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Module-1

Group formation
A group is defined as two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come
together to achieve particular objectives.
Although there are many ways of classifying groups but basically Groups can either be formal or
informal.
1. By formal groups we mean those defined by the organization structure, with designated work
assignments establishing tasks. The six members making up an airline flight are an example
of a formal group.
2. In contrast Informal groups are alliances that are neither formally structured nor
organizationally determined. These groups are natural formation in the work environment that
appears in response to the need for social for social contact.
Three employees from different departments who regularly eat lunch together are an example
of an informal group.
It can be further classified into Command, task, interest or friendship groups.
*Command group is a group composed of the individuals who report directly to a given
manager.
*Task group is a group formed to complete a job task.
*Interest group is a group working together to attain a specific objective with which each is
concerned.
*Friendship group is a group which shares more than one common characteristic.
Why do people join group?
1. By joining a group, individual can reduce the insecurity of standing alone.
2. Inclusion in a group that is viewed as important by others provides recognition and status
for its members.
3. Groups can provide with feeling of self-worth.
4. Groups can fulfil social needs. For many people, these on the job interactions are their
primary source for fulfilling their needs for affiliation.
5. What cannot be achieved individually often becomes possible through group action.
6. There are times when it needs more than one person to accomplish a particular task.
Stages of Group Formation:
Bruce Tuckman has identified four stages that characterize the development of groups. Understanding
these stages can help determine what is happening with a group and how to manage what is occurring.
These four group development stages are known as forming, storming, norming, and performing.

Forming
This is the initial stage when the group comes together and members begin to develop their
relationship with one another and learn what is expected of them. This is the stage when team
building begins and trust starts to develop. Group members will start establishing limits on acceptable
behaviour through experimentation. Other members reactions will determine if behaviour will be
repeated. This is also the time when the tasks of the group and the members will be decided.
Storming
During this stage of group development, interpersonal conflicts arise and differences of opinion about
the group and its goals will surface. If the group is unable to clearly state its purposes and goals or if it
cannot agree on shared goals, the group may collapse at this point. It is important to work through the
conflict at this time and to establish clear goals. It is necessary for there to be discussion so everyone
feels heard and can come to an agreement on the direction the group is to move in.
Norming
Once the group resolves its conflicts, it can now establish patterns of how to get its work done.
Expectations of one another are clearly articulated and accepted by members of the group. Formal and
informal procedures are established in delegating tasks, responding to questions, and in the process by
which the group functions. Members of the group come to understand how the group as a whole
operates.
Performing
During this final stage of development, issues related to roles, expectations, and norms are no longer
of major importance. The group is now focused on its task, working intentionally and effectively to
accomplish its goals. The group will find that it can celebrate its accomplishments and that members
will be learning new skills and sharing roles.
After a group enters the performing stage, it is unrealistic to expect it to remain there permanently.
When new members join or some people leave, there will be a new process of forming, storming, and
norming engaged as everyone learns about one another. External events may lead to conflicts within
the group.
To remain healthy, groups will go through all of these processes in a continuous loop.
When conflict arises in a group, do not try to silence the conflict or to run from it.
Let the conflict come out into the open so people can discuss it. If the conflict is kept under the
surface, members will not be able to build trusting relationships and this could harm the groups
effectiveness. If handled properly, the group will come out of the conflict with a stronger sense of
cohesiveness then before.
Module-2
Group Functions
Once a group is formed it starts functioning towards attainment of goal or set objective. There are
certain factors that influence the group functioning:
Internal Factors:
1. Status: is socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by otherspermeates every society. High status members of groups often are given more freedom to
deviate from norms than are other group members.
*High status people tend to be more assertive. They speak out more often, criticise more, state
more commands and interrupts others more often.
2. Roles: By this term, we mean a set of expected behaviour patterns attributed to someone
occupying a given position in a social unit.
When individual is confronted by divergent role expectations, the result is role conflict so role
clarity is very important when it comes to smooth and effecient group functioning.

3. Norms: are acceptable standards of behaviour within a group that are shared by group
members. Norms acts a means of influencing the behaviour of group members with a
minimum of external controls. Norms differ among groups, communities, and societies, but
they all have them.
4. Conformity: is adjusting ones behaviour to align with the norms of the group. Group
pressure leads to conformity which in turn affects individual s judgement and attitude. As a
member of a group, one desire acceptance by the group. Because of desire for acceptance
conforming to the group norms occurs.
5. Size: It affects groups behaviour. There are instances of smaller group being fast at
completing tasks than large ones. But if a large group is involved in tasks like problem
solving it will fare well better than small group.
6. Cohesiveness: Cohesiveness is the degree to which members are attracted to each other and
are motivated to stay in group. For example some work groups are cohesive because members
have spent a great deal of time together or groups small size facilitates high interaction.
External Factors that influences group functioning are Authority, structure (of group or
organization), Organizational resources, organizational policies, etc.
GROUP COHESIVENESS
Groups differ in their cohesiveness that is the degree to which members are attracted to each other and
are motivated to stay in the group. For instance some work groups are cohesive because the members
have spent a great deal of time together, or groups small sizes facilitate high interaction, or the group
has experienced external threats that have brought members close together.
Cohesiveness is important as it is linked to groups productivity.
Relationship between Group Cohesiveness and productivity can better be shown as:

HIGH

LOW

High productivity

Moderate
productivity

LOW

Low productivity

Moderate to low
productivity

HIGH

Module-3
TEAMS

Many people used the words team and group interchangeably, but there are actually a number of
differences between a team and a group in real world applications.
A number of leadership courses designed for the corporate world stress the importance of team
building, not group building, for instance. A team's strength depends on the commonality of purpose
and interconnectivity between individual members, whereas a group's strength may come from sheer
volume or willingness to carry out a single leader's commands.
It is often much easier to form a group than a team. If you had a room filled with professional
accountants, for example, they could be grouped according to gender, experience, fields of expertise,
age, or other common factors. Forming a group based on a certain commonality is not particularly
difficult, although the effectiveness of the groups may be variable. A group's interpersonal dynamics
can range from complete compatibility to complete intolerance, which could make consensus building
very difficult for a leader.
A team, on the other hand, can be much more difficult to form. Members of a team may be selected
for their complementary skills, not a single commonality. A business team may consist of an
accountant, a salesman, a company executive and a secretary, for example. Each member of the team
has a purpose and a function within that team, so the overall success depends on a functional
interpersonal dynamic. There is usually not as much room for conflict when working as a team.
The success of a group is often measured by its final results, not necessarily the process used to arrive
at those results. A group may use equal parts discussion, argumentation and peer pressure to guide
individual members towards a consensus. A trial jury would be a good example of a group in action,
not a team. The foreperson plays the leadership role, attempting to turn 11 other opinions into one
unanimous decision. Since the jury members usually don't know one another personally, there is
rarely an effort to build a team dynamic. The decision process for a verdict is the result of group
cooperation.
A team, by comparison, does not rely on "groupthink" to arrive at its conclusions. An accident
investigation team would be a good example of a real world team dynamic. Each member of the team
is assigned to evaluate one aspect of the accident. The team's expert on crash scene reconstruction
does not have to consult with the team's expert on forensic evidence, for example. The members of a
team use their individual abilities to arrive at a cohesive result. There may be a team member working
as a facilitator for the process, but not necessarily a specific leader.
Difference between Team and Group
The purpose of assembling a team is to accomplish bigger goals than any that would be possible for
the individual working alone. The aim and purpose of a team is to perform, get results and achieve
victory in the workplace and marketplace. The very best managers are those who can gather together a
group of individuals and mould them into a team. Here are ten key differentials to help you mould
your people into a pro-active and productive team.

Understandings. In a group, members think they are grouped together for administrative
purposes only. Individuals sometimes cross purpose with others. In a team, members
recognise their independence and understand both personal and team goals are best
accomplished with mutual support. Time is not wasted struggling over "Turf" or attempting
personal gain at the expense of others.

Ownership. In a group, members tend to focus on themselves because they are not sufficiently
involved in planning the unit's objectives. They approach their job simply as a hired hand.
"Castle Building" is common. In a team, members feel a sense of ownership for their jobs and
unit, because they are committed to values-based common goals that they helped establish.

Creativity and Contribution. In a group, members are told what to do rather than being asked
what the best approach would be. Suggestions and creativity are not encouraged. In a team,
members contribute to the organisation's success by applying their unique talents, knowledge
and creativity to team objectives.

Trust. In a group, members distrust the motives of colleagues because they do not understand
the role of other members. Expressions of opinion or disagreement are considered divisive or
non-supportive. In a team, members work in a climate of trust and are encouraged to openly
express ideas, opinions, disagreements and feelings. Questions are welcomed.

Common Understandings. In a group, members are so cautious about what they say, that real
understanding is not possible. Game playing may occur and communication traps be set to
catch the unwary. In a team, members practice open and honest communication. They make
an effort to understand each other's point of view.

Personal Development. In a group, members receive good training but are limited in applying
it to the job by the manager or other group members. In a team, members are encouraged to
continually develop skills and apply what they learn on the job. They perceive they have the
support of the team.

Conflict Resolution. In a group, members find themselves in conflict situations they do not
know how to resolve. Their supervisor/leader may put off intervention until serious damage is
done, i.e. a crisis situation. In a team, members realise conflict is a normal aspect of human
interaction but they view such situations as an opportunity for new ideas and creativity. They
work to resolve conflict quickly and constructively

Participative Decision Making. In a group, members may or may not participate in decisions
affecting the team. Conformity often appears more important than positive results. Win/lose
situations are common. In a team, members participate in decisions affecting the team but
understand their leader must make a final ruling whenever the team cannot decide, or an
emergency exists. Positive win/win results are the goal at all times.

Clear Leadership. In a group, members tend to work in an unstructured environment with


undetermined standards of performance. Leaders do not walk the talk and tend to lead from
behind a desk. In a team, members work in a structured environment, they know what
boundaries exist and who has final authority. The leader sets agreed high standards of
performance and he/she is respected via active, willing participation.
o

Commitment. In a group, members are uncommitted towards excellence and personal


pride. Performance levels tend to be mediocre. Staff turnover is high because talented
individuals quickly recognise that
(a) Personal expectations are not being fulfilled
(b) they are not learning and growing from others and
(c) they are not working with the best people.

In a team, only those committed to excellence are hired. Prospective team members
are queuing at the door to be recruited on the basis of their high levels of hard and
soft skill sets. Everyone works together in a harmonious environment
Team Building
Steps in team building:
According to Katzenbanch and smith real teamwork can be accomplished by following steps:
1. Selection of members on the basis of skills: Members should be selected on the basis of their
potentials to improve existing skills and learn new ones. Three types of skills are usually required:
Technical skills
Problem solving and decision making
Interpersonal skills
The individual members of the team may poses these skills in varying degrees but it should be
ensured that these skills are complimentary i.e. they should support the efforts of others in the group.
2. Setting challenging goals: The team must be assigned to accomplish goals which are above the
goals of individual members.
3. Developing rules of conduct: Rules are important for effective results like:
Punctuality and regularity
Confidentiality
Speaking on the basis of facts
Constructive confrontation
4. Allocating right roles to right people: the principle of right man for the right job should be
followed by the team. By matching the individual preferences with the team role demands, managers
can increase the likelihood that team members will work well together.
5. Establish accountability: Individuals have to be accountable at both team and individual level. It
has to be very clear as to what is the person individually responsible for or else some members may
try to take advantage of the group efforts as their individual efforts would not be identified.
6. Developing trust: mutuality, openness to each other and loyalty should exist for the team to work
effectively.

7. Recognition and Reward system: Positive reinforcement can improve team efforts and
commitment. Suitable rewards must be decided for the members as it can be a big motivating factor to
them for giving in their best.
Module-4
Leadership
Good leaders are made not born. If you have the desire and willpower, you can become an effective
leader. Good leaders develop through a never ending process of self-study, education, training, and
experience.
Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the
organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. Leaders carry out this process by
applying their leadership attributes, such as beliefs, values, ethics, character, knowledge, and skills.
Psychologist Kurt Lewin developed his leadership styles framework in the 1930s, and it provided the
foundation of many of the approaches that followed afterwards. He argued that there are three major
leadership styles:
1.

Autocratic leaders make decisions without consulting their team members, even if their input
would be useful. This can be appropriate when you need to make decisions quickly, when there's no
need for team input, and when team agreement isn't necessary for a successful outcome. However, this
style can be demoralizing, and it can lead to high levels of absenteeism and staff turnover.
2.
Democratic leaders make the final decisions, but they include team members in the decisionmaking process. They encourage creativity, and people are often highly engaged in projects and
decisions. As a result, team members tend to have high job satisfaction and high productivity. This is
not always an effective style to use, though, when you need to make a quick decision.
3.
Laissez-faire leaders give their team members a lot of freedom in how they do their work, and
how they set their deadlines. They provide support with resources and advice if needed, but
otherwise they don't get involved. This autonomy can lead to high job satisfaction, but it can be
damaging if team members don't manage their time well, or if they don't have the knowledge, skills,
or self-motivation to do their work effectively. (Laissez-faire leadership can also occur when
managers don't have control over their work and their people.)
4.
Transformational Leadership
These leadership style frameworks are all useful in different situations, however, in business,
"transformational leadership " is often the most effective leadership style to use. (This was first
published in 1978, and was then further developed in 1985.)
Transformational leaders have integrity and high emotional intelligence . They motivate people
with a shared vision of the future, and they communicate well. They're also typically selfaware , authentic , empathetic , and humble .
Transformational leaders inspire their team members because they expect the best from everyone, and
they hold themselves accountable for their actions. They set clear goals, and they have
good conflict-resolution skills . This leads to high productivity and engagement.
However, leadership is not a "one size fits all" thing; often, you must adapt your approach to fit the
situation. This is why it's useful to develop a thorough understanding of other leadership frameworks
and styles; after all, the more approaches you're familiar with, the more flexible you can be.
5. Bureaucratic

Bureaucratic leadership is where the manager manages by the book Everything must be done
according to procedure or policy.
The characteristics of the bureaucratic style include: Leaders impose strict and systematic discipline
on the followers and demand business-like conduct in the workplace and that followers are promoted
based on their ability to conform to the rules of the office.
6. Transactional
The transactional style of leadership was first described by Max Weber in 1947 and then later
described by Bernard Bass in 1981. Mainly used by management, transactional leaders focus their
leadership on motivating followers 5through a system of rewards and punishments. There are two
factors which form the basis for this system, Contingent Reward and management-by-exception.[9]
[unreliable source?]

Contingent Reward Provides rewards, materialistic or psychological, for effort and


recognizes good performance.

Management-by-Exception allows the leader to maintain the status quo. The leader
intervenes when subordinates do not meet acceptable performance levels and initiates corrective
action to improve performance. Management by exception helps reduce the workload of
managers being that they are only called-in when workers deviate from course.

This type of leader identifies the needs of their followers and gives rewards to satisfy those needs in
exchange of certain level of performance.
Transactional leaders focus on increasing the efficiency of established routines and procedures. They
are more concerned with following existing rules than with making changes to the organization.
A transactional leader establishes and standardizes practices that will help the organization reach:

Maturity

Goal-setting

Efficiency of operation

Increasing productivity.

7. People-Oriented Leadership
This style of leadership is the opposite of task-oriented leadership because the leader is participating
directly with the employees throughout the process. The leader is involved in every aspect of the work
and is there to offer ideas, advice, and support to his or her employees. This style offers a great deal of
teamwork within the work community, and it can allow for a lot of collaboration and brainstorming,
stimulating ideas from every member of the team. This method is common in advertising firms,
entertainment industries, and other industries where collaboration is important.

On the downside; often times, one person on the team is more dominant than the rest and will try to
push his or her ideas onto the group. With this type of leadership, the leader can give everyone a
chance to participate. Of course, the leader also has to make sure that he or she doesnt take over the
conversation without letting team members offer their thoughts and ideas, or it can lead to an overall
failure to achieve the teams goals. This style can really get bogged down in communication (or
miscommunication) if the leader doesnt set up a clear process for team members to share ideas.
8. Task-oriented (or task-focused) leadership is a behavioural approach in which the leader focuses
on the tasks that need to be performed in order to meet certain goals, or to achieve a certain
performance standard. Relationship-oriented (or relationship-focused) leadership is a
behavioural approach in which the leader focuses on the satisfaction, motivation and the general
well-being of the team members.
Module 5
Power means many different things to different people. For some, power is seen as corrupt. For
others, the more power they have, the more successful they feel. For even others, power is of no
interest at all. The five bases of power were identified by John French and Bertram Raven in the early
1960s through a study they had conducted on power in leadership roles. The study showed how
different types of power affected ones leadership ability and success in a leadership role.
The five bases of power are divided in two categories:
Formal Power
Coercive
Coercive power is conveyed through fear of losing ones job, being demoted, receiving a poor
performance review, having prime projects taken away, etc. This power is gotten through threatening
others. For example, the VP of Sales who threatens sales folks to meet their goals or get replaced.
Reward
Reward power is conveyed through rewarding individuals for compliance with ones wishes. This
may be done through giving bonuses, raises, a promotion, extra time off from work, etc. For example,
the supervisor who provides employees comp time when they meet an objective she sets for a project.
Legitimate
Legitimate power comes from having a position of power in an organization, such as being the boss or
a key member of a leadership team. This power comes when employees in the organization recognize
the authority of the individual. For example, the CEO who determines the overall direction of the
company and the resource needs of the company.

Personal Power
Expert
Expert power comes from ones experiences, skills or knowledge. As we gain experience in particular
areas, and become thought leaders in those areas, we begin to gather expert power that can be utilized
to get others to help us meet our goals. For example, the Project Manager who is an expert at solving
particularly challenging problems to ensure a project stays on track.
Referent
Referent power comes from being trusted and respected. We can gain referent power when others
trust what we do and respect us for how we handle situations. For example, the Human Resource
Associate who is known for ensuring employees are treated fairly and coming to the rescue of those
who are not.