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philosophy of PBL

Dr. E. Garianto, M.Kes


9/3/2011

dr. E. Garianto, M.Kes

Latar belakang
20 th terakhir terjadi perkembangan yg sangat cepat di
bidang ilmu pengetahuan, teknologi kedokteran serta
munculnya tantangan di bidang etik dan moral akibat dari
kemajuan donor organ, cloning, euthanasia, stem cell
research, bank DNA dan masalah genetik lainnya

Pendidikan
kedokteran
9/3/2011

dr. E. Garianto, M.Kes

Latar belakang
Akankah pengajaran scr konvensional dpt memenuhi
kebutuhan mhs sekarang?
Akankah dapat mencukupi keterampilan dan kompetensi di
tempat kerja ?
Akankah mahasiswa mampu menghadapi perkembangan ilmu
pengetahuan dan teknologi kedokteran yg cepat ?
Akankah mhs mampu menjadi life-long learner ?

9/3/2011

dr. E. Garianto, M.Kes

Rekomendasi Internasional New guidelines for


medical education

1988, the Edinburgh Declaration of the World Federation for Medical


Education.
1994, the World Summit for Medical Education.
1989, the Ministerial cosultation of the World Health Organization and
the World Federation for Medical Education.
Diperlukan perubahan dalam pendidikan dan kurikulum
kedokteran untuk membentuk lingkungan pembelajaran yg sesuai
dengan profesionalisme yg diharapkan dari mahasiswa.
disarankan menggunakan integrated PBL atau CBL dan suatu multiprofessional approach

9/3/2011

dr. E. Garianto, M.Kes

The four level of student/teacher interaction In a


curriculum

LEVEL

STUDENT

TEACHER

EXAMPLES

Level 1

Dependent

Authority,
information
provider

Passive learning. Lecture-based


teaching encouraging rote learning

Level 2

Interested

Motivator, guide

Inspiring lecture with occasional


guided discussion

Level 3

Takes the lead

Fascilitator,
feedback provider

PBL, CBL, case-based reasoning,


and other types of small group
learning

Level 4

Self-directed

Delegator,
consultant

Self-directed study, e.g. using


computer-aided programs

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dr. E. Garianto, M.Kes

Problem Based Learning


Diterapkan sejak 40 thn lalu dlm kurikulum ilmu
kesehatan di Amerika utara.
Di Medical faculty-McMaster University canada
sebagai metode pembelajaran utama untuk
mendorong long life learning dalam praktek
kedokteran (1974).
Harvard medical schools hybrid model.
Medical Faculty of Maastricht University.
Tahun 1980 diterapkan diberbagai bidang profesi
lain.
9/3/2011

dr. E. Garianto, M.Kes

Problem Based Learning ?


Suatu cara melaksanakan kurikulum dengan menghadapkan
siswa pada problem-problem dalam praktek, sebagai pemicu
proses pembelajaran.
Dalam PBL mhs belajar dalam kelompok kecil. menggunakan
problem/kasus atau skenario sbg pemicu untuk menentukan
tujuan pembelajarannya.
Untuk membahas kasus mhs perlu kerjasama dgn mhs lain dlm
kelompoknya utk identifikasi problem, membuat hipotesis, dan
mencari informasi tambahan utk memastikan hipotesis.

9/3/2011

dr. E. Garianto, M.Kes

Problem Based Learning ?


Selama pembahasan problem mhs akan
mendapatkan learning issues (gap pengetahuan)
yang harus dicari untuk menjawab pertanyaanpertanyaan yg muncul.
Setelah mempelajari learning issues mhs
menyampaikan pd kelompoknya.
Semua proses dikerjakan oleh seluruh mahasiswa
dalam kelompoknya.

9/3/2011

dr. E. Garianto, M.Kes

The student role


In PBL

In Traditional course

1. You learn how to apply

1.

2.

2.

3.
4.
5.
6.

knowledge to real-life situation


You become producers of
information
You ask question and research
for answer
You research your own
resources
You actively analyse
information
You actively work in small group

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3.
4.
5.
6.

You learn how to focus on


factual knowledge
You consume knowledge
Your teacher ask, and may
answer, all question
You rote learn knowledge given
to you
You sometimes accept
knowledge as it is
You listen passively to lectures
with a large number of student

dr. E. Garianto, M.Kes

The student role


In PBL

In Traditional course

7. You learn from other student

7. You learn from your teacher

8. You learn by cooperation

8. You learn by competition

9. You learn for understanding

9. You learn for examination

10. You learn to elaborate on what

10. You learnt to memorise fact

you learnt
11. you see the relevance of
knowledge learnt
12. You rely on a wide range of
learning resources

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11. You sometimes with dry

information (for example, you


are not clear about its use in
your career and its applications
12. You use the recommended
textbook

dr. E. Garianto, M.Kes

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Problem pasien

9/3/2011

dr. E. Garianto, M.Kes

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Problem Based Learning?


Mahasiswa bebas dan menentukan sendiri apa yg
mereka pelajari sebelum mereka kembali ke dalam
kelompok diskusi dan merumuskan pengetahuan yg
mereka dapat.
PBL bukanlah tentang problem solving, tetapi lebih
merupakan penggunaan problem untuk
meningkatkan pengetahuan dan pemahaman.

9/3/2011

dr. E. Garianto, M.Kes

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Keunggulan PBL

Bukan hanya knowledge tetapi juga:


Communication skills
Team work
Problem solving
Independent responsibility for learning
Sharing information
Respect for others

9/3/2011

dr. E. Garianto, M.Kes

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Keunggulan PBL
Dengan PBL dalam small group teaching akan
diperoleh knowledge diikuti dengan
berkembangnya generics skills dan Attitudes
Mengintegrasikan basic sciences dan clinical
sciences
kasus-kasus klinis menjadi trigger belajar
mahasiswa untuk memahami relevansi ilmu
pengetahuan dan prinsip dalam praktek klinis.

9/3/2011

dr. E. Garianto, M.Kes

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Generic skills and attitude

Team work
Chairing a group
Listening
Recording
Cooperation
Respect for colleagues views
Critical evaluation of literature
Self directed learning and use of resources
Presentation skills

9/3/2011

dr. E. Garianto, M.Kes

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SCL vs TCL
mission & purpose
1. produce learning
2. elicit student discovery
and construction of
knowledge
3. create powerful learning
environments
4. improve the quality of
learning
5. achieve success for
diverse students
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1. provide/deliver
instruction
2. transfer knowledge from
faculty to students
3. offer courses and
programs
4. improve quality of
instruction
5. achieve access for
diverse students

dr. E. Garianto, M.Kes

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TCL vs SCL
Learning Theory
SCL

TCL

knowledge exists in each persons


mind and is shaped by individual
experience
knowledge is constructed, created
and gotten
learning is a nesting and interacting
of frameworks

knowledge exists out there

knowledge comes in chunks and bits


delivered by instructors

learning is cumulative and linear

learning is student-controlled
active learner required but not
live teacher
learning environments and learning
are cooperative, collaborative, and
supportive
talent and ability are abundant
success for diverse students

learning is teacher-controlled
live teacher and live student
required
classroom and learning are
competitive and individualistic

9/3/2011

dr. E. Garianto, M.Kes

talent and ability are rare

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TCL vs SCL
Nature of Roles
SCL

TCL

faculty are primarily designers of


learning methods and
environments
faculty and students work in
teams with each other and other
staff
teachers develop every students
competencies and talents
all staff are educators who
produce student learning and
success
shared governance

9/3/2011

faculty are primarily lecturers

faculty and students act


independently and in isolation
teachers classify and sort
students

staff serve/support faculty and


the process of instruction

line governance: independent


actors

dr. E. Garianto, M.Kes

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Faculty objectives
Problem
Discussion in
tutorial group
Student-generated
learning issues
Previous unit

Tutor Guidance

Additional
Curricular activities

Learning activities
during self-study

Learning
resources
Lecturer

Achievement
9/3/2011

dr. E. Garianto, M.Kes

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Tutorial
Tutorial dalam PBL dilaksanakan dalam
kelompok-kelompok kecil mahasiswa (small
group discussion).
Tiap kelompok terdiri dari 10-12 mahasiswa
Metode PBL menggunakan model seven
jump steps dari medical faculty maastricht
university.

9/3/2011

dr. E. Garianto, M.Kes

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skenario
seorang ibu membawa anak perempuannya,
Diana 3 tahun ke unit gawat darurat rsal dr
Ramelan dikarenakan demam dan kejangkejang

9/3/2011

dr. E. Garianto, M.Kes

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Langkah dalam Tutorial


Problem

Hipotesis Mekanis
me

- Umur 3
tahun
- Demam
- Kejang

- Infeksi
- Ggn saraf
- Epilepsi

9/3/2011

I Dont
Know

- Respon
Bakteri/Virus
respon imun imun
demam
- Kejang
-

dr. E. Garianto, M.Kes

More Info Learning


Issue
-anamnesa
-Pemeriksaan

fisik

- Sistem imun
(respon imun
thd infeksi)
-Neurology
(convulsi)

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Tutorial
Komponen dalam tutorial:
Tutor
Ketua
Pencatat / sekretaris
Anggota

9/3/2011

dr. E. Garianto, M.Kes

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Tutorial
Tutor

Encourage all group


members to participate
Assist chair with group
dinamics and keeping to
time
Check scribe keeps an
accurate record
Prevent side tracking
Ensure group achieves
appropriate learning
objective
Check understanding
Assess performance
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Chair

lead the group trough the


process
Encourage all members to
participate
Maintain group dynamics
Keep to time
Ensure group keeps to task
in hand
Ensure scribe can keep up
and is making an accurate
record

dr. E. Garianto, M.Kes

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Tutorial
Scribe

Group member

Record points made by


group
Help group order they
thoughts
Participate in discussion
Record resources used by
group

9/3/2011

Follow the steps of the


process in sequence
Participate in discussion
Listen to and respect
contributions of others
Ask open question
Research all the learning
objectives
Share information with
others

dr. E. Garianto, M.Kes

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Anak Cerdas
Cari Solusi

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