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Anda di halaman 1dari 31

18.1

y = 2A0 cos

*18.2

sin kx t +

2

2

(a)

A = 2A0 cos

(b)

f=

( /4)

= 2(5.00) cos

= 9.24 m

2

2

1200

=

= 600 Hz

2

2

y2 = A sin(kx t + )

y2 = (0.0800 m) sin[2 (0.100x 80.0t) + ]

Then

y1 + y2 = (0.0800 m) sin[2 (0.100x 80.0t)]

+ (0.0800 m) sin[2 (0.100x 80.0t) + ]

= 2(0.0800 m) cos

cos

2

2

= 0.0800

2

=

2

2

= 60.0 =

y2 = (0.0800 m) sin 2 0.100x 80.0t +

1

6

18.3

Chapter 18 Solutions

(4.00 cm) sin(kx t) + (4.00 cm) sin(kx t + 90.0)

2(4.00 cm) sin(kx t + 45.0) cos 45.0

So the amplitude is (8.00 cm) cos 45.0 = 5.66 cm

18.4

2A0 cos

2

2

3

2

2

3

Time delay =

18.5

T

1

=

=

3

3f 3v

3.00 m

= 0.500 s

3(2.00 m/s)

Waves reflecting from the near end travel 28.0 m (14.0 m down and 14.0 m back), while waves

reflecting from the far end travel 66.0 m. The path difference for the two waves is:

r = 66.0 m 28.0 m = 38.0 m

Since =

or,

v

r (r)f (38.0 m)(246 Hz)

, then

=

=

= 27.254

f

v

343 m/s

r = 27.254

18.6

(a)

v

344 m/s

=

= 16.0 m

f

21.5 Hz

Chapter 18 Solutions

(b)

(x + 5.00)2 + y2

(x 5.00)2 + y2 =

(x + 5.00)2 + y2 =

Then,

(x 5.00)2 + y2 +

2

= (x 5.00) 2 + y 2

4

400x2 10.02x +

4

= 2(x 5.00)2 + 2y2

16.0

9.00x2 16.0y2 = 144

or

x2

y2

=1

16.0 9.00

18.7

We suppose the man's ears are at the same level as the lower speaker. Sound from the upper

speaker is delayed by traveling the extra distance

L 2 + d2 L.

Then, L2 + d2 L = (n 1/2)v/f

L2 + d2 = (n 1/2)v/f + L

L2 + d2 = (n 1/2)2v2/f2 + L2 + 2(n 1/2)vL/f

L=

d2 (n 1/2)2v2/f2

2(n 1/2)v/f

n = 1, 2, 3, . . .

This will give us the answer to (b). The path difference starts from nearly zero when the man

is very far away and increases to d when L = 0. The number of minima he hears is the greatest

integer solution to d (n 1/2) v/f

n = greatest integer df/v + 1/2

(a)

df/v +

1

1

= (4.00 m)(200/s)/330 m/s + = 2.92

2

2

Chapter 18 Solutions

(b)

With n = 1,

L=

=

2(1/2)v/f

(330 m/s)/200/s

L = 9.28 m

with n = 2

L=

18.8

d2 (3/2)2v2/f2

= 1.99 m

2(3/2)v/f

Suppose the man's ears are at the same level as the lower speaker. Sound from the upper

speaker is delayed by traveling the extra distance r =

L 2 + d2 L.

r = (2n 1) with n = 1, 2, 3, . . .

2

Then,

L2 + d2 L = (n 1/2)(v/f)

L2 + d2 = (n 1/2)(v/f) + L

L2 + d2 = (n 1/2)2(v/f)2 + 2(n 1/2)(v/f)L + L2

(1)

Equation 1 gives the distances from the lower speaker at which the man will hear a minimum.

The path difference r starts from nearly zero when the man is very far away and increases to

d when L = 0.

(a)

The number of minima he hears is the greatest integer value for which L 0. This is the

same as the greatest integer solution to d (n 1/2)(v/f), or

number of minima heard = nmax = greatest integer d(f/v) + 1/2

(b)

Ln =

18.9

d 2 (n 1/2) 2(v/f)2

where n = 1, 2, . . ., n max

2(n 1/2)(v/f)

Therefore,

k=

2

rad

= 0.400

and = 2f, so f =

2

= 15.7 m

0.400 rad/m

200 rad/s

=

= 31.8 Hz

2

2 rad

Chapter 18 Solutions

The speed of waves in the medium is

v = f =

18.10

200 rad/s

2 f = =

= 500 m/s

2

k 0.400 rad/m

y = 0.0300 m cos

x

cos (40t)

2

(a)

x

= (2n + 1)

2

2

so

(b)

18.11

x = (2n + 1) = , 3 , 5 , . . .

0.400

= 0.0294 m

2

The facing speakers produce a standing wave in the space between them, with the spacing

between nodes being

dNN =

343 m/s

v

= =

= 0.214 m

2 2f 2(800 s1)

antinode, at

1.25 m

= 0.625 m from either speaker.

2

0.625 m

0.214 m

= 0.518 m , a node at

2

0.303 m 0.214 m = 0.0891 m , a node at

0.518 m + 0.214 m = 0.732 m , a node at

0.732 m + 0.214 m = 0.947 m , and a node at

0.947 m + 0.214 m = 1.16 m from either speaker

*18.12

Chapter 18 Solutions

(a)

y = 2A sin kx +

cos t

2

2

kx +

so

x=

= n

2

k

2k

(b)

to the left.

2k

x = (n + 1)

x =

k

2k k

2k

=

k

2

18.13

y = y1 + y2 = [3.00 sin (x) cos (0.600 t) + 3.00 sin (x) cos (0.600t)] cm

= (6.00 cm) sin (x) cos (0.600t)

(a)

At x = 0.250 cm, ymax = (6.00 cm) sin(0.250) = 4.24 cm

(b)

(c)

At x = 1.50 cm,

(d)

k = 2/ = , so = 2.00 cm, and

x1 = /4 = 0.500 cm as in (b)

x2 = 3/4 = 1.50 cm as in (c)

x3 = 5/4 = 2.50 cm

Chapter 18 Solutions

18.14

(a)

x

cos (10t)

2

y = 2 sin

x

=1

2

x

1

= n + ; n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

2

2

Therefore, the distance between antinodes, x = 2.00 cm

(b)

18.15

x

; when x = 0.250 cm, A = 2.40 cm

2

A = 2 sin

2y

= 2A0k2 sin kx cos t

x2

2y

= 2A02 sin kx cos t

t2

Substitution into the wave equation gives

2A0k2 sin kx cos t =

1

(2A02 sin kx cos t)

v

2

18.16

v=

0.100 kg

= 0.0500 kg/m

2.00 m

T

=

(20.0 kg m/s2)

0.0500 kg/m

= 20.0 m/s

dNN = 2.00 m =

f=

= 4.00 m

v

(20.0 m/s)

=

= 5.00 Hz

4.00 m

Chapter 18 Solutions

dNN = 1.00 m

f=

= 2.00 m

(20.0 m/s)

= 10.0 Hz

2.00 m

dNN =

2.00 m

3

= 1.33 m

f = 15.0 Hz

dNN = 0.400 m

= 0.800 m

f = 25.0 Hz

18.17

L = 30.0 m

f1 =

T = 20.0 N

v

2L

where v =

T 1/2

= 47.1 m/s

so

f1 =

47.1

= 0.786 Hz

60.0

f2 = 2f1 = 1.57 Hz

f3 = 3f1 = 2.36 Hz

f4 = 4f1= 3.14 Hz

Goal Solution

G: The string described in the problem is very long, loose, and somewhat massive, so it should

have a very low fundamental frequency, maybe only a few vibrations per second.

O: The tension and linear density of the string can be used to find the wave speed, which can

then be used along with the required wavelength to find the fundamental frequency.

A: The wave speed is v =

F

=

20 N

= 47.1 m/s

9.0 103 kg/m

For a vibrating string of length L fixed at both ends, the wavelength of the fundamental

frequency is = 2L = 60.0 m; and the frequency is

f1 =

v v

47.1 m/s

=

=

= 0.786 Hz

2L

60 m

Chapter 18 Solutions

f2 = 2f1 = 1.57 Hz

f3 = 3f1 = 2.36 Hz

f4 = 4f1 = 3.14 Hz

L: The fundamental frequency is even lower than expected, less than 1 Hz. In fact, all 4 of the

lowest resonant frequencies are below the normal human hearing range (20 to 17 000 Hz), so

these harmonics are not even audible.

18.18

L = 120 cm

(a)

f = 120 Hz

L = 2

or

(b)

v = f = 72.0 m/s

f1 =

18.19

= 60.0 cm = 0.600 m

v

72.0

=

= 30.0 Hz

2L 2(1.20)

dNN = 0.700 m

= 1.40 m

f = v = 308 m/s =

(a)

T = 163 N

(b)

f3 = 660 Hz

T

(1.20 103)/(0.700)

Chapter 18 Solutions

10

Goal Solution

G: The tension should be less than 100 lbs. (~500 N) since excessive force on the 4 cello strings

would break the neck of the instrument. If the string vibrates in three segments, there will be

three antinodes (instead of one for the fundamental mode), so the frequency should be three

times greater than the fundamental.

O:

The length of the string can be used to find the wavelength, which can be used with the

fundamental frequency to find the wave speed. The tension can then be found from the wave

speed and linear mass density of the string.

A:

When the string vibrates in the lowest frequency mode, the length of string forms a standing

wave where L = /2 (see Figure 18.2b), so the fundamental harmonic wavelength is

= 2L = 2(0.700 m) = 1.40 m

and the velocity is v = f = (220 s1)(1.40 m) = 308 m/s

From the tension equation v =

(a) T =

T

=

T

m/L

we get

=

= 163 N

L

0.700 m

(b) For the third harmonic, the tension, linear density, and speed are the same. However,

the string vibrates in three segments so that the wavelength is one third as long as in

the fundamental (see Figure 18.2d).

3 = /3

From the equation f = v , we find that the frequency is three times as high:

f3 =

L:

v

v

= 3 = 3f = 660 Hz

3

The tension seems reasonable, and the third harmonic is three times the fundamental

frequency as expected. Related to part (b), some stringed instrument players use a technique

to double the frequency of a note by cutting a vibrating string in half. When the string is

suddenly held at its midpoint to form a node, the second harmonic is formed, and the

resulting note is one octave higher (twice the original fundamental frequency).

Chapter 18 Solutions

*18.20

18.21

f1 =

v

T 1/2

, where v =

2L

1

.

2

(a)

(b)

(c)

If T is doubled, then f1

2 .

L = 60.0 cm = 0.600 m

T = 50.0 N

nv

2L

fn =

where

v=

T 1/2

= 70.7 m/s

fn = n

70.7

= 58.9n = 20,000 Hz

1.20

18.22

f=

v

=

since =

T 1

=

M

V

AL

=

=

L

L

L

4Told4

2

old (2d old)2 Lold/2

fnew =

18.23

T4 2

d 2 L

Told4

2

dold

old

v

fG

G = 2(0.350 m) =

A = 2LA =

2

2 = 2 fold = 800 Hz

Lold

v

fA

LG LA = LG

fG

f A

11

12

Chapter 18 Solutions

31.2 cm from the bridge .

LA =

v

1

=

2fA 2 f A

dLA =

dT

4 fA

dL A 1 dT

=

LA

2 T

dLA

dT

0.600 cm

=2

=2

= 3.84%

T

LA

(35.0 3.82) cm

18.24

only two nodes, at A and B, with an anti-node halfway

between A and B. Thus,

L

= AB =

2

cos

or

2L

cos

this segment of string is

v = f =

Also, v =

2L f

cos

T

=

T

=

m/AB

TL

m cos

2L f

=

cos

TL

m cos

or

T cos

4Lf 2

4L 2 f 2

TL

=

2

m

cos

cos

m=

Mg

[Equation 1]

Now, consider the tension in the string. The light rod would rotate about point P if the string

exerted any vertical force on it. Therefore, recalling Newtons third law, the rod must exert

only a horizontal force on the string. Consider a free-body diagram of the string segment in

contact with the end of the rod.

Fy = T sin Mg = 0 T =

Mg

sin

Chapter 18 Solutions

13

Mg cos

Mg

2 =

2

sin

4Lf

4Lf tan

m=

18.25

(a)

Let n be the number of nodes in the standing wave resulting from the 25.0-kg mass. Then

n + 1 is the number of nodes for the standing wave resulting from the 16.0-kg mass. For

standing waves, = 2L/n, and the frequency is f = v/ .

Thus, f =

Thus,

Tn

n+1

, and also f =

2L

n

2L

n+1

=

n

Tn

=

Tn + 1

Tn + 1

(25.0 kg)g 5

=

(16.0 kg)g 4

Therefore, 4n + 4 = 5n, or n = 4

Then, f =

(b)

4

2(2.00 m)

= 350 Hz

0.00200 kg/m

(n = 1), so 350 Hz =

1

2(2.00 m)

m(9.80 m/s2)

0.00200 kg/m

yielding m = 400 kg

*18.26

Using the frets does not change the speed of the wave. Therefore, if dNN is the distance

between adjacent nodes,

or

dNN2 = dNN1

f1

2349 Hz

= 21.4 cm

= 22.7 cm

f 2

2217 Hz

dNN2 dNN1 = 22.7 cm 21.4 cm = 1.27 cm

*18.27

f=

1

1

=

T 2

g

1

=

L 2

9.80 m/s2

= 0.352 Hz

2.00 m

The big brother must push at this same frequency of 0.352 Hz to produce resonance.

14

*18.28

Chapter 18 Solutions

dNN = dAA =

so

20.0 cm

=

= 5.00 cm

2

4

= 10.0 cm and f =

v

900 m/s

=

= 9000 Hz = 9.00 kHz

0.100 m

The singer must match this frequency quite precisely for some interval of time to feed enough

energy into the glass to crack it.

*18.29

9.15 m

= 3.66 m/s

2.50 s

(a)

(b)

From Figure P18.29, there are antinodes at both ends, so the distance between adjacent

antinodes is

dAA =

2

v 3.66 m/s

=

= 0.200 Hz

18.3 m

We have assumed the wave speed is the same for all wavelengths.

*18.30

gd =

The bay has one end open and one end closed, so its simplest resonance is with a node (of

velocity, antinode of displacement) at the head of the bay and an antinode (of velocity, node

of displacement) at the mouth. Then,

dNA = 210 103 m =

and

= 840 103 m

T=

1 840 103 m

= =

= 4.47 104 s = 12 h 24 min

f v

18.8 m/s

This agrees precisely with the period of the lunar excitation , so we identify the extrahigh tides as amplified by resonance.

18.31

(a)

For the fundamental mode in a closed pipe, = 4L. (see Figure 18.3b)

But v = f, therefore L =

So, L =

(b)

v

4f

343 m/s

= 0.357 m

4(240/s)

So, L =

v

343 m/s

=

= 0.715 m

2f 2(240/s)

Chapter 18 Solutions

*18.32

= dAA =

2

n

Since =

or

L=

n

2

for

15

n = 1, 2, 3, . . .

v

v

, L = n for n = 1, 2, 3, . . .

f

2f

L = n

343 m/s

= n(0.252 m) for n = 1, 2, 3, . . .

2(680

Hz)

L = 0.252 m, 0.504 m, 0.757 m, . . ., n(0.252) m

18.33

*18.34

= 0.640 m

dAA = 0.320 m

v

= 531 Hz

(a)

f=

(b)

= 0.0850 m

dAA = 42.5 mm

The wavelength is

v

343 m/s

=

= 1.31 m

f

261.6/s

so the length of the open pipe vibrating in its simplest (A-N-A) mode is

dA to A =

1

= 0.656 m

2

A closed pipe has (N-A) for its simplest resonance, (N-A-N-A) for the second, and (N-A-N-AN-A) for the third. Here, the pipe length is

5dN to A =

*18.35

5

5

= (1.31 m) = 1.64 m

4

4

The air in the auditory canal, about 3 cm long, can vibrate with a node at the closed end and

antinode at the open end, with

dN to A = 3 cm =

so

= 0.12 m

and f =

v

343 m/s

=

3 kHz

0.12 m

A small-amplitude external excitation at this frequency can, over time, feed energy into a

larger-amplitude resonance vibration of the air in the canal, making it audible.

16

18.36

Chapter 18 Solutions

v

343 m/s

=

= 0.780 m

f

440/s

dN to A =

4

m = V = Ah = (1000 kg/m3)(0.100 m2)(0.205 m) = 20.5 kg

18.37

For a closed box, the resonant frequencies will have nodes at both sides, so the permitted

n

wavelengths will be L =

, (n = 1, 2, 3, . . . ).

2

i.e., L =

n nv

=

2

2f

and f =

nv

2L

Therefore, with L = 0.860 m and L' = 2.10 m, the resonant frequencies are

fn = n(206 Hz)

18.38

We suppose these are the lowest resonances of the enclosed air columns.

For one,

v

(343 m/s)

=

= 1.34 m

f

256/s

length = dAA =

= 0.670 m

2

v 343 m/s

=

= 0.780 m

f

440/s

length = 0.390 m

So,

(b)

= 2dAA = 2.12 m

(a)

f=

(343 m/s)

= 162 Hz

2.12 m

Chapter 18 Solutions

18.39

v

f

17

200 Hz

dNN =

So

18.40

Rt =

v

2f

r 2v

2f

t=

r 2v

2R f

t=

= 239 s

2(18.0 106 m3/s)(200/s)

18.0 cm 3/s

v

f

d=

v

2f

Rt = r 2d =

r 2v

2R f

and t =

18.41

r 2v

2f

L1 =

v

, giving

4L

v

343

=

= 0.167 m

4f 4(512)

Since L > 20.0 cm, the next two modes will be observed, corresponding to

f=

or

3v

4L 2

L2 =

and

f=

3v

= 0.502 m

4f

5v

4L 3

and

L3

5v

= 0.837 m

4f

18

18.42

Chapter 18 Solutions

Call L the depth of the well and v the speed of sound. Then for some integer n

L = (2n 1)

1

v

(2n 1)(343 m/s)

= (2n 1)

=

4

4f 1

4(51.5 s1)

L = [2(n + 1) 1]

Thus,

2

v

(2n + 1)(343 m/s)

= (2n + 1)

=

4

4f 2

4(60.0 s1)

=

,

4(51.5 s1)

4(60.0 s1)

2n + 1 2n 1

=

60.0

51.5

111.5

= 6.56, so the best fitting integer is n = 7.

17

Then L =

= 21.6 m

4(51.5 s1)

and L =

= 21.4 m

4(60.0 s1)

suggest the best value for the depth of the well is 21.5 m .

18.43

v

f = n (n = 1, 3, 5, . . .)

4L

(a)

Equation 18.12

Assuming n = 1 and n = 3,

v

384 =

4(0.228)

and

22.8 cm

3v

384 =

4(0.683)

68.3 cm

(b)

L=

5v 5(350 m/s)

=

= 1.14 m

4f

4(384 s1)

Chapter 18 Solutions

18.44

(a)

f1 =

v v

331.5 m/s

=

=

= 17.0 Hz

4L 4(4.88 m)

(b)

f1 =

v v

=

= 34.0 Hz

2L

(c)

*18.45

(a)

1+

1+

20.0

f = 17.6 Hz

273 1

20.0

f = 35.2 Hz

273 1

L=

(b)

v(20.0C)

f =

v(0C) 1

19

343 m/s

v

= =

= 0.195 m

2 2f 2(880 s1)

v = 331 m/s

1+

(5.00)

= 328 m/s

273

f=

v v

328 m/s

=

=

= 841 Hz

2L 2(0.195 m)

18.46

When the rod is clamped at one-quarter of its length, the fundamental frequency corresponds to

a mode of vibration in which L = .

Therefore, L =

18.47

v 5100 m/s

=

= 1.16 m

f

4400 Hz

v

5100

=

= 1.59 kHz

2L (2)(1.60)

(a)

f=

(b)

Since it is held in the center, there must be a node in the center as well as antinodes at

the ends. The even harmonics have an antinode at the center so only the odd harmonics

are present.

(c) f =

18.48

v'

3560

=

= 1.11 kHz

2L (2)(1.60)

v = 4500 m/s

so,

f1 =

1 = 4L = 240 cm = 2.40 m

v

v

4500

=

=

= 1.88 kHz

1 4L 2.40

Chapter 18 Solutions

20

18.49

fv

fnew = 110

540

= 104.4 Hz

600

f = 5.64 beats/s

Goal Solution

G: Beat frequencies are usually only a few Hertz, so we should not expect a frequency much

greater than this.

O: As in previous problems, the two wave speed equations can be used together to find the

frequency of vibration that corresponds to a certain tension. The beat frequency is then just the

difference in the two resulting frequencies from the two strings with different tensions.

A: Combining the velocity equation v = f/ and the tension equation v =

f=

T

we find that

T

2

f2

=

f1

T2

T1

540 N

= 104.4 Hz

600 N

L: As expected, the beat frequency is only a few cycles per second. This result from the

interference of the two sound waves with slightly different frequencies has a tone that varies

in amplitude over time, similar to the sound made by saying wa-wa-wa

Note: The beat frequency above is written with three significant figures on the assumption

that the data and known precisely enough to warrant them. This assumption implies that

the original frequency is known more precisely than to the three significant digits quoted in

"110 Hz." For example, if the original frequency of the strings were 109.6 Hz, the beat

frequency would be 5.62 Hz.

*18.50

(a)

The string could be tuned to either 521 Hz or 525 Hz from this evidence.

(b)

Tightening the string raises the wave speed and frequency. If the frequency were

originally 521 Hz, the beats would slow down. Instead, the frequency must have started

at 525 Hz to become 526 Hz .

Chapter 18 Solutions

(c)

From f =

v

T/ 1

=

=

2L

2L

f2

=

f1

T2

T1

and

T

,

T2 =

f2 2

523 Hz 2

T1 =

T = 0.989T1

f 1

526 Hz 1

fractional change =

T1 T2

= 1 0.989 = 0.0114 = 1.14% lower

T1

18.51

(v + vs)

For an echo f ' = f

(v v s )

the beat frequency is f b = f ' f

(2v s )

when approaching wall.

(v v s )

(2)(1.33)

= 1.99 Hz

(343 1.33)

(a)

fb = (256)

(b)

When moving away from wall, vs changes sign. Solving for vs gives

vs =

beat frequency

fbv

(5)(343)

=

= 3.38 m/s

2f f b (2)(256) 5

21

22

*18.52

Chapter 18 Solutions

We evaluate

s = 100 sin + 157 sin 2 + 62.9 sin 3 + 105 sin 4 + 51.9 sin 5 + 29.5 sin 6 + 25.3 sin 7

where s represents particle displacement in nanometers and represents the phase of the wave

in radians. As advances by 2, time advances by (1/523) s. Here is the result:

Flute Waveform

400

200

s (nm)

10

12

200

400

Phase (rad)

*18.53

Note

A

C#

E

1

440.00

554.37

659.26

2

880.00

1108.7

1318.5

Harmonic

3

1320.0

1663.1

1977.8

4

1760.0

2217.5

2637.0

5

2200.0

2771.9

3296.3

The second harmonic of E is close to the third harmonic of A, and the fourth

harmonic of C# is close to the fifth harmonic of A.

Chapter 18 Solutions

18.54

(a)

23

Fx = T Mg sin 30.0 = 0

so

(b)

T = Mg sin 30.0 =

1

Mg

2

incline is h/sin 30.0 = 2h. The total length of the

string is then 3 h .

(c)

(d)

(e)

In the fundamental mode, the segment of length h vibrates as one loop. The distance

between adjacent nodes is then dNN = /2 = h, so the wavelength is = 2h.

The frequency is f =

(g)

v

1

=

2h

Mg 3h =

2 m

T

=

3Mgh

=

2m

3Mg

8m h

When the vertical segment of string vibrates with 2 loops (i.e., 3 nodes), then h = 2

and the wavelength is = h .

(f)

T=

18.55

3Mgh

2m

1

= =h

f v

2m

=

3Mgh

2m h

3Mg

(h)

(a)

x=

(9.00 + 4.00)

3.00 =

The wavelength is =

Thus,

3Mg

8m h

v

343 m/s

=

= 1.14 m

f

300 Hz

x

0.606

=

= 0.530

1.14

of a wave, or

= 2 (0.530) = 3.33 rad

24

Chapter 18 Solutions

Chapter 18 Solutions

(b)

x

x

= 0.500 = f

v

where x is a constant in this set up.

f=

18.56

v

343

=

= 283 Hz

2 x (2)(0.606)

f = 87.0 Hz

l = 0.400 m

(a)

b= l

v = f b = (87.0 s1)(0.400 m)

L

v = 34.8 m/s

(b)

18.57

a = 4L

340 m/s

a

L = 4f = 4(87.0 s1) = 0.977 m

va = a f

f ' = 180 2.00 = 178 Hz

178 = 180

(343)

(343 + v)

v=

(2.00)(343)

178

Therefore,

v = 3.85 m/s away from station

Moving towards the station, the frequency is enhanced:

f ' = 180 + 2.00 = 182 Hz

182 = 180

(343)

(343 v)

25

26

Chapter 18 Solutions

v=

(2.00)(343)

182

Therefore,

v = 3.77 m/s towards the station

*18.58

f'=f

(v v 0 )

(v + v s )

f 2' = frequency of the speaker behind the student.

f 1' = (456 Hz)

= 458 Hz

(343 m/s 0)

= 454 Hz

(343 m/s + 0)

18.59

f 1' = f

343 m/s

v + 0 =f

v

+

v

343

m/s

+ 8.00 m/s

f 2' = f

343

343 8.00

f=

18.60

v=

4.00 Hz

= 85.7 Hz

0.0467

(48.0)(2.00)

= 141 m/s

4.80 103

dNN = 1.00 m

a =

= 2.00 m

f=

v

= 70.7 Hz

va

343 m/s

=

= 4.85 m

f

70.7 Hz

Chapter 18 Solutions

*18.61

27

The second standing wave mode of the air in the pipe reads ANAN, with

dNA =

f=

1.75 m

=

4

3

so

= 2.33 m and

v 343 m/s

=

= 147 Hz

2.33 m

0.400 m

= dNN =

2

2

so

= 0.400 m

T/

18.62

(a)

L=

v

4f

so

L' f

=

L f'

4 2 1

: :

5 3 2

or in integers 30 : 24 : 20 : 15

(b)

L=

343

= 33.5 cm

(4)(256)

This is the longest pipe, so using the ratios the lengths are:

33.5, 26.8, 22.3, 16.7 cm

(c)

The frequencies are using the ratio 256, 320, 384, and 512 Hz . These represent notes C,

E, G, and C' on the physical pitch scale.

18.63

(a)

Since the first node is at the weld, the wavelength in the thin wire is 2L or 80.0 cm. The

frequency and tension are the same in both sections, so

f=

1

2L

T

1

=

2(0.400)

4.60

= 59.9 Hz

2.00 103

28

Chapter 18 Solutions

(b)

As the thick wire is twice the diameter, the linear density is 4 times that of the thin

wire.

' = 8.00 g/m

so

L' =

1

2f

L' =

(2)(59.9)

(4.60)

(8.00 10-3)

= 20.0 cm

18.64

B =

fB = fA

2

vB =

v=

3 A

vB =

1

v

3 A

1 2

v

9 A

T

TB

vB

= 2 = 0.111

TA

vA

18.65

(a)

f=

n

2L

so

f'

L

L

1

=

=

=

f

L' 2L 2

The frequency should be halved to get the same number of antinodes for twice the

length.

(b)

n'

=

n

so

T

T'

T' n

=

T

n'

n

(n + 1)

2

T' =

n T

(n + 1)

Chapter 18 Solutions

(c)

f '

n' L

=

f

n L'

T'

T

=

T

n' f L

so

T' 3

=

T

2 2

T' 9

=

T 16

18.66

=

0.0100 kg

= 5.00 103 kg/m

2.00 m

T

=

v=

(200 kg m/s2)

5.00 103 kg/m

v = 200 m/s

If it vibrates in its simplest state,

dNN = 2.00 m =

f=

(a)

v

(200 m/s)

=

= 50.0 Hz

4.00 m

45.0 Hz or 55.0 Hz

(b)

If f = 45.0 Hz,

v = f = (45.0/s) 4.00 m = 180 m/s

Then,

T = v2 = (180 m/s)2(5.00 103 kg/m) = 162 N

or

if f = 55.0 Hz

T = v2 = f 2 2 = (55.0/s)2(4 .00 m)2(5.00 103 kg/m) = 242 N

29

30

18.67

Chapter 18 Solutions

650 Hz, 550 Hz, 450 Hz, 350 Hz, 250 Hz, 150 Hz, 50.0 Hz

Closed

18.68

f1 = 50.0 Hz

= 6.80 m

L = 1.70 m

5.00 sin (2.00x 10.0t) + 10.0 cos(2.00x 10.0t)

= A sin (2.00x 10.0t + )

= A sin (2.00x 10.0t)cos + A cos (2.00x 10.0t) sin

This will be true if both 5.00 = A cos and 10.0 = A sin ,

requiring (5.00)2 + (10.0)2 = A2

A = 11.2

= 63.4

and

*18.69

(a)

= 2 f = Error!

(b)

2 x

2 v t

cos

1 = 2L

so

(c)

x

vt

cos

L L

y1(x, t) = 2A sin

2 = L

and

2 x

2 vt

cos

L L

y2(x, t) = 2A sin

(d)

In general,

n =

2L

n

and

n x

n vt

cos

L

L

yn(x, t) = 2A sin

Chapter 18 Solutions

18.70

(a)

sin =

1.00 m 2

=

1.50 m 3

or

= 41.8

Fy = 0

or

(b)

T=

gives

= 78.9 N

2 cos 41.8

string is

T

=

v=

(a)

(b)

78.9 N

= 281 m/s

0.00100 kg/m

2T cos = mg

3

, or

2

2(2.00 m)

= 1.33 m

3

f=

v 281 m/s

=

= 211 Hz

1.33 m

31

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