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Section 2. Major Mechanical Design

Table of Contents

Reactor Mechanical Data Sheet ----------------------------------------------------------- (2)

1

Reactor Mechanical Drawing ------------------------------------------------------------ (16)

Equipment specification sheet of CSTR

Equipment Name

Equipment Code

Operating Pressure (atm(g))

Operating Temperature (C)

Service Fluid

Material of Construction

Applicable Code

Number of Reactor

CSTR-402

1

Design pressure (atm(g))

1.1

60

Design temperature (C)

66

Organic Mixture

Carbon Steel

AS 1548-7-430R.N.T

1

SHELL

Material of Construction

Carbon Steel, AS 1548-7-430R.N.T

Shell Class

Class 3

Shell Type

Cylindrical

Type of Welded Joints

Double-welded butt joint

Shell Inside Diameter (mm)

1262

Shell Thickness (mm)

7

Shell Outer Diameter (mm)

1276

Shell Height (mm)

1262

Corrosion Allowance (mm)

2

Aspect Ratio

1

3

Shell Volume (m )

1.58

END CAP

Material of Construction

Carbon Steel, AS 1548-7-430R.N.T

End Class

Class 3

End Type

Flat End Plate

Type of Welded Joints

Double-welded butt joint

End Thickness (mm)

16

Corrosion Allowance (mm)

2

REACTOR (SHELL AND TWO END CAPS)

Material of Construction

Carbon Steel, AS 1548-7-430R.N.T

Reactor Class

Class 3

Type of Welded Joints

Double-welded butt joint

Reactor Inside Diameter (mm)

1262

Reactor Thickness (mm)

7

Reactor Outer Diameter (mm)

1276

Reactor Height (mm)

1294

Corrosion Allowance (mm)

2

Aspect Ratio

1

3

Reactor Volume (m )

1.58

IMPELLER AND BAFFLES

Impeller Diameter (mm)

378.6

Off-bottom Distance (mm)

210

Impeller Width (mm)

47.3

Baffle Width (mm)

105

Baffle Offset Distance (mm)

189.3

Material of Construction

Carbon Steel AS 1548-7-430R.N.T

Nozzle and Flange Class

Class 3, Seamless ASTM-A-106-C grade

Oil Inlet Nozzle

DN 10 Schedule 40

CH3OH Inlet Nozzle

DN 6 Schedule 80

Biodiesel Outlet Nozzle

DN 15 Schedule 40

Drainage Nozzle

DN 32 Schedule 40

Oil Inlet Flange

PN 20 Class 150 DN 10 Socket Weld (SW)

CH3OH Inlet Flange

PN 20 Class 150 DN 6 Socket Weld (SW)

Biodiesel Outlet Flange

PN 20 Class 150 DN 15 Socket Weld (SW)

Drainage Flange

PN 20 Class 150 DN 32 Socket Weld (SW)

Gaskets

Elastomers with cotton fabric insertion

SUPPORTS

Type of Supports

Conical Skirt Supports

Number of Supports

2

Reactor Orientation

Vertical

ACCESSORIES AND OTHERS

Access Hole

450 mm Diameter of Manhole

Pressure Relief Valve

With Blowdown Drum or Catch Tank

TESTING AND INSPECTIONS

Vessel Testing

1. General testing and inspections (AS 1210 Section 5 and 6)

2. Welding procedure qualification (AS 3992)

3. Hydrostatic testing (Ph = 0.16725 MPa)

Piping Examination and Testing

1. Visual (100%)

2. Pressure tests (including hydrostatic pressure test and

pneumatic pressure test)

3. Initial service leak test (permitted)

1. Design Conditions

Design Pressure

It has been determined in the major process design of Section 1 that the reaction

pressure inside the reactor is the atmospheric pressure of 1 atm. The design pressure is

normally taken as the pressure at which the relief device is set and generally the surge

pressure is not expected to be higher than 10% above the normal working pressure to

avoid spurious operation during minor process upsets [1].

Then, = P (1 + 10%) = 1 atm 1.1 = 1.1 atm . Therefore, the design

pressure is 1.1 atm.

According to the Figure 1.3.1 in AS1210 which has been shown in Figure 1 as below,

the equation of the curve has been given: P =

104

3(+6)2

104

104

P=

=

= 63.21

3( + 6)2

3 (1.262 + 6)2

Since the internal pressure is 0.1 atm = 10.13 kPa, thus, the internal pressure is lower

than 63.21 kPa. Therefore, the reactor designed here is a non-pressure vessel. Still, a

good record of design must be kept and hazard analysis must be performed as well.

Design Temperature

The design temperature at which the design stress is evaluated should be taken as the

maximum working temperature of the material, with due allowance for any

uncertainty involved in predicting vessel wall temperatures [2]. It will be 10% above

the normal working temperature.

Then, = T (1 + 10%) = 60 1.1 = 66 . Therefore, the design

temperature is 66.

In the reaction system, the components involved inside the reactor are triglycerides

(TGs), diglycerides (DGs), monoglycerides (MGs), free fatty acids (FFAs), fatty acid

methyl esters (FAMEs), CH3OH, CH3ONa, glycerol and other lipids.

The organics are all flammable and combustible, but only at high temperatures. They

are not corrosive at the reaction temperature of 60 and pressure of 1 atm. CH3ONa

solution is a kind of strong alkali but it is not corrosive to common metals such as iron.

CH3OH should be paid particular attention to because it is a colorless, volatile and

flammable liquid with high toxicity. However, it is a very good solvent and not

corrosive as well.

2. Shell Design

Preliminary Design

In this design, vertical shell will be selected and used here because CSTRs are vertical

reactors. As has been determined in the process design, the height and diameter of the

reactor are both 1.262 m because the aspect ratio of 1 is applied. Since the design

pressure is not high which is 1.1 atm, thus, flat plate end will be utilized here instead

of dished end or domed head due to economic considerations.

Material Selection

As has been mentioned before, the components of the mixture in the reactor are not

corrosive. So carbon steel can be chosen as construction material for the reactor.

Furthermore, carbon steel is good enough to meet all of the demands for the design

conditions discussed before and it is relatively cheap in terms of the construction cost

as well. More specifically, carbon steel AS 1548-7-430R.N.T will be selected and

used here. Then, the design tensile strength at the design temperature of 66 is f =

108 MPa.

Shell Thickness Calculation

For cylindrical shells, the circumferential thickness is designed and given by:

=

1.1101325

106

= 0.1115 MPa.

According to the Table 3.3.1(A) in AS 1210, the design tensile strength of carbon steel

AS 1548-7-430R.N.T at 66 is f = 108 MPa.

Since the components of the reaction system are not corrosive or highly toxic (except

CH3OH), class 3 vessel type will be attempted. As the design pressure is not high (1.1

atm), double-welded butt joint (or other butt joint with equivalent quality) is selected.

Thus, according to the Table 3.5.1.7 from AS 1210, the welded joint efficiency is

= 0.70.

5

Hence,

0.1115 1262

=

= 0.931

2 2 108 0.70 0.1115

Because the components in the reactor are not corrosive, the corrosion allowance is

evaluated to be 2 mm, i.e. c = 2 mm. Additionally, 0.1 mm/year corrosion is expected

under normal conditions and the design life of the reactor is 20 years. Based on these

conditions, it can also be estimated that = 0.1 20 = 2 .

Thus,

= + c = 0.931 + 2 = 2.931 mm

Therefore, the total thickness of the shell required is 2.931 mm. According to the

standard thickness values, the thickness of 5 mm is chosen here.

As a general guide, the minimum practical wall thickness is set to ensure that any

vessel is sufficiently rigid to withstand its own weight [1]. Then, when the vessel

diameter lies between 1.0 m and 2.0 m, the minimum wall thickness is 7 mm.

Therefore, the shell thickness is determined to be 7 mm.

=

Since flat end caps are comparatively cheap and easy to construct, they will be tried

K=

Hence, m =

0.931

= 0.133, K =

3

0.133

= 22.56.

0.5

0.5

0.1115

) = 1262 (

) = 10.2

t = D(

For the end plate, the corrosion allowance of 2 mm will be used here as well.

= t + = 10.2 + 2 = 12.2

Therefore, the standard end thickness value of 16 mm will be selected and used here

and it is feasible.

It has been determined in the major process design of Section 1 that the hub-mounted

flat-blade turbine impeller will be utilized in the design. Since the impeller to tank

diameter ratio of 0.3 is selected and the tank diameter is 1.262 m, thus, the impeller

diameter will be: = 0.3 = 0.3 1.262 = 0.3786 . As the impeller is placed

at 1/6 the tank height off the bottom and the tank height is 1.262 m, then, the

1

1

6

0.0473 .

It has also been determined in the process design that four baffles will be used in the

design. Since the baffle width is one-twelfth the tank diameter and the tank diameter

is 1.262 m, thus, the baffle width will be: w =

1

12

1

12

1.262 = 0.105 . As

the baffle length extends from one half the impeller diameter from the tangent line at

the bottom to the liquid level and the impeller diameter is 0.3786 m, then, the baffle

1

5. Nozzle Design

For nozzle and piping design, statutory requirements and national standards must be

complied with. In this design, Australian Standards AS 4041 will be the basis of

design because AS 4041 takes the best of the overseas standards.

In addition, two inlet nozzles will be placed at the top of the reactor while the outlet

nozzle and the drainage nozzle will be located at the bottom.

Stream 4.13 Inlet Nozzle Design

Since the mixture of Stream 4.13 is flammable but not harmful, the design

temperature is moderate and the design pressure is much lower than 4.0 MPa, thus,

class 3 piping type is selected. Moreover, class 3 piping is cheap compared to class 1

and class 2 piping types.

As the mixture is not corrosive, then, carbon steel AS 1548-7-430R.N.T, seamless

ASTM-A-106-C grade (AMSE-A-106-C grade) has been chosen here.

Based on the simulation raw data given in Appendix 5, for the Stream 4.13, the mass

flow rate is: = 742.11 / and the mass density is: = 896.5 /3 . Thus,

the volumetric flow rate can be calculated by:

742.11

Q= =

= 0.828 3 = 2.3 104 3

896.5

Because it is a normal case that liquid velocity is set in the range of 1 to 3 m/s, then,

assume the inlet velocity is 2 m/s.

As Q =

2

4

, thus, D = .

4

4 2.3 104

=

= 0.0121 = 12.1

D=

In terms of the table of Carbon Steel Linepipe Dimensions, the nominal size of

DN10 will be chosen here. And Schedule 40 will be tried first.

According to the table [1], the outside diameter is 17.1 mm and the standard wall

thickness is 2.31 mm.

Thus, the inside diameter is 17.1 2 2.31 = 12.48 mm = 0.01248 m.

Double check the liquid velocity:

4

4 2.3 104

=

=

= 1.88 /

2

0.012482

7

The inlet velocity given above is still in the range of 1 to 3 m/s. Therefore, this value

will be kept.

Use the equation based on inside diameter of pipe to calculate pipe wall thickness.

=

2

From the Table 3.12.3 of AS 4041, class design factor M = 0.7 for class 3 piping.

From the Table D2 of AS 4041, design tensile strength f = 166 MPa.

From the Table 3.12.2 of AS 4041, weld joint factor e = 1.00 for

ASTM-A-106-Seamless material.

The design pressure P = 0.1115 MPa.

The inside diameter of pipe d = 12.48 mm.

Hence,

0.1115 12.48

=

=

= 5.99 103

2 2 166 1 0.7 0.1115

Since the mixture is not corrosive, it can be assumed that corrosion allowance is 2mm.

As = + and G = c + 0.125 , thus, it can be obtained that: = + c +

0.125 = 5.99 103 + 2 + 0.125 .

Hence, tm = 2.293 mm.

The minimum wall thickness required is 2.293 mm, which is smaller than the standard

wall thickness 2.31 mm of DN 10, Schedule 40. In other words, the choice of DN 10,

Schedule 40 is very reasonable.

Therefore, DN 10, Schedule 40 has been used for the Stream 4.13 inlet nozzle.

Stream 4.18 Inlet Nozzle Design

Since the mixture of Stream 4.18 mainly contains CH3OH which is toxic and

flammable, the design temperature is moderate and the design pressure is much lower

than 4.0 MPa, thus, class 3 piping type is selected. Moreover, class 3 piping is cheap

compared to class 1 and class 2 piping types.

As the mixture is not corrosive, then, carbon steel AS 1548-7-430R.N.T, seamless

ASTM-A-106-C grade (AMSE-A-106-C grade) has been chosen here.

Based on the simulation raw data given in Appendix 5, for the Stream 4.18, the mass

flow rate is: = 156.5 / and the mass density is: = 749.8 /3 . Thus,

the volumetric flow rate can be calculated by:

156.5

Q= =

= 0.209 3 = 5.8 105 3

749.8

Because it is a normal case that liquid velocity is set in the range of 1 to 3 m/s, then,

assume the inlet velocity is 2 m/s.

As Q =

2

4

, thus, D = .

4

4 5.8 105

D=

=

= 6.08 103 = 6.08

2

In terms of the table of Carbon Steel Linepipe Dimensions, the nominal size of DN6

will be chosen here. And Schedule 80 will be tried first.

8

According to the table [1], the outside diameter is 10.3 mm and the standard wall

thickness is 2.41 mm.

Thus, the inside diameter is 10.3 2 2.41 = 5.48 mm = 5.48 103 m.

Double check the liquid velocity:

=

4

4 5.8 105

=

= 2.46 /

2 (5.48 103 )2

The inlet velocity given above is still in the range of 1 to 3 m/s. Therefore, this value

will be kept.

Use the equation based on inside diameter of pipe to calculate pipe wall thickness.

=

2

From the Table 3.12.3 of AS 4041, class design factor M = 0.7 for class 3 piping.

From the Table D2 of AS 4041, design tensile strength f = 166 MPa.

From the Table 3.12.2 of AS 4041, weld joint factor e = 1.00 for

ASTM-A-106-Seamless material.

The design pressure P = 0.1115 MPa.

The inside diameter of pipe d = 5.48 mm.

Hence,

0.1115 5.48

=

=

= 2.63 103

2 2 166 1 0.7 0.1115

Since the mixture is not corrosive, it can be assumed that corrosion allowance is 2mm.

As = + and G = c + 0.125 , thus, it can be obtained that: = + c +

0.125 = 2.63 103 + 2 + 0.125 .

Hence, tm = 2.289 mm.

The minimum wall thickness required is 2.289 mm, which is smaller than the standard

wall thickness 2.41 mm of DN 6, Schedule 80. In other words, the choice of DN 6,

Schedule 80 is very reasonable.

Therefore, DN 6, Schedule 80 has been used for the Stream 4.18 inlet nozzle.

Stream 4.19 Outlet Nozzle Design

Since the mixture of Stream 4.19 is flammable and a bit toxic, the design temperature

is moderate and the design pressure is much lower than 4.0 MPa, thus, class 3 piping

type is selected. Moreover, class 3 piping is cheap compared to class 1 and class 2

piping types.

As the mixture is not corrosive, then, carbon steel AS 1548-7-430R.N.T, seamless

ASTM-A-106-C grade (AMSE-A-106-C grade) has been chosen here.

Based on the simulation raw data given in Appendix 5, for the Stream 4.19, the mass

flow rate is: = 898.61 / and the mass density is: = 811.6 /3 . Thus,

the volumetric flow rate can be calculated by:

898.61

Q= =

= 1.107 3 = 3.076 104 3

811.6

Because it is a normal case that liquid velocity is set in the range of 1 to 3 m/s, then,

assume the outlet velocity is 2 m/s.

9

As Q =

2

4

, thus, D = .

4

4 3.076 104

=

= 0.0140 = 14.0

D=

In terms of the table of Carbon Steel Linepipe Dimensions, the nominal size of

DN15 will be chosen here. And Schedule 40 will be tried first.

According to the table [1], the outside diameter is 21.3 mm and the standard wall

thickness is 2.77 mm.

Thus, the inside diameter is 21.3 2 2.77 = 15.76 mm = 0.01576 m.

Double check the liquid velocity:

4

4 3.076 104

=

=

= 1.58 /

2

0.015762

The outlet velocity given above is still in the range of 1 to 3 m/s. Therefore, this value

will be kept.

Use the equation based on inside diameter of pipe to calculate pipe wall thickness.

=

2

From the Table 3.12.3 of AS 4041, class design factor M = 0.7 for class 3 piping.

From the Table D2 of AS 4041, design tensile strength f = 166 MPa.

From the Table 3.12.2 of AS 4041, weld joint factor e = 1.00 for

ASTM-A-106-Seamless material.

The design pressure P = 0.1115 MPa.

The inside diameter of pipe d = 15.76 mm.

Hence,

0.1115 15.76

=

=

= 7.565 103

2 2 166 1 0.7 0.1115

Since the mixture is not corrosive, it can be assumed that corrosion allowance is 2mm.

As = + and G = c + 0.125 , thus, it can be obtained that: = + c +

0.125 = 7.565 103 + 2 + 0.125 .

Hence, tm = 2.294 mm.

The minimum wall thickness required is 2.294 mm, which is smaller than the standard

wall thickness 2.77 mm of DN 15, Schedule 40. In other words, the choice of DN 15,

Schedule 40 is very reasonable.

Therefore, DN 15, Schedule 40 has been used for the Stream 4.19 outlet nozzle.

Drainage Nozzle Design

Regular cleaning and hydrostatic pressure test are required for reactors. So drainage

nozzle is necessary to remove water out of the reactor.

Since water is neither harmful nor flammable, thus, class 3 piping type is selected.

Moreover, class 3 piping is cheap compared to class 1 and class 2 piping types.

As water is a non-corrosive liquid, then, carbon steel AS 1548-7-430R.N.T, seamless

ASTM-A-106-C grade (AMSE-A-106-C grade) has been selected here.

Because it is a normal case that water velocity is set in the range of 1.5 to 2.5 m/s,

10

then, assume water velocity is 2 m/s. Also assume that it will take about 15 minutes to

discharge water out of the reactor.

The volumetric flow rate of water is: Q =

As Q =

2

4

1.58

1560

= 1.756 103 3 /.

, thus, D = .

4

4 1.756 103

=

= 0.0334 = 33.4

D=

In terms of the table of Carbon Steel Linepipe Dimensions, the nominal size of

DN32 will be chosen here. And Schedule 40 will be tried first.

According to the table [1], the outside diameter is 42.2 mm and the standard wall

thickness is 3.56 mm.

Thus, the inside diameter is 42.2 2 3.56 = 35.08 mm = 0.03508 m.

Double check the liquid velocity:

4

4 1.756 103

=

=

= 1.817 /

2

0.035082

The water velocity given above is still in the range of 1.5 to 2.5 m/s. Therefore, this

value will be kept.

Use the equation based on inside diameter of pipe to calculate pipe wall thickness.

=

2

From the Table 3.12.3 of AS 4041, class design factor M = 0.7 for class 3 piping.

From the Table D2 of AS 4041, design tensile strength f = 166 MPa.

From the Table 3.12.2 of AS 4041, weld joint factor e = 1.00 for

ASTM-A-106-Seamless material.

The design pressure P = 0.1115 MPa.

The inside diameter of pipe d = 35.08 mm.

Hence,

0.1115 35.08

=

=

= 0.0168

2 2 166 1 0.7 0.1115

Since water is not corrosive, it can be assumed that corrosion allowance is 2 mm.

As = + and G = c + 0.125 , thus, it can be obtained that: = + c +

0.125 = 0.0168 + 2 + 0.125 .

Hence, tm = 2.305 mm.

The minimum wall thickness required is 2.305 mm, which is smaller than the standard

wall thickness 3.56 mm of DN 32, Schedule 40. In other words, the choice of DN 32,

Schedule 40 is very reasonable.

Therefore, DN 32, Schedule 40 has been used for the drainage nozzle.

Compensation for Nozzles

As a kind of opening on the reactor, nozzles can weaken the strength of the shell and

give rise to local stress (George, 2015). Therefore, compensation for nozzles is very

necessary and the compensation method of inset nozzle has been shown in Figure 2 as

11

below [1].

6. Flange Design

Flanges are used for connecting pipes and instruments to reactors when ease of access

is required (Sinnott, 2005). Therefore, the flanges to be used need to match with the

sizes of nozzles and pipes.

Since socket weld flanges are relatively cheap and also stronger than butt weld,

therefore, socket weld flanges will be selected here.

ANSI class 150 and 300 are most commonly used. According to the table of Flange

ASME B16.5 Forged Flanges, PN 20 is good enough for this design because the

design temperature and pressure are not very high in this design. Therefore, PN 20

Class 150 DN 10 and DN 6 flanges are chosen for the Stream 4.13 and 4.18 inlet

nozzles respectively. PN 20 Class 150 DN 15 flange is selected for the Stream 4.19

outlet nozzle. Meanwhile, PN 20 Class 150 DN 32 flange is chosen for the drainage

nozzle as well.

Gaskets will be used in the flanges to make a leak tight joint. In terms of the Table

3.21.6.4(A) of AS 1210, gasket material of elastomers with cotton fabric insertion will

be selected because its minimum design seating stress is 2.8 MPa and compared to the

design pressure which is 0.1115 MPa, the minimum design seating stress of 2.8 MPa

is much higher and this kind of gasket can be used in this design here.

Since skirt supports are used for tall, vertical columns, they can be applied to the

vertical reactor as well. Then, the skirt supports will be chosen for the reactor here

because they are recommended for vertical vessels as they do not impose concentrated

loads on the vessel shell [2]. Moreover, the type of conical skirt will be selected here

and it has been shown in Figure 3 as below.

12

In addition, the skirt may be welded to the bottom head of the vessel, or welded flush

with the shell, or welded to the outside of the vessel shell [2]. The skirt welded flush

with the shell will be used in this design because this arrangement is usually preferred

due to its high strength and convenience for maintenance. The skirt support welded

flush with the shell has been given in Figure 4 as follows.

All process vessels have openings for connections, manways and instrument fittings.

The presence of an opening weakens the shell and gives rise to stress concentrations.

The stress at the edge of a hole will be considerably higher than the average stress in

the surrounding plate. Therefore, in order to compensate for the effect of an opening,

the wall thickness is increased in the region adjacent to the opening. Sufficient

reinforcement must be provided to compensate for the weakening effect of the

opening without significantly altering the general dilation pattern of the vessel at the

opening [2].

13

In this design, the equal area method will be used here.

The basic principle of this method is to provide reinforcement local to the opening,

equal in cross-sectional area to the area removed in forming the opening, which has

been shown in Figure 5 as below [2].

According to the Table 3.20.9 of AS 1210, for the type of manhole, the circular

openings of 450 mm will be selected, i.e. the diameter of manhole is dh = 450 mm.

Hence, 1 =

0.452

4

= 0.159 2 .

As the total area = 1 + 2 =

2

4

2

4

4

4 0.318

=

=

= 0.6363 = 636.3

Double check: The outer diameter of the pad is usually between 1.5 to 2 times the

diameter of the hole or branch.

636.3

=

= 1.414

450

Because the ratio is 1.414 which is close to 1.5, therefore, the compensation design is

acceptable and practical.

14

Hydrostatic Test

In terms of the equation given in AS 1210 (5.10.2): = 1.5

, f = 108 MPa, fh

is the design strength at test temperature. It can be assumed that the test temperature is

equal to the design temperature which is 66. Then,

Hence, = 1.5

= 1.

Vessel Testing

The class 3 vessel type has been chosen here. Before the reactor can be put into

operation, according to the Table 1.6 of AS 1210, several testing and inspections must

be done, which have been listed as below.

General testing and inspections (in section 5 and 6 of AS 1210)

Welding procedure qualification (AS 3992)

Hydrostatic testing (Ph = 0.16725 MPa)

Piping Testing

In the nozzle design, class 3 piping has been selected. Therefore, based on the Table

1.5 of AS 4041, the class 3 piping examination and testing have been listed as below

(in section 6 of AS 4041).

1. Visual (100%)

2. Pressure tests (including hydrostatic pressure test and pneumatic pressure test)

3. Initial service leak test (permitted)

References

1.

Franks, G., Process Equipment Design (Lecture Notes). 2015, Department of Chemical and

Biomolecular Engineering: University of Melbourne.

2.

Sinnott, R.K., Chemical Engineering Design. Fourth Edition ed. Vol. 6. 2005, UK: Elsevier

Butterworth-Heinemann.

15

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