex 1000W Inverter

$450

$450

Samlex SEC1230-UL Battery Charger

$300

$300

100ah 12v Non Spillable Backup Battery

$350

$350

10 DC Voltage Monitoring Device

$60

$60

11 Unmanaged Rack Mount PDU (6O)

$45

$45

12 Cabinet Installation Labor

$1,000

$1,000

13 Power System Installation Labor

$500

$500

14 Generator Installation Labor


15 Project Management

$1,700

$1,700

ITEM/PROJECT

UNITS

Estimated Cost
(Conservative)

18%

16 Estimated Construction Cost

$3,108
$20,373

New towers have a range of configurations and cost options. If located on existing County
property, the time needed to plan for construction can be shortened. If site acquisition or a site
lease (of private property) is required, purchase or lease negotiations can add several months to
the process.

NEW TOWER COST TABLE

2 Small Telecom Cabinet

BEST
ESTIMATE
(WEIGHTE
D AVERAGE)
$3,000.00
$3,000

3 10kW Liquid Propane Generator

$6,000.00

$6,000

4 Cabinet Foundation and Installation

$800.00

$800

5 New Power Service / Installation

$1,250.00

$1,250

6 180 Self Supporting Tower Construction Materials

$22,000.00

$22,000

7 Spare Fuses

$20.00

$20

8 Power System Installation Materials

$40.00

$40

9 Samlex 1000W Inverter

$450.00

$450

$300.00

$300

ITEM/PROJECT

10 Samlex SEC1230-UL Battery Charger

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

COST(HIGH
)

UNITS

Page 66 of 106

11 100ah 12v Non Spillable Backup Battery

$350.00

$350

12 DC Voltage Monitoring Device

$60.00

$60

13 Unmanaged Rack Mount PDU (6O)

$45.00

$45

14 Tower Site Land Clearing and Site Development

$12,500.00

$12,500

15 180' guyed Tower Construction Labor

$26,000.00

$26,000

16 Cabinet Installation Labor

$1,000.00

$1,000

17 Power System Installation Labor


18 Generator Installation Labor

$500.00

$500

$1,700.00

$1,700

19 FCC License Coordination

$1,500.00

$1,500

20 Construction Total:

$77,515

21

Project Management, Network Engineering, Testing

$23,260

22

Site Engineering, Surveying, viewshed analysis Etc.

$9,500

23

Misc Fees, Technical Services

$7,500

24

Bookkeeping and Administration

$5,000

25

Contingency

$12,280

26

TOTAL:

$135,055

Notes/Assumptions:
Site work - Land acquisition and leases are not included in tower estimate. Site preparation is estimated and
assumes a typical site with some small vegetation and work needed. If a site will require more extensive land
clearing or road improvement work it should be estimated on a site by site basis.
Generator - a small liquid propane generator is included in the estimate for this tower. The estimate does not
27 include a tank and tank install because in our experience this cost is typically covered by the local gas
company as long as there is a service contract.
Cellular Carriers and Upgrades - Towers at this size must be specifically engineered for their location and
equipment load. The pricing shown above is estimated at a size which will support WISP and Public Safety
equipment. Designing to accommodate cellular providers should be expected to increase the cost by $75,000
to $150,000.

NEW TOWER SITING CONSIDERATIONS


There are many factors in choosing sites to develop for towers. The cost of site prep in an area
with unfavorable conditions can quickly outweigh the cost of the actual tower.
Favorable site leasing or purchasing conditions such as County properties, infrastructure
sites, industrial areas, or areas with other towers.
The site must be useful to the network from the wireless engineering standpoint. Evaluate how the new site will fit into the wireless network and determine if it desirable early
in the process.
Proposed tower sites should be close to a road and accessible by truck. Improving access
to a site and repairing damage caused by construction is expected, but constructing new
roads on a site will increase costs dramatically.
Proposed sites should be close to grid power. While evaluating a site locate the nearest
utility poles or pedestals. If there is no transformer near the site, within 500 feet, there
will likely be higher costs to bring power in.

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

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Mostly flat, or gently sloping sites cost less to develop than sites with steep terrain. When
considering tower sites look for flat areas to place the tower and compound. It may be
worth sacrificing some altitude or doing some additional clearing to avoid major ground
disturbances and earth work.
It is common to clear some trees and vegetation while developing a tower site, but excessive clearing requirements will raise costs. If sites are in a wooded area look for locations
where vegetation is sparse and the tree growth is somewhat young (e.g., 8-10 in diameter). Large trees or very dense brush will be more expensive to clear.
Look for secure sites with limited access. Sites are better o in an area that doesnt get
frequent visitors.
Look for tower sites with the potential to connect to fiber networks. Access to multiple
fiber providers on a wireless network will be very important to potential tenants and the
economic viability of the network.
Things to avoid
Avoid dense residential areas and retail areas when evaluating tower sites.
Avoid parcels with creeks or other water features that could be an impediment to
construction.
Large concrete trucks will have to access the site while constructing the towers. During
site evaluation consider the entire route that trucks will have to take.
Avoid locating tower sites near areas where permitting could be an issue. Historic
Districts, airports, scenic locations, and areas with strict zoning should be avoided.

FUNDING OPTIONS
The relatively low cost of tower upgrades and new tower construction suggests the most
expedient funding is direct financial support from the County. If grant funds are needed (e.g.
several new towers are proposed), working with public safety ocials to combine public safety
grant opportunities and public safety capital funds could be very beneficial.

OPERATION AND MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS


Towers are passive infrastructure, and if properly designed and constructed, require minimal
maintenance. Leasing space to the service providers, who will install their own radios,
antennas, and electronics relieves the County of any responsibility for equipment management
and configuration, and equipment repairs and replacement. Service providers will be required
to do their own tower climbs and repairs to equipment on the tower; the County would not be
responsible for any equipment placed on the tower itself.

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

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RECOMMENDATION AND NEXT STEPS


An preliminary analysis of existing county towers and potential county-owned sites for new
towers suggests that good coverage could be obtained with careful site analysis. If the County
moves forward with this initiative, line of sight and viewshed studies are recommended for
existing towers and for any possible new sites. Discussions with wireless service providers to
get their input on where they see benefits for improved tower access are also recommended.
Next steps would include securing funding, line of sight and viewshed analysis of existing sites,
identification of county-owned property for new towers, line of sight and viewshed analysis of
the new sites, determination of tower type for new towers (guyed or self supporting), and
discussions with service providers. final identification of sites, complete detailed network
engineering including site layouts and Line of Sight engineering, and work with local Service
Providers.

TYPICAL CONSTRUCTION SCHEDULE


The timeline and activities describe the typical process for constructing a tower. Combining
multiple sites into a single construction project will expand the timeline below but overall will
save time and expense. Delays in the site identification and procurement stages of a project are
the most common delays for counties and cities.

MONTH ONE
Project kick-o
Site identification
Network design

MONTH TWO

Pre-construction site planning


Lease / MOU negotiation
Procurement

MONTH THREE

Site layout and planning


Site clearing and preparation
Tower materials shipping

MONTH FOUR

Foundation construction
Inspection
Tower construction
Construction wrap-up

MONTH FIVE
Equipment installation and network testing
Project close out
Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

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Fiber-Wireless Hybrid Strategy


OVERVIEW OF THE NETWORK
The diagram on the next page provides an overview of a modern broadband network, with both
fiber and wireless components. For Fauquier County, conduit and fiber can be deployed in
phases (along with network electronics) to create a very high performance network capable of
delivering aordable Gigabit and 10Gig connections in a series of redundant rings passing
through major commercial and industrial areas of the County . Additionally, even higher
capacity circuits, including 40Gig, 100Gig, and Gigabit wavelengths can be utilized to
maximize the existing fiber strands to add even more capacity to the backbone portion of the
network. Wireless will be an important element of the Fauquier network. On rural roads where
the cost of drops may prevent a full FTTx buildout, wireless access points backhauled by fiber
could connect clusters of homes.

CORE NETWORK
The core network is often referred to as the backbone network. It is a high capacity route or
set of routes throughout a community or region that provides transport between towns,
neighborhoods, business districts, and other major facilities.
Ideally, the core network is designed as a redundant fiber ring, which provides both capacity
and gives the network the ability to continue operating even if the fiber is cut or damaged in
one location. A fully redundant ring can be expensive to construct, so the ring feature may be
a long term design goal. In Fauquier, an initial Phase One project could be built to connect
downtown businesses, and additional extensions could be added over two or three years of
development to create a highly resilient network.

DISTRIBUTION NETWORK
Distribution networks are connected to the core network, and provide primary network paths
through a county, town, neighborhood or business district. Distribution networks are generally
part of what is called middle mile. Fiber-based distribution networks generally are built along
most streets and roads, and can be aerial fiber (mounted on utility poles) or underground fiber
(installed in underground duct or fiber cable that is buried directly without duct).
The distribution network connects the core network (the network backbone) with the
individual connections within a neighborhood or business district that connect to home and
businesses. This portion of the network can be fiber-based or wireless, but fiber will be required
over the long term to support video services and other kinds of high bandwidth applications
like telemedicine, IP TV, business videoconferencing, and other emerging services.

ACCESS NETWORK
The access network is what is commonly called the last mile, although the first mile might
be more appropriate, since customers should be a primary consideration when designing a
Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

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network. The access network is a direct fiber link between a fiber switch located within a
neighborhood or business district, or it may also be a direct point to point wireless link from a
wireless access point on a tower or building and the home or business. Network subscribers
have to have Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) to get a network connection, and this is
simply a small box that looks like a hub or switch.
In a fiber network, the fiber cable is connected to one port on the CPE, and one or more
copper Ethernet RJ45 ports allow users to connect computers, phones, and TV set top boxes to
it.
In rural areas of the county where homes and businesses may be a long distance from the road
where fiber passes, a utility pole with a high performance broadband radio and antenna could
provide the last few hundred feet of connectivity to an external antenna is mounted on a side
of the home or business with clear line of sight to the pole on the road with fiber connectivity.

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

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CPE (Customer
Premise Equipment)

wireless

Access fiber
Tower-mount
radio/antennas

Fiber or wireless core network


with backbone routers

Neighborhood
cabinet or hut

Internet
Colo Facility

Core network
Distribution
fiber

Backhaul routes

Colo has multiple service


providers offering multiple
services, with single point
of access to all customers.

Colo contains
network
management
servers.

Backhaul routes

Connections to other networks via leased line or


middle mile fiber

COLOCATION

AND

Neighborhood
cabinet or hut

CPE

Access fiber

Homes and businesses

NETWORK FACILITIES

A colocation facility is a controlled environment (i.e. heated and air-conditioned) room with
Internet access through wired and/or wireless systems. The colocation facility will be a place
where fiber, wireless, and copper-based network facilities meet. It will be equipped to house
high-end network equipment, servers, and other electronic gear. A variety of middle layer
network components and services can be located within the colo including, for example,
directory services, replicated content servers, routing services, and other elements needed to
deliver new multimedia services to the home and small oce from multiple, competing
providers.
Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

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In Fauquier, only a modest pre-fab colocation facility is needed, primarily to house the
networks own equipment. Fiber would be terminated at the colocation facility which would be
placed in a location where existing existing service providers (e.g. MBC, Zayo, Paetec) could
meet the network.
Characteristics of a colocation facility include:
A reliable source of AC electric power is required, with backup UPS (Uninterruptible
Power Supply) service available by an onsite generator.
Controlled access to the facility (e.g. by electronic keycard) 24 hours/day, seven days a
week.
Racks for locating network equipment and servers, and optionally locked cages for
equipment racks.
Functions of colocation facilities include:
Hub for new broadband infrastructure development for the community.
Location for a regional and community network exchange point for local service
providers. Also called a peering point or inter-exchange point, this kind of facility can
reduce costs and increase performance in a win-win-win scenario (because it helps
keep local trac local and reduces service provider costs, thereby reducing the price of
services). In Fauquier, a modest colo facility would provide the meet point for private
fiber and community/city owned duct/fiber.
Insertion point for multimedia services from multiple competing providers to reach
subscribers over single broadband medium (fiber, wireless, other).
Community, campus, or building point of presence for new middle layer components
required to implement next generation Internet (directory services, caching, routing).
Focal point for technical resources and management of community infrastructure.
Aggregation point for low cost access to gigabit scale network services.

BACKHAUL
Every community network requires one or more paths (routes) out of the community to carry
voice, video, and data trac (in both directions). Backhaul network connections can be
purchased from a local incumbent telephone company. In some communities, there may be
other backhaul providers available. Backhaul connections are usually terminated at the
community-owned colocation facility. Any additional infrastructure constructed in the County
would meet service provider networks at a mutually convenient colocation facility or meet
point.

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

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NETWORK DESIGN SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATION


For Fauquiers initial network, we recommend a switched network consisting of a Calix Edge
(E7-20s and E7-2s) in protected rings with Calix Customer Premise Equipment (CPE). This
Open Access Network is capable of providing 1 Gig Active Ethernet connections to premises
on the network while alternatively providing PON services to customers who do not have the
requirement for a Gigabit connection. Fauquier County should leverage wireless solutions in its
design and planning. High capacity Point to Point links can greatly extend the networks
backbone when funds are limited. Wireless access points can provide the last mile connections
when the cost of building a drop is cost preventative.

Access - Last Mile


Customer Connections:
Many varieties of indoor and outdoor optical
network termination devices (ONTs) are
available, and will be tailored to meet the
needs of large institutions, or businesses, or
residential dwellings.

AP3

Distribution Network

Co-location

Fiber/Wireless Distribution Network:


Simplicity and ease of management are two
goals of a layer 2 network design. The
network will use a flat layer 2 design with
VLANs for each service on the network.

Co-location and Core Network:


At the Co-location facility or co-lo service
providers will install equipment that interface
with the network. This allows providers to
bring their services from their network to
Fauquier customers.

Service Provider
Service Provider
Backhaul Connections

Internet

AP2
Provider 1
AP1

Network Monitoring

Tower Access
Point Top View

Telehealth
Services

Provisioning
Backup & Config
Core Router

CAB

Business or
Residential Fiber Wireless Backhaul

e
ur r
ct ve
ite ilo
ch Fa
Ar tic
g a
in
R tom
Au

FTTx - Fiber to the Home


and Business

Provider II

Video Storage

FTTx Access
Equipment
Battery Backup
Equipment
Patch Panels and
Cable Management

Data Backup

Fauquier
Schools

VoIP Service

less

than

CAB

PtP or Omni Wireless

ile

.5 m

Customer
Fiber ONT &
Power Equipment

Customer
Customer Customer

Wireless Pole
at Each Cluster

Video
Surveillance

FTTx Access
Equipment
Battery Backup
Equipment
Patch Panels and
Cable Management

Fauquier
County

Fiber

Drawing: Conceptual Network Architecture


Client: Fauquier County
Date: 5-OCT-2016
we build networks that perform Designer: Matt Bussing
Contact: mbussing@designnine.com

DESIGN NINE

Bandwidth for services will be managed on the edge of the network and service assurance can
be managed through bandwidth reservation on protected rings. This simple architecture will
allow County to start the network with relatively low capital expenditures on network
equipment. As the network grows there are many ways in which a core routed (IP or MPLS)
layer can be added.
For customers that are connected by wireless, Calix indoor equipment can be installed to tie in
the customers with the fiber BSS/OSS systems.

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

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Rural Fiber Cost Estimate


To validate the the capital expenditures in the financial pro forma (see the next section of this
report), a reference cost estimate was developed for a representative ten mile stretch of rural
road typical of Fauquier County. The costs in the categories described below have been
included in the development of the costs and are generally required to construct a network.

ADMINISTRATIVE AND LEGAL

Specialized legal counsel will be required to review contracts with service providers, contractors,
and other participants in the project. Legal costs can vary with a particular location and tend to
go down over time. The most legal work is needed early in the first construction phase to
develop business contracts with service providers, to review construction and vendor contracts,
and to broker lease agreements for use of public or private property (where network equipment
like cabinets or shelters have to be located).

LEASES, PERMITS, AND RIGHTS OF WAY

Some costs will be incurred based on the permitting requirements of the project. If Fauquier
County is able to place the colocation facility and any tower sites public right of way or on
county properties at no charge, the cost of leases will be lower. If cabinets or shelters have to be
placed on private property, the cost of the land or long term leases will increase. The cost of
permits needed for crossing wetlands, streams, other sensitive areas, and VDOT permits are
also included in this category. Formal leases and negotiated lease payments are more desirable
than providing some form of free access to services. Since Fauquier County would not be a
service provider, it has no services to give away for free.

PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Project management for a community network build requires thorough and detailed planning,
experience in procuring construction materials for the project, and the ability to oversee and
convey project information to contractors through the duration of the project, including
construction inspection work (ensuring construction contractors have done their job properly).

NETWORK DESIGN AND ENGINEERING

This work include a full design of the outside plant network, cabinet and shelter specifications,
and extensive detail (blueprints) that specifies how all fiber cable, towers, buildings, and
network equipment is to be installed. These documents have to be completed prior to bidding
out any construction work, and are usually included as part of a construction bid package. The
detail includes fiber optic cable route determination and size determination, active and passive
network equipment selection and placement planning, splicing layouts and documentation,
network configuration planning, and all engineering necessary to complete construction.

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

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BUILDINGS, IMPROVEMENTS, AND PREFABRICATED SHELTERS

This category includes any buildings and shelters constructed as well as improvements to the
buildings such as redundant HVAC systems, power improvements, fire suppression systems,
security and surveillance systems, etc.

OUTSIDE PLANT CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

Network construction includes the outside plant materials needed to build the network. Items
like conduit, pedestals, cabinets, hand holes, and splice enclosures are all included in network
construction.

OUTSIDE PLANT CONSTRUCTION LABOR

Labor is typically included with network construction for the bidding process but is separated
here to help identify money that could be saved by leveraging local labor resources. Labor
includes the placement of pedestals and hand holes, the underground or aerial placement of
conduit, the construction of foundations (pads) for various structures throughout the network,
and more. Several material costs such as concrete and gravel are included in labor depending on
the type of job to be performed.

NETWORK EQUIPMENT, SOFTWARE, AND RELATED COSTS

Network equipment includes any network electronics that will be used in the network such as
routers, switches, and CPE. Network equipment also includes some items that do not use any
AC power but fall into a similar category such as patch panels, and patch cables. The equipment
cost will vary widely depending on the type of architecture chosen.

NETWORK INTEGRATION AND TESTING

Some configuring and testing will take place after the network is built and before it is ready for
use. In a dark network this involves labeling and documenting the routes of individual fiber
strands, and testing of any other features of the network such as generators, air conditioners,
and locks. In an active network the testing and integration includes integration requirements
for a dark fiber network plus the configuring and installation of switches, routers, and other
network equipment. Work in this category requires a skilled professional who is familiar with
the network architecture and the business model (e.g. open access).

MISCELLANEOUS

This category provides a small budget for miscellaneous expenses that will arise during the
course of construction (e.g., bid advertisement costs, inventory tags, etc.).

CONTINGENCIES

The Contingency category is included and calculated as a percentage of the total estimated cost
(e.g., 5% of total cost) to provide flexibility in managing the overall budget. Equipment costs
can and do change between the time an estimate is made and construction commences. Labor
costs can vary depending upon the time of year the work starts, the state of the local economy,
Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

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and the state of the national economy. Material costs and lead times can vary based on demand
on certain industries, energy costs, and location.

Infrastructure Overview
1
2
3
4
5
6

ITEM/PROJECT
Miles of Fiber / Conduit Installed
Number of Handholes Installed
Splice Closures Installed
Cabinets Installed
Number of Customers Connected

VALUE
10
66
53
1
80

Infrastructure Analysis
1

ITEM/PROJECT

Total cost per mile

Distribution construction cost per mile

ESTIMATED
$105,799.59
$80,519.15

Summary of Costs
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

ITEM/PROJECT
Extension Construction Materials
Extension Distribution Labor
Extension Structures, Cabinets, and Equipment
Extension Drop Construction
Network Construction Subtotal
Project Management, Network Engineering, Integration, and Testing
Engineering, Permitting
Misc Fees, Advertising, Technical Services
Bookkeeping and Administration
Other Costs Subtotal
Project Total
Contingency at 10%
Project Total (with contingency)

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

ESTIMATED
$205,036.50
$483,940.00
$22,215.00
$94,000.00
$805,191.50
$96,622.98
$45,000.00
$10,000.00
$5,000.00
$156,622.98
$961,814.48
$96,181.45
$1,057,995.93

Page 77 of 106

Fiber Build Out Financial Analysis


The hybrid/fiber build out proposed in the previous section of this report build out is based on
the detailed ten mile cost estimate. The project moves into the black in year four, and prior to
that time, annual injections funding additions are used to cover revenue shortfalls.
We note that this set of projections is extremely conservative. Additional funding to connect
more homes and businesses would get the eort into the black much more quickly. We also
note that the construction costs could vary, and further study of the actual route and estimates
from local fiber construction firms could aect the estimate.
Homes and businesses passed - The model assumes that approximately 1025 businesses,
institutions, and homes would be passed by fiber in year one. This is a very low number, but
without a more detailed study of potential service areas, this is the financially conservative
assumption. Approximately 3,500 additional homes and businesses are passed in subsequent
years, and this new construction accounts for most of the needed annual cash contributions.
Take rate - In year one, the model assumes that a 60% take rate (homes and businesses that buy
services from providers on the network) will be achieved, which is consistent with data from
existing community fiber projects with an appropriate marketing and public awareness eort.
OPEX (Operational Expenses) - In year one a relatively high average cost of $92 per month
per subscriber is assumed. This is relatively high because of the small number of connected
customers in the first year. This declines over time to $22/subscriber in year four when most of
the build out is complete, and declines further to $15/subscriber by year seven.
Use fee - An average revenue per user (ARPU) of $35 per customer is assumed. This will vary
widely based on the customer type, but with the proposed, the majority of connected customers
will be business, with a relatively high ARPU amount.
Equity - Equity includes cash from any public or private sources and any grant amounts. The
model assumes that $18 million in equity will be available to support the project over the five
year build out period. If the project were able to pass more homes and businesses more quickly,
more cash would be required for construction but revenue would also increase proportionately.
Loans - This model assumes that borrowing (e.g bonding) of approximately $13.5 million
would be required, with the balance of the capex costs provided from other sources (e.g. Capital
Improvement Funds, one time connection fees, etc.).

Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

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Fauquier Broadband Study DRAFT

Page 79 of 106

$2,500,000
-$151,782
$6,825,000
$273,000
$441,000

$810,000
$1,000,000
$1,810,000
$4,000,000
$0
$4,200,000
$168,000
$168,000
$939,708

Owner Construction Payments


Other Equity
Total Cumulative Assets

New Debt
Principal Payments Per Year
Total Cumulative Debt (minus
principal paid)
Interest Payments Per Year
Cumulative Interest Payments

Cash at Year End

$115,655

$371,929
$812,929

$9,298,218

$2,500,000
-$252,717

$945,000
$0
$3,340,000

$590,651
$235,781
$371,929
$1,198,361
$88,690

$915,075
$217,964
$118,012
$0
$0
$36,000
$1,287,050

Year 3

$616,102

$466,820
$1,279,749

$11,670,500

$2,500,000
-$357,690

$720,000
$0
$4,060,000

$556,589
$260,715
$466,820
$1,284,124
$578,797

$1,323,000
$312,152
$191,769
$0
$0
$36,000
$1,862,921

Year 4

$2,041,617

$537,512
$1,817,261

$13,437,811

$2,000,000
-$470,656

$405,000
$0
$4,465,000

$512,223
$292,443
$537,512
$1,342,178
$1,071,430

$1,678,556
$433,525
$265,526
$0
$0
$36,000
$2,413,608

Year 5

$1,845,727

$518,686
$2,335,947

$12,967,155

$0
-$489,482

$315,000
$0
$4,780,000

$503,527
$360,266
$518,686
$1,382,480
$1,500,790

$1,956,965
$580,524
$309,780
$0
$0
$36,000
$2,883,270

Year 6

$3,065,659

$499,107
$2,835,054

$12,477,672

$0
-$509,061

$0
$0
$4,780,000

$448,716
$328,955
$499,107
$1,276,778
$1,736,170

$2,042,051
$625,118
$309,780
$0
$0
$36,000
$3,012,948

Year 7

Copyright 2008-2016 Design Nine, Inc. Company confidential. Reproduction and distribution prohibited. All rights reserved.

$1,002,351

$585,000
$0
$2,395,000

$470,356
$173,175
$273,000
$916,531
-$144,940

$415,963
$98,322
$168,000
$682,285
-$376,149

EXPENSES:
Expenses (SG&A)
Expenses (OPEX)
Interest Expense
Total Expenses
EBTIDA

$540,225
$125,121
$70,245
$0
$0
$36,000
$771,591

Year 2

$198,450
$43,588
$28,098
$0
$0
$36,000
$306,136

Year 1

REVENUE:
Residential Revenue
Business Revenue
Government/Inst. Revenue
Other Revenue - Fiber Leases
Other Revenue - Services
Other Revenue - Wireless
TOTAL PROJECTED REVENUE

Financial Overview

$3,270,001

$478,744
$3,313,799

$11,968,611

$0
-$529,424

$315,000
$0
$5,095,000

$506,939
$338,243
$478,744
$1,323,927
$1,817,865

$2,127,136
$668,876
$309,780
$0
$0
$36,000
$3,141,792

Year 8

$6,550,594

$435,543
$4,206,910

$10,888,586

$0
-$572,625

$0
$0
$5,095,000

$460,740
$385,965
$435,543
$1,282,248
$2,209,193

$2,322,832
$807,339
$325,269
$0
$0
$36,000
$3,491,441

Year 10

Page 2

$4,913,415

$457,567
$3,771,366

$11,439,187

$0
-$550,601

$0
$0
$5,095,000

$456,697
$382,677
$457,567
$1,296,942
$2,194,499

$2,322,832
$807,339
$325,269
$0
$0
$36,000
$3,491,441

Year 9

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1,500
900
60%

100
25
25%

4
4
100%

Business
Customers Passed
Customers Served (year end)
Take Rate
Government/Institutional
Customers Passed
Customers Served (year end)
Take Rate

Year 1

Residential
Customers Passed
Customers Served (year end)
Take Rate

Fiber Network

6
6
100%

150
53
35%

2,500
1,550
62%

Year 2

10
10
100%

175
79
45%

4,000
2,600
65%

Year 3

16
16
100%

200
110
55%

5,000
3,400
68%

Year 4

20
20
100%

250
150
60%

5,500
3,850
70%

Year 5

20
20
100%

300
180
60%

6,000
4,200
70%

Year 6

Fauquier - Market Summary

20
20
100%

300
180
60%

6,000
4,200
70%

Year 7

20
20
100%

300
180
60%

6,500
4,550
70%

Year 8

20
20
100%

300
180
60%

6,500
4,550
70%

Year 9

20
20
100%

300
180
60%

6,500
4,550
70%

Year 10

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$0
$0
$3,317,000

D&A (per year)


Total Depreciation
Book Value

$3,931,260
$371,250
$5,400

$0
$0
$0

$3,668,985
$371,250
$267,675
$4,307,910

Year 3

$189,500
$303,239
$189,500 $492,739.06
$5,805,680 $9,542,676

$2,620,505
$237,500
$3,400

$0
$0
$0

$2,440,680
$237,500
$183,225
$2,861,405

Year 2

$22

$260,715

$52,500

$15,000
$193,215

$41,400
$125,588
$52,500
$556,589

$337,102

Year 4

$18

$292,443

$56,500

$15,000
$220,943

$40,150
$74,100
$57,500
$512,223

$340,473

Year 5

$17

$360,266

$60,500

$60,000
$239,766

$40,150
$57,000
$62,500
$503,527

$343,877

Year 6

$1,544,485
$157,250
$2,470

$0
$0
$0

$1,434,360
$157,250
$112,595
$1,704,205

Year 5

$1,396,475
$128,750
$1,900

$0
$0
$0

$1,297,000
$128,750
$101,375
$1,527,125

Year 6

Year 7

$0
$0
$0

$0
$0
$0

$0
$0
$0
$0

$15

$328,955

$64,500

$15,000
$249,455

$38,900
$0
$62,500
$448,716

$347,316

Year 7

$1,281,725
$121,250
$1,750

$0
$0
$0

$1,198,750
$121,250
$84,725
$1,404,725

Year 8

$15

$338,243

$64,500

$15,000
$258,743

$41,150
$52,500
$62,500
$506,939

$350,789

Year 8

Year 9

$0
$0
$0

$0
$0
$0

$0
$0
$0
$0

$15

$382,677

$64,500

$50,000
$268,177

$39,900
$0
$62,500
$456,697

$354,297

Year 9

Year 10

$0
$0
$0

$0
$0
$0

$0
$0
$0
$0

$15

$385,965

$64,500

$50,000
$271,465

$40,400
$0
$62,500
$460,740

$357,840

Year 10

Page 4

$475,531
$637,323
$706,278
$767,133
$767,133
$823,329
$823,329
$968,270.11 $1,605,593.17 $2,311,871.28 $3,079,004.11 $3,846,136.94 $4,669,466.17 $5,492,795.39
$11,940,310 $12,894,597
$13,614,069
$12,846,936
$13,399,803 $12,576,474 $11,753,145

$2,783,965
$276,750
$4,185

$0
$0
$0

$2,596,415
$276,750
$191,735
$3,064,900

Year 4

Fauquier - Capital Costs Summary

$32

$235,781

$45,000

$35,000
$155,781

$42,350
$162,038
$52,500
$590,651

$333,764

Year 3

Copyright 2008-2016 Design Nine, Inc. Company confidential. Reproduction and distribution prohibited. All rights reserved.

$4,295,000
$417,000
$25,000

$400,000
$0
$38,500

$2,900,000
$417,000
$1,420,000
$4,737,000

Year 1

$98,322
$42

$38,500
$173,175

$18,000

$92

$15,000
$119,675

$37,550
$101,925
$52,500
$470,356

$0
$80,322

$278,381

$34,925
$139,350
$24,500
$415,963

Year 2

$217,188

Year 1

30 Year Depreciation Capex


5 Year Depreciation Capex
7 Year Amortization Capex

Wireless Capital Costs


Outside Plant
Equipment
Other (soft costs)

FTTP Capital Costs Summary


Outside Plant
Equipment
Other (soft costs)
Total CAPEX

Operational Cost per subscriber


(monthly)

Operating Expenses
Support and Equip. Replacement Fees
Network Operations Costs
Total Outside Plant (OSP)
Maintenance
Total Operating Expenses

SG&A
Total Staff Expenses (salary +
benefits)
Total Office Expenses
Marketing Expenses
Other External Expenses
Total SG&A expenses

Fauquier - Operations Costs Summary

Next Steps: Implementation and Operations


If the County decides to move forward, there are three next step processes that will define a
successful strategy, as described below.

IMPLEMENTATION PLANNING PHASE


This phase produces the equipment and construction specifications
needed to bid out the work of constructing the infrastructure
typically towers and dark fiber routes (e.g. the meet-me box concept).
Business and Financial Planning Develop a detailed business
and financial plan.

Governance Model - formal governance model is determined and legal arrangements between governing entities
are negotiated and contracts signed. In Fauquier, this
could take the form of an Authority, or it could be done
as an internal project of the County.
Funding Sources - Funding sources are identified and
fund raising commences.
Business Administration Planning - Identify roles and
responsibilities for participating sta and leadership.
Survey and Route Engineering An on the ground survey is
needed to complete a final route design or tower site assessment. This work is performed by an firm that also has the responsibility to produce the engineered design and obtain required permitting. The
field survey confirms that the final route or tower site can be built to the necessary
standards and regulations.
Construction Methodology selected (Design vs. Design/Build) - One method to
shorten the design and build phases of a project are to award up front a design
build contract where the project management firm is also responsible for construction. This can shorten the project (because of simplified procurement) and is
often recommended for projects where time is of the essence.
Engineering Drawings - After the survey work is completed, engineers produces a
complete set of engineered drawing that meet DOT and other local requirements.
Engineered Cost Estimates A detailed cost estimate is developed from the engineered drawings. The full drawing set is attached to the construction bid documents
and becomes the basis for the awarded construction contract.

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Permitting - The engineer will prepare all required permit forms and submit the
permits with the plans. It is important to start the permitting process early to
avoid delays.
Network Architecture Design (Detailed) Final analysis of vendor equipment is performed and selection is made.
Materials and Equipment Selection -Analysis is performed to determine which
equipment oers the lowest Total Cost of Ownership (typically analyzed over ten
years or more).
Detailed Network Design - The detailed network design starts with the completed
network architecture and completely specifies all of the conduit, handholes, cabinets, patch cables, power supplies, generators, batteries, and all other necessary
parts and equipment needed to complete the engineered design.
Equipment and Materials Specifications The engineer also completes a detailed list of
all equipment required for the construction.
Bill Of Materials produced for fiber, conduit, handholes, fiber splice enclosures,
and related hardware needed to install the fiber cable underground and/or on utility poles. If towers are being built, the Bill of Materials specifies all of the towerrelated equipment needed (e.g. cabinet, generator, electric service, etc.).
Service Provider Development In an open access network, service providers have to
be recruited and formally signed to a contract to lease space on a tower or to lease dark
fiber. Providers usually need coaching because they are typically unfamiliar with
open access networks and need help understanding the unique business opportunities
they represent for private sector companies.

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CONSTRUCTION PHASE
The documents produced in the Implementation Phase are used to bid
out the construction work and to procure the network equipment
needed to produce an operational network.

Procurement At the beginning of the construction phase the


County or the newly formed Authority will bid out the
project construction.

Construction Management The construction work is bid out


and an award is made to a qualified contractor with the best
price. It is common to negotiate the final cost of this work
once a firm has been selected.
,

Network Equipment Installation Network equipment is ordered from a vendor that meets the technical specifications.
Equipment must be tested, installed in cabinets or shelters,
powered up, and connected to the fiber cable. After installation and

,
,
,

Business Process Development During the construction


phase, business and operational decisions must be made to
produce a set of business processes that will guide the day to
day operations of the network.
Service Provider Negotiations Negotiations with qualified
service providers continues.

,
,

, ,

Contracts, Agreements, and Leases The construction phase will generate the need for
a variety of legal documents. Some will be related directly to the construction (e.g. an
easement agreement to have conduit cross property). Typical documents include the
development of the Master Network Agreement that is used to sign service providers
to the network. Other contracts would include the development of a draft network
operations agreement if network operations is outsourced, and a similar agreement for
outside plant maintenance and repairs.
Marketing and Public Awareness As the network is constructed, a modest but ongoing public awareness and publicity eort is required to ensure that business customers,
schools, local government agencies and other potential users of the network are aware
of the project and the possibility of reducing costs and obtaining more and better services.

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OPERATIONS PHASE
Once the network is completed, service providers are connected first and
then their customers receive connections. At that point, the enterprise
becomes operational and a variety of ongoing tasks and activities begin
to take place.
Service Provider Management Service providers sell directly to

their own customers. Once they have obtained a new customer


that is passed by distribution fiber, they contact the network to get
either a physical fiber connection completed (e.g. from the curb to
the building) and/or a logical connection across the network to
deliver the service requested by the customer (e.g. Internet, phone,
data backup, etc.).
Network Operations Operations can be managed in-house, but

start-up networks generally find it less expensive to out-source


operations to a qualified firm. Operations must include 24/7/365
monitoring, and it is generally better in the first several years,
when the network is small, to use a service rather than bear the
expense of several dedicated technical sta that would be needed to
cover nights, weekends, holidays, and vacations.
Network Maintenance While routine maintenance (e.g. replacement of worn out equip-

ment) may be limited in the first year or two, non-routine/emergency maintenance support must be in place as soon as the network has customers. Fiber is occasionally damaged (e.g. tree limb falling on aerial fiber, backhoe damaging buried fiber), and a qualified
firm must be available to back repairs within two to four hours. This service is usually
outsourced to a qualified private sector company.
Business Administration An open access network only has a small number of customers,

which are the connected service providers and a handful of local government agencies.
Prudent and careful financial management is needed for accounts receivables and accounts payables, along with other normal bookkeeping activities--chart of accounts
maintenance, bank deposits, check writing, and other tasks. A part time bookkeeper may
be viable in the early days of operations.
Marketing and Awareness While service providers will be responsible for their own mar-

keting and sales eorts, an ongoing modest awareness/marketing campaign is required to


ensure that customer take rate targets are met.
Financial Management and Oversight The enterprise needs a board of directors and a se-

nior manager responsible for day to day oversight. The senior manager should have a
strong business background with experience in successfully starting and managing new
businesses.
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Appendix A: Glossary
Active network:
Typically a fiber network that has electronics (fiber switches and CPE)
installed at each end of a fiber cable to provide lit service to a customer.
Passive network:
Refers to infrastructure that does not have any powered equipment
associated with it. Examples include wireless towers, conduit (plastic duct), handholes, and
dark fiber.
Dark fiber:
Dark fiber is fiber cable that does not have any electronics at the ends of the
fiber cable, so no laser light is being transmitted down the cable.
Lit network: A litnetwork (or lit fiber) is the same as an active network. Lit refers to the
fact that the fiber equipment at each end use small lasers transmitting very high frequency light
to send the two way data trac over the fiber.
FTTH/FTTP/FTTx: Fiber to the Home (FTTH), Fiber to the Premises (FTTP), and Fiber
to the X (FTTx) all refer to Internet and other broadband services delivered over fiber cable to
the home or business rather than the copper cables traditionally used by the telephone and
cable companies.
Symmetric connection: The upload and download bandwidth (speed) is equal. This is
important for businesses and for work from home/job from home opportunities.
Asymmetric connection: The upload and download bandwidth (speed) are not equal. Cable
Internet and satellite Internet services are highly asymmetric, with upload speeds typically 1/10
of download speeds. Asymmetric services are problematic for home-based businesses and
workers, as it is very dicult to use common business services like two way videoconferencing
or to transfer large files to other locations.
IP video:
Video in various forms, including traditional packages of TV programming,
delivered over the Internet rather than by cable TV or satellite systems.
Latency:
The time required for information to travel across the network from one point
to another. Satellite Internet suers from very high latency because the signals must travel a
round trip to the satellite in stationary orbit (22,500 miles each way). High latency makes it
very dicult to use services like videoconferencing.
Fiber switch:

Network electronic equipment usually found in a cabinet or shelter

CPE: Customer Premises Equipment, or the box usually found in a home or business that
provides the Internet connection. DSL modems and cable modems are examples of CPE, and
in a fiber network, there is a similarly-sized fiber modem device.
Handhole:
Handholes are open bottom boxes with removable lids that are installed in the
ground with the lids at ground level. The handholes provide access to fiber cable and splice
closures that are placed in the handhole. Handholes are also called pull boxes.
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Pull boxes: Pull boxes (also called handholes) are used to provide access to fiber cable and
splice closures. They are called pull boxes because they are also used during the fiber cable
construction process to pull the fiber cable through conduit between two pull boxes.
Splice closures: Splice closures come in a variety of sizes and shapes and are used to provide
access to fiber cable that has been cut open to give installers access to individual fiber strands.
Splice closures are designed to be waterproof (to keep moisture out of the fiber cable) and can
be mounted on aerial fiber cable or placed underground in handholes.
Splicing: The process of providing a transparent joint (connection) between two individual
fiber strands so that laser light passes through. A common use of splicing is to connect a small
drop cable of one or two fiber strands to a much larger (e.g. 144 fiber strand) cable to provide
fiber services to a single home or business.
SCADA:
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. Used by the electric utility industry
and some other utilities (e.g. water/sewer) to manage their systems.
Colo facility: Colo is short for Colocation. Usually refers to a prefab concrete shelter or data
center where network infrastructure converges. A colo or data center can also refer to a
location where several service provider networks meet to exchange data and Internet trac.
Backhaul:
Typically refers to a high capacity Internet path out of a service area or locality
that provides connectivity to the worldwide Internet.

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Appendix B: Residential Survey


Other items used
A lot of these services we can't use regularly because we have cellular based internet which doesn't support a lot of these services
Academic research
All my work
Almost everything
Assisting volunteer organizations
Attempted streaming but my connection is too slow to broadcast
Banking, bill pay
Bill pay
Bill paying
Business /research
Business and personal research
can't do very much of any of ^^ because of high priced limited satellite data.
cattle
Children take online academic courses.
Church communications
Cloud file storage services, personal servers
Collaborate with team members on projects.
Collaboration with co-author and other researchers
connecting hobby server equipment to integrator
Coupons
Delivery of media products (audio, video, and graphics) to clients.
Due to the limitations of satellite internet, I cannot do anything more than email, homework, and work from home. most of
this limited to work from home due the limited access and being throttled. I have been known to spend longer hours at work
conducted homework or other internet activities vice at home to ensure that I can actually complete them. I have to rely on
"only" cellular wireless to monitor emails but with limited responding capabilities due to poor cellular coverage. With better
internet service, I would be more than willing to use the internet for more capabilities
Emergency Snow Plan. Living at the end of a dirt road it is not unusual for me to be forced to work from home due to snow.
The satellite internet is terrible and almost unworkable. I only have it for emergencies.
Everything .... When we can. It's so slow and we have limited data use so we can't do many of the things we need/want to go
on line.
Experimenting, innovating
Freelance photography and editorial jobs
Genealogy research
General browsing of web sires.
Government
GPS, locating businesses, restaurants, etc.
Home automation and remote access
home business
Home security and variety of smart home features
I am a LFCC student.
I can't do much because I have to pay for data.
I do 24/7 production support for work. So when issues at work arise I must be able to connect to work and fix the issues as
soon as possible. So I need for my service to be reliable.
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I would be using it for more but the increased cost based on cellular access keeps me from taking advantage of other possible
uses
I would do more, like stream videos and movies, but I have HughesNet and the extra data would break the bank!
I WOULD DO MUCH MORE IF I HAD FASTER INTERNET!
I would like to watch movies and games and such but the internet is so slow I am not able.
I would use for more things such as movies, music, download books, etc., however I have limits with my satellite coverage.
I would use for working from home and streaming; however the current service is too slow and data limits are too limited.
I would use it for many more things if I could, but the connection is terrible, the service is terrible, and the speed is terrible.
The cost is already outrageous and they know they can get away with it because they are my only option.
I would watch movies and Skype if we had reliable internet.
"I'M a farmer and use it for crop futures and reports, etc
"
Internet is very limiting to children and adult school work and working from home.
Job hunting
Links in. Games like scrabble. We don't stream movies since we don't have the bandwidth 20 gig a month
Maintain website for family. Family has annual reunion and like to read family updates, see historical photos and documents,
news articles etc. on the family website. Satellite upload speed is sometimes so slow that I can't upload material to the family
website and it times out. Frustrating and time consuming!
Manage 4 Non-Profit sites
Manage investments
Micro cell for phone service
"Monitor security system
Control thermostat when away"
Most business services communicate with their customers via the internet. Having reliable high speed internet service is no
longer an option -- it's an absolute need in the 21st century. Most businesses provide paperless invoices and statements at no
cost and we are required to pay for paper statements. Hospitals and doctors oces now use on-line systems that require patients to use for making appointments and completing medical forms. The demands and needs for internet are endless.
Music Production
Nearly everything we do revolves around the internet. The kids homework is to be done online but the service cannot support
4 kids on internet at the same time.
online bill pay, maintain website
Online Investments
Our internet is not strong enough to download movies, etc.
Pay monthly Credit Card bill. Monthly/annual/semi-annual billings.
paying bills
Photography
Product research
Pure living, life in the 21st century
satellite internet is not sucient to watch movies online.
Secondary education for adult as well as primary education for the kids
Security camera, File Server, Web server, etc
SHOOL SCHOOL SCHOOL. WE HAVE A RISING HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT TO HEAVILY DEPENDS ON
HAVING INTERNET ACCESS
Some of the above items are only desired, because my satellite internet cannot facilitate them, such as downloading music,
videos, movies, and gaming. Our satellite service is very poor and slow. It also goes out in any inclement weather.
Stock trading
the volunteer groups that I am involved with use Facebook and the Websites as means of communication
There is not enough room for comments at the end of this survey!! I have so much to say on the subject!!
These are all things we would like to do on the internet but the reality is we cannot access the majority of it because to the
bandwidth on our satellite service. We cannot download music, movies, gaming, VOIP, limited Facebook, etc.
To check my work schedule and search for new positions at work, resumes.
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To supplement classroom lessons


too little bandwidth to down load large files. can't download or listen to music or video or movies. Goes down often.
Training / tutorials, home automation
Translation tools
travel arrangements
Tried to use the internet before retirement so that I could work from home but connection was so bad I had to continue making the over 60 mile round trip to the oce each day.
"Verizon Wireless, my provider, does not have enough bandwidth to receive or send documents, pictures or files or receive
downloads after 4:30pm daily or often on weekends. As soon as area-wide users return from work and get on the net, the
broadband is overwhelmed, I have to wait until business hours during the week. If its raining or bad weather, it doesn't work.
The bandwidth only allows 2 pictures on average to send. The cell phone works in dry weather but often does not ring, Texts
do not announce arrival with any regularity. Intermittent quality service .It's like having a silent telephone.
Our farm 5341 has currently two households and a third is under construction, I have profiled only one/mine here. We have
installed a booster in the farm oce and the main household, but they do not help. We have considered a tower for another
booster but it is very complicated to achieve and maintain. 5341, Verizon Wireless says is the last possible service for their
tower. Our neighbors cannot use Verizon Wireless, so we consider this lucky as the neighbor's satellite service is intermittent
and undependable. 5341 is literally in the shadow of Pond Mountain at Thoroughfare Gap, so all service comes from Prince
William County though we are in Fauquier. No high speed Comcast, Xfinity or Fios or similar is available to us. When I need
to computer search for my work after business hours or grandchildren's homework or school interface, we wait until very late
at night because we don't have enough speed to connect or download. I could never download media, too slow. No visual
transmission is possible. I often wait until Sunday to send documents too large for the bandwidth after hours and weekends,
especially Friday through Saturday. Really frustrating. Long waits as the documents slowly grind data to transmit. My use is
almost exclusively business and I would grade the internet bandwidth 'very poor.' I discussed the possibility of high-speed to
the farm with Verizon Wireless and learned if I could sign up enough neighbors for them, perhaps. The rep's statement regarding the possibility of bringing service to us was, "It would be VERY expensive." Too expensive to even consider as our neighbors have found. The Comcast optic cable stops about 1 mile south of us on Beverley's Mill Road (I do not know the exact
location of the terminus). There are a dozen+ homes north of the terminus. Our two houses and farm oce are 1/4 mile from
Rt 600W. "
Videoconferencing, Webinars, Social Media for work etc etc.
Volunteer work, Charitable Foundation work, local and national political news, weather forecasts, contacting family members,
contacting friends, information on businesses, information on merchandise and home services
Volunteer work, e.g., Warrenton Kennel Club training coordination.
Volunteer/church work
VPN access to a remote oce
VPN into work network, video conferencing with international contacts,
Watch videos for education and collaboration. Upload photos to stock photo agency. Download software (Windows 10 uses a
lot of bandwidth for updates).
We can not use the Internet for watching movies, downloading podcasts, or any of the other unchecked items above because
our satellite Internet is too slow.
We have a small business organizing 2 yearly events where we access internet forums and social media.
We would do more if we had the option but much has to be done in the middle of the night when bandwidth is not saturated.
We cannot watch videos, take on line courses or telecommute.
We would like our area to be like the rest of the county with access to unlimited internet, Netflix, etc. It recently cost us $120
extra dollars just to back up my husband's iphone on the icloud. Cox Communications is in the process of installing cable to
provide service to Hunton Woods and we would like to be part of that.
we would use it more if we had better broadband access. we have to watch movies at the gym!
We would use others devices, such as gaming consoles, but we are on limited data usage via the satellite provider. Once you hit
that limit, they slow your connection down until it is time to reset the next month.
We would watch movies via the Internet, but our satellite system is too slow.
WebEx conferencing.
webinars
Website building/management
Website design and maintenance business
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What do we not use the internet connection for? Growing our garden veggies. Even for that, we research how to do it better
online.
Wish we could do online movies and music...but DISH limits ability to do so
Work
Work from home
Working from Home has a lot of unloads and downloads of all types of files. Need better unlimited internet options!!!
would like to watch movies and online videos, stream and/or download movies, utilize online backup, etc. but with satellite the
speed/bandwidth is not sucient.
Would use for movies, books if service was better.
would use it for more - streaming music and video but cost /performance prohibits this use
would use it more but it is not reliable or fast enough
Would use more if we had better service and not paying per gig

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Appendix C: Residential Survey


Other needs
2 jobs, one is home/part time. Need faster than DSL speeds to service all my clients. DSL is the new 56k. Need fiber speeds
2 people work part-time from home on weekends and nights
240$ to Comcast for internet that works mid day and late evening and cable tv packages that mostly we are not interested in.
After 10 years of whining to country Comcast is available. But this customer service sucks badly, Afraid to change for fear of
All satellite based services disrupted during inclement weather. I must rely on AM/FM radio for weather alerts.
All the signals seem to stop at the foot of my hill. I really don't know why? I can see the Verizon tower from my house, but t
All wires MuST go underground !!
Any help you can provide for the rural folks would be much appreciated
Anything you can do to get better internet service would be great!
As far as I'm aware of, there are only 2 ( two ) broadband ( satellite ) providers in the rural area that I'm in; too expensive
At my location, satellite is the only available internet service, and the service is poor.
AT&T is terrible at my residents. If cable was provided all the way thru weaversville rd I'm sure my problem would be solved
Badly need Internet for school and my business
Basic landline is $70/month with no long distance calling. Cell service is not good enough.
Because I live in a condo, the only thing I can get is Comcast. They suck!
Because of the lack of bandwidth, I am not able to do all things would like to do on internet. Or getup 2am during bonus time.
Because we cannot bundle, we pay > $300 per month for all services.
Been looking for broadband options for years in Sumerduck! Really hoping this option becomes available soon!
Being a teacher with middle school and high school students, it would be very beneficial to have Internet access at our home.
Better internet would be very welcome.
Better service would allow us to use other internet services if we had better speed and no data cap
Biggest problem is the data caps. 25 GB a month is not enough to do everything I need to. Latency is also a problem.
BOCS overly influenced by PEC in allowing cell towers. Why don't Verizon and Comcast extend their services for internet ?
Both household residents are retired and on limited income.
Both retired and money is a factor
Bring fiber optic to Fauquier County. Verizon's DSL speeds are horrendous and Comcast is far too expensive.
Broadband internet and cell phone coverage are not luxuries but utilities. There's no excuse for excluding us from this century
Broadband is a long shot this far out. Cellular data would be a nice upgrade to Satellite however.
broadband would allow my wife and I to work at home more and not have to commute so much
Business growth in this country is stalled because of this, but then again Fauquier isn't very business friendly anyway.
Cable access is too expensive but necessary because there is no other alternative.
Cable service is fine but so expensive, cell phone service is terrible...often need to go to the end of the driveway (75ft)
Cable/phone/internet bundled for $145. Hard to separate costs. Cost is too high though and they keep trying to raise price.
Can't believe it's this dicult to get reliable broadband 1/4 mile from 29
Can't get cable or DSL, broadband ought to be part of universal access...
Can't rely on internet, so that skews answers above, such as do you do homework/schoolwork. Can't sign up for college classes
Can't work from home, internet sucks.
Cannot download movies, ebooks, etc. Sometimes can only access internet in o peak hours. Slow speeds.
Cannot use all of the services direct tv provides because of no internet connection. Also, I cannot stream music or videos or uv
Cant stream due to buering
cell service in the county is unreliable-even in covered areas. Cell service at my home is not acceptable, but nearby it is ok.
Cell service is spotty so we must keep a land line. Very costly!
Cellular data is extremely limited where I am. I'd pay for broadband
Children without reliable Internet are falling behind in school.
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Comcast "oered" to hook my house to their system for $25000 since I'm "just outside" their service area..
Comcast came halfway down my road and won't come to my house.
Comcast charges way too much because they know there is nothing else really available. How come we don't have FIOS available?
Comcast just installed service a few months ago. Trenched over 600 ft. At no cost. Was that subsidized?
Comcast monopoly = high priced bundles
Comcast service is OK, but it is expensive.
Comcast stops in one mile in either direction of my house. My wife and I desperately want high speed internet for Netflix
Comcast won't come to my house, but they will serve my neighbors who are just a few hundred feet away
Comcast's unreliable and over priced service needs competition that would cause competitive pricing and improved service.
Comcast/xfinity is awful, truly awful. Terrible customer service, high cost, unreliable. Make sure to survey businesses too.
Competitive options would be nice. My only option for reliable broadband is Comcast
Connections are so bad we still have to drive to a wifi location most of the time
Critically important that this get done and done well. Prepare for what we need in twenty to fifty years.
Current service is very expensive and limited data-wise Interestingly, Germany's internet svc is better & costs less than ours.
Current speed 29 - 31 GB Down. , 5 - 6 GB. UP
Currently paying ~$425 a month for the data to run a consulting business, makes growing business very dicult.
data cap on internet usage is unacceptable in today's world, puts my son at a disadvantage
Data metering makes Exede expensive
Dead cell zone area. Even LTE. No internet options but satellite or dial-up. Would like fiber like Fios.
Debra Fletcher
Deparately need faster & more reliable Internet service.
Depurate for faster internet
Desperately need better internet! Get rid of Comcast! Cable is at the corner of our street and they won't continue line.
Desperately need internet and cell phone service at reasonable price!
Dire need for better internet performance and lower cost than satellite
DSL is too slow for the online academic courses my kids are required to take
Elected public ocial - sometimes dicult to access needed information. Volume of data downloads impact user fees.
end of Verizon DLS line so connection very slow or not at all
Erect cell tower or cable please
Even just outside of Warrenton town there is no fiber optic network option. Very disappointing.
Excede is the only provider to my address and road, and is metered the way dial up used to be, with horrible speeds
Expanding internet and cell service is absolutely essential to the future of Fauquier County.
Expense for these services is exorbitant
Expense for these services is exorbitant.
Farming applications and supplies/ purchasing
Fauquier county defiantly need some other type of Internet service
Fauquier County needs better access to broadband services to increase competition, make rates competitive, and increase quality.
Fauquier County needs to get with the times!!
Fauquier County's rural areas desperately need true broadband!
Fauquier needs more options for tv and cable services. Also internet availability.
Fauquier needs to join the 21st Century, Thanks for doing this!
Fiber optics please
Fiber should be available to rural areas.
FIOS Please
Four letters: FiOS. Either get Verizon to drop data caps from cellular internet or have them build out FiOS.
Free Enterprise! If someone wants better Internet coverage it is available...they just have to pay for it. No tax increase!
frequent dropped calls with AT&T. Was the same with Verizon
GET COMCAST TO GET US SERVICE
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Get Verizon in Brookside


Good luck!
Good luck!
Good luck!
Google fiber would greatly benefit our county and force competition
Grandfathered in to the Verizon Unlimited data plan on one cell phone, giving us access to my phone's 4g hotspot. Bad solution.
Had FIOS in previous residence,not available here--no competitive choices, it is a monopoly:(
Happy with speed disappointed in reliability
Have a limit of 10 GB on cell phone/mobile hot spot. Very restricting.
Having Internet access is crucial for medical research while a family member is going through cancer treatments.
Having Internet access is crucial for medical research while a family member is going through cancer treatments.
help
Help, our neck of the woods is stuck in the civil war era.
Help, I need internet but at $335.77/month I can't aord a T1
HELP!
Help!
Help! Even though it's a rural area we deserve decent communication services!
Help! my broadband sucks here.
HELP!!! It is unbelievable that in this country, and only 44 miles from the nation's capital, internet service is so awful!
HELP!!! Please, please, please provide internet access for our area. We need internet for work and school!!!
High quality broadband service is critical infrastructure as important as water/electricity
High speed internet is no longer a luxury
High speed internet with either no data limit or very high data limit is extremely important to us.
Homes prices are down where internet services is limited. And that also means "the good old boys in Fauquier's Northern
areas.
Horrible cell service, high speed fiber at road but 2-9k quote to bring to house. Satellite service usually poor
How can I help, this needs to be done ASAP
HURRY UP
I am "lucky" to be able to have a T1 connection for which I have to pay a fortune because there is no other way. Need better!!!
I am a single mother of four children who have always attended Wakefield School in The Plains, Virginia. Our residence is a fa
I am a student and I cannot do my homework online because the connection is so bad.
I am currently paying over $500 a month for my cell phones since they are our only internet access--ridiculous!
I am mostly satisfied with all these services butI find they have all grown very expensive.
I am retired and have a small home business I operate.
I am retired I can't aord anything but sprint on my phone. That is not always working or strong enough. Too many interference!
I am satisfied with Comcast and it's internet service, however it also is basically the only option.
I am satisfied with my internet speed but it is so very expensive. I work from home full time so I just have to pay it.
I am taking an on line college course and can almost NEVER access the video college courses from home. I have to sleep at
work!
I can't do half the things I need to do from home. If I work, I have to use my husbands wifi. Lets get with the 21st century!
I can't get internet/wifi but my neighbors who live to my left can-we are the cuto pt.
I can't work from home because the Internet connection is too slow or unreliable.
I cannot work from home (which my job wants to make a requirement) because I do not have a decent and reliable internet
access.
I cannot work from home often because connection is extremely unreliable & at the best of time slow. 2 out of 5 bars.
I currently have 2 neighbors that repeat o of my Wave2net mini-tower on my house.
I did a survey like this years ago and nothing ever came of it. I certainly hope I haven't wasted my time again!
I do 24/7 support for work. When issues arise I must be able to connect to work and fix the issues as soon as possible.
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i do a large amount of volunteer work from home


I do voluntary work for nonprofits from home. Why not ask NOVEC to provide broadband? See recent article in the NY
Times .
I do volunteer work from home. So does my wife.
I find it so dicult to believe we are just outside of DC yet cannot get cable providers for internet and television in our co
I had Xfinity when I lived in Warrenton town limits. Boy, do I ever miss it!
I have a lot of comments, but this field doesn't have room to fit it in (should have used a multiline field)
I have a small business and no other Internet options makes it a challange sometimes .
I have absolutely no cell service
I have an com cast quoted me 235k to bring a cable 4 miles to my house!!! I thought Warrenton had cable and I was wrong
I have BEGGED Comcast but because my neighbors have more than 1,000 feet of road frontage - Comcast won't pull the
line to us.
I have no cell phone reception at my home.
I have no internet access to the land we are building on. Elmore's lane Warrenton
I have to go to a family members house in opal any time I need to look something up or pay a bill.
I have two autistic sons and am constantly in contact with drs who need forms and schools for reports
I hope you can help improve our internet and cell phone service. We pay outrageous fees for very poor service.
I live in town, so have better options than those living in the more rural areas. I dislike DSL but don't have access to FIOS,
I live just one mile or so from the last Verizon Vios broadband connection. Connect Halfway!!!
I lose tv and Internet connection whenever there is a storm within 20 miles
I moved here a few months ago from Washington DC and I had no idea h
I moved here a few months ago from Washington DC and I had no idea how bad it is out here in terms of Internet and cell
phone.
I need broad band
I need choice in service providers as a starting point, then more speed.
I need to be able to work from home instead of working from Starbucks or Panera
I pay an extreme amount for internet service using the Verizon Home Fusion service. Need FIOS or Cable service.
I really ned internet at home
I really really really want better wifi, it's so hard not having good internet in this generation. PLEASE PLEASE FIX THIS
I recently sold this residence and had to lower my asking price by $50,000. Six families wanted to buy it, but no cable broke d
I telework 1 day a week. would do more, but internet is horrible
I Telework 2 days a week.
i telework weekly
I think it would be great to have good internet and cell phone service in the rural Fauquier areas that don;t have it now.
I try to work from home but data is limited and connections fail. The same goes for classes.
I value preservation of the rural landscape over less expensive access to internet.
I want real internet at my house!!!
I want to but cant due to internet connectivity
I will be doing some teleworking in the near future.
I will probably have to move out of this rental house because the internet is too slow and unreliable. That is the ONLY reason
I work a few days a month at home but internet service is slow and unreliable
I work from home but our internet and cell service is so bad that I depend on free wifi at cafes and the library
I work from on sick days and bad weather days
I work full-time from home, and fast, reliable internet would be amazing!
I work on a private foundation from home on donations, I work on behalf on several charities.
I worked for BTML in Fairfax when Media General was trying to put cable in Fairfax. The county required them to run it to
every
I would be able to do some work from home but not with current internet service...b/c not good enough
I would like cable internet with in the sumerduck region we use the internet on are phone and always go over on data
I would like to consider things like working at home or using a Voip telephone service, but I only have 1.5Mbps. Too slow!
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I would like to see an improvement in cellular service in my area. Most times there is no signal from my AT&T provider available
I would like to see this expanded to Upperville and Marshall region and Meetze Road in Warrenton. I visit family often.
I would like to telecommute, but because of our slow internet service, I can't
I would prefer a wired fiber or cable connection and would pay for it
I would prefer a wired fiber or cable connection and would pay for it
I would really like to get Verizon FIOS. Comcast will not run a line to our house because they say there isn't enough density.
I would work from home a lot more if my Internet connection was better
I would work from home but cannot connect at a sucient speed and at reasonable cost
I would work from home more but am limited due to current Internet speed and reliability.
I would work from home more if I had reliable and fast internet. As it is, I rent oce space in town in order to have access.
I'd like to have access to internet providers like Virginia Broadband, like other Fauquier County residents.
i'd like to see more consistent service. This area has '
I'd we could at least get cell service that would be a start!!
I'm a full time county employee which my position requires me to have the above services
I'm glad you are doing this. I work in the Internet related industry (CCIE certified). I'd be glad to help. Email above.
I've had faster internet, than the 3 mb/s I get currently in Marshall, while traveling to third world countries.
I've lived in Marshall for over 20 years. The cable company is unwilling to provide access on our street. Phone lines are copp
Implement extended fiber and a wireless mesh ASAP regardless of cost.
In addition to cost, reliability is an issue. I frequently lose internet and TV service is there is rain, snow or cloudy conduit
In my area fiber or other infrastructure may be unrealistic; however, I am hopeful that more towers for wireless could be built.
In my work from home, it is often faster for me to drive to town to submit projects that it is to attempt to do it from home.
Inadequate broadband is preventing me from living in my Fauquier home full time.
internet access is essential for our work and school. No cable, fiber, or DSL. Considering moving based on this alone.
Internet access using satellite is totally unacceptable. The lack of speed combined with the increased latency
Internet access/speed is limited (can't reliably stream video; have to carefully monitor data usage). Poor service for the cost.
Internet Data seems to be getting slower and slower.
Internet is awful I Fauquier county. We regret our house purchase two years. We couldn't imagine internet in the USA this
bad.
Internet limits my ability to work from home, due to lack of coverage. so, I commute 3.5 hours daily
Internet service is not reliable which makes school work dicult and also makes keeping up with regular work hard.
Internet service via fiber or cable is long overdue in rural/suburban Fauquier County
Internet Speed and Reliability should be separated. Hughes Net is reliable but with wildly variable, but mostly snail-like
speeds
Internet speeds extremely slow, costs {and speed} prevent using for smart tv, movies, sports streaming, etc
Internet usage would be higher, but there are data caps which prevent streaming.
Is there anything we can do to bust the monopoly that Comcast has established in our area? I'd love to do business with another
Is there anything we can do to bust the monopoly that Comcast has established in our area? I'd love to do business with another
It appeared that fiber cables are in the area, but not available to home users? Is this true?
It is a crime that we are 70 miles from the nation's capital and have such lousy internet service.
it just cost to much overall
It would be great to download books, take courses but not possible with dial up
It's about time Fauquier County realized there is a need for high speed internet services.
It's disappointing to see counties around Fauquier with fiber access, giving them options for providers- we just have Comcast.
It's time for Fauquier County to embrace the technical features of the 21st century.
Lack of interest service oers
Land line phone service is poor. Verizon tech states cables are old and insulation going bad. Company will not replace. Static
Landline infrastructure sorely needs to be upgraded. Then perhaps those in rural areas might have access to fiber optic internet
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leave Fauquier County alone. We are rural for a reason. We like the country life.
Line of sight access is severely limited for cellphone and internet.
Little/no competition in our area for tv and internet. Cell WiFi poor option since adversely aected by location/weather.
Looking at opening a business in Fauquier in addition to my current employer. Prospects are poor without internet connection
Main need is for good fast aordable internet
Make towers as tall as they need to be for eective coverage.
Many of our poorest residents who would benefit from this survey cannot access it! We are disadvantaging remote, poor students.
Members of Houshold work from home twice a week.
Mesh Networks, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesh_networking, may help to spread Internet access beyond utility barriers.
Microwave internet cost eective alternative to cable/telephone broadband wiring
Moved from Dial-Up to Satellite to WISP, with cost increasing each step . $90/month for WISP - high price, out of reach?
My 4G service is good but has a 10GB cap, which I keep exceeding -- and I don't even stream videos or do games.
My area is 10 to 15 years behind in Internet and mobile cell service. I love my home but it makes it very hard to work from
home
My big problem is bandwidth limits for our internet connection. We'd like more data, but it's prohibitively expensive.
My current cost for Internet,TV & LL Phone: $308/month
My Internet connection restricts my ability to work from home with telemedicine.
My internet is not fast enough to connect.
My internet/wireless modem limits me to 5Gb/month. I would use more if I had unlimited service. I sometimes go to the
library.
My major complaint now that I live in town with internet service is the cost Comcast charges for bundled service. Furthermore,
My primary problem is slow internet UPLOAD speeds.
My son lives on Atoka Rd and has no internet. He is a volunteer fireman and fire inspector. His cell phone also has bad recent
My wife also works full time from home for another company. I also have programs that connect to me so they can do work
for me
My wife and I both work full time from home.
My wife worked full-time from home for several years. She spent many days in Panera and other local hot-spots due to poor
service
Need a cell tower in Hume
Need better access and lower cost!
NEED BETTER INTERNET
Need better service, lower costs
NEED More TV/Internet Options: FIOS! FIOS!FIOS! PLEASE
Need phone, cell, TV, and Internet service for new home being built.
Need to be working more from home. Have to go to McDonald's or library. Daughter attends LFCC. She can't do homework
at home.
Need volume insensitive pricing.
No internet service
No options for Internet at home.
Occasionally when I take college courses on line
Often our Internet is so slow as to be completely unusable aND we have to drive to a public place with Internet.
One of the two members works full time from home. One works occasional nights and weekends from home.
Only get 3 mbps download speed and 1 mbps upload speed. Need higher speed for bus inessential purposes.
Only having Comcast in the neighborhood now makes pricing extremely expensive.
Our area has MANY miles of ZERO or extremely limited cell phone reception - turn or walk a few steps & you lose connection
Our area needs internet available
Our biggest issue with our internet is the data cap and high expense
Our Cellular Service is very poor, our Satellite Internet is very slow, and very limited options for improvement.
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our choice for tv is between 2 satellite companies who have marginal service/high prices. internet is $60 for 10g!!! terrible
Our choices are limited in a rural area with poor landline and cell service. Satellite is all there is and we are limited to 25G
Our current internet option, which is through satellite, is not ecient, nor eective, for our school-age child.
Our family and our businesses are in dire need of reliable high speed internet access.
Our home service is adequate but moving around the county is the challenge. "Mobile" isn't truly mobile.
Our internet is great until the "red circle" appears - meaning we have used up out units. this is 2016 for goodness sake!
Our internet is very unreliable; constantly in and out. Phone often gets loud static/buzzing in the line.
Our land line goes down several days every year. Once it was down for over 30 days.
Our landline and DSL service provided by Verizon more often does NOT work. Of course, when a technician comes, all is
well.
Our landline telephone is awful, because Verizon doesn't adequately maintain it. Our cell phone doesn't work at home.
Our neighborhood is surrounded by other neighborhoods that have dependable internet access. We do not have it.
Our only option for internet is our cellphone hot spot. We have almost no cellphone signal, so can't connect to the internet.
Our only option is via Verizon. We ration our use to 60GB/month. We need more, but cost is prohibitive.
Our part of Warrenton is a dead zone for broadband or cable ISPs, and none have plans to come out here.
Our property is in a dip. Verizon/AT&T signal very foggy
Our speed from Blaze doesn't permit high-def video streaming.
Our use, downloading, and upgrading of Cell and internet is extremely limited due to unreliable signal.
Please - need Internet alternative to satellite
Please bring better Internet options to our area!
Please bring faster internet to The Plains or faster/reliable/unlimited Satellite internet
Please bring Fios to Fauquier county!
Please bring high speed internet!!!!
PLEASE BRING US BROADBAND!!!!!!!!!!
Please bring us into the 21 Century
Please contact me if any additional help is needed or surveys become available to fill out. I am happy to assist.
Please for the love of god get some high speed internet over here
please get a cell tower and some type of better land line services in my area
Please get me broadband internet!!!
please get new lines installed or get new cell towers that will work in my mountainous region of Fauquier county
Please get this fixed and easier for inner net connection
Please get us Comcast or the like!
Please get us good internet / cellular service!!!!
Please help us down in the Casanova area so our children can keep up with everything
PLEASE help us find other and cheaper options!! It is frustrating that only 2 miles away is CABLE that we can't get!!
Please help us get better internet service - we are desperate and so are my neighbors.
Please help us, I love VA but the internet access is the NUMBER ONE reason I would move. We have a farm here though...
PLEASE HELP US!!!! Look at the map were we live...there is Comcast to the left of us and Comcast to the right, connect it
please
Please help with faster internet access
please help!!!!
Please hurry.... selling my home due to lack of broadband... cant find a good that has broadband unless I move into town
Please look into leveraging Electric Coops to lay down fiber and the FCC Connect America Fund, ref. NY Times article
Please make the Internet faster
PLEASE MAKE THIS A PRIORITY!!! It's a huge huge issue in our area!!!
Please make this happen!
Please note cell phone and home phone service at my home are dependent on my internet service.
Please please bring us the Internet at an aordable rate!!!! We've been begging for years and are always told we're too rural.
Please please please get cable and Internet access to our area. Living here is great but there is good reason we do not have it
Please please please please please please please please
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Please see above in who is you Internet service provider


Please work diligently on this issue! It is ridiculous that we are so close to the Capital of the free world and can't connect.
Please, please improve my options. Comcast is just a half mile from me.
Please!!!! We need high-speed broadband internet!
provider allows 15gb/mo usage. Not enough for 4 users. Cell coverage is too spotty to be back up. Must ration internet usage.
really, really need better internet, it's PAINFULLY slow- we are the end of the line and DSL is not really fast
Recently moved from Manassas where I had Fios to now only having satellite, what a huge disappointment.
Reliable, high speed internet is becoming critical for safety and quality of life. My security system won't work properly on my
Resolving internet access for Fauquier county citizens is one of the most important economic development issues
retired
Retired and work everything from home.
Retired. Completely reliant on poor digital service. All news and information subscriptions are digital deliveries.
rural areas need more reliable cable/internet
Satellite is expensive and doesn't work well, nearly impossible to work from home or complete school assignments for college.
satellite data unacceptable: caps, latency, no voip. Our only choice is a Verizon BUSINESS T1 ordered via our business to
home
Satellite Internet is DREADFUL! I pay way too much for far substandard service.
Satellite internet allows 15 GB of download capacity a month. Very constrictive, aects my access to entertainment, Also slow
Satellite internet is expensive and limited
Satellite Internet is extremely unreliable and can go out for days at a time. As a student this has been a huge issue for me
Satellite internet is the worst, over $100 mthly, low data amounts, sketchy service.
Satellite stinks. Are unable to do certain things we would like or need to do and only have a limited amount of usage.
Satellites cut out during heavy rain storms!
Save us, please.
See above under who is your internet service provider
See above, since you limited the space for other comments...
See above; this did not allow enough space. Comments written above, please read!
Self employed require high internet service but too expensive to work from home with current service
Seriously, fiber to the home for the entire county.
Shortly after installing the Verizon fiber Comcast brought service to my area but now I'm locked into a contract with Verizon
Slow, very expensive, financial burden and a must for public education requirement
Some of the questions are poorly formatted and the last 2 are out of order.
Spouse needs better internet to telework for the government
Students in rural parts of the county are at a very real disadvantage with the lack of internet connectivity.
Supplemental entry Down and Up speeds are Meg not Gig
Survey not objective, set up for all people to want "more" and "better".
Terrestrial wireless should be another alternative -- but the only provider in the area only oers 2 Mb service.
Terrible time lately with Internet and cell service due to "tower issues"
Thank you for addressing a HUGE need in our area!!!
Thank you for the survey. I have about 1 bar of service for my AT&T smartphone and often, no network available due to over
sub
Thank you for your hard work in this area! It is greatly appreciated!!
Thank you. We wish we had better wiring in this area to take advantage of the higher speeds.
Thanks for your consideration
The biggest problem is TV. Satellite would help
The Board's new initiative to bring broadband access to all households in the county is fully supported from many angles.
the changing of job requirements and the ability to meet them; questions the ability to remain in at our current address
The data caps are killing us! 30GB for $130 a month is absolutely ridiculous. Makes it impossible to run a business!
The internet service we have us good only about 60% of the time.
The internet situation on my street is truly an embarrassment which limits productivity and is in serious need of addressing.
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The lack of either cable or FiOS broadband is a significant hinderance


The main challenge is the cap on daily Internet data, not the speed.
the more reliable the service, the more sustainable the economy in rural areas
The only options we have are satellite and dial up
The ONLY thing I miss from living in the suburbs is unlimited high speed internet
The service that I have is good but it goes o periodically then you have, to reset the box. We have had several
the sooner the better especially in the rural areas i want faster internet with no monthly data restrictions.
the whole county needs better access. dead zones.unreliable. makes business harder
The year is 2016 and our county has terrible broadband. We are behind the times.
There are many internet services I'd use if we had a higher-bandwidth service. Cell phone service is marginal.
There are three power lines run through my property, fiber optic cable under those, a power substation and my phones don't
work.
There is NO cell phone signal at my home in Hume and when the power goes out, we eventually lose the landline phone also.
There is NO cell signal at our residence. Sometimes one bar if you walk 200 yards up the hill.
There is no other option than Comcast in my neighborhood
These days good fast reliable internet is a necessity.
This is a huge problem! It is horribly expensive and that gets us a slow connection!
This is an internet survey. Why ask about phone and TV service? These are dierent technologies and services?
This is our singular yet monumental dissatisfaction with living in Fauquier County. Cable is required for functioning in society.
This service would be very important to me ! Please keep working on to ! Thank you.
Too expensive/too slow/not reliable!
Tried to get Comcast because my neighbor has it, but Comcast said "no."
Tried to get WISP service, but trees and terrain prevent line of sight to tower. Wireless phone service very poor.
Unable to use internet for all task due to lack of speed.
Used to have Verizon internet which worked for two years then they re-orientated the tower. Didn't tell us and lied about it
Verizon and Comcast have no plans to provide service on this street for the next several years. Thank you, LUTHER Keys.
Verizon does not provide any data service on the telephone line
Verizon DSL is so slow & unreliable that smartphones often default to cellular data which costs my household substantial $/
mo
Verizon phone is the only company on my road to provide hardline telephone service, but it is poor quality
Verizon provides extremely poor service.
Verizon was to get DSL out to us and NEVER has in 10 years
Very frustrating that others around us (within a few miles) have other cable/internet options.
Very limited cell service and DSL quality is horrible
Very spotty service. Connectivity has gone down down down.
VPN download of large documents is horrible and unreliable.
We also need better cell service in our location!!!!
We also need better cell service in our location!!!!
We are 4 self-employed adults that depend upon internet access for our business. We have no access to cable or FIOS internet.
We are a homeschool family and have to go out to stream videos for certain classes. I
We are both retired.
We are building new subdivisions in Fauquier without preparing the infrastructure. Mintbrook is listed as unserviceable
We are elderly and I am disabled. There is severe weather here now and we need to be able to call for help and my husband
needs
we are extremely unhappy with our cell phone and internet service,. we love living in Catlett Virginia, but hate the services
We are unable to access line-of-sight broadband to access the internet and long for a reliable non-satellite connection..
We are very concerned that the lack of good internet options in our area will adversely aect the value of our home
We are very frustrated with the lack of good internet and cell signal! Please find a solution!
we can't get internet at our house or cell phone service. I have to go into Loudoun County to get internet.
We can't talk on the cell phone inside our house! We need better towers and communications at more reasonable cost
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We can't use VOIP because our bandwidth is too limited; we run out of bandwidth every month; we have no cell phone service
We deal with access issues in other spots well - its how it was when we moved here. That is why it's beautiful! So worth it : )
We desperately need fast, dependable, & unlimited internet access as we work from home full time work from home.
We do not watch movies because of limited data.
We don't game online or watch movies because the connection is too slow.
We don't need phone service, cell phones are fine in the area. Comcast supplies TV, but no internet. We need broadband.
We had internet and tv up until a few months ago when the bill became to much and we couldn't aord it anymore
We had Verizon wireless for internet and installed booster to better signal, but booster requires continuous reset.
We hate our DSL and restart the router multiple times each day.
We hate satellite connection. no reliable TV, internet, cell phone services. had to fold my life Internet business.
We have a Verizon T-1 line embedded in the front of our property but Verizon refuses to extend residential service to us
We have asked Verizon sneak times for internet service but they have declined our requests.
We have been thinking about buying our first home, and it's hard to find properties w/land that are in an internet service area
We have been trying to get another internet provider other than HughesNet
We have cable at both ends of our street but not on our street. How is this fair? Our internet access is via wireless 10G
We have much better internet access at our camp in the Adirondacks than we have seventy miles from the nation's capital.
We have zero cell service at home, no signal,,,,,.
We love living in the country but the internet issues are a huge problem!
We must have internet, and we pay over $500.00 per month. It is a terrible burden on our family financially.
We need a company that understands and provides better service
We need a constant on unlimited data broadband connection or we will move out of the county
we need access to cable phone internet that is less expensive and better quality
We need AFFORDABLE UNLIMITED options for internet - it is a must for schoolwork and my work!
We need another provider, we are held hostage by only one provider, there is no competition, there fore we have to pay very
high
We need broadband service out here! So close to DC yet we're living in the internet stone age.
We need Fiber Optic Cables out here Agent Lee
We need good reliable high speed internet!!!!!!! Please.
we need internet service
We need reliable high speed connectivity.
We need this in our county!! We pay too much for cell phones and still have to travel to McD's to use free internet.
We need this service bad all my neighbors want internet but it's not available
We need to be able to attach response letters to this survey. Please instruct.
We need uncapped broadband desperately!! They limit the amount of GB we use and I am paying through the nose for it!
We own and live on our farm. Better internet service would be very important to keep up with news and technology in farming.
We pay $$$$$$ for basic, unreliable services; it should be better
We really need cable internet! I'm tired of paying HUGE fees for very slow, unreliable satellite internet.
We really want access to unlimited internet with the capability of being able to view Netflix, etc.
We run 3 business from our home. For us, having high speed, reliable access to internet is essential. We appreciate your help!
We sure need better options in Fauquier C. Verizon is so expensive,and land line reliability is deteriorating. Thanks.
We typically pay over $500/month for service which is why we aren't willing to pay more.
We want Verizon Fios
We would be ecstatic to have the option of cable and Fios in our area
We would like better internet service to work from home, download videos/movies/books/music. Also need better cell service!
We would like to be able to stream movies
We would like to join the 21st Century. We do not have cell signal r any choice other than satellite for tv and Internet.
We would love a more reliable internet service. The $99 per month that we pay would be much more tolerable if the service
was.
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We would LOVE to have better service in our area!!!!


We would LOVE to have FiOS! We need better cell phone service, we walk down the st for 1 bar!!
Well, I sorta "work" from home....I'm responsible for my Club's computer work.
WFH on bad weather days, also
what happened to the cell tower that was approved at Hume, va?
Why doesn't the southern part of the county have the same services that the richer / northern end have?Why is there no competition? Country and county need Google Fiber.
Wife disabled uses internet but will not be able to aord after husband retires.
Wife teaches HS in county. Students and parents without access can't stay current with state and county requirements.
Putting k
Wife works from home when she can.
Will the solution meet the FCC definition of broadband Internet (25Mbps upload/3Mbps download)?
Willing to pay more for better service? Relative to what? From what I pay now? NO!
With bad weather, thunder storms, heavy snow connection is lost.
With the increasing trac, the need for teleworking is growing, but the Internet options makes teleworking prohibitive.
Work sometimes from home for employer.
would be nice to have a tower for wireless cellphone
Would do more work if had better internet
Would do much more online if not limited to Cellular data. We need high-speed internet access.
Would like better cell phone service and internet through electricity lines!
Would like more choices than Comcast for high speed internet and cable.
Would like to have any of major cable companies oer tv/high speed internet to our neighborhood Westervelt
Would like to see fiber to the home (FTTH) and better wireless coverage
Would love faster, more reliable, and unlimited broadband
Would love FiOS or another wired service.
Would love to get another kind of Internet service that doesn't cost an arm and a leg
Would love to have Comcast or Verizon internet/tv service!
Xfinity is the only usable internet in our neighborhood, and bc of the monopoly it is an absolute ripo
Yes why is it taking so long for our county to get access to hight speed. Other surrounding counties have greater options.
You're missing up and coming Streaming TV in this survey. Big player.

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Appendix D: Business Survey Affordable broadband and speed


$100 a month for reliable 10 MBS
$100 a month; faster than satellite
$100 month
$100 month
$100 per month / 100+ MB
$100 per month, 5+ Mb/sec, if it's reliable
$100 super fast
$100 super fast
$100-$150 monthly
$100-$200 for full uplink and downlink broadband with no data limits
$100-150 1-3 MB unlimited
$100.00 - $125.00 / Mo for 100 mbps
$125/month at 10-50Mb
$150 19mb download 4mb upload
$150 unlimited is the biggest key
$250-300/month for anything over 100mbps/down and 20/up
$400 per month for 50 up and down
$50 and as fast as possible
$50/mo for 100mb up and down
$65 per month and 100+ Mbps
10 - 50+ MBPS and >$250 per month is ok
10-50 MB for $125/month
100-120 per month, 25mb up and 25mb down or better, low latency
100$ and fast
100Mb for $1000/month would be nice
150-200/month, for 10-50Mbps`
150/month 100+ if possible
200.00 50mbs
20Mbps @ $179 / mo
20mbs $150
400-500 per month for 100mb or faster with no limits on monthly data
50 MBPS for $500
50 to 100Mb at $125/month
50-100 Mbps
50-100MB / what ever the cost is, it will be well worth it!
50.00 per month
50mb or more 39.99 per month
80/month for 100mb
A stable 20MB connection for $100/mo (no caps) would be nice!
about $100- $150/mo depending on service provided
At this point we pay too much for what we have. We should getting faster speed for what we pay. Give us an option and a
price.
Cable or DSL. 500$ per month os ridiculous when in town rates are 10% of that.
Comcast provides "burst" service up to 100Mb, it's bundled with VOiP and TV, but it too expensive at about $260.00 /
Mo.
Do not understand the question
don t know
For 1 person, anything under $100
I need to send out video, whatever that speed is
I pay enough. Don't want to pay more than $175 per month
I pay to much now for horrible service
I used to pay about $100 for 100mbs downloads from comcast in Bealeton
I was willing to pay $500. a month for 10mg fiber but then they wanted $60,000 to lay the fiber
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I will pay almost anything to have something other than satellite!


I would LOVE FIOS and could absolutely use it to enhance my business. Would pay up to $250 or even $300 a month...
I would pay $400 a month for symmetrical gigabit speed
I would pay up to $200 a month
I'd like to have the speed the the Marshall Library has now
If I was able to have high-speed I would pay up to $125/month. I am not sure of the current speed I have at home.
Internet cost is not the limiting factor. More speed and dependable connection is the key
internet should be at least 3mb and not bandwidth limited; cost <150/month
Less than $100 as fast as possible
Less than $100. FCC broadband spec. 25Mbps download 3 Mbps upload
My upload speed is actually more important than my download speed because we primarily serve websites to the world
No sure, but willing to pay more for better service
Not much
Nothing is really aordable and T1 is the most I can get. in city 1gig is like $80 with phone not $500 for 1.5mb
OUR CURRENT SPEED (10Mb) AT OUR CURRENT COST (see above)
paying
reliable is more important.... greater than 15MB
Speed now is OK - but strict limit on upload/download per day
The cost is included in my lease
Under $100 mos, 100 mbps+ w/fiber future
Undetermined
VA
Very fast, $75-80/month
we would pay over $1,500 per month but would like to see 50mb up/down
We've recently upgraded at reduced cost and increased speed

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Appendix E: Business Survey Other


needs
Another cell option would be nice. I have Verizon and coverage is acceptable for voice almost zero for data.
Better cell service in outlying areas. As somebody on call for my business 24/7, I cannot have the repeated dropped calls
better landlines for phone. Periods of wet weather lead to prolonged noise in the line that interferes with business.
Cell Phone and Internet
Cell phone service is essentially dead in many parts of the county
Cloud storage
I must download all software updates. Current speed not sucient to cover this need. It takes more time and often does
not
I need a redundancy connection such as DSL or Cox but I am only able to get Comcast, the specific need is for dedicated
IPs
I need competition: Verizon oers 3mbps and below, Comcast much more, but no competition between them for highbandwidth
I would love to have the ability to watch on line school course videos from my Master's Program at home!!
Improved cellular service in Northern end of county; could remove need for hard-wiring broadband; microwave
broadband an option
increased cell phone coverage / signal
Inexpensive wifi like cable
Internet service at home dierent from oce
Maybe fax
My biggest issue is reliability. I have use two ISPs to ensure I am able to be connected.
N/A
Need better cell coverage
None
None
None
None
none
Phones that work in when it rains would be nice.
unlimited data consumption
Vastly improved reception and less expensive service for cell phones
We need aordable high speed
We need enough band width and speed to upload video.
We need reliable internet connection. If it rains, wind blows or the sun shines, we lose internet connection.
Would like Fiber Optic
You covered it, but I could do much more with more speed

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Appendix F: Business Survey Other


Comments
AT&T's cell signal has significantly downgraded over time in our area. We have to use a MicroCell to get a signal.
Comcast needs to stop charging $15000 to run lines between telephone poles, we know it does not cost that much.
Comcast quoted me 235k to bring a cable 4 miles to my house!!! I thought Warrenton had cable and I was wrong
Current service too expensive for mediocre performance
Disgrace to be 1 hour from DC and not have High speed that is aordable
Everyone falls behind in today's society because of the lack of technology available.
I have to file business taxes online. My connection is so poor that it sometimes takes days to file, if it works at all.
I work full time and run my business as a side venture . Hoping to run my business full time at some point .
I would prefer a wired fiber or cable connection and would pay for it
If I pay for Internet at home it should include it for my business. Also, business plans are way overpriced.
In rural Fauquier County we are stuck in the stone ages when it comes to technology
It is sad that our business can buy broadband for our home but simple residences cannot. Verizon makes data artificially
scarce.
It would be very helpful to attract more business to Fauquier County if we had a reliable high speed internet for our
community
Land line maintenance has really suered. We've had our business lines (we have 3, pay $200/month!) out for days at
time.
Looking for a more reliable provider. In the 18 months since relocating my business to Vint Hill we have lost service
5-10.
Many friends are moving out of my area due to poor internet
My business (online training delivery) cannot exist with unreliable service. I use the Mason Center in Warrenton for
class.
Need Internet service to remotely monitor security cameras. Currently unavailable at our Marshall business location.
Need unlimited high speed internet option. We are looking at relocating as the satellite options are not unlimited
No
Please change this issue in Fauquier County. We will have to move locations if not
Seems if service demand was high enough providers would already be working to provide competitive services.
the sooner the better especially in the rural areas
There's are many internet based services that we would use but cant because we have NO high-speed internet options
We are currently researching other counties to move our business to that oers high-speed internet to expand our
business.
We have dial-up (3 locations), satellite (1) & cellular wireless (2); landline phones have noise in the line in wet weather
We just signed on at the Fauquier Enterprise Center for internet access since we don't have it from the farm.
We need cable in the country
We need dependable internet at a fast speed and reasonable price
We need some choices and competition!!! Thank you for asking, this survey is a huge step forward if action follows!
We switched to Comcast from a local unreliable, slower and very expensive broad band service.
We would have more people on the internet and be able to serve clients better.
Willing to pay higher Real Estate tax for fiber Optic to home. Already pay so much for Data and it probably would be
cheaper.
With all ISPs, dicult to balance work and pleasure internet usage and data plans for home-based business

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