FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
TABLE CONTENTS
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
Introduction
Design Pressure and Temperature
Materials of Construction (MOC)
Maximum Allowable Stress
Welded Joint Efficiency and
Categories
1.6 Corrosion Allowance
1.7 Design Loads
1.8 Minimum Practical Wall Thickness
1.9 Vessel Supports
2.0 Flanged Joints
2.1 Design of Fluidized Bed Reactor
2.2 Conclusion
2.3 References
Construction
2
5
7
9
14
17
18
26
33
40
42
44
45
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.1.1
Acrylic Acid
Acrylic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH2=CHCO2H.
This is simplest unsaturated carboxylic acid. (ACRYLIC ACID  CH2=CHCOOH
 PubChem)
IUPAC name
Other name
Prop2enoic acid
acroleic
ethylenecarboxylic
acid,
acid,
propene
acid, propenoic acid, vinyl formic
acid.
Molecular formula
Molar mass
Appearance
Density
Melting point
Boiling point
Table 1
C3H4O2
72.06266 g/mol
colourless liquid
1.051 g/mL
14 C
141 C
1.1.2 Production of Arcylic Acid via the Catalytic Partial Oxidation of
Propylene.
2
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
The ultimate aim for the consultation project is to produce Acrylic Acid.
Acrylic acid and its derivatives are very useful in many applications. Acrylic
acid is commonly used for surface coating, textiles, diapers, personal cares
and water treatment industries. There are several chemical pathways to
produce AA, but the most common one is via the partial oxidation of
propylene. The usual mechanism for producing AA utilizes a twostep process
in which propylene is first oxidized to acrolein and then further oxidized to
AA. Each reaction step usually takes place over a separate catalyst and at
different operating conditions. (Turton)
The reaction stoichiometry is given below:
Several side reactions may occur, most resulting in the oxidation of
reactants and products.
The main production of the process was to produce acrylic acid. The
side products for this production were water, acetic acid and carbon dioxide.
The production rate for this process was to produces 50,000 metric tons per
3
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
year of 99.9% by mole of Arcylic acid. The reactor used for the production of
this acrylic acid was by using the fluidized bed reactor.
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
1.2 DESIGN PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE
In designing pressure vessel, there are some considerations must be
taken. The vessel must be designed to withstand the maximum pressure
which will subjected to any operation in industrial production. The
temperature and pressure of the vessel is taken from the equipment
summary table as attached in the appendices. Furthermore, for the
production of acrylic acid from propylene, the design pressure is taken 15%
and 10% above the normal working pressure, to avoid spurious operation of
the relief valve during minor process upsets.
a) Design pressure:
For 15% design
Pressure 3 bar
= 3 bar 115%
= 3.45 bar
For 10% design
Pressure 3 bar
= 3 bar 110%
= 3.30 bar
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
Besides that, design temperature is also taken 15% and 10% above the
normal working temperature. Under the ASME BPV Code, The maximum
design temperature at which the maximum allowable stress is evaluated
should be taken as the maximum working temperature of the material, with
due allowance for any uncertainty involved in predicting vessel wall
temperature. Moreover, the design temperature of the vessel must not be
less than the maximum fluid temperature at the design pressure. The design
temperature of the vessel is calculated as followed:
b) Design temperature:
For 15% design
Temperature 251.65
(Upennedu, 2016)
= 251.65
115%
= 289.42
Therefore: temperature = 289.42
= 552.96
For 10% design
Temperature 251.65
(Upennedu, 2016)
= 251.65
110%
= 276.84
Therefore: temperature = 276.84
= 530.307
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
1.3 MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION
Acrylic acid is a substance that will react readily with free radicals and
electrophilic or nucleophilic agents such as (example). It might be polymerize
in the presence of acids such as sulphuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, alkalis
such as ammonium hydroxide, amines such as ethylenediamine, iron salts,
elevated temperature, light peroxide are formed when oxygen was sparged
into acrylic acid. Moreover, the presence of oxygen is required for the
stabilizer to function effectively. Besides that, acrylic acid should not be
handled under an inert atmosphere. (Kimyasanalcom, 2016)
Polymerization of acrylic acid can occur of it is rethawed under
inappropriate temperature and it is a strong corrosive agent to many metals
such as unalloyed steel, copper and brass. (Kimyasanalcom, 2016). Besides
that, metal ions can initiate polymerization and acrylic acid, especially in the
presence of water, will easily corrode carbon steel and similar metals.
Corrosion and subsequent polymerization initiated by metal ions cannot only
be caused by inappropriate material but also by accidental introduction of
incompatible metals into the system such as gaskets, maintenance tools,
carbon steel bolts and nuts. (European basic acrylic monomer group, 2012)
Thus, it is best choice to use stainless steel (AISI Type 304L) as the
material for fluidized bed reactor. This type of stainless steel is chosen
because it can withstand the design pressure and temperature. It can be
exposed continuously without appreciable scaling about 899 . Besides
that, it also have very good draw ability and the combination of low yield
strength and high elongation permits successful forming of complex shapes.
7
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
Stainless steel does not readily corrode, rust or stain with water as normal
steel does. However, it is not fully stainproof most noticeably under low
oxygen, high salinity or in poor circulation environment. There will be
different grades and surface finishes of stainless steel to be chosen in order
to suit the alloy with the environment. (Aksteelcom, 2016)
Stainless steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and often found in
materials used in construction and tools which contain minimum of 10.5%
chromium. Then, the chromium in stainless steel will reacts with oxygen in
the air to produce a very thin, inert, chromium rich oxide film on the surface
of the steel. The presence of this layer will cause the stainless steel to be
more resistance to corrosion. (Aalcocouk, 2016)
This passive film is not like coatings such as paint and if it is
damaged by abrasion or mechanical means such as cutting, it will reforms
and continues to protect the steel. Furthermore, the material selection for
this fluidized bed reactor is stainless steel because of its corrosion resistance
and aesthetic appearance. Moreover, it is very vital to understand the factors
in selecting the best material both in grade and surface finish respectively.
Choosing the most suitable material will increase the performance of the
equipment and increase the product yield. (Aalcocouk, 2016)
Carbon steel cannot be used for this reactor because it will readily
rust when it get exposed to air and moisture. When the moisture react with
the air, it will produce a layer of iron oxide which known as rust and it will
form more rust if it is continuously exposed to air. Layers of rust will tend to
flake and fall away. In the presence of water and acrylic acid, they will readily
react with the carbon steel and corrosion occur. Different with carbon steel,
stainless steel has sufficient chromium to form a passive film of chromium
oxide which will prevents further surface corrosion by preventing oxygen
8
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
diffusion to occur on the steel surface and eventually blocked the corrosion
from spreading into the metals internal structure and due to similar size of
the steel and oxide ions, the bond are very strong and it will attached
strongly onto the surface. (Aalcocouk, 2016)
1.4 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE STRESS
Analysis of stresses
For 10% design,
P = 0.33 N/mm2
t= 10.8mm
Di = 3600 mm
Pressure Stresses
Longitudinal stress, L = PDi / 4t
L =
(0.33)(3600)
4 (10.8)
= 27.5 N/mm2
Circumferential stress, h = PDi / 2t
h =
(0.33)(3600)
= 55 N/mm2
2(10.8)
Dead weight stresses

Due to weight of the vessel, its contents and any attachments.
9
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
w =
Wz / [ (Di + t) t ]
w =
173.641000
(3600+10.8)(10.8)
= 1.417 N/mm2
Bending stresses
Do = Di + 2t
Do = 3600 + 2(10.8) = 3621.6 mm
b = (M/Iv)[ Di/2 + t]
740000
3600
+10.8 = 6.71*103 N/mm2
b = ( 1.9971011 )(
2
Where M : total bending moment at the plane
Iv : second moment area of the vessel about the plane of bending
Iv =
64
( Do4 Di4 )
Iv =
64
( 3621.64 36004 ) = 1.997*1011 mm4
Longitudinal Stress
10
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
z = L + w b
Since w is compressive, thus the value will be negative.
Upwind :
z = L +( w ) + b
z = 27.5 + ( 1.417 ) + 0.00671 = 26.09 N/mm2
Downwind :
z = L +( w )  b
z = 27.5 + ( 1.417 )  0.00671 = 26.076 N/mm2
26.09 N/mm2
Upwind
26.076 N/mm2
Downwind
Thus, the greatest difference between the principal stresses is at the
downwind side of the vessel, which is:
55.00 26.076 = 28.924 N/mm2
Comparing with the design stress;
Maximum allowable design stress = 87.71 N/mm2
Greatest difference stress = 28.924 N/mm2
11
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
As the maximum allowable design stress is more than the greatest difference
between principal stresses, the vessel design is valid.
For 15% design,
t= 11.2mm
P = 0.345 N/mm2
Di = 3600 mm
(N/mm2)
L = 27.723
h = 55.446
2. Dead weight stresses
w = 1.409
3. Bending stresses
b = 0.00647
4. Longitudinal Stress
(upwind)z = 26.320
(downwind)z = 26.308
Greatest difference between 29.138
principal stresses
Analysis of stresses
1. Pressure Stresses
12
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
26.320 N/mm2
Upwind
26.308 N/mm2
Downwind
Comparing with the design stress;
Maximum allowable design stress = 86.77 N/mm2
Greatest difference stress = 29.138 N/mm2
As the maximum allowable design stress is more than the greatest difference
between principal stresses, the vessel design is valid.
13
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
1.5 WELDED JOINT EFFICIENCY AND CONSTRUCTION
Maximum Allowable Stress
1st Trial: 10% of operating condition
Pi = 3.3 bar
Ti = 276.837 C which is equivalent to 530.3066 F
Interpolation
14
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
Temperature
Maximum
(F)
Stress (ksi)
500
12.9
530.3066
700
11.7
Allowable
S 12.9
530.3066 500
11.7 12.9
700 500
S 12.718ksi
S 12.718 103 psi
Conversion of unit from psi to Pa
S ( Pa) 12.718 103 psi
1Pa
0.000145 psi
S 8.77110 7 Pa
2nd Trial: 15% of operating condition
15
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
Pi = 3.45 bar
Ti = 289.43 C which is equivalent to 552.956 F
Interpolation
Temperature
Maximum
(F)
Stress (ksi)
500
12.9
552.956
700
11.7
Allowable
S 12.9
552.956 500
11.7 12.9
700 500
S 12.582ksi
S 12.582 103 psi
Conversion of unit from psi to Pa
S ( Pa) 12.582 103 psi
1Pa
0.000145 psi
S 8.6772 107 Pa
1.6 CORROSION ALLOWANCE
16
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
Corrosion allowance is very important as an estimation of how much
thickness need to be added to the equipment in order to avoid it from being
corroded, eroded or scaled. The commonly minimum corrosion allowance
used is 2 mm for normal condition. However, for this process the substances
used are very corrosive, hence higher corrosion allowance need to be used
instead of 2 mm. Due to this reason, the corrosion allowance chosen for this
process is 4 mm due to the high corrosive substances used. This is mainly for
safety purpose.
Corrosion Allowance = 4 mm
1.7 DESIGN LOADS
17
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
1.7.1 Dead Weight of Reactor
a) For 15% design,
t=11.2mm
Major sources of dead weight are:
1. The vessel shell
Since the MOC for this equipment is Carbon Steel, therefore for a steel
vessel the equation shown below is applied:
Wv =
240CwDm(Hv+0.8Dm)t
Cw = 1.08
Dm = (Di + t
103)
= 3.6m + (11.2
103m)
= 3.61m
Hv = 10m
t = 11
For a steel vessel
Wv = 240 (1.08) (3.61m) [10m + 0.8
3.61m](11.204
103m)
Weight of vessel = 135.16kN
2. Vessel fittings
18
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
There are 2 nozzles embedded to the reactor which are the inlet and
outlet nozzles respectively.
i)
Rm = 70.886 inch
ii)
T
= 0.425 inch
iii)
ro = 8 inch
iv)
P
= 50.038 pounds per inch square
v)
Sy = 31,200 psi
Rm
T
ro
P
Sy
= Mean Radius of Shell, inches
= Shell Thickness, inches
= Nozzle Outside Radius, inches
= Design Pressure, pounds per square inch (psi)
= Yield Strength of Material at Design Temperature, pounds per
square inch (psi)
Rm
T
70.866
0.441
= 160.69
=0.875(
ro
)
Rm
8
= 0.875 ( 70.866
= 0.099
Based on the appendix (graph for Nozzles load),
=150,000
( 2TP )( R T2 )
=[
2 ( 50.038 )
0.441
[70.866
]
0.441
2
19
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
= 16, 031.56 psi
2
FRRF =
=
Rm
(S y )
(70.886)2
(31,20016,031.56)
150,000
= 507.86 lbf
= 2259.06 N
(Based on handbooks of Megyesy,
2001)
for 2 nozzles = 4518.13 N
Weight of nozzles= 4.518kN
3.
Internal fittings: plates (plus the fluid on the plates)
Based on Nelson (1963), for contacting plates, steel, including typical
liquid loading of 1.2kN/m2 plate area.
Weight of plates:
2
(3.6 m)
Plate area =
4
= 10.18m2
Weight of a plate including liquid on it
= 1.2kN/m2 10.18m2
= 12.22 kN
Since there is only one porous plate in a fluidized bed reactor so,
Weight of the plate = 12.22kN
4.
External fittings: (Ladders, Platforms, piping)
For the design of the reactor, there will be no ladders attached to it
since it involves reaction with very high temperature and pressure.
There is no platforms design for the reactor as it will be directed to the
ground.
20
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
5.
Auxiliary equipment that is not selfsupported
Agitators are not needed in a fluidized bed reactor unlike in a
Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor, CSTR.
6.
Insulation
The insulating material used is Mineral Wool because it is made of
porous material that traps air making it one of the best insulating
materials. Due to the flammability of Acrylic Acid, it is preferable than
the other 2 materials like Foam glass and Calcium silicate because it is
incombustible and will not be induced by fire. Moreover, it has high
resistance to heat flow making it the most suitable insulating material
to be chosen.
Mineral wool insulation ranges from 3.7 inch to 4.2 inch (94mm to
107mm) of thickness.
Density of mineral wool = 130kg/m3
3
Volume of insulator = 3.6 m10 m (94 10 m)
= 10.63m3
3
3
2
Weight of insulator = 10.63 m 130 kg /m 9.81m/ s
= 13,556.44 kgm/s2 or 13,556.44 N
To allow for fittings, therefore the weight of insulator needs to be
doubled
= 13.56kN
Weight of insulator = 27.11 kN
7.
Weight of catalyst
Only the weight of catalyst is calculated because the process only
involves gas phase, therefore weight of liquid is not required.
The use of catalyst in the catalytic partial oxidation of propylene to
produce acrylic acid is to propel the oxidation steps.
The catalyst used in this reaction is Vanadium Oxide, V2O5.
21
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
dx r A
=
dw F AO
r A=k C 2AO (1x )2
2
dx k C AO (1x)
=
dW
F AO
0.9
k C AO
1
dx=
dW
(1x
2
)
0
0 F AO
2
1 0.9 k C AO
[
] =
[W ]W
0
2
F AO
( 1x ) 0
(49.43 m 3/g .cat . min)
[W 0]
2482.2m 3/min
9 =
W = 452 g of catalyst
W = 0.45kg
W = 0.45kg
9.81m/s2
Weight of catalyst
= 4.43 N
The total weight, Wz
= 135.16kN + 12.22kN + 27.11kN + (4.43
103 )kN + 4.518
Wz = 179.01 kN
b) ) For 10% design, t= 10.8mm
Major sources of Dead Weight
1. The vessel shell
2. The vessel fittings
3. Internal fittings : plates (plus
fluid on the plates)
4. External fittings : ladders,
Weight (kN)
130.24
4.07
12.22

platforms
22
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
5. Auxiliary equipment that is not
self supported: Agitators
6. Insulation
7. Weight of catalyst
Total Weight, Wz
27.11
4.43 10
3
173.64
1.7.2 Dynamic Wind Pressure
Pw = 0.06Uw2
The plant is located in Gelang Patah, Johor and the wind speed at that
particular area is 5 miles per hour which is equals to 8.047 km/h.
23
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
a) For 15% design,
t=11.2mm
In order to increase the drag, therefore 0.06 is applied in the above
equation instead of 0.05
Pw = 0.06 (8.047 km/h)2 = 3.885 N/m
b) ) For 10% design, t= 10.8mm
In order to increase the drag, therefore 0.06 is applied in the above
equation instead of 0.05
Pw = 0.06 (8.047 km/h)2 = 3.885 N/m2
1.7.3
a)
Wind Loading
For 15% design,
t=11.2mm
Mean diameter, Deff (including insulator)
= 3.6m + [2(11.2 + 94) 103m]
=3.8104m
Loading (per linear meter) =3.885 N/m2 3.8104m
= 14.80 N/m
Bending moment at bottom tangent line
Mx = 14.80/2 102
= 740.0 Nm
24
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
Wind Loading = 740.0 Nm
b)
For 10% design,
t= 10.8mm
Mean diameter, Deff (including insulator)
= 3.6m + [2(10.8 + 94) 103m]
=3.8096m
Loading (per linear meter) =3.885 N/m2 3.8096m
= 14.80 N/m
Bending moment at bottom tangent line
Mx = 14.80/2 102
= 740.0 Nm
Wind Loading = 740.0 Nm
1.8 MINIMUM PRACTICAL WALL THICKNESS
Design of Thin Walled Vessel under Internal Pressure
Assumptions
1. The reaction is occurred in reactor.
2. Design temperature
temperature.
and
pressure
must
higher
than
operating
3. Shape of reactor is cylindrical.
4. Two different percentages of design temperature and pressure are
compared to evaluate their effects.
25
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
Informations from previous calculation.
Percentage of design
Temperature )
Pressure,
Pi
(N/m2)
Maximum allowable stress, S
(N/m2)
Maximum
Allowable
Joint
Efficiency, E (dimensionless)
Corrosion allowance (mm)
Di
Diameter,
(m)
10%
276.84
15%
289.42
330000
345000
8.771x107
8.6772x107
1.0
1.0
4
3.6
1.8.1 Cylindrical shell of reactor
Minimum thickness of shell is so crucial as to resist internal pressure.
a. For 10% design
t=
t=
Pi D i
2 SE1.2 Pi
330 10 N
(3.6 m)
2
m
2 ( 8.771 107 N /m 2 ) (1.0 )1.2
330 103 N
m2
)
26
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
t=0.0068 m=6.8 mm
After adding corrosion allowance,
t=6.8 mm+ 4 mm
t=10.8 mm
1.8.2 Design heads and closures
1.8.2 i) Flat plated that formed flat heads
C Pi
Assume Ct=D
is constant
= 0.1
e
SE
So De =
Assume C is constant = 0.1
So De = Di
27
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
t=(3.6 m)
0.1
330 103 N
m2
( 8.771 107 N /m2 N /m2 ) (1.0 )
t=0.069 m=69 mm
1.8.2 ii) Hemispherical head
t=
t=
Pi D i
4 SE0.4 Pi
330 10 3 N
( 3.6 m)
m2
4 ( 8.771 107 N / m2 ) ( 1.0 )0.4
330 103 N
m2
t=0.0034 m=3.4 mm
1.8.2 iii) Ellipsoidal head
t=
P i Di
2 SE0.2 Pi
28
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
t=
330 10 N
(3.6 m)
m2
2 ( 8.771 107 N /m2 ) (1.0 )0.2
330 103 N
m2
t=0.0068 m=6.8 mm
1.8.2 iv) Torispherical head
0.885 P R
t=Assumei Rc c = Di
SE0.1 Pi
Assume Rc = Di
t=
330 10 3 N
(0.885)
(3.6 m)
m2
3
N
( 8.771 107 N /m2 ) ( 1.0 )0.1 330 10
2
t=0.0119 m=11.9 mm
Therefore, the most suitable head is torispherical since its thickness can fit
the cylindrical shell of reactor.
1.8.3 Cylindrical shell of reactor
b.
For 15% design
t=
Pi D i
2 SE1.2 Pi
29
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
t=
345 103 N
(3.6 m)
m2
2 ( 8.6772 107 N / m2 ) (1.0 )1.2
345 103 N
m2
t=0.0072 m=7.2 mm
After adding corrosion allowance,
t=7.2 mm+4 mm
t=11.2 mm
1.8.4 Design heads and closures
1.8.4 i) Flat plated that formed flat heads
C Pi
Assume Ct=D
is constant
= 0.1
e
SE
30
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
So De =
Assume C is constant = 0.1
So De = Di
t=(3.6 m)
0.1
345 10 3 N
m2
( 8.6772 107 N /m2 ) ( 1.0 )
t=0.0718 m=71.8 mm
1.8.4 ii) Hemispherical head
t=
t=
Pi D i
4 SE0.4 Pi
345 10 3 N
(3.6 m)
m2
4 ( 8.6772 107 N /m2 ) (1.0 )0.4
345 103 N
m2
t=0.0036 m=3.6 mm
1.8.4 iii) Ellipsoidal head
t=
P i Di
2 SE0.2 Pi
31
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
t=
345 103 N
(3.6 m)
m2
2 ( 8.6772 107 N / m2 ) (1.0 )0.2
345 103 N
m2
t=0.0072 m=7.2 mm
1.8.4 iv) Torispherical head
0.885 P R
t=Assumei Rc c = Di
SE0.1 Pi
Assume Rc = Di
(0.885)
t=
345 10 3 N
(3.6 m)
m2
3
N
( 8.6772 107 N /m2 ) ( 1.0 )0.1 345 10
2
t=0.0127 m=12.72 mm
Therefore, the most suitable head is torispherical since its thickness can fit
the cylindrical shell of reactor. In conclusion, different percentages of design
pressure and temperature do not affect the shape of head of reactor.
1.9 VESSEL SUPPORTS
32
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
A skirt support is one of the accessories in designing process
equipment. It is more recommended to vertical vessels as they do not
impose concentrated loads on the vessel shell. Although the wind load for
this process is not that huge, it still need support at the bottom of the reactor
to secure it. The material of construction chosen for the skirt support is
carbon steel.
Assumptions:
90
1) Straight cylindrical skirt of Carbon Steel where the angle is
2) Young modulus of 200,000 N/mm2
3) Height of Skirt Support is assumed to be 1.98 m
(based on the reference from table in Design of Skirt Support
section)
Skirt Support for 15% of operating condition
The maximum dead weight load on the skirt will occur when the
vessel is full of water.
Maximum Allowable Stress = 8.6409107 Pa = 86.6409 N/mm2 (For
CS)
Approximate Weight =
2
3.6 10 1000 9.81 998,666 N 999kN
4
Total weight of the vessel = 179.01 kN
Total Weight = 999 + 179.01 = 1178.01 kN
Wind loading = 14.80 N/m = 0.0148 kN/m
33
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
0.0148
Bending moment at the base of skirt =
(10 1.98) 2
1.0621kNm
2
Thickness of the reactor = 11.2 mm (with corrosion allowance)
As the first trial, the reactor thickness is divided into 5 sections
which are; 11.2 mm, 13.2mm, 15.2 mm, 17.2 mm, 19.2 mm
As the first trial, take the skirt thickness as the same as 15.2 mm.
Calculation of Bending stress of the Skirt
bs
4Ms
( Ds tsk )tskDs
4(1.0621 10 3 10 3 )
bs
(3600 15.2) 15.2 3600
bs 0.006835 N / mm 2
Calculation of Dead weight Stress in the Skirt
ws(Operating )
Wv
( Ds tsk )tsk
ws(Trial )
Wv
( Ds tsk )tsk
179.01103
ws
(3600 15.2) 15.2
1178.01 103
ws
(3600 15.2) 15.2
ws 1.0368 N / mm2
ws 6.8229 N / mm2
Noted that: Trial condition is when the vessel full of water for hydraulic
test. In estimating total weight, the weight of liquid on the plates has
34
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
been counted twice. The weight has not been adjusted to allow for this as
the error is small and on the safe side.
Maximums (Compressive) 0.006835 6.8229 6.8297 N / mm2
Maximums(Tensile ) 0.006835 1.0368 1.0030 N / mm2
Take the joint efficiency E as 1.0
Hence, the design must obeys the following criteria:
1st Criteria
s (Tensile ) SsE sin
1.0030 (86.6409)(1sin 90)
1.0030 86.6409
2nd Criteria
s (Compressive) 0.125 Ey(
tsk
) sin
Ds
s (Compressive) 0.125 200,000 (
15.2
) sin 90
3600
6.8297 105.556
As a conclusion, both of the criteria are satisfied. Since the thickness
already included the corrosion allowance, so the design thickness of the
skirt support is 15.2 mm for 15% of operating condition.
35
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
Skirt Support for 10% of operating condition
The maximum dead weight load on the skirt will occur when the
vessel is full of water.
Maximum Allowable Stress = 8.7502107 Pa = 87.502 N/mm2 (For
CS)
Approximate Weight =
2
3.6 10 1000 9.81 998,666 N 999kN
4
Total weight of the vessel = 173.64 kN
Total Weight = 999 + 173.64 = 1172.64 kN
Wind loading = 14.80 N/m = 0.01480 kN/m
Bending
0.01480
moment
at
the
base
of
skirt
(10 1.98) 2
1.0621kNm
2
Thickness of the reactor = 10.8 mm (with corrosion allowance)
As the first trial, the reactor thickness is divided into 5 sections
which are; 10.8 mm, 12.8 mm, 14.8 mm, 16.8 mm, 18.8 mm
As the first trial, take the skirt thickness as the same as 14.8 mm.
36
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
Calculation of Bending stress of the Skirt
bs
4 Ms
( Ds tsk )tskDs
bs
4(1.0621 103 10 3 )
(3600 14.8) 14.8 3600
bs 0.00702 N / mm2
Calculation of Dead weight Stress in the Skirt
ws(Operating )
ws
Wv
( Ds tsk )tsk
173.64 103
(3600 14.8) 14.8
ws 1.033 N / mm 2
ws(Trial )
ws
Wv
( Ds tsk )tsk
1172.64 103
(3600 14.8) 14.8
ws 6.9761N / mm2
Noted that: Trial condition is when the vessel full of water for hydraulic
test. In estimating total weight, the weight of liquid on the plates has
been counted twice. The weight has not been adjusted to allow for this as
the error is small and on the safe side.
Maximums(Compressive) 0.00702 6.9761 6.98312 N / mm2
Maximums(Tensile ) 0.00702 1.0033 0.9963 N / mm2
37
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
Take the joint efficiency E as 1.0
Hence, the design must obeys the following criteria:
1st Criteria
s(Tensile ) SsE sin
0.9963 (87.502)(1sin 90)
0.9963 87.502
2nd Criteria
s (Compressive) 0.125 Ey(
tsk
) sin
Ds
s (Compressive) 0.125 200,000 (
14.8
) sin 90
3600
6.98312 102.778
As a conclusion, both of the criteria are satisfied. Since the thickness
already included the corrosion allowance, so the design thickness of the
skirt support is 14.8 mm for 10% of operating condition.
Design of the Skirt Support
38
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
Figure 1: The design parameters for Skirt Support (text book)
The diameter of the vessel is 3.6 m where the maximum weight that can
be supported is 2500 kN. Hence, the parameters for this design are
approximately to be:
V = 1.98 m
G = 0.150 m
Y = 0.25 m
t2 = 16 mm
C = 3.20 m
t1 = 12 mm
E = 1.40 m
Bolt diameter = 27 mm
J = 0.815 m
Bolt Holes = 33 mm
39
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
Overall Conclusion
The skirt support is not the top priority in designing this reactor. This is
because the wind load is too small, hence the reactor is secured enough
without the support of a skirt at the bottom of it. Adding the skirt support will
eventually increase the cost of construction of the reactor. However, it still
can be done since the height of the reactor is quite big but the addition of
skirt support is not that significant in designing the reactor.
2.0 FLANGED JOINTS
2.0.1
Flange types
Several different types of flanges are used for various applications. The most
used flange types according to ASME B16.5 are: Welding Neck, Slip On,
Socket Weld, Lap Joint, Threaded and Blind flange.
Most common flange types
Figure 2: Type of flanges
For the designed reactor, the flat flange can be used to connect the head of
the reactor with the cylindrical body. The torispherical shape which also a
formed dome head that made with a short straight cylindrical section. This
section called as flange or skirt. This flange was to ensure that the weld line
40
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
is away from the point of discontinuity between head and cylindrical section
of vessel. (Sinnott) The closure head was bolted to the flange.
Figure 3: Torispherical head with flange
Flanges can also be used to connect to the pipeline of the feed line into the
reactor and at the bottom of the reactor to in output pipeline. The best type
of flange used was lapjoint flanges, as this type of flange is the most
suitable for pipework. They are economical when used with the expensive
alloy such as stainless steel. (Sinnott)
Explore the World of Piping. (n.d.). Retrieved june 3, 2016,
http://www.wermac.org/flanges/flanges_weldingneck_socketweld_lapjoint_screwed_blind.html
from
Sinnott, R. K. (n.d.). chapter 13 mechanical design of process equipment. In
R. K. Sinnott, chemical engineering design (p. 1040).
41
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
2.1 DESIGN OF FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
Figure 4
42
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
Figure 5
43
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
Figure 6
44
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
2.2 CONCLUSION
2.3 REFERENCES
45
FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR
1.
46