Lab Report

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Lab Report

© All Rights Reserved

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COMPRESSION FACTOR

Experiment No. 1

BS Chemistry III

Lab Partners

Rammela Ann Camelote

Joanues Ignacio

September 8, 2016

I.

Abstract

The experiment focuses on determining and comparing the behavior of the

real gases (experimental and van der Waals equation of state) to ideal gas by the use

of isotherms graphs. Studying the law of corresponding states, reduced variables,

Maxwell construction and the compression factor of the gases were also presented.

The experiment was carried out using a computer with MS Excel programmed to

calculate and generate data and set of instruction and questions as guide. The results

that were generated and presented in graphical way have successfully supported and

agreed with all the concepts that were covered.

II.

Introduction

Behavior of gases have been described by the equation PV = nRT for a long

time since most gases behave ideally in regular working temperature and pressure.

This ideal gas follows the kinetic molecular theory which includes the ideas such as 1)

that gas do not interacts and 2) the volume occupied by gas molecules is negligible.

Van der Waals equation is trying to correct these two points in kinetic molecular

theory because gases deviate from ideality in low temperature or high pressure.

Corrections in the volume occupied by the molecules (b) and inter molecular forces

(a) in ideal gas law were added to predict the behavior of real gases.

)(

Van der Waals equation however is not a perfect equation of state to describe

real gases. Below critical temperature the graph of van der waals form loops which is

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placed where the areas above and below the loop equates to each other to resemble

the experimental data.

Van der Waals equation can also be expressed in reduced forms of the

variables temperature, pressure and volume:

and

where

and

These variables were plugged in to the van der waals equation forming an

equation that is unit less and independent of the identity of the gas. This independence

on the identity of gas made them behave similarly. This equation is called the Law of

corresponding states.

The ideality of the gas can be calculated using the compression factor Z. The

forces of attraction dominating the gases could also be predicted by this equation.

The closer the value is to 1 the more it behaves as an ideal gas; a value less

than 1 will favor attraction while greater than 1 values will favor repulsion.

These theories will all be tested in this experiment. The gases that will be

looked through are Helium gas and Ethene gas. Data will be generated through a MS

Excel program will be gathered a plotted to test the presented theories and compare

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the ideal gas to real gas (by van der waals equation of state) and the generated

(theoretical data) to experimental data.

This experiment aimed to illustrate the relationship of gases and their behavior

based on the van der waals equation of state.

III.

The experiment was carried out using MS Excel that was programed to

calculate the pressure values using the Van der Waals equation of state. Helium gas

and ethane gas were chosen to be studied in this experiment.

First, critical points (temperature, volume and pressure) of the chosen gas

were input to the pvt calc worksheet. Four graphs, comparing van der waals gas and

ideal gas, were generated by varying the temperatures: 1) above critical temperature,

2) critical temperature, 3) slightly below critical temperature and 4) below critical

temperature. The graphs were saved in the word document.

Second, using the Maxwell worksheet, Maxwell construction was performed.

For five different temperatures, including the critical point, pressure values were

taken where the difference between area 1 and area 2 was less than 2%, preferably

0%. Pressure, molar volume (v1 & v3) and temperature values were collected and

tabulated in worksheet_Q3. P-v phase diagram was constructed using these data. In

the same worksheet the molar volume and pressure values from the pvT calc were

tabulated. The pressure values between the v1 and v3 were replaced by the pressure

value taken from Maxwell construction to illustrate the graph of an experimental real

gas. This was done to all the temperatures. After these, the data were used to construct

|P age3

temperature and pressure from the worksheet_Q3 calculated from Maxwell equation.

Third, in worksheet_Q5, calculate a temperature for both of the chosen gases

so that the reduced temperature values would be equal. The temperatures were used to

generate the pressure and volumes that were used to calculate the reduced pressure

and volume. Pressure pr was graphed as a function of the reduced molar volume r. In

worksheet_Q5 the reduced pressure pr as a function of the reduced molar volume r

for the pressures and volumes of the coexistence curve was also plotted.

Then, the experimental values and van der waals equation of Argon and

Ethane were compared by plotting the plotting p as a function of 1/v. Using the same

technique used in worksheet_Q5 the plot pr as a function of 1/vr was generated to test

for the law of corresponding states.

Lastly, compression factor of Helium gas was calculated using another MS

Excel programmed file named Z-calc. Equations to solve TB and pressure were

encoded. Pressure values at the critical temperature were generated and copy and

pasted to the worksheet. The pressures in atm and z values were calculated. This was

repeated in two more temperature, one above and one below the critical temperature.

The data were plotted in one graph and compared.

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IV.

Results

T =7K > Tc

T = 5.3K = Tc

T = 5 K < Tc

T = 4.5 K << Tc

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Figure 1.Van der Waals vs Ideal Gas graph of Helium Gas at Different Temperatures

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Figure 3.p - V Diagram for Helium Gas (above) & Ethene Gas (below)

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Figure 4.Binodal Curve for Helium Gas (above) & Ethene Gas (below)

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Figure 5.p - T Diagram for Helium Gas (above) & Ethene Gas (below)

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same Reduced Temperature (1.64K)

| P a g e 10

| P a g e 11

Temperature

| P a g e 12

V.

Discussion

All the numerical data gathered were plotted in different manner based on

their relationship and the aim of the experiment.

In figures 1 and 2, graphs show the trend of van der Waals equation of state

compared to the ideal gas. Both of the isotherms behave in almost the same manner as

the ideal gas in temperature above the critical temperature. In the critical point, a point

where the graph slightly deviates from ideal gas can be observed. In temperatures

lower than critical point, loops can be seen which cannot be seen in experimental data.

The high temperature means that the kinetic energy of the molecules is high.

With the increase of kinetic energy the intermolecular forces of attraction between the

| P a g e 13

the Binodal curve that was constructed using the same data.

Binodal curve can identify the area where the liquid and gas phase coexist.

Binodal curve can give enough information regarding this coexistence. The parts of

the binodial curve were shown in figure 11. Dew line, at the right side of the curve, is

the point where the gas starts to condense and form a liquid phase. Tie line is the

horizontal line that was constructed by the Maxwell construction. Straight line implies

that as the volume decreases as the pressure remains constant. This was due to the gas

molecule interaction forming the liquid phase. As the liquid phase forms it relieves

pressure to the whole system as volume decreases. As the volume decrease reached

the limit where molecules can no longer attract each other; the interaction becomes

repulsive allowing the liquid phase turn back to gas phase increasing the pressure.

Bubble line, at the left side of the curve, is the point where the liquid boils and goes

back at to its gas phase. When this happen the pressure increases tremendously.

Additional information like the molar volumes of the liquid phase and gas phase can

also be found by solving for the roots of the cubic equation. Roots of the cubic

equation signify the molar volumes of liquid phase and gas phase. The largest root is

the vapor molar volume; the smallest root is the value of the liquid molar volume

while the middle root does not represent any real behavior because of its instability.

Critical temperature isotherms only have one root, meaning the vapor molar volume

and the liquid molar volume were equal therefore there is no distinction between gas

phase and liquid phase. This is the critical point where liquid phase and phase cannot

be distinguished.

A phase diagram (pressure as a function of volume) was plotted using the

temperature and pressure data obtained in the Maxwell construction. Phase diagram is

| P a g e 14

a visual representation that shows at which point a specific phase is stable. The phase

diagram used in the experiment is a p T phase diagram with three possible phases

(solid, liquid and gas). These phases were separated by first order phase transition

lines, the continuous line on the graph, indicating the transition of one state to the

other and/or the instability of a phase. This line was also called co existing line as two

phases coexist at this point. These transition lines differ in each compound but follow

the same principle. Above critical point, there will be no distinction between gas and

liquid.

The graph in figure 5 was compared to the phase diagram of a real substance

shown in figure 12. Both of the generated graphs of helium and ethane resemble the

line CB. This lies between the gas phase and liquid phase. The line is a set of pressure

with corresponding temperature at which the liquid boils and gas condense at the

same rate. This agrees to the coexistence of gas phase and liquid phase that was stated

on the previous section.

Data for the law of corresponding states (shown in figure 7) was the next

generated and plotted to test if the two compounds would behave similarly despite

having different identity. At the same reduced temperature, helium gas and ethane gas

follow the same trend. Comparisons between different gases can be possible because

of the reduced variables. Gases in Corresponding states have the same reduced

variables values, even if they have different pressure, volume and temperature values.

This reduced form of van der waals equation of state allow calculations of the reduced

properties of a gas without any compound dependent variable. Because of this, gases

in corresponding states behave the same.

| P a g e 15

Another set of gases, argon and ethane, were studied to identify the difference

of the experimental data and the theoretical data generated by van der Waals equation

of state. Figure 8 shows that experimental isotherms of ethane and argon behaved

similarly when compared to its van der waals counterpart. As the volume 1/v

decreases the pressure increases however the 1/v value of the van der waals equation

of state was much more lower that the experimental value. This shows that equations

of state only approximate the behavior of a gas. Experimental values were also tested

for the law of corresponding states. Comparing the law of corresponding states result

of the equation of state to the experimental data, the experimental data correspond

more. Since, experimental data was a product of a thorough experiment it would be

more accurate.

Lastly, compression value of helium gas was calculated. Compression value

shows the ideality of the gas. In figure 10, the graph shows that the Z values were

mostly positive values. Since helium does have really weak attractive forces,

repulsion forces dominate.

VI.

Conclusions

Ideal gases equation is only applicable in low pressure and high temperature

that is why van der Waals equation of state was used to describe the behavior of real

gases. Through this experiment, the students were able to lean and understand the

behavior of real gases by the help of a preprogramed MS Excel. Beyond

understanding such concepts, this also helped the student learn how to operate the

program in order to graph and present the data successfully.

| P a g e 16

Furthermore, the results of the experiment have answered all the questions

from instructions. The graphs generated have satisfied and supplemented the theories

that were presented.

Minimal errors have been committed and corrected as the data was being

processed and interpreted.

The three authors have contributed towards the success of the experiment.

During the course of the experiment, Capio and Camelote worked with two gases

simultaneously while Ignacio instructed and interpreted the instructions and the data.

[1] Adewumi, M. Principle of Corresponding States (PCS). Penn State College of

Earth and Mineral Science. [Online], 2014. https://www.e-education.psu.edu/

(accessed September 1, 2016).

[2] Ideal and Non-Ideal Gases. University of Bistol [Online]

http://www.bris.ac.uk/chemistry/ (accessed September 1, 2016).

[3] Van der Waals Equation of a Real Gas. Fayetteville State University [Online]

http://www.uncfsu.edu/ (accessed September 1, 2016)

[4] Van der Waals Equation of State. Brigham Young [Online] University

https://www.et.byu.edu/ (accessed September 4, 2016)

| P a g e 17

[5] Atkins, P.W., de Paula, J. Physical Chemistry, 9th edition, Oxford University

Press, 2010

[6] Mortimer R. Physical Chemistry 3rd edition, Elsevier Academic Press, 2008

IX.

Appendices

Figure 11. p - V Diagram with parts of Binodal Curves for Helium Gas

| P a g e 18

Substance

T(cr)/[K]

v(cr)/[m3.mol-1]

Helium

Ethene

Argon

Benzene

2.28993596

51.168923

4863580.8

4924375.56

5.21

283.1

150.72

562.7

0.00005776

0.0001311

0.00007525

0.00026

Table 2.Pressure Values of Helium Gas where the % Area Difference is less than 2%.

T/K

psat/10^5 Pa

% Area Diff

5.21

5

4.8

4.6

4.4

2.28993596

1.938449

1.63608

1.36444

1.12256

0%

0%

0%

0%

0%

Table 3.Pressure Values of Ethene Gas where the % Area Difference is less than 2%.

T/K

psat/10^5 Pa

% Area Diff

239

245

261

271.7

283.1

25.0435

27.94355

36.6637

43.32199

51.168923

0%

0%

0%

0%

0%

Table 4.Experimental Data of Ethane gas and Argon gas at Reduced Temperature = 1.64

Ethane at T=500K

Argon at T=247K

/[m3.mol-1]

p/[Pa]

/[m3.mol-1]

p/[Pa]

8.31E-02

2.07E-02

4.11E-03

2.03E-03

9.90E-04

6.46E-04

4.75E-04

3.73E-04

3.07E-04

2.27E-04

1.82E-04

1.55E-04

1.30E-04

1.18E-04

1.09E-04

1.02E-04

9.68E-05

5.00E+04

2.00E+05

1.00E+06

2.00E+06

4.00E+06

6.00E+06

8.00E+06

1.00E+07

1.20E+07

1.60E+07

2.00E+07

2.40E+07

3.00E+07

3.50E+07

4.00E+07

4.50E+07

5.00E+07

4.05E-02

1.01E-02

2.00E-03

9.86E-04

4.80E-04

3.11E-04

2.28E-04

1.79E-04

1.46E-04

1.08E-04

8.63E-05

7.35E-05

6.21E-05

5.63E-05

5.22E-05

4.92E-05

4.69E-05

5.00E+04

2.00E+05

1.00E+06

2.00E+06

4.00E+06

6.00E+06

8.00E+06

1.00E+07

1.20E+07

1.60E+07

2.00E+07

2.40E+07

3.00E+07

3.50E+07

4.00E+07

4.50E+07

5.00E+07

| P a g e 19

8.94E-05

8.42E-05

6.00E+07

7.00E+07

4.35E-05

4.11E-05

6.00E+07

7.00E+07

))

(

))

(

)

[

(

(

)

]

))

(

)(

| P a g e 20

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