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CSI-SAKEC

Contents
JOURNEY SO FAR... Reviews of CSI-SAKEC events
PC assembly.......................................................................1
Photoshop ..........................................................................2
Apache, MySQL, PHP.........................................................2
Workshop on C/C++............................................................3
Virtual DJ.............................................................................3
Invent‘09..............................................................................4

TECHTAINMENT Invited Articles


1.Clustering Streaming Data...............................................5
-Prof. Uday Bhave
2.Structure from Stereo.......................................................8
-Prof. Jyoti Joglekar
3.Computer Animation.......................................................10
-Prof. Dhanashree Toradmale
4.Code‘Oh’Phobia.............................................................13
-Prof. Harshad Mande

Contributed Articles
1.How Google googles?....................................................15
-Sujay Narsale
2.Ethical Hacking...............................................................17
-Jugal Thakkar
3.Cloud Computing............................................................19
-Anilkumar Panda
-Dhaval Savla
4.Cryptography..................................................................21
-Rushabh Pasad

FACE TO FACE How to crack an interview................................................23

TECH-TRENDZ! Acquaint yourself with gizmos .........................................25

FUN-ZONE Check your Fun-Quotient.................................................27

WINNERS Winners of CSI Events.....................................................29

ANSWERZONE Help corner.......................................................................31


CSI-SAKEC

Editspeak
The Editorial Team
Dear Readers,
ÆAishwarya
We feel privileged to be writing the editorial for the debut issue of
CACHE, the CSI-SAKEC magazine. What started as a simple suggestion
from one of the professors during the June 2009, AMP' event, has resulted
Neelakantan
in the release of the first edition of the of CSI-SAKEC magazine. Achieving
this has been no mean feat. This edition is the result of the hard work in ÆRidhi Maru
terms of creativity and research, put in by the editorial team through a
period of nearly eight months. ÆSujay Narsale
The tagline 'the knowledge repository' aptly describes the ÆTanvi Dedhia
magazine's content. It is our endeavour to bring to you the various
advancements in the fields of engineering, latest gizmos and events at our ÆTwinkle Savla
centre till date. The technical articles included in this issue have been
contributed by both professors and students from our college. It is our vision
to be the platform where the budding researchers at SAKEC can showcase
ÆVaibhavi Shah
their talent. In our future editions, we hope to serve as a medium, through
which our professors can share their experiences and research with their
students.
CACHE gives you a glimpse into the successful run of CSI-SAKEC
since its inception in 2007. The workshops like PC Assembly, Java and
competitions like Website Designing, help students build their technical
skils professionally. One such event worth mentioning is the CSI Regional
Convention, INVENT'09. CSI-SAKEC was a part of the collaborative effort
put in by eight other colleges in organizing this event of gigantic proportions.
Lastly, we would like to thank the entire support system behind
CSI-SAKEC, the management, the faculty, the lab assistants and other
non-teaching staff, as well as the SAKEC-students for extending their
valuable support, helping ”CSI-SAKEC” reach its current status and all
those people whose cumulative efforts have made this magazine possible.
Till next time.........!!
The Editorial Team,
CACHE
CSI-SAKEC

From the
Trustee’s Desk
Mr M.L.Shah
Trustee & hon.Jt.secretary
Mahavir Education Trust

Congratulations to the CSI-SAKEC student chapter for bringing out


this quality debut magazine which highlights various activities of CSI-
SAKEC along with articles written on modern accomplishments in Computer
and Information Technology fields. Within a span of three years of its
emergence, the young and energetic team has various accomplishments to its
credit. It has conducted various workshops to give hands-on experience to
students, conducted seminars and technical competitions to improve the soft
skills of students and enhance the placement prospects of our students in the
present day competitive industrial environment. It has organized the CSI Regional
Convention, Invent'09 and is also a major collaborator in the forth coming
regional convention iDeate'10.
What is praiseworthy about CSI-SAKEC is that its programs are
managed by the students from conception to implementation, thereby
bringing out the innovation spirit, skill and development of the students.
I wish the CSI-SAKEC student community success in this debut
e-publication venture and hope that they would carry out new activities to
improve professional competence of our students.

i March 2010 CACHE


CSI-SAKEC

From the desk of


The Director
Dr. M B Shah
B.E.(Mech), M.E.(Mech),
PhD

Dear Members,

On the eve of launching of CSI magazine by the members of CSI-SAKEC,


I heartily congratulate all the active members and wish them all the success.
I have been observing that CSI-SAKEC chapter has remained
reasonably active since its inception and has been conducting various co-curricular
programs, technical events , multimedia and so on which are useful to students in
practical life.
Launching of the magazine will provide the students an opportunity to
develop their skilsl in writing technical papers. I wish all the success to the CSI-SAKEC
magazine project.

From the desk of


The Principal
Dear students,
Dr. R.V.Karambelkar
B.E.(Elec), M.E.(Etrx & Tel),
I extend my hearty congratulation to CSI-SAKEC for reaching another
PhD
milestone during this academic year with CSI-SAKEC magazine. The long cherished
dream of providing a platform for students to be able to enhance their technical skills and
spread technical awareness has been realized only because of sheer hard work and
diligence of the students involved with the organization. I believe the magazine will act as a
catalyst in students towards technical reporting as well as research. I earnestly hope that e
the magazine will grow to reflect the spirit of SAKEC.

Under the banner of CSI-SAKEC, students have been successfully organizing


many activities including industrial visits, seminars and innovative technical
competitions. The student of today expected to be not only technically sound but also
complete professional. CSI-SAKEC is endeavoring to confirm to the aim of CSI i.e. to
transfer students into professionals with thorough knowledge and understanding of the
technical world. CSI-SAKEC magazine is yet another step in this direction. I wish the
committee of CSI-SAKEC best of luck.

CACHE March 2010 ii


CSI-SAKEC

From the
Staff Co-ordinator Prof. Rekha Ramesh
CSI-SAKEC Staff Coordinator

Dear members,

CSI-SAKEC student centre was established in our college in the year 2007 and was
formally inaugurated on 24th April 2007. Today it has a strength of over 180 students. I am
happy to announce that Education Directorate of CSI has approved our CSI-SAKEC as a
student branch of CSI. This will facilitate to promote student branch activities like conducting
of workshop, meetings, seminars, IT symposia, IT quiz, etc.
The objective of the CSI-SAKEC is to facilitate knowledge sharing, learning and
training the students, while simultaneously inspiring and preparing them to meet the
challenges of the fast changing IT industry. The young and vibrant CSI-SAKEC has been
striving to improve the technical skills of budding engineers in a professional manner. In
achieving this objective, it has organized various workshops and seminars in our college. And so
far it has succeeded in imparting value added technical skills supplementing the classroom
teaching. Senior students are also encouraged to organize events and seminars to provide a
better interaction and synergy among the student community. Some of the popular events
organized by CSI-SAKEC are workshops on 'PC assembly, OS installation & Troubleshooting',
'Microprocessors and Microcontrollers', Adobe Flash and Dreamweaver', 'VB', 'Virtual DJ', 'Fun
with JAVA', ' Working with MATLAB' etc. The overwhelming response in every workshop
from the students as well as from the faculty encouraged us to organize more such events with
renewed vigor and enthusiasm. For better involvement of the participants, every workshop
concluded with a small contest and prizes for the winners of first, second and third positions.
CSI-SAKEC also had the honor of being an active partner in the organization of the
International Student Convention – 'Invent 09' hosted by the Mumbai Chapter of Computer
Society of India. Two intercollegiate events 'Eureka-Technical Quiz' and 'I-Developer-an
Application Development in VB6' were conducted on 7th March '09, wherein student teams
from different engineering colleges participated. This year also we are hosting an event of
'Technical Paper Presentation' for International Student Convention 2010 on behalf of Mumbai
Chapter of Computer Society of India.
CSI-SAKEC has taken a significant step in transforming CSI into a vibrant and active
organization with the launch of annual magazine and a dedicated web site for CSI-SAKEC. This
will provide a platform for each one of you to interact, discuss and debate on technology. This
development will surely add substantial value to all members. And I invite all of you to take
advantage of the immense learning and personality development opportunity that the CSI-
SAKEC provides.
I thank the highly motivated CSI-SAKEC student committee as well as all student
members for contributing to the successful journey of our branch since its inception. I also
sincerely thank the Director, Principal and Management of SAKEC for their constant support
and guidance. I am looking forward to have the same type of cooperation and enthusiasm from
you in the coming years also.

iii March 2010 CACHE


CSI-SAKEC

From the Pioneer of


Rishi Popat
CSI -SAKEC
Hello!

You might be wondering who I am with an article almost at the beginning of this magazine. Most of you probably
haven't even heard of me considering that I passed out of Shah & Anchor Kutchhi Engineering College in May 2007. So let
me introduce myself. I am Rishi Popat. And I am a very lucky person. That's because I had the good fortune of being one of the
founding members and the very first Chairman of CSI-SAKEC!
At the very outset, let me congratulate you on being a part of this prestigious organization called Computer
Society of India-SAKEC. As our Bairi Sir famously puts it, CSI-SAKEC is an organization of the student, by the students
and for the students! If you are a student of SAKEC, then surely you must have observed CSI-SAKEC's strive for excellence
and professionalism in all the activities it undertakes. This has been its hallmark since day one, which reminds me of the day
it was founded...
CSI-SAKEC had a very humble beginning in the spring of 2007. Since my initial days in SAKEC, like most of my
fellow students, I always felt that there was very little on offer to students, in terms of co-curricular activities. Sure we had a
fantastic cultural festival in Verve and a ravishing technical festival in Nucleus, but that mostly came under the domain of
extra-curricular. But there was nothing really to complement our theoretical studies with practical exposure. Such
practical exposure would definitely be a boon when facing real projects and problems in the industry.
Then, in my very final semester, Prof. Bairi approached me with the idea of starting an organization under the CSI
banner which would cater exactly to this lacuna. I was a bit hesitant at the start. Because only after you come into the final
year of B.E., do you realize how much workload one has! I had my hands already full with project and academics. But I
decided to go and give it my best. And in hindsight, I am very glad I did! I distinctly remember the long meetings I had with
Bairi Sir, Rekha Ma'am and Jyoti Ma'am; trying to hammer out the details of CSI-SAKEC's working, its objectives and so
on. We already had two excellent organizations in place at SAKEC and it was important that CSI-SAKEC compliments
their work ably.
The first task at hand was to establish a team of students to get CSI-SAKEC up and running. And again I proved
lucky as I was blessed with the best team one could have asked for. Even though they had no previous experience they handled
the various departments like Logistics, Publicity and Event Management extremely well. Soon their efforts paid off and
how! Right at our debut, CSI-SAKEC registered an astounding 181 members! But the real challenge was to live upto such
expectations. But we managed to do that admirably by conducting three workshops during the summer, namely on Matlab,
Web Technologies and C Programming. Prof Uma Rao, Prof Dhanashree Toradmalle and Prof Milind Khairnar were kind
enough to take up Introduction to Matlab and Web Technologies. But the high point for me was when 3 final year students
from our own college Dinesh Dhongade, Kaushak Satra and Raj Thakkar came up and conducted the workshop on C
Programming. It really seemed to highlight our motto as I had mentioned above itself: CSI-SAKEC is an organization of
the students, for the students, by the students.
But this was just the tip of the ice berg. I have been in touch with the CSI-SAKEC committees every year and I
observed that each committee brings with it, great new ideas to improve CSI-SAKEC. Every committee seems committed
to better the work done by the last. This magazine being a prime example! I just hope and pray the torch of CSI gets passed on
to as able hands, batch after batch, and each year I feel a little bit more proud to say: Yes, I am a pioneer of CSI-SAKEC.

CACHE March 2010 iv


Reviews of CSI-SAKEC events CSI-SAKEC

R...
S O FA
N E Y We take through the
UR journey of CSI-SAKEC right
JO from its inception uptill now. CSI-
SAKEC has made enhancing the technical
knowledge of the students of sakec its priority. In
the following section we describe a few of our sucessful
workshops held in the academic year 2009-2010.

CSI SAKEC Student's computers. This was followed present on the motherboard the
Center organized a workshop on by the various types of installation of the Operating
'PC Assembly, OS Installation microprocessors along with an system on the assembled PC
a n d Tr o u b l e s h o o t i n g ' o n introduction about the various hardware. The operation
Saturday 12th September, 2009. components of the PC consisted of powering the
The session was conducted by motherboard. From here on all computer, deleting all partitions,
'St Angelo's IT Graduate ' (SAIG) the components of the creating a new partition and
Mumbai. The workshop motherboard including the selecting the disk drive to install
began with a brief introduction OS.
on activities of CSI-SAKEC, The third session was
following which the SAIG guests basically a continuation of
and faculty of Shah and
PC session-2 and it dealt with
Anchor were felicitated. The
workshop primarily comprised
Assembling troubleshooting. Troubleshooting
is a technique of problem solving
of three sessions: the first most often applied to repair of
session comprised of hands-on failed products or functional
PC Assembling, wherein all the Expansion slots, socket, processes. The workshop ended
participants were given an e x t e r n a l p o r t s , U S B we r e with all the participants gaining
opportunity to practice. The explained in detail. After going an insight of the details and
session was taken up by Mr Ranjit through the functionality of p r o c e s s e s i n vo l ve d i n t h e
V i s h w a k a r m a o f each and every component Assembling of a PC.
SAIG faculty. At the beginning, present on the motherboard by
all the participants were given the various types of
a brief introduction of the microprocessors along with an
various generations of introduction about the various
computers, starting from components of the PC
transistor assembly units to the motherboard. From here on all
supercomputer mainframes the components of the
comprising 5th generation of motherboard including the

1 March 2010 CACHE


CSI-SAKEC Reviews of CSI-SAKEC events

CSI SAKEC conducted a


workshop on Photoshop, a JOU
versatile technology and the art of Photoshop RNEY
image editing. The workshop was SO F
conducted on 31 January 2009 by The workshop was A R....
faculty members of MAAC (Maya divided in two sessions. First
academy of advanced cinematic) session was devoted to
one of the reputed institute in introducing students to the world the volunteers some students
animation and cinematic. Over 70 of animation. Prof. Rahul came up with really captivating
students participated in the explained students the splendid pictures and a range of designs.
workshop. For engineers, effects created by the software, its We were pleased to receive
excelling in technical field is not increasing use in technical field an astounding response from the
enough, ability to convey these and its significance. The second students and were gratified to
ideas to the client through visual session that followed gave a meet up their huge expectations.
medium is important and that is hands-on practice to the students. Due to the varied applications of
where the need to master the skill The students got an opportunity this software in technical field as
of Photoshop arises. Photoshop to edit, correct photos, use well as graphical design features
allows us to enhance and edit various Photoshop tools like this software is a prerequisite for
photos to make attractive designs clone stamp, lasso and so on. engineers opting for a bright
and templates. With the assistance and help of career in gaming and animation.

In its bid to continue the Apache, example of “Photogallery”


path of learning, CSI-SAKEC paradigm of PHP (involving file
ventured into a new field of Web MySQL & PHP uploading and downloading),
Technology, by conducting a explaining how security could be
workshop on PHP from15th June practical sessions covered topics enhanced using the Object
and 19th June 2009.The team of such as PHP script, data types, Oriented paradigm.
speakers consisted of Mr. Akshay operators and global variables This was not the end of the
Rao, Mr. Sagar Gupta, Mr. Nirav like _GET, _POST, _SESSION and interesting and exciting journey
Nagda, Mr. Jugal Thakkar & Mr. concepts of cookies, sessions and of AMP. Mr. Sashank Shah gave
Sashank Shah, students from headers were provided. the students a detailed picture of
SAKEC. Simultaneously Database the world wide web. He talked
The AMP package connectivity too was taught. about how websites are loaded
consists of the open source In the following sessions, on the server, How the interaction
scripting language PHP (PHP- Mr. Sagar Gupta and Mr. Jugal between client and server takes
Hypertext Preprocessor), Apache Thakkar described an application place, How the big picture helps
Server & MySQL which acts as a called Content Management in building a successful network.
backend support for database System (CMS) that deals with These topics accentuated the
operations. The first day of the managing the content of the importance of the topics covered
5-day workshop was conducted webpages dynamically. Mr. in the workshop.
by Mr. Sashank Shah who Akshay Rao covered in depth the
explored the roots of PHP. topic of Object Oriented (OO)
I n f o r m a t i ve s e m i n a r s a n d paradigm of PHP. He took up the

CACHE March 2010 2


Reviews of CSI-SAKEC events CSI-SAKEC

Application like a screensaver


A R.... using C graphics were discussed .
SO F Workshop on The seminar came to an
E Y end with a small test on C/C++
O URN C/C++ which boosted the confidence of
J the students. The seminar served
with the features of C/C++ as a practical guide that took the
language and thus enabling them participants through a step by
The best way to learn a
to write programs in C/C++. The step process of programming. It
new “human” language is to
seminar began with a brief offered concrete suggestions and
speak it right from the outset,
introduction on C/C++ by Prof. guidelines to the participants for
listening and repeating, leaving
Harshad Mande. Participants enhancing their knowledge and
the intricacies of grammar for
were taught concepts like classes, competencies while
later. the same applies to
data abstraction, encapsulation, simultaneously engaging them
computer languages- to learn
inheritance etc each with an in a substantive discussion on
C/C++,we must start writing
example and thorough hands on various concepts and issues
C/C++ programs as quickly as
practice. Later Mr. Jugal Thakkar related to programming in C/C++.
possible.
(B.E, computer engineering
CSI-SAKEC organized a
student of SAKEC) took the
seminar on “Joy of programming
seminar and gave a brief
in C/C++” which aimed to make
introduction on C graphics. Basic
the participants well acquainted
inbuilt functions and a smal

Whether one is an
amateur DJ striving to improve,
VIRTUAL DJ the workshop. The response
received from students was
or an accomplished DJ, the Bharath gave an overview of impressive. They came up with
virtual DJ can be used by anyone Virtual-DJ, its tools, functions wonderful remixes.From among
from absolute musical neophyte and also described the 25 participants, three winners
to the expert performer. Virtual- implementation of Mixcraft. were announced.
DJ is a digital panel that you can Mixcraft is a multitask Apart from being a
install on your computer. application for Windows and is a technical event, it was also a fun
With Virtual DJ, you can music loop remix program. event comprising both the junior
do all your DJing on your PC, A large library of virtual and senior students from all
drag and drop your tracks from instruments, loops, sound effects, engineering streams. Its immense
your music database to the and audio effects is included in popularity among students
turntables, adjust the sound the Mixcraft. Bharath then laid encouraged CSI-SAKEC to
levels, synchronize the songs by emphasis on how to remix the organize such events in future.
adjusting pitch, smoothly drag original sound tracks, play with
the cross fader to create the the lyrics, enhance the music
transition between the tracks. quality and come up with a
To get the students melodious song.
acquainted with the art of sound A Competition on
mixing, the workshop on Virtual remixing of original sound tracks
DJ was conducted in two sessions. was held in the second session of

3 March 2010 CACHE


CSI-SAKEC Reviews of CSI-SAKEC events

JOU
RNE
Y
!NVENT '09 SO F
A R....

Since 1999, the Mumbai conducted under INVENT'09 celebrating 10 years of CSI
Chapter of the Computer Society were technical competitions like Conventions. It was an eventful
of India (CSI) has been Programming Contest, Circuit day consisting of seminars such as
instrumental in organizing Designing, Technical Paper Wi-Fi Security Systems by
Student Conventions for the Presentation, Technical Quiz, Mr.Jatin Parikh from Airtight
benefit of its student members. It Software Development, Security, Internet Marketing by
has been organizing student Technical Debate and fun events Vishal Prabhukhanolkar-Director,
conventions since a decade. It like LAN and PS Gaming, Online Quetzal Verify Private Limited,
started with eConnect '99 being Treasure Hunt, which tested not Panel Discussion on “The future
hosted at VESIT which was a great only one's technical skills and of IT in this period of meltdown.”
success and it was the genesis of knowledge but also one's ability by Mr. Anand Jhaveri (Founder,
the idea that other colleges could to deliver when it matters. Chairman and CEO Rave
also be a part of the growing G r a b b i n g t h i s Technologies), Ms. Rajashri
student activity. It is from here opportunity to truly enter the Hazare (Director - Cerebrus
that the Mumbai chapter sowed inter-collegiate level, CSI-SAKEC Consultants) and Mr. Kunal
the concept of student activity conducted two events: - eUreka- Gursahani (Director for Global
centers in every engineering Technical Quiz and iDeveloper- Strategy and Marketing-Alpha
college. Thus the activity centers an Application Development Plus Technologies) and an
grew and with it started the yearly competition which were held on intensive Linux Workshop.
conventions. eMerge 2000, eSense 7th March 2009. Mr. Shirkant The final round of eUreka
2001, eNable 2002, iMagine 2003, Karode, IT Head, Crompton was held in parallel to a full house.
iDeas 2004, iDeas 2005 and G r e a ve s , t h e c h i e f g u e s t , The five teams were quizzed on
iNnovate 2006 were some of the inaugurated the SAKEC leg of topics ranging from digital logic
earlier conventions to name a few. I n v e n t ' 0 9 . to microprocessors to
Last year, CSI-SAKEC was Out of thirty participating programming. The audience was
privileged to be invited to become teams in eUreka, five were kept captivated by the brain
a part of the organizing team of shortlisted based on an online test tingling questions and excellent
INVENT'09 - the Annual CSI that tested the contestants on hosting.
Regional Student Convention. basic concepts which are To conclude, we, at CSI-
Our college was one of the eight common to all branches of SAKEC, treasure the experience
premier engineering colleges in engineering. got from direct interaction with
Mumbai that came together to The Convention Finale the CSI Mumbai Chapter and
showcase the technical was held on 17th March, 2009 at with the other CSI Student
extravaganza of colossal K.J. SIMSR and was inaugurated Centers. We hope to continue
proportions. The other colleges by the chief guest, Mr. S. being a part of this technical
were NMIMS, TSEC, VESIT, M a h a l i n g a m - C F O , Ta t a extravaganza in the years to come.
FCRCE, Atharva, VCET and Consultancy Services & Vice
UMIT. President Computer Society of
Each college volunteered India. It was followed by the
to conduct an event. The events release of the magazine Epoch '09

CACHE March 2010 4


Invited Articles CSI-SAKEC

e nt
in m
ta Decode clustering, Discover
ch how to combat your fear of coding,
T e hack with principles, the logic behind page
ranking... learn all this and much more in the
following section containing articles contributed by
both professors and students of SAKEC.

1.Clustering Streaming Data


Mr.Uday Bhave
A data stream is a real- Professor The stream model differs from
time, continuous, ordered Head of Dept. (Computer) the standard relational model in
(implicitly by arrival time or the following.
explicitly by timestamp) those but some data sets, such as · The elements of a stream arrive
sequence of items. For analysis of router packet statistics, online (the stream is “active” in
such data, the ability to process meteorological data, and sensor the sense that the incoming items
the data in a single pass, or a small network data, are transient and trigger operations on the data,
number of passes, while using need not be realized on disk. rather than being send on request).
little memory, is crucial. However · The order in which elements of a
it is not possible to control the What is Clustering? stream arrive are not under the
order in which items arrive, nor is Clustering problem can be control of the system.
it feasible to locally store a stream formally defined as follows: · Data streams are potentially of
in its entirety. As a result, Given n points in a metric unbounded size.
developing clustering algorithms space M, partition the points into · Data stream elements that have
for streaming data has emerged as k clusters so as to minimize the been processed are either
an important problem in the area maximum cluster diameter. discarded or archived.
of clustering. The diameter of a cluster is · They cannot be retrieved easily
The clustering problem is defined to be the maximum inter- unless being stored in memory,
a difficult problem for the data point distance in it. Sometimes the which is typically small relative to
stream domain. This is because objective function is chosen to be the size of the stream.
the large volume of data arriving the maximum cluster radius. · Due to limited resources
in a stream renders most Data Stream is sequence (memory) and strict time
traditional algorithms too of points x1,…xi,…xn read in constraints, the processing of
inefficient. These data sets are far increasing order of the indices i. stream data will usually produce
too large to fit in main memory The Data Stream Model approximate results.
and are typically stored in assumes that input data are not Considering above-
secondary storage devices. Linear available for random access from mentioned features of the
scans are the only cost effective disk or memory, but rather arrive Streaming data, Clustering
access method; random access is in the form of one or more algorithm for
prohibitively expensive. Not only continuous data streams. streaming data must have

5 March 2010 CACHE


CSI-SAKEC Invited Articles

following characteristics
· It should be strictly one pass.
· It can be paused any time to TEC
view current structure of the H TAI
clusters. next window as a starting N MEN
· It can be resumed again. solution.
· It must take current trends into
T
consideration while clustering. Local Clustering approach:
from 'm' and use it in new window,
1. Fix no. of centers (k), initial
add new centers with weight=1.
Single pass clustering points (m), size of window (n)
5. Continue with steps 3 and 4.
technique: 2. Randomly initialize 'm' cluster
6. When final clusters are
This technique is means for window.
recorded, Group m centers from
summarized as follows: 3. Fill the window with new
step 5 into k centers to create final
1. Divide large data-set into points.
clusters.
chunks (windows) 4. Perform iteration of k-means
Fitness criteria in step 4
2. For each window, initialize clustering on the points in the
may be depending upon type of
with random cluster seeds and window till it converges.
application in hand. It can be
assign each point to its closest 5. Give weights to each center
possibly a threshold, comparing
center. based on number of points in it.
weights of the centers. If weight of
3. When all points in the window (Summarization)
the center is less than threshold, a
are assigned to cluster centers, 6. Adjust cluster centers of the
center can be discarded.
adjust weight to each cluster window, accordingly
center by the number of points 7. Repeat from step 2 Considering new trends:
assigned to it. As seen in both the
4. When all windows are 2. Incremental Approach: techniques above, it becomes
clustered, Cluster these weighted Incremental clustering necessary to devise techniques for
cluster centers from each window algorithms employ division of maintaining summaries or
into final desired number of stream in windows. They use synopses of the history of the
clusters. weighted windows and treat stream. Most research until now
Above technique is fine them as generation. It adjusts has focused on techniques for
for clustering large database in cluster centre as and when new building summaries of all the data
single pass but cannot be used p o i n t a r r i ve s ; b u t seen so far. However, in most
directly for streaming data as it merging/splitting is done at the applications very old data points
considers that the whole data is end of the generation. This gives are considered less useful and
available, though large, before time to evaluate current relevant than more recent data.
clustering process begins. generation, recognize new trends Thus it is necessary that old or
The above idea can be and thus can locate outliers and “stale” data does not
further explored to suit for the patterns in current data easily. overly.influence the statistics.
streaming data. In general two Sliding window approach
approaches are considered for Incremental clustering
considers new trends in a good
streaming data: techniques
manner. This can be further fine-
1. Local Clustering and 1. Fix no. of clusters (k), initial
tuned, according to the specific
2. Incremental Clustering points (m), size of window (n)
requirements by reducing
2. Randomly select 'm' cluster
weights of the old windows
1. Local Clustering Approach: centers for window.
exponentially and thus to have a
Local clustering is based 3. Assign points to these m centers
control in the manner in which
on processing the complete and increment wt accordingly.
trends should be handled.
window to generate the clusters Adjust centers with each point.
Conclusion:
(local to that window). These 4. Once entire window is
In the case of incremental
clusters may be utilized in the processed decide fittest centers

CACHE March 2010 6


Invited Articles CSI-SAKEC

objectionable than to lose some


portion after each window.
In essence, local clustering
M NT has to wait till the entire
Emethod gives better clustering quality, but
N
H TAI widow is clustered completely
is slow whereas incremental

TEC and then only it can continue


clustering takes current trends
into considerations in better way,
responding to the input. This may
clustering, at the arrival of each at the cost of overall cluster
not be suitable for transient data
point cluster centers are pulled out quality. Thus it can be finally
or pulled in towards the new point.
This essentially takes new trends
into consideration. Furthermore
at the end of processing of current
window, clusters with less
number of points (weight) are
discarded, giving better means of
handling outliers. (Or can be
stored for future visualization)
Local Clustering
technique has to use one of the
existing algorithms like k-means
for clustering current window and streams, where portion of the concluded that Incremental-
thus heavily depend upon pros
stream may be lost, on the other clustering approach is better-
and cons of the algorithm used for
hand incremental technique suited approach particularly for
local clustering, whereas
incremental clustering is processes with each newly clustering streaming data.
adaptable and not using any of the arrived data point. If arrival of the
traditional algorithm and directly transient data is at very high
considers each new point arrived speed comparable with
for clustering decision. computation, portion of the
Another point to stream within the window itself
be noted is that, local clustering may be lost. This would be more

Surf the internet without any browser.


(However there must be an internet connection)

1. Go 2 the paint...
2. Select the HELP...help topic OR F1.
3. Right click on the title bar in the help window and the select the context
command ' jump to URL'
4. Enter the complete web address in the subsequently dialog as the
'http: //www.yahoo.com' click ok....
5. Then again open the dialog box 'http://www.yahoo.com' right on upper
side......and more blank space left....u write the website..and got it...

7 March 2010 CACHE


CSI-SAKEC Invited Articles

2.Structure from TEC


H TAI
Stereo Jyoti Joglekar
N MEN
T
Asst. Prof.
Computer Engg. Department
1. 3D Reconstruction complete set of their projections . onsequence, even if intrinsic and
extrinsic parameters are known,
3D reconstruction is the problem T h e r e a r e t w o
the challenge remains for
of recovering depth information computational sub-problems
developing algorithms that
from intensity images. One associated with 3D
reduce the effects of errors in the
common approach of 3D reconstruction from two or more
preprocessing steps on the
reconstruction uses multiple images:
structure estimate.
images. It is based on the principle
1. Feature correspondence,
that a physical point in space is If the intrinsic and extrinsic
projected onto different locations 2. Structure estimation. parameters of the camera are
on images captured from The first problem is best known for the whole set of images,
different viewpoints. The explained in an example. For then an exact reconstruction in
difference in the projected instance, a physical 3D point is absolute coordinates is possible.
locations is used to infer depth projected onto Image A as point 1 However, the accuracy of the
information.[1]. and Image B as point 2. Points 1 reconstructed structure is
and 2 are said to be sensitive to the accuracy of these
Specifically, consider a rigid
correspondences. Hence, the parameters. Moreover, any errors
object represented by a set of N 3D
feature correspondence or in solving the correspondence
points,{pi(f)} on some coordinate
feature matching problem is to problem between two images also
system at frame f. Each point pi(f)
find where point 2 is on image B affect the accuracy of the
is projected onto an image,Is(f),
given the location of point 1 on reconstruction. As a consequence,
which is captured from a
image A. Human vision is superb even if intrinsic and extrinsic
viewpoint s. Then mi(f), the
in solving this problem, but the parameters are known, the
point's coordinates in the Image
automation of this process by challenge remains for developing
Coordinate System can be
computers is rather difficult. It algorithms that reduce the effects
expressed in terms of a vector-
essentially requires a search on of errors in the preprocessing
valued non-linear function h :
the whole image B. Applying steps on the structure estimate.
éx ù proper constraints can narrow 2 Feature Extraction
mis ( f ) = ê ú = h( s, p i ( f )) down the search, but without
ë yû sufficient constraints, the
In some 3D reconstruction
applications, it may be necessary
problem becomes difficult and
h is a simplification of the to estimate the structure of a scene
ambiguities arise.
perspective equations for a for every point in the image.
The second problem, structure However, sometimes we may
specified camera.
estimation, is relatively easy in only be interested in
Given a set of images that are comparison. It is the computation reconstructing the depth of an
taken from different viewpoints s of the point set {Pi} after the object or scene at certain parts.
(structure-from-stereo) or at correspondence problem is Image features usually refer to
different time frames f (structure- solved. The difficulty of this sub- parts of an image that have special
from-motion), we may be able to problem depends on the amount properties, and they may
reconstruct the points from a of a priori information available. correspond to parts of an object or

CACHE March 2010 8


Invited Articles CSI-SAKEC

typical binocular stereo camera


system is illustrated in Figure 1. In
summary, the two cameras are
M NT
Eeasy mounted such that their optical
N
TAI
to detect, and are relatively
axes (the Z -axes) are coplanar and
H consistent across different images
TEC compared to other features such
aligned in parallel. The separation
between the optical centres of the
as edges and lines. There are
scene that have structural left and right cameras is called the
many mathematical definitions of
significance, to regions that have baseline, and it is usually created
localised image structures and
visually identifiable textures or by a translation between the
intensity patterns, or to cameras' optical centres
any other derived along their common X -
properties that can be axis.
localised on an image. information from
Some common examples images taken from
are edges, lines, corners, different viewpoints[2].
junctions, ellipses, and A typical binocular
zero-crossings of image stereo camera system is
gradients. illustrated in Figure 1. In
common examples are s u m m a r y, t h e t w o
edges, lines, corners, cameras are mounted
junctions, ellipses, and such that their optical
zero-crossings of image axes (the Z -axes) are
gradients. coplanar and aligned in
Figure 1: A typical stereo camera
configuration used for capturing stereo parallel. The separation between
Feature extraction is the process the optical centres of the left and
images.
of locating these particular sometimes they are broadly right cameras is called the
elements on an image and it is an baseline, and it is usually created
intermediate step for many compared to other features such
by a translation between the
computer vision applications. as edges and lines. There are
cameras' optical centres along
The choice of features to extract many mathematical definitions of
their common X -axis.
for reconstruction very often localised image structures and
depends on the properties of the sometimes they are broadly The left and right cameras in the
objects in the scene. Some stereo system capture a pair of
identified as corners.
important factors to consider are images, simultaneously or
3. Structure From Stereo separately when no changes have
invariance, ease of detectability,
and how they are eventually used. The use of stereopsis for depth occurred in the scene between the
Point features, are features that perception in human vision is a acquisition of the two images. In
can be localised in two we l l k n o w n p h e n o m e n o n . stereo vision, the difference in the
dimensions. Point features are Structure-from-stereo simply projected positions of a point on
easy to represent mathematically refers to the class of computer the left and right images is
and they can directly correspond vision algorithms that applies the referred to as the disparity, and
to three dimensional points in same principle for inferring depth the collection of disparity values
space. Many features that can be information from images taken for a whole image is known as the
localised to a point are usually from different viewpoints[2]. A disparity map.

If some files cannot be deleted by the delete key, try to navigate


That folder on the command prompt and use the erase command.

9 March 2010 CACHE


CSI-SAKEC Invited Articles

3.Computer TEC
H TAI
Animation N MEN
T
Ms.Dhanashree K Toradmalle
Asst Professor
(IT Dept)
Animation is the rapid no equipment existed to show the who can be considered the
display of a sequence of images of images in motion, such a series of "creator" of the art of film
2-D or 3-D artwork or model i m a g e s c a n n o t b e c a l l e d animation, as there were several
positions in order to create an animation in a true sense of the people doing several projects
illusion of movement. It is an word. which could be considered
optical illusion of motion due to T h e p h e n a k i s t o s c o p e , various types of animation all
the phenomenon of persistence of praxinoscope, as well as the around the same time.
vision, and can be created and common flip book were early Georges Méliès was a
demonstrated in a number of popular animation devices creator of special-effect films; he
ways. The most common method invented during the 1800s, while a was generally one of the first
of presenting animation is as a Chinese zoetrope-type device was people to use animation with his
motion picture or video program, invented already in 180 AD. These technique. He discovered a
although several other forms of devices produced movement technique by accident which was
presenting to stop the camera
animation also rolling to change
exist. something in the
E a r l y scene, and then
examples of continue rolling
attempts to the film. This idea
capture the was later known
phenomenon of as stop-motion
motion drawing animation. Méliès
can be found in discovered this
paleolithic cave t e c h n i q u e
paintings, where accidentally
animals are when his camera
depicted with broke down
multiple legs in while shooting a
superimposed bus driving by.
positions, clearly An Egyptian burial chamber mural, approximately 4000 years old, showing When he had
a t t e m p t i n g t o wrestlers in action. Even though this may appear similar to a series of animation fixed the camera,
c o n v e y t h e drawings, there was no way of viewing the images in motion. It does, however, indicate a h e a r s e
p e r c e p t i o n o f the artist's intention of depicting motion. happened to be
motion. passing by just
A 5,200 year old earthen from sequential drawings using as Méliès restarted rolling the film,
bowl found in Iran in Shahr-i technological means, but his end result was that he had
Sokhta has five images of a goat animation did not really develop managed to make a bus transform
painted along the sides. This has much further until the advent of into a hearse. This was just one of
been claimed to be an example of cinematography. the great contributors to
early animation. However, since There is no single person animation in the early years.

CACHE March 2010 10


Invited Articles CSI-SAKEC

Walt Disney studio (Beauty and the


Beast, Aladdin, Lion King) to the
more "cartoony" styles of those
M NT including traditional 35
Emedia, produced by the Warner Bros.
N
H TAI mm film and newer media such as
animation studio (Iron Giant,

TEC digital video. The "look" of


Quest for Camelot, Cats Don't
Dance). Many of the Disney
traditional cel animation is still
The production of animated features are examples
preserved, and the character
animated short films, typically of full animation, as are non-
animators' work has remained
referred to as "cartoons", became Disney works such as The Secret of
essentially the same over the past
an industry of its own during the NIMH (US, 1982) and The Iron
70 years. Some animation
1910s, and cartoon shorts were Giant (US, 1999), Nocturna (Spain,
producers have used the term
produced to be shown in movie 2007)
"tradigital" to describe cel
theaters. Rotoscoping is a
animation which makes extensive
Traditional animation (also technique, patented by Max
use of computer technology.
called cel animation or hand- Fleischer in 1917, where
Examples of traditionally
drawn animation) was the animators trace live-action
animated feature films include
process used for most animated movement, frame by frame. The
Pinocchio (United States, 1940),
films of the 20th century. The source film can be directly copied
Animal Farm (United Kingdom,
individual frames of a from actors' outlines into
1954), and Akira (Japan, 1988).
traditionally animated film are animated drawings, as in The Lord
Traditional animated films which
photographs of drawings, which of the Rings (US, 1978), used as a
were produced with the aid of
are first drawn on paper. To create basis and inspiration for character
computer technology include The
the illusion of movement, each animation, as in most Disney
Lion King (US, 1994) Sen to Chihiro
drawing differs slightly from the films,
one before it. The animators' Live-action/animation is
drawings are traced or a technique, when combining
photocopied onto transparent hand-drawn characters into live
acetate sheets called cels, which Animation: action shots.
are filled in with paints in Tracing
assigned colors or tones on the 2D animation
live-action 2D animation figures are
side opposite the line drawings.
The completed character cels are Movement created and/or edited on the
photographed one-by-one onto Frame by computer using 2D bitmap
motion picture film against a graphics or created and edited
frame…
painted background by a rostrum using 2D vector graphics. This
camera. includes automated
no Kamikakushi (Spirited Away)
The traditional cel computerized versions of
(Japan, 2001), Treasure Planet
animation process became traditional animation techniques
(USA, 2002) and Les Triplettes de
obsolete by the beginning of the such as of tweening, morphing,
Belleville (2003).
21st century. Today, animators' onion skinning and interpolated
Full animation refers to the
drawings and the backgrounds rotoscoping.
process of producing high-
are either scanned into or drawn quality traditionally animated
directly into a computer system. 3D animation
films, which regularly use
Various software programs are 3D animation are digitally
detailed drawings and plausible
used to color the drawings and modelled and manipulated by an
movement. Fully animated films
simulate camera movement and animator. In order to manipulate
can be done in a variety of styles,
effects. The final animated piece is a mesh, it is given a digital skeletal
from realistically designed works
output to one of several delivery structure that can be used to
such as those produced by the

11 March 2010 CACHE


CSI-SAKEC Invited Articles

control the mesh. This process is


called rigging. Various other
techniques can be applied, such as TEC
mathematical functions (ex. still do great work in 3D. H TAI
gravity, particle simulations), A 3D Artist must have N MEN
simulated fur or hair, effects such
as fire and water and the use of
following qualities: T
1. Patience. Many beginners
Motion capture to name but a few, unfairly compare themselves to days, and even weeks perfecting a
these techniques fall under the established artists possessing 3D model before ever moving
category of 3d dynamics. Many years of experience. While it can onto texturing, animation or final
3D animations are very believable be a great motivator and a renders. 3D art is unique in that it
and are commonly used as Visual valuable source of inspiration, 3D can require a broad array of skills,
effects for recent movies. art is a diverse subject, requiring from drawing to acting, to
So, what does it take to be dedication and practice. Some successfully bring together a
a 3D artist? Well, obviously, you say that 3D is like Go, the ancient finished piece. The payoff is that
must have an eye for art. Most game of strategy: it takes minutes 3D artist is perhaps the most
people who begin learning 3D to learn, but a lifetime to be sought-after creative workers.
have some kind of background in master. 4. Willingness to accept criticism.
drawing and sketching. It's not 2. Detail. 3D artists tend to have a Eventually you'll feel motivated
unheard of for 3D studios to hire strong background in computers, to submit your art for review by
artists who have no experience in compared to non-digital artists. other artists. 3D artists can nitpick
3D, based solely on the strength of Experience in computer like no one else in the world, so be
a pencil drawing portfolio. programming is common in 3D prepared to have even the
Sculptors, who were previously circles, though not required. 3D slightest error pointed out to you
limited to animatronics and artists need to have an eye for in exacting detail - especially if
claymation (clay animation), also detail, be resourceful and self- you're attempting to create
tend to make an easier transition sufficient. anything realistic. If you intend to
to 3D. 3. Hard work. If you want work in a studio one day, your
Even if you don't have something easy, pick up a pencil ability to accept criticism will be
formal art training that goes and paper and start drawing. 3D crucial to the overall success of the
beyond the few classes you took art isn't nearly as immediate with team.
in high school or college you can results. One can spend, hours,

Internet Error codes and Meaning


Ü400 => this is bad request error, First check you may be typing wrong URL name and
server could not understand your request.
Ü401 => you are trying to open any unauthorized access site or page. Check your
username and password if you are trying to open any webpage.
Ü402 => Payment Required Error
Ü403 => you are trying to open any forbidden page and you are blocked by that domain.
Ü404 => you are trying to open the webpage that was removed or re-named, also
check the URL spell ing.
Ü408 => this is time out error. You should send the request with in time that the server
set for you.

CACHE March 2010 12


Invited Articles CSI-SAKEC

EN T
N M
TAI
TEC
H
4.Code'Oh’Phobia!!!
- Harshad M. Mande
Ex-Lecturer I.T.
As a lecturer in the completely understand this What I just presented to
I n f o r m a t i o n Te c h n o l o g y program and you can ask me any you are two situations which a so
department of Shah and Anchor question you want on this piece of called IT engineering student
Kutchhi Engineering College for code.” After a few ifs-and-buts finds him in. One is when he
more than a year now, I know one she confessed that she couldn't knows the theory, and the other
thing for sure, not many of us are write a program, but she knew all one is when he can put things to
comfortable when it comes to the the syntaxes well. She knew all practice without knowing much
word 'coding'. As a student it was the intricacies of Java of the theory. Often students ask
C programming, as a teacher now programming. She basically me, “Sir, I am very weak in C
its Java programming, thanks or knew the theory well, but she programming. Which book
no thanks to the new pattern of couldn't create something called should I refer to?” It's one of those
the syllabus. as a working program. situations where I cannot conjure
As a student I had a Now is another situation: up a considerable advice. A
colleague who used to finish this one is kind of personal. I reasonable answer to such a
his practical session in one question is another question:
hour flat and I used to take “Which exam are you preparing
about a day. I definitely felt an When you are placed for?” If the answer is say exam A,
inferiority complex creeping then I would give him a decent
in an IT firm and all enough book to read, some links
inside me and that to a certain
extent did motivate me, but to you have to do from to refer to, but if the answer is I-
most of us it's quite perplexing. I 9:00 am to 5:00 pm is just-want-to-learn-programming.
knew I had to clear the air on a Then my answer would take a
fiddle around with a completely different form. The
topic like this because I came
across a very peculiar situation piece of code, you are fact is you cannot learn
lately. I was conducting my Bound to figure a programming by reading a lot of
practical session and while most literature. It's just like
way around it.
students were struggling doing assimilating a lot of knowledge
their programs, I noticed this one but not knowing where to use it.
once gave a technical
girl who never bothered to even In the case of programming you
interview and was asked
try. All of a sudden, when it was have to follow the adage: If you
about a project which I had
about time to leave, she had a want to learn to swim, u should
implemented using VB.net. The
program ready and fit for just jump directly into the well.
interviewer asked me to elaborate
execution. I knew at once it was a This is how many infamous
on the .net framework. I didn't
case of much neglected swimmers learn how to swim.
have much of a say, because I
plagiarism in Mumbai University. Start with a set of programs and
really didn't know what it meant,
I asked her, “Listen, I know you keep hitting your keyboard is the
but I could write any program in
haven't written this program on mantra.
.net given the MSDN library and
your own. How can I possibly Now many people get to a
an Internet connection. I was
grade your work?” She was very very fantastic start. They are
obviously given negative marks
q u i c k i n r e p l y i n g , “ S i r, I really spirited when it comes to
for such an answer.

13 March 2010 CACHE


CSI-SAKEC Invited Articles

this new methodology. But what


exactly happens is that coding the
wrong way can be quite a TEC
dampener. Within no time you are about the details of program H TAI
so demoralized that you decide compilation and execution. For N MEN
that coding is not your piece of those who are unaware about
cake. Now what exactly is this using these tools meet me over a
T
wrong way of coding? It's cup of Java (Java is a kind of coffee, battalion of the coders are the
basically writing a program with for those who don't know). ones who write clean and efficient
whatever syntax you know and One must remember that programmes. The programs that
then constantly compiling it to it's no great deal to be a good are time and space efficient, are
discover some errors. Then again programmer. You may contact the so-called good programs.
you wonder what the errors are so some of your senior friends who Have you ever wondered how a
you keep staring at the code and are placed in IT companies and let game program sits on your 25MB
hope that some Bill Gate's spirit them drip nostalgia over their of feeble memory on your cell
enters you and you are able to coding fear. They would possibly phones? It's because someone has
debug the error. But such a scene laugh over it. It's for a fact that written the application using the
never happens. So you go back to coding ain't tough. It's about the best possible space efficient logic.
your books and literature and number of hours you give to it. For beginners I would strongly
hope to find a solution to the error. When you are placed in an IT firm suggest you to read this definitive
Then you see the size of the book and all you have to do from 9:00 guide on programming, called
and you keep it away. Then you am to 5:00 pm is fiddle around The Art of Computer
say I would rather watch a movie with a piece of code, you are Programming by Donald. E.
than write code. bound be a figure a way around it. Knuth (pronounced as 'Kuh'nuth)
Well what separates a Currently as students you are not Volumes 1 to 4. He has very
good programmer from a non able to give enough time to coding, convincingly given you a vivid
programmer is his speed and because you are not really getting treatment on programming
accuracy in programming. The paid for it, you are actually paying describing as an art than a mere
one helping hand that God (in our for it (Haha). Another important science. Throw away your Chetan
case the compiler designer) does thing is coding is like slavery to Bhagats or Harry Potters and pick
provide is a debugging tool. your computer. You are a slave to up a copy of this book. A little bit
Instead of sitting in front of the the syntaxes of the programming of dedication and a pinch of
computer screen and staring at language. And considering the mental commitment is the recipe
your code you can use the single rich Indian heritage of slavery as t o o v e r c o m e y o u r
step debugging, the watch an Indian we are born to be good
Code'Oh'Phobia!!!
windows, etc. and discover your programmers.
sticky bugs in no time. In the The programmers who
process you end up learning a lot really shine out of this huge

Have fun with ALT!!!

CACHE March 2010 14


Contributed Articles CSI-SAKEC

T 1.How
ME N
AIN
TEC
H T Google googles?
-Sujay Narsale
B.E.(Computers)

For as far as most of us can the pages which are related to currently is quite complicated
remember now, we have used that keyword are listed as results. and a closely guarded secret, but
only one tool for starting of our As one can imagine, the problem the formula used when Google
quests into the great World Wide here is that each keyword will was still being developed was:
Web. A simple page with just one give millions of results majority
text box and a few buttons hides of which will be useless to the PR(A) = (1-d) + d(PR(t1)/C(t1) + ... +
behind it a mammoth machinery PR(tn)/C(tn))
which has compelled millions of Here, A = Current Page,
users to set it as their home page t1….tn = pages linking to A,
and use it innumerable times per The trick is PR(X) = PageRank of page X,
day. I am of course talking about C(X) = Number of outbound links from
therefore to sort
Google, the undisputed King of page X,
Search. With its simplistic the [million] results d = dampening factor.
interface and clean and accurate correctly. This
results it has firmly lodged itself In simple words, this means:
as one of the most powerful Is exactly what · If a page has a large number of
entities on the Internet. So much PageRank does and pages linking to it, it gets a
so that searching on the net is higher rank: This is the basic
often colloquially referred to as
does it very well.
criteria of PageRank. If only this
'Googling'! criterion was applied anyone
So how does Google do it? c o u l d h a ve i n c r e a s e d t h e
The secret behind it is a user. The trick is therefore to sort PageRank of their webpage but
combination of simple logic and the results correctly. This is exactly just paying to put up their links on
some basic mathematics. Google what PageRank does and does it as many websites as possible. But
calls this secret, the PageRank very well. Google is not fooled as easily.
A l g o r i t h m . To u n d e r s t a n d PageRank implements a · If a page is linked to by a page
ranking method that no other which itself has a high PageRank,
PageRank, we will first see how
search engine had thought of it gets a higher rank: This ensures
most modern Search Engines
before it. Basically, it determines that pages recommended by sites
search the Web: which are well known, get better
how good a page is by the number
They make use of something PageRank.
of web pages linking to it. That
called as a Crawler (or Search-bot · If a page is linked to by a page
means, if a certain webpage has a
or Web-bot or spiders). These which does not have links to a lot
large number of websites giving
crawlers move through the World of other pages, it gets a higher
links to it, it will be ranked higher.
Wide Web from page to page rank: This ensures that no page
This logic is based on simple
through Hyperlinks (links to gets a higher rank just by having
common sense that if a page is
other webpages). Each time they its links in otherwise empty sites.
linked to more, it must be more
encounter a new page they index If a page is listed in a Link Farm (a
popular and therefore more
the information in that page and it website which has no real content
relevant. Though this is the major
is stored in a central database. of its own but only holds links to
criteria PageRank uses, it is
Whenever the user types in a other websites), it is penalized by
definitely not the only one. The
query, the query or keyword is a decrease in its PageRank.
actual algorithm used by Google
searched against the database and

15 March 2010 CACHE


CSI-SAKEC Contributed Articles

Apart from incoming


links described above, other TEC
factors determining a PageRank H TAI
are: in web terms, pages with higher N MEN
· The frequency and location of PageRank have their votes
keywords within the Web page: weighted more than the votes
T
If the keyword only appears once from lower pages. further reduces their chances of
within the body of a page, it will · Most sites have hundreds of ever improving their PageRank
receive a low score for that pages but the majority of links as Google does not bother to look
keyword. Also PageRank takes come to their home pages. This through it entirely.
into account other Despite these
characteristics such as the hitches, the greatest
font size of the keyword, proof that PageRank
title, file name, directory works is its popularity
name, etc to make sure that itself. If it did not give
the keyword's importance useful results then it
in the page is properly wo u l d n e ve r h a ve
known. moved out of its
· How long the Web page founders' garage. Also,
has existed: People create Google has continued to
new Web pages every day, tweak its algorithm
and not all of them stick over time to iron out its
around for long. Google shortcomings. So much
places more value on pages so that, many believe
with an established history. the original PageRank
· Domain in which the now plays only a
page exists: Some popular subordinate role in
domains get higher priority ordering of the results.
automatically since the user The current algorithm is
is most likely to be looking thought to focus more
for results from them. on the keyword
Though until now, it characteristics. But with
seems that Google has found a means that the deeper pages in a Google keeping the actual
perfect, impartial and efficient site which have the most amount algorithm completely hidden
algorithm, it has its share of of information get very low (with good reason), we may
detractors. Google claims that its PageRank, while the home page never completely understand
PageRank algorithm is based on gets a disproportionately high how Google googles.
the democratic nature of the Web rank.
where links equal to votes. But · Also, Google decides how much
PageRank's detractors point out of a site to crawl depending on its
that: PageRank. This means that sites
· In PageRank, rich people get with an average PageRank do not
more votes than poor people, or, get their entire site indexed. This

Quick PC Shut down


· Press Ctrl+ Esc key or the Win key and press 'U' two times
· Win+ M to minimize all windows and then Alt+F4 to bring the Turn Off computer dialog.
· Open Windows Task manager (Alt+ Ctrl+ Del) and choose Shut down from the menu. Useful when the
windows are not responding.

CACHE March 2010 16


Contributed Articles CSI-SAKEC

N M EN T 2.‘Ethical’
TAI
TEC
H
Hacking! Jugal Thakker
B.E.(Computer)

The term 'hacking' sounds hacker has is unlimited curiosity. know how the internet works,
interesting to today's geeky He constantly thrives to discover how the computers communicate,
generation. So how many of us unknown features, characteristics, and should know the in and out of
know what hacking actually is? tips and tricks. A hacker has to be networking concepts and rules.
How many know what the dedicated to knowledge and Moreover to be good hacker, you
purpose of hacking is? Let's research in his field. He also is need to have the basics of UNIX,
together try to recognize these highly creative and innovative. since all good security experts
queries. All these traits are necessity for will encounter UNIX at some time.
To know who or what a being a hacker. After knowing this, Most appropriately to catch a
hacker is, we shall first see, what a it's not bizarre to term the greats criminal you need to become one,
hacker is not? First and foremost hence, a hacking attitude, which
a hacker IS NOT A CRIMINAL! is to have criminal or a crooked
Hackers are neither the ones who mind, is a prerequisite.
break the laws nor do they steal White hat hackers Let us have a look at the
credit card information. Likewise have prior following good real world
hackers don't belong to the breed analogy to hacking. Assume the
permissions from
of people who release viruses on ultimate goal is breaking into a
the internet. Interestingly, a the administrator safe (the safe is a database, a
hacker may not always be a to exploit the password file, confidential
computer wizard. All the above records or whatever). The safe is
loopholes!
descriptions that are seemingly located inside of a physical
familiar to the definition of a building (the computer that hosts
hacker are nothing more than a of Newton, Einstein and Edison the data). The building is located
misconception and a as hackers. These were the real inside a town (the computer is
misconstruction of the mass hackers who did things beyond connected to a network). There is
media and people. the average person's aptitude; a path/highway leading to the
So, who is a hacker? Most they flourished to challenge and town and the path connects the
of the hackers have these very stretch the limits. town to other towns and/or cities
interesting qualities and A hacker today, is by and (read Internet/Intranet). The
characteristics. He likes to think large associated with computers town/city is protected by a
out of the box. Everything he tries and computer security. The tollgate or an inspection point (the
to do is with the aim of testing his individualities that you need to network is protected by a firewall,
own limits! He always wants to have to become a modern-day- screening router etc.) There might
achieve things that so far people hacker are:- You need to excel in be certain residents (the police) in
have considered to be computer security. You need to the town looking for suspicious
unachievable or impossible. He know at least one programming activity, and reporting it to the
will, almost always, want to try language, which more often than town's mayor (the police reports
out things that are not written in not is, C++. You essentially have to attacks to the sysadmin).
the manual or the rule book. The be networking guru, you must B u i l d i n g s h a ve t h e i r o w n
most important ingredient that a protection methods, locks &

17 March 2010 CACHE


CSI-SAKEC Contributed Articles

chains, and access doors (on-host


firewalling, TCP wrappers,
usernames and passwords). TEC
The motive behind hacker. It's is not the hackers who H TAI
hacking is what separates the cause harm, but they are the N MEN
good guys from the bad ones. The
ones with a positive aim for
'crackers'. T
Yo u m a y a s k , s i n c e
hacking are termed as 'white hat hackers don't pose any harm, why to the owners. But, in almost all
hackers' and the bad guys are the are there blacks and whites? The cases these security
'black hat hackers'. Understandably white hat hackers have prior vulnerabilities are brought to the
the white-hats follow a set of rules permissions from the notice of crackers, who in turn use
or ethics while exploiting a given administrator to exploit the it to steal or destroy data.
system hence they are also known loopholes into their application. Consequently black hat hackers
as ethical hackers. Ethics is This exploitation brings out the are 'friends of crackers'. To begin
defined as 'the discipline dealing their journey to be deemed as
with what is good and bad and ethical, they are officially hired by
with moral duty and obligation'. the companies, wherein they
More simply, one could say it is perform penetration tests onto the
the study of what is right to do in a systems that the company builds.
given situation. Whereas the only A penetration test is basically
ethic the black-hats follow is to breaking into the network and
break into the system regardless hence finding weak points in the
of the security measures that are system. These weak points are not
taken to stop them from doing exploited by them, but instead
that very task, of hacking. The like innocent good boys are
term hacking implies only to reported to the owners. The
breaking into a system. The system admins improve on these
keyword here is, 'only'. That is, a vulnerabilities.
hacker, irrespective of the clan security issues with the system, So, all the to-be-hackers
that they belong to, aims only for and hence, helps in creating a reading this, decide upon what
getting into the so called secure much more secure application ethics you plan to follow, what
network, but does not cause any and thus making ethical hackers kind of a hacker you aim to be,
harm in terms of data loss or as 'friends of developers'. The black and decided for yourself whether
stealing. So when people say that, hat hackers don't have any such you fall into the elite group of
“my email account was hacked”, permission.Unlike their 'ethical hackers'.
they are actually wrong, because counterparts, the black hat
of a fallacy in the usage of the term hackers don't report the loopholes

Google Search Made EASY


§ Site-specific. Use site: operator to search only within a certain website.[site: dumbl ittleman
§ File types. If you just want to search for .PDF files, or Word documents, or Excel spreadsheets,
for example, use the file type: operator.
§ Answer to l ife, the universe, and everything. Search for that phrase, in lower case.
§ Intitle: at the beginning of a query word or phrase (intitle:"Three Bl ind Mice") restricts your
search results to just the titles of Web pages.
§ Intext: searches only the body text, ignoring titles, l inks, and so forth. Intent: is perfect when
what you're searching for might commonly appear in URLs.

CACHE March 2010 18


Contributed Articles CSI-SAKEC

3.Cloud
M E NT
TE CH TAIN Computing Anilkumar Panda
T.E.(I.T.)
Dhaval Savla
T.E.(computers)
The other day I was the concept of cloud computing The basic technologies for
talking to one of my friend was present long ago it is poised cloud computing such as
regarding his graphics project. He to take off now. But the question is horizontal scaling, distributed
was complaining about his slow what is cloud computing? computing nodes, virtualization
processor and other hardware CLOUD COMPUTING have been available for some time.
constraints which severely refers to both the applications Virtualization the abstraction of
hampered the development and delivered as services over the computer resources is the
testing of his project . .Jokingly he Internet and the Hardware and cornerstone technology for all
asked me if he could get a faster systems software in the cloud architectures.
processor or bigger RAM for his datacenters that provide those Virtualization allows servers,
system on lease (since he could services. It delivers higher storage devices, and other
not afford to buy them efficiency, massive scalability, and hardware to be treated as a pool of
instantly)…so that he would use faster, easier software resources rather than discrete
them only while working on his development. special kind of systems, so that these resources
project and return them once not software called middleware. can be allocated on demand.
needed. I suggested him to go to In cloud computing your Techniques such as
the CLOUD. His problem is data is present on your machine paravirtualization which allows
similar to most of the small and but on a remote server of the a single server to be treated as
medium businesses (SMBs) as company providing you the multiple virtual servers, and
well as traditional enterprises in s e r vice. In order to access your clustering which allows multiple
verticals such as banking, servers to be treated as a single
financial services and insurance server.
(BFSI), and manufacturing. A cloud computing
These companies have a specific The foundations of system , consists two sections: the
IT requirement but need to invest The nextgeneration of front end and the back end. They
a considerable amount of their connect to each other through a
computing… A world network, usually the Internet .The
resources in acquiring and
maintaining the software and where the network is front end is the client's computer
and the applications required to
hardware for the company. Also the platform for access the cloud computing
sometimes they may require a
all Computing… system. On the back end of the
particular hardware or software system are the various
which may be costly so they either computers, servers and data
have to find an alternate way out data you just need to install the storage systems that create the
or use the resources of some other middleware software that will "cloud" of computing services.
company which delays the connect you to the cloud when Each application will have its own
development of the project. The needed and you can use the entire dedicated server. Central server
solution is a revolutionary services in the cloud (the net or administers the system,
concept called CLOUD the remote server) as per your monitoring traffic and client
COMPUTING [CC] . Although requirement). demands to ensure everything

19 March 2010 CACHE


CSI-SAKEC Contributed Articles

r u n s s m o o t h l y. I t f o l l o w s
protocols and uses a Middleware
that allows networked TEC
computers to communicate with H TAI
each other. N MEN
Cloud Computing
provides the following three T
types of services:
1. Software as a Service (SaaS):
SaaS provides complete
application as a service to the
clients on demand via
paravirtualization.
E.g.:Salesforce.com
2.Platform as a Service
(PaaS):PaaS offerings can provide
for every phase of software
development and testing. Eg:
Google App Engine.
3. Infrastructure as a Service
(IaaS): Servers, storage systems,
switches, routers, and other
systems are pooled (through
virtualization technology, for
example) to handle specific types
of workloads from batch
processing to server/storage
augmentation during peak loads Fig 1: Cloud Computing Architecture
over the network. E.g.: Amazon
Web Services, Joyent. users having to worry for peak cloud computing suitable for
Major advantages of
loads. business continuity and disaster
cloud computing are:
recovery.
1. It could bring hardware and 3. Batch processing can help
maintenance costs down. CC analyze blocks of terabytes of Thus, CC ushers in a new
systems give easy access to data simultaneously saving level of efficiency and economy in
software.. server hours. delivering IT resources on
2. Scalability via dynamic ("on- 4. Reliability is improved demand and thus creates new
demand") allocation of resources through the use of multiple market opportunities and
on a, self-service basis without redundant sites, which makes business models.

Know the RUN commands...

· Calc --Calculator · Osk -- to access on screen keyboard


· Control --Displays Control Panel · Ping --Sends data to a specified host/IP
· Hostname --Returns Computer's name ·Sysedit -- Edit system startup files
·Taskmgr --Task manager
· Logoff -- to logoff the computer · WinWord -- to open Microsoft word
· Nslookup--Returns your local DNS server · Write -- Used to open WordPad

CACHE March 2010 20


Contributed Articles CSI-SAKEC

EN T
N M
H TAI 4.CRYPTOGRAPHY
TEC
Rushabh Pasad
T.E. (I.T.)

Cryptography is a g r i d ) lazy dog.


technique used to hide the C A E
meaning of a message. It is S A R Would read
derived from the Greek word B O X
kryptos (hidden). This is different Now read it horizontally.... Eht kciuq nworb xof spmuj revo eht
from steganograhic techniques. In The encrypted message shall be yzal god.
cryptography one is not hiding CSBAAOERX. This can be easily encoded.
the actual message, only the
meaning of the message. If a ENIGMA Monoalphabetic Substitution
message were to fall into the The need to encrypt A monoalphabetic
hands of the wrong person, messages appeared at the end of substitution is one where a letter
cryptography should ensure that World War I (although encryption of plaintext always produces the
that message could not be read. techniques had already existed same letter of ciphertext. This
Typically the sender and receiver for a long time). cryptographic technique is used
agree upon a message scrambling It was a Dutchman living in very extensively nowadays
protocol beforehand and agree Germany, Dr. Arthur Scherbius, The operation is very
upon methods for encrypting and who developed the Enigma similar to the Caesar Cipher, with
decrypting messages. Thus machine for commercial the exception that the cipher
Cryptography can be defined as purposes; this machine was used alphabet does not have the order
the science of encrypting and to encode messages. The which it had in the previous
decrypting messages. machine's price at the time examples (which are just special
In Cryptography the (equivalent to 30,000 euros today) cases of monoalphabetic
message to be encrypted is made it a miserable failure. substitutions). An example of a
referred as plain text while the monoalphabetic substitution is
encrypted message is referred as Codes that can be used s h o w n b e l o w .
cipher text.
Concealing secret messages
FIRST CIPHER For example:
The first cipher was made CALL
by Julius Caesar who used it to
communicate with his generals. It Can Alter Lavender Laces.
is named 'Caesar Box' after the
c r e a t o r . Or we can use transposition or
The system goes as follows: substitution system or both under
First select a message to be cipher system.
encrypted. Make sure the length You can either re-arrange letters in a
of the characters your message is a pre-planned pattern or realign letters
p e r f e c t s q u a r e . of alphabet.
For example: "CAESAR BOX" For Instance,
Write it in a square grid (here, 3*3 The quick brown fox jumps over the

21 March 2010 CACHE


CSI-SAKEC Contributed Articles

One may naïvely think


that this cipher is secure, after all
there are 26! (approx. 4 x 10 26) TEC
different cipher alphabets to H TAI
choose from, however the letter find that just about every package N
frequencies and underlying you see has a UPC bar code MEN
patterns will be unchanged - and printed on it. In fact, nearly every T
as such the cipher can be solved item that you purchase from a
Manufacturer Identification
by pen and paper techniques. grocery store, department store
Number, next 5 digits are the item
These more advanced techniques and mass merchandiser has a
code and the last digit is the check
include looking systematically at UPC bar code on it somewhere.
digit.
the position of letters in words in Cryptography is
order to identify vowels, pattern emerging as a very important tool
words, and looking at the letter in the field of security today. With
frequencies, though common s e c u r i t y b e c o m i n g a ve r y
pairings (TH, HE etc.) may come Have you ever wondered where important field in the world of
up. these codes come from and what today, cryptography is being
The most common they mean? catapulted into the limelight
English letters are ETAIN... It is "UPC" stands for together with other methods of
highly likely that in any Universal Product Code. UPC security. Indeed cryptography is
ciphertext, we have some matches bar codes were originally created one of the first lines of defense
- though it is not a certainty. It to help grocery stores speed up against hackers and crackers in
should also be noted that the most the checkout process and keep today's world. .
commontrigraph (three letter better track of inventory, but the
sequence) in English is 'THE'. system quickly spread to all other
retail products because it was so
PC-Bar Code successful.
If you look in your A standard UPC code has
refrigerator or pantry, you will 12 digits. First 6 are the

Kill Processes from Command Prompt!!!


Open up an Administrative level Command Prompt :

C:\>taskl ist ....(to see all of the running processes)

Image Name PID Session Name Mem Usage


=========== === ============ ==========
notepad.exe 25304 Console 5,852 K

to kill the notepad process run:


C:\>Taskkill /IM notepad.exe /F
or
C:\>Taskkill /PID 25304 /F (only the specific instane of firefox will be terminated. )

The /F flag is kills the process forcefully.

CACHE March 2010 22


How to crack an interview... CSI-SAKEC

A C E last
An Interview is the
stage in placement
F
O leave anythingprocess, one cannot afford to
C E T to chance. Face to Face
A
F revealsgives an insight into the interview process and
how one can emerge from the grueling
Placement Interviews.This article has been written with the
help of excerpts from the interviews of Anish Venugopal, Sashank
Shah, Sagar Gupta, Akshay Rao, graduates from SAKEC.

1.How do you go 2. Does the 3.How important is


about the preliminary experience of working in a it to have knowledge of
preparations? Which subjects student organization help in current affairs and business
should be brushed up before any way while giving the news? How to remain abreast
the interview? interview? with it?
Ans: Working in a student
organization adds an edge to
Ans: Before going for an Ans: Business updates are
your Resume. It inculcates basic
interview one should brush up essential for Group
qualities that one needs to
all programming languages Discussion rounds and HR
survive in corporate
that one has mentioned in their interview. To be abreast with it
world like it improves your
resume. Being acquainted with one can refer Business Today,
communication skills,
the basic concepts of The Analyst, mint or even
confidence level, teaches you
engineering subjects is a Economic Times. You can also
how to be a team player ,how to
prerequisite. subscribe to online portals like
co-ordinate in a group and
SiliconIndia.com.
makes you a better manager.

5. Can you give some tips on


4.How to crack the aptitude 6.How to cope up with
the Group Discussion round?
test and how to prepare for nervousness and tension
the same? inside the interview room?
Ans: In GD it is important to
Ans: To crack the aptitude test
speak sense. It is also about Ans: Inside the interview room
one should have clear
listening to others and coming try to stay calm and composed.
concepts of secondary school
to a common conclusion at the It is human tendency to feel
mathematics. Vocabulary is
end. One should understand nervous but show confidence in
another important aspect in
the topic well and try to note your abilities and try to
clearing aptitude tests. One
down the punching points. establish eye contact with the
can solve a few aptitude test
If one can direct the interviewer. Also be specific
papers to get a hands-on
discussion, nothing like it, else while answering the questions,
practice and also an idea
have regular and effective don't provide any vague or
about how to
contributions. hypothetical information.
tackle such tests.

23 March 2010 CACHE


CSI-SAKEC How to crack an interview...

7. Mention some questions


that the interviewee can
ask the interviewer
FAC
ET
O FA
Ans: This is the easiest question
CE
of the interview and hence one
10.What not to do at an
can impress the interviewer
interview?
here. Learn a little bit of the
company and ask some Sharpen your wit!!!
question related to work or the Ans: It is very important to take
company's background. This note of what not to do in an
Try to answer the following
will show your interest towards interview as this can prevent one
frequently asked interview
working in that specific from making any major blunders
questions.
company. Its too early to ask or mistakes. One should not rush
about salary, vacation, etc. so to the person who has already
1. What are your salary
Skip such questions. been interviewed. Try to be
expectations?
simple and straightforward
2. What can you do for this
.Politely apologize if you make
8. How much do company?
any mistake.Also don't fumble
extra and co curricular 3. How are you different from
or panic, be yourself and
activities count? others who have been
maintain your confidence.
interviewed?
Ans: Activities related to career
4. What is the color of the wall
and profession matter at the time
behind you?(you haven’t noticed
of interview. Working on some
11. How to the color when you entered)
projects or doing internships can
handle tricky and weird 5. How many steps have you
help in grabbing the top-notch
questions? climbed up?
job. Also participating in
6. Why are you wearing such
Technical festival of various
color coordinated clothes?
colleges can add a Ans: Such questions test the
7. How will you move mount
point in the resume. smartness and confidence of the
Fuji?
interviewee so don't avoid them.
8. How it is possible to place
One should answer such
four points that are equidistance
9. How questions to the best of one's
from each other?
important is your academic ability and understanding.
9. You have to draw three
performance? Never say anything negative
concentric circles with a line
about yourself. Whatever
Ans: Academic performance passing through their center
question is posed make sure you
helps in clearing the criteria for without lifting hand.
give a positive spin to your
many companies, apart from 10. You are given a cake; one of
answer. This is especially true
giving a boost to one’s its corner is broken. How will u
regarding question about things
confidence before the cut the rest into
you have mentioned as your
recruitment process, recruiters two equal parts?
weaknesses. Whatever weakness
have a tendency to look for
you may have listed, make sure
people with better percentages. (Note: Answers to these
you can justify how you have
But having practical knowledge questions are given on
tried to work on your weakness
and real-world skills are more Page 31 . )
and that you have achieved
important.
some progress.

CACHE March 2010 24


Acquaint yourself with gizmos... CSI-SAKEC

D Z ! Bored of the
E N
R hand clock
common hour hand- minute
-T
TE CH display, dream of environ-
friendly comp... Nowdays there are gadgets
that solve every query, every whim of the
consumer. TECH-TRENDZ brings to you a plethora of
gadgets-from the ‘currently hot’ ones to the ‘soon to be
releasing ones....’

25 March 2010 CACHE


CSI-SAKEC Acquaint yourself with gizmos...

TEC
H -TR
E ND
Z!

CACHE March 2010 26


Check your fun-quotient... CSI-SAKEC

CROSS-QUOTIENT
26. Synonym for cyber piracy.
27. Main trunk connections of the Internet.
29. Provide client station with access to shared resources
on n/w.
31. Device that forwards data packets between n/w.
33. One who attempts to gain infamy in chats or on
forums?
34. Unique visitor to the site from a campaign source.
35. Listing given by search engine in response to
keyword inquiry.

Down
1. Communication protocols used to connect host to the
Internet.
2. A fiber optic n/w transmitting data at 100 mbps.
3. Act of sending unsolicited bulk emails.
4. A http server& open source application.
Across 6. Web service that combines two or more tools to create
1. Keeping track of links to content. a new service.
2. Search retrieving matches for partially/misspelled 7. Java server side module.
words. 8. A hacker.
5. Evolving protocol for syndication & sharing of 9. A freeware browser.
contents. 13. Equivalent to 'Favorites' of Internet Explorer.
7. Optimizing website to get better results in search 14. Program used to view HTML documents.
engine. 16. s/w monitoring activities of user while he/she
8. Small text string stored on user's comp by a web navigates the Internet.
browser. 18. One who searches the Internet for references of
10. Favorite language of CGI programmers. himself?
11. n/w of educational sites separate from the Internet. 19. Etiquettes on the Internet.
12. Program that prowls internet for publicly accessible 20. A message or a message fragment.
resources. 21. An online dairy of journal.
15. s/w tool for locating people on other Internet sites. 22. Site, an exact copy of the Internet site.
17. Tool to test whether a host is reachable across an IP 27. Unit of data transmission speed.
n/w. 28. Method of moving caffeine across WANs.
23. Standard protocol for email retrieval. 30. Abbr, serial line Internet protocol.
24. Link between pages in a website. 32. A family of wed feed formats.
25. Location on which a website is placed.

27 March 2010 CACHE


CSI-SAKEC Check your fun-quotient...

UPLIFT
YOUR
IQ
7.This is a number crossword puzzle. Enter
one numeral character into each square. The
1.A man builds a house rectangular in
clue consists of mathematical operations.
shape. All sides have southern
(e. g. "D.6 x 3" means, that the number you
exposure. A big bear walks by,
are looking for is three times bigger than
what color is the bear? Why?
number D.6).
2.The day before yesterday I was 25 and the
next year I will be 28. This is true only one
day in a year. What day is my birthday?

3. Using the given programming language,


the following words have their equivalents
next to them, what should FOX be?

CLICK = 100501100K
MILK = 1000150K
LOG = 50OG
LIFE = 501FE
ALIVE = A5015E
FOX = ==?==
CLUES
4.What word is represented by this Across:
arrangement of letters?
A.1 = D.6 x 3
HROOOBD
A.4 = A.7 x A.7
A.5 = (D.3 x 7) - 1
5.What number comes next in this sequence:
A.6 = A.1 + A.5
A.7 = D.3
1 23 124 1251 26127 128129 ==?==
Down:
6.Name an ancient invention, which is still D.1 = ?
used in some parts of the world today, that D.2 = A.7 x 6
allows people to see through walls. D.3 = D.6 + 6
What can this be? D.4 = A.4 - 210
D.6 = (D.2 + 9) x 1/7

(Note: Answers to these questions are given on page 31 . )

CACHE March 2010 28


Winners of CSI-SAKEC events CSI-SAKEC

E RS
CH IEV
D A
TE
EN CSI-SAKEC has been
TAL instrumental in conducting
competitions enabling students stretch their
limits and apply their knowledge.We take this
opportunity to congratulate the: 'Winners(2007-2009).’

Abhishek Mehta Lithin Thomas


1st position 1st position (Zodiac)
Zeal Eureka

Piyush Upadhay Pankaj Savla


1st position 1st position (Zodiac)
Flash & dreamweaver Eureka

Chandrakant Deshmukh Bharat Vishwakarma


2nd position tie 2nd position (DishitaBharat)
Flash & dreamweaver Eureka

Nikit Vora Dishita Trivedi


2nd position tie 2nd position (DishitaBharat)
Flash & dreamweaver Eureka

29 March 2010 CACHE


CSI-SAKEC Winners of CSI-SAKEC events

People succeed at everything TAL


E NTE
if they enjoy doing it. DA
CHI
E VER
S
Viral Vira
1st position
Virtual DJ 1

Bhavi Savla Sagar Dedhia


2nd position 1st position (Maverick)
Virtual DJ 1 iDeveloper

Sudatta C Jithin T K
3rd position 1st position (Maverick)
Virtual DJ 1 iDeveloper

Anand biswas
1st position Saurabh Raje
Virtual DJ 2 2nd position (CodeMasters)
iDeveloper

Prasad Parawadi Suyash Pavanoji


2nd position 2nd position (CodeMasters)
Virtual DJ 2 iDeveloper

Shruti Narain
3rd position
Virtual DJ 2

CACHE March 2010 30


Help corner CSI-SAKEC

CROSS- QUIOTENT SHARPEN


YOUR WIT!!
1.The best that company can offer based on my
qualification and my capability.
2.With my hard work and dedication, I would like to
contribute my bit for the company which would take
it to new heights.
3.I don't know the others so I cannot tell you the
difference but I can tell you that I have a curious mind
which also loves to accept challenges and due to its
curiosity it learns more.
4.It is the same as the wall in front of you.
5.I wish to climb even more steps in my life than I
have just climbed(Assuming that I have no idea)
6.Because I feel comfortable in this pair, makes me
look good.
7.An ideal response would be to break the question
down, and try solving it in stages. First, you'd have to
UPLIFT YOUR IQ estimate the amount of material to be moved, so pick
1. The bear is white since the house is built othe hypothetical numbers for density of the soil and the
North Pole. height of Mount Fuji (you'd get extra points for
2. He was born on December 31st and spoke knowing that information), and use the formula for
about it on January 1st. volume of a cone to calculate the volume of material.
3. FO10: where Roman numerals exist they are Extrapolate that to get the mass of material to be
replaced by their modern equivalents, V = 5, moved. Finally, tackle the actual transport part:
X = 10, L = 50 etc. estimate that a backhoe can excavate x tons per day,
4. Robin Hood. and a truck can move y tons per trip. Assume z hours
5.1301311: The sequence 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, per day and so on.
etc. has been broken into chunks of 1, 2, 3, 4 etc. 8. Only 3 points can be equidistant from each other.
6. A window! But if one places points in the shape of a pyramid
7. A1=135 D1=1651 then its possible to place four points at equal distance
A4=2601 D2=306 from each other.
A5=356 D3=51 9.Start the line complete one circle move inside
A6=491 D4=2391 circles along the line and then draw second circle.
A7=51 D6=45 Like wise rest.
10. Slice the cake!

31 March 2010 CACHE


CSI-SAKEC