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University of the Cordilleras Research Journal

ISSN: 1908-9325, VOL:1 ISSUE: 3, 2009

MOCK EXAMINATION: ITS INFLUENCE ON PERFORMANCE


IN THE LICENSURE EXAMINATION FOR TEACHERS
Elizabeth S. Montemayor, M.A.
Chona C. Roxas, M.A.
Vilma L. Panayon, M.A.

ABSTRACT
The study looked into the relationship between performance in a mock examination and the
Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) of 44 BEED and 76 BSED graduates of the
University of the Cordilleras. Findings revealed that there is a significant correlation between
performances in the two examinations. Ratings obtained by the graduates in the mock
examination can validly predict performance in the L.E.T.
I. INTRODUCTION
Quality education is first and foremost a function of instruction. In the hands of
uncommitted and ineffective teachers, even the best-designed curriculum is doomed to fail.
While it is true that some students can learn in spite of the teacher, it cannot be denied that
the quality of the output of education is a function, to a great extent, of instruction and
students interaction with their teachers. Bilbao (2006) claimed that the relationship between
good teaching and student achievement elevates the importance of teacher quality in the
eyes of parents, educators, and policy makers. Researches show that good teaching does
not happen by accident. While some teachers may have a special gift to help students learn,
good teaching encompasses critical elements, such as knowledge of the learning process,
child development, teacher experiences, academic ability, and content knowledge. Knowing
about these critical elements and having the ability to contextualize them to the learner
makes learning a much more meaningful and relevant pursuit, as well as that teacher ideal.
Salandanan (2001) espoused that no single factor can contribute to an improved
student achievement than the guarantee of a quality teacher in every classroom. No amount
of classroom facilities and instructional materials can produce the desired learning outcome
without a teacher at the center of the stage.
Regardless of the basis of beliefs about education, there is greater agreement and
common ground with respect to the issue of teacher quality, though the definition of highly
qualified teacher and how to get there may be different for these jurisdictions. Teacher
certification is one of the indicators of teacher quality (Laczko-Kerr & Berliner, 2002 as cited
by Ricote, 2008), hence the need to examine its role in student achievement. Other

University of the Cordilleras Research Journal


ISSN: 1908-9325, VOL:1 ISSUE: 3, 2009

indicators include teacher preparation programs, teacher licensure standards, and


professional development for relicensing purposes.
In 1990, Pyburn (as cited by Aquino, 2004) claimed that teacher certification and
licensing systems exist to assure the public that a minimum level of competency has been
achieved by practicing teachers, thereby ensuring that unqualified people are not practicing
the profession. In other words, certification is designed to protect the public from harm.
However, unlike other professional fields where licensure governs who does and who does
not practice the trade (e.g., lawyers, physicians, cosmetologists), teachers without
certification are simply not allowed to use the title certified teacher. There are no legal
impediments for teaching without certification. The goal of licensing tests is to set a
minimum level of competency, allegedly eliminating poor teachers from schools and, in
essence, guaranteeing that teachers who pass teacher exams are of high quality.
Professions that require licensure make it illegal for someone without a license to practice
that occupation. Teacher licensure seems to be heading in that direction.
The success of a candidate in a professional examination means so much to the
individual and the institution granting him or her the degree. It enables the individual to
legally practice his profession while to the institution, performance in licensure examinations
reflects the quality of education that it has provided to its graduates ( Doronilla, 1995;
Salana,1995; Hilario, 2003).

Mock Examination
Mock examination is an examination which imitates an actual examination
(SearchSoftwareQuality.com, n.d.). In this study, it is a comprehensive examination given by
the College of Teacher Education (CTE) of UC to its graduates prior to their taking the L.E.T.
Mock examination builds up student confidence and that the mock grade given
enables him/her to plan his/her remaining studies accordingly (Examination Entry, n.d.).
Furthermore, mock examinations can provide information to students and administrators on
whether or not the students are ready to take an external examination, they provide
information on students areas of strength and weaknesses, and can serve as a practice in
taking tests under full examination conditions

University of the Cordilleras Research Journal


ISSN: 1908-9325, VOL:1 ISSUE: 3, 2009

The Problem
This study aimed to determine if performance of the teacher education graduates of
UC in the comprehensive examination is significantly related to their performance in the
L.ET. Consequently, the research will find out if performance in the mock examination can
validly predict performance in the licensure examination.
II. METHODOLOGY
The descriptive- correlational method of research was used in this study.
Performance records of 44 BEED graduates and 76 BSED graduates of 2007 in the mock
examination were taken from the College of Teacher Education (CTE) of the university.
L.E.T. performance was sourced from records of the Philippine Regulations Commission
(PRC). The mock examination was constructed by the faculty members of the CTE of UC.
The items in the examination cover the general education and professional education areas
only. The over-all performance in the mock examination is a composite of the two areas.
The area on the major subject or field of specialization was not included. Data were
statistically treated by the Research Center of the university using the Statistical Package for
the Social Sciences, Version 16 (SPSS, v.16).
III. RESULTS
The influence of the mock examination on performance in the L.E.T. is gleaned from the
correlation values between the two variables. Simple regression analysis was conducted if
the correlations were found to be significant. Regression analysis was conducted to derive a
regression equation formula in predicting L.E.T. performance from performance in the mock
examination. Analysis was conducted separately for BEED and BSED
Correlation and Regression Analysis between Performances in General Education
(G.E.) Area of the Mock Examination and the L.E.T of the BEED Graduates
Table 1 presents the correlation between the performance of the BEED graduates in the
General Education (G.E.) area of the mock examination and the L.E.T. As shown, there is a
significant correlation (r = .608) between the variables concerned at the .01 level. This
means that that there is a direct linear relationship between performance in the G.E. area of
the mock examination and the L.E.T. Moreover, the coefficient of determination (r2) indicates

University of the Cordilleras Research Journal


ISSN: 1908-9325, VOL:1 ISSUE: 3, 2009

that 37% of the performance in the G.E. area of the L.E.T. is accounted for by performance
in the mock examination.

Table1. Linear Regression Model for Predicting Performance in the G.E. Area of the L.E.T.
based on Performance in the Mock Examination of the BEED Graduates
Test Area

r2

General Education

.608: p<.01

.370

Regression

Standard

Sig.

Model

Coefficient

Error

Level

Constant

65.832

1.954

33.689

.000

Mock Gen Ed Percentile

.177

.036

4.964

.000

y= 65.832 + 0.177X
Since the computed correlation value is significant, simple regression analysis was
conducted. Results show that the regression coefficients are significant indicating that
performance in the G.E. area in the mock examination is a valid predictor of performance in
the G.E. area of the L.E.T. The derived regression equation formula is: Y= 65.832+ 0.177X.
From the formula, it can be inferred that for every unit increase in mock performance, there
is .177 corresponding increase in L.E.T. performance. Applying the formula, if one obtains
an 88% rating in the mock examination, then the predicted rating in the L.E.T. is 81.
Correlation and Regression Analysis between Performances of the BSED Graduates
in the Mock Examination and the G.E. Area of the L.E.T.
Table 2 presents the correlation between the performance of the BSED graduates in the
General Education (G.E.) area of the mock examination and the L.E.T. As shown, there is a
significant positive correlation (r = .687) between the variables concerned. This means that
that there is a direct linear relationship between performance in the G.E. area of the mock
examination and the L.E.T. Moreover, the coefficient of determination (r2) of .472 indicates
that 47.2% of the performance in the G.E. area of the L.E.T. is accounted for by
performance in the mock examination. The remaining percentage is due to other factors.
Salieu (2008) said that performance in examinations can be due to intellectual ability of the

University of the Cordilleras Research Journal


ISSN: 1908-9325, VOL:1 ISSUE: 3, 2009

examinee, the difficulty level of the examination, overconfidence, and the examinees
inability to follow instructions.

Table2. Linear Regression Model for Predicting Performance in the G.E. Area of the L.E.T.
based on Mock Examination Performance of the BSED Graduates
Test Area

r2

General Education

.687: p<.01

.472

Regression

Standard

Coefficient

Error

Level

58.270

1.712

34.043

.000

.214

.026

8.137

.000

Model
Constant
Mock Gen Ed Percentile

Sig.

y= 58.270 + .214X
The t-tests show that the regression coefficients are significant at the .01 level. This
implies that performance in the mock examination is a valid predictor or performance in the
L.E.T. particularly in the G.E. area.
Regression analysis resulted to the derivation of the simple regression equation
formula: y = 58.270 + 0.214X. The formula indicates that for every unit increase in mock
examination performance, there is a corresponding .214 unit increase in performance rating
in the LE.T. Applying the formula, if an examinee gets a percentile score of 80 in the mock
examination, then the predicted LET performance rating is 75.
Correlation and Regression Analysis between Performances of the BEED Graduates
in the Professional Education (P.E.) Area of the Mock Examination and the L.E.T.
Table 3 presents the correlation and regression analysis of the performance of the
BEED graduates in the P.E. area of the mock examination and the L.E.T. The computed
correlation coefficient ( r= .583) value is shown to be significant at the .01 level. This means
that there is a significant positive linear correlation between the two variables. It also
demonstrates a substantial relationship between performance in the professional education
area of the mock examination and the L.E.T. The coefficient of determination (r2 = .34)
indicates that 34% of the variation in students L.E.T. performance is accounted for by their
performance in the mock examination.

University of the Cordilleras Research Journal


ISSN: 1908-9325, VOL:1 ISSUE: 3, 2009

The t-tests show that the regression coefficients are significant at .01 level. This
implies that performance in the mock examination is a valid predictor of performance in the
L.E.T.

Table3. Linear Regression Model in Predicting Performance in the P.E. Area of the L.E.T.
based on the Performance in Mock Examination of the BEED Graduates
r

r2

.583: p<.01

.340

Test Area
Professional Education

Model
Constant
Mock Prof Ed Percentile

Regression

Standard

Sig.

Coefficient

Error

Level

70.613

1.255

56.262

.000

.119

.025

4.656

.000

y= 70.613 + 0.119X
The derived simple regression equation formula derived is y= 70.613 + 0.119X.

This

means that for every unit increase in the mock examination score, there is a corresponding
increase of 0.119 in the LET performance rating. Applying the formula, if an examinee
obtained a percentile score of 95 in the mock examinations then, the predicted LET
performance rating of the examinee is 82.
Correlation and Regression Analysis between Performances of the BSED Graduates
in the Professional Area of the Mock Examination and the L.E.T.
Table 4 reveals the correlation between performance of the BSED graduates in the
P.E. area of the mock examination and the L.E.T. The computed correlation value (r=.754)
is significant at the .01 level. This means that there is a significant positive linear correlation
between the two variables. If the mock examination performance rating of the examinee
increases, then the L.E.T performance rating will also increase.

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ISSN: 1908-9325, VOL:1 ISSUE: 3, 2009

Table4. Linear Regression Model for Predicting Performance in the P.E. Area of the L.E.T.
based on the Performance in the Mock Examination by the BSED Graduates
r

r2

.754: p<.01

.568

Test Area
Professional Education

Model

Regression

Standard

Coefficient

Error

Level

61.776

1.240

49.837

.000

.245

.025

9.861

.000

Constant
Mock Prof Ed Percentile

Sig.

y= 61.776 + .245X
The coefficient of determination (r2 =,568 ) reveals that 56.8% of the graduates
performance in the P.E. area of the LET is attributed to

performance in the mock

examination. The remaining percentage is brought about by other factors.


Regression analysis resulted in the following formula: y = 61.776 + 0.245X. The t-tests
reveal that the regression coefficients are significant at the .01 level. This implies that
performance in the mock examination is a valid predictor of L.E.T performance. Moreover,
it is reflected that for every one unit increase in the mock examination score, a
corresponding increase of 0.245 is seen in the LET examination rating. Using the formula,
if an examinee gets a rating of 85 in the mock examination, then the predicted LET
performance rating is 83.
Correlation and Regression Analysis between the Over-all Performance of the BEED
Examinees in the Mock Examination and the LET
Table 5 reveals the computed correlation between the over-all performance of the BEED
graduates in the mock examination and general average in the L.E.T. As shown, the
computed correlation coefficient (r= .771) is significant at the .01 level. This means that
there is a direct positive relationship between the two variables. As performance in the
mock examination increases, performance in the L.E.T. will also increase. The computed
coefficient of determination (r2= .594) indicates that that 59.4% of the general average in the
LET

is

accounted for

by

the

over-all

performance

of

the mock

examination

Regression analysis resulted to the derivation of the simple regression equation


formula of y= 67.145 + 0.158X. The t-tests reveal that the regression coefficients are

University of the Cordilleras Research Journal


ISSN: 1908-9325, VOL:1 ISSUE: 3, 2009

significant at the .01 level. This implies that over-all performance of the BEED graduates in
the mock examination is a valid predictor of their over-all performance in the L.E.T.
Furthermore, it is shown that for every unit increase in over-all mock examination
performance rating, there is a corresponding .158 increase in the general average LET
rating. Applying the formula, if an examinee gets an over-all percentile score of 85 in the
mock examination, the predicted general average in the L.E.T is 80.58.

Table5. Linear Regression Model for Predicting Over-all Performances of the BEED
Graduates in the L.E.T. based on their Performance in the Mock Examination
r

r2

.771: p<.01

.594

Test Area
General Average

Model
Constant

Regression

Standard

Sig.

Coefficient

Error

Level

67.145

1.148

58.501

.000

.158

.020

7.847

.000

Mock Gen and Prof Ed


Percentile

y= 67.145 + 0.158X
Correlation and Regression Analysis between the Over-all Performance
of the BSED Examinees in the Mock Examination and the LET
Table 6 shows that the there is a significant positive correlation (r= .893) between
over-all performance in the mock examination and general average in the LET by the BSED
graduates. As reflected, the obtained correlation coefficient is significant at the .01 level.
This implies that as over-all performance rating in the mock examination increases, there is
also an increase in the over-all L.E.T. performance of the examinees. The coefficient of
determination (r2=.797) shows that 79.7% of the general average in the LET is accounted for
by the over-all performance in the mock examination.
Regression analysis resulted to the derivation of the simple regression equation
formula of y= 59.949 + 0.234 X. The regression coefficients are significant at the .01 level
as shown by the t-tests. This implies that over-all performance in the mock examination is a

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ISSN: 1908-9325, VOL:1 ISSUE: 3, 2009

valid predictor of over-all L.E.T performance of the BSED graduates. It is also indicated in
the formula that for every unit increase in the over-all mock performance, there is a
corresponding .234 increase in over-all performance rating. Applying the formula, if the
examinees over-all performance rating in the mock examination score is 92, then the
predicted average rating in the L.E.T is 81.48.

Table6. Linear Regression Model for Predicting Over-all Performances of the BSED
Graduates in the L.E.T based on Performance in the Mock Examination
Test Area

r2

General Average

.893: p<.01

.797

Regression
Coefficient
Model
Constant

Standard

Sig.

Error

Level

59.949

.813

73.699

.000

.234

.014

17.060

.000

Mock Gen and Prof Ed


Percentile

y= 59.949 + 0.234X
1V. DISCUSSION
Findings of study reveal that the influence of mock examinations on actual
examinations cannot be underestimated. Attendance at a mock examination is claimed to
build student confidence and serves as a practice in answering the types of question set in
external examinations. The significant correlations and regressions coefficients imply that
results of mock examinations can validly predict performance in the L.E.T. It is an accepted
fact that school authorities administer mock examinations or practice tests with the hope that
these exercises will increase their students probability in passing an external examination.
These practice tests therefore should have predictive validity to be useful. Davis (1999)
cited Gronlund and Linn (1990) claimed that tests should be valid, reliable and balanced. A
test is valid if its results are useful in making decisions about an aspect of students
achievement.

Moreover, a test has predictive validity when if it can estimate how an

individual will perform on some subsequent criterion task (Sax, 1980).

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V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


Based on the findings of the study, it can be concluded that performance in a mock
examination significantly influences performance in an actual examination. The mock test
constructed by the College of Teacher Education in the University of the Cordilleras is a
valid predictor of performance in the Licensure Examination for Teachers.
As recommendations of the study, the College of Teacher Education of UC should
continue conducting comprehensive or mock examinations to their graduates before they
will take the L.E.T. For those who will perform poorly in the mock examination, further
review sessions may be arranged in order to increase their probability of passing the board
examination. The college should also construct a mock board test for the different fields of
specialization under the BSED program.
REFERENCES
Aquino, G. (2004). Effective teaching (3rd ed). Mandaluyong City: National
Bookstore.
Bilbao, P. (2006). The teaching profession. Metro Manila: Lorimar Teaching
Co.
Davis, B.G. (1999). Quizzes, tests, and exams. Retrieved August 1, 2008 from:
http://honolulu.hawaii,edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/
teachtip/quizzes.htm.
Examination Entry (n.d.). Retrieved August 22, 2008 from:
http://www.examentry.co.uk/4.html
Hilario,I. (2003). Factors influencing the LET performance of teacher education
Institutions in the Cordillera Administrative Region. Unpublished
dissertation, Saint Louis University, Baguio City.
Salandanan, G. (2001). Teacher education journal. Quezon City: Katha
Publishing.
Ricote, E. (2008). A comprehensive licensure examination for teachers
Reviewer. Quezon City: Katha Publishing.
Sax, Gilbert ( 1980). Principles of Educational and Psychological Measurement
and Evaluation ( 2nd Ed.). California: Wadsworth Publishing Co.

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Salieu, J. (2008). Why students do poorly in examinations. Retrieved


August 28, 2008 from:
Search Software Quality. com. Retrieved September 3, 2008 from:
http://searchsoftwarequality.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid92_
gci1245920.00.html.

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TRAVEL AGENCIES IN BAGUIO CITY: THEIRSTATUS,


PROBLEMS, AND PROSPECTS
Minnie B. Nullar, M.B.A.

ABSTRACT
The study aimed to establish a status profile of the travel agencies operating in Baguio
city, their problems, and prospects. Using descriptive-survey with informal interview and the
questionnaire as means of data gathering, it was revealed that most of the travel agencies
are owned by sole proprietors, have few staff members, with passport processing,
reservation and ticketing the primary services offered and traveling businessmen as their
main clients. Their most common problem relate to the inadequacy of the papers or
documents of their clients and the confirmation of bookings from their suppliers. The travel
agents agree that to be able to gain competitive advantage, continuous tourism-related skill
training and investing on technology are necessary.

I. INTRODUCTION

Traveling in ages past was troublesome, and the idea of tourism travel for pleasure
and enjoyment was virtually nonexistent.
conjure up images of hardship and pain.

However, in todays world, travel does not


People travel great distances in speed and

comfort. Journeys that took months by horse and carriage, weeks by ship, and days by car
or train now take only hours by air. Vacations that once cost a fortune, in terms of time and
money, can now be enjoyed by people of more modest means. Sales people travel to get
more business; young couples save for vacations, families visit relatives and friends; and
retired people travel the world for enjoyment and relaxation.
The travel industry today is characterized by dynamic growth and many
opportunities. Major companies are building hotels, expanding travel services, and opening
new air routes to places they have never been before.

Advanced communication

technology makes it easier, faster, and more economical to plan trips (Landry, 1994).
Travel, whether for business or pleasure, requires arrangements.

The traveler

usually faces a variety of choices regarding transportation and accommodation, if the trip is
for pleasure, destinations, attractions, and activities. The traveler may gather information on
prices, schedules, characteristics of the destination, and available activities on his own,
investing considerable amount of time and possibly money on long-distance telephone calls
to complete the trip arrangements. Alternatively, the traveler may use the services of a
travel agency, obtaining all of these arrangements at minimal cost.

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A travel agency is a middleman a business or a person selling the travel industrys


individual parts or a combination of the parts to the consumer. Fletcher (2003) defines a
travel agent as an agent-middleman, acting on behalf of the client making arrangements
with suppliers of travel airlines, hotels, tour operators and receiving a commission from
the suppliers.
A travel agent is thus an expert, knowledgeable in schedules, routing, lodging,
currency, prices, regulations, destinations, and all other aspects of travel and travel
opportunities. In short, a travel agent is a specialist and a counselor of travel (Cruz, 2006).
Besides selling prepared package tours, a travel agency also prepares individual
itineraries. It arranges for hotels, motels, accommodation at escorts, meals, sightseeing,
transfers of passengers and luggage between terminals and hotels; furthermore, it can
provide the traveler with a host of other information which would normally be hard to get.
Such travel enterprise saves the customers time and money (Mc Intosh and Ritchie, 2005).
Baguio City, known as the Summer Capital of the Philippines, is one of the
countrys premier tourist destinations. The city is approximately 250 kilometers north of the
countrys capital, Manila. Its pine-covered hills and fresh mountain air a stark contrast to
the warm humidity of the capital create an atmosphere that is hard to resist (Asiatype,
2001).
The 2008 records of the Department of Tourism (DOT)- Cordillera Administrative Region
(CAR) show that tourist arrivals in the city

continue to rise. Gabriel Keith of the City

Tourism Office said that the arrival last year (2007) compared to year 2006 represents an
increase of 9.16 percent (personal communication, April 3, 2008). The City Tourism Office
declared that a total of 559,515 local and foreign tourists have visited Baguio City in 2007.
Of this number, 544, 161 or 97.25% are Filipinos. Keith (2008) claimed that the tourism
office does not count on persons who visit the city for less than 24 hours because they are
only categorized as excursionists. If all the excursionists will be counted, then the number
of people who had visited the city would be in a million. Among the foreign visitors, South
Koreans topped the list with 7244 or 1.29%. This followed by the Americans (1.29 %) and
the Japanese (.73%). Other foreign visitors include the Chinese and the Australians.
Traveling to Baguio City is not very different from visiting other cities in the Philippines in
terms of available facilities. All modern conveniences are also available in the city.
Traveling is one of the most important social and economic activities today. The
number of domestic and international travelers is steadily increasing and many areas are

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now seeking to develop tourism for its many benefits. The role of the travel agencies in the
marketing is very important as the tourists plan their stay.

In the city, travel agencies

entertain inquiries regarding hotel accommodations, tours, and transportation.

They

encourage travelers to visit tourist spots like Burnham Park especially the lake, Mansion
House as presidents residence in Baguio, Wright Park for horseback riding, PMA as Asias
finest military academy, Camp John Hay as the very first American base, and the Maharlika
Livelihood Center for native products of the Cordilleras. But given all the above mentioned
tourist spots, what a travel agent always advises to tourists is to experience how Cordillera
culture touches their stay.
The importance of the travel industry could not be underestimated. The success of
tourism - related establishments provides much to the earnings of the province or city which
in turn can play a vital role in the national economic recovery of the country. Therefore, it is
very important that strategies for better marketing management must be utilized by travel
agency entrepreneurs, who are the subject of this study. Appropriate assessment of status,
problems, and prospects of travel agencies in Baguio City is relevant to ensure continuous
improvement and maximize quality service to travelers. In this light, the study aims to
determine the following.
1. Profile of travel agencies in terms of nature of ownership, employees educational
attainment & trade trainings, services, customer-travelers service preferences, and
agencies network;
2. Problems encountered during its operation; and
3. Priorities in attaining competitive advantages, and technology application.
II. METHODOLOGY
The descriptive research method was used in this study. The researcher considered
the assertion of Leedy (1993) that descriptive method is a purposive process of gathering,
analyzing, classifying, and tabulating data about the prevailing conditions, procedures and
operations of a certain phenomenon such as the status, problems, and prospects of travel
agency enterprises and then making adequate and accurate interpretation of such data.
The survey questionnaire was the primary instrument used in gathering the needed
data. During the preparation of the questionnaire, various sources were consulted such as
travel agents, customers, and faculty members of UC-CHRMT. Furthermore, results of

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15

informal participative observation by the researcher during her previous work experiences
had helped her formulate the questionnaire.
After the questionnaire was finalized and printed, it was distributed to the 31 travel
agency enterprises in Baguio City. The respondents are the managers or the owners of the
travel agencies.

Also, the researcher conducted informal interviews on the day of retrieval

of the questionnaire for further validation of the data.


III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The status of the subject travel agencies pertains to the nature of their ownership,
the profile of the personnel, the services which the business enterprises offer, the
characteristics of their customer-travelers, and their linkages with travel and tourism
organizations within and outside the country. For the purpose of this chapter, the pertinent
data on each status indicates are presented in appropriate tables.
PROFILE OF THE TRAVEL AGENCIES
Nature of Ownership. The travel agencies under consideration were classified according to
ownership either sole proprietorship, partnership or corporation status. The gathered data
reveal that 25 out of the 31 or 85.65 % of the travel agencies are operating under sole
ownership. These travel agencies can make their own decisions. Chand (2003) describes a
sole proprietor as the chief, the main man in command of the business, the big boss. Sole
proprietorship can steer the business into whatever direction you see fit and, like an artist
using a canvass, makes whatever strokes using any hues
There are 4 or 12.90% of the respondents who claimed that their travel agencies are
corporations. Compared to sole proprietorship, a corporations decision making process is
more tedious as it undergoes more scrutiny from the board of directors and officers. One
reason why owners prefer corporation is that there is bigger capital and wider client linkages
resulting in better financial support and better profit.
There are only 2 or 6 % percent of the respondents who said that their agencies are
under partnership. Unlike the corporation, the partnership is regarded merely as an
aggregation of persons doing business under a common name and not as a legal entity
separate and apart from its shareholders. The implication of this is that the earnings of the
partnership will be taxed only as personal earnings of the partners. Although corporations

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are usually organized to have perpetual existence, partnerships may be dissolved at any
time upon the withdrawal of a partner or upon the death of a partner. Dissolution may be
avoided by issuing transferable shares, but this device is not feasible except by a large
organization, in which, as in the case of a corporation, operating control can be centralized
in a board of managers (Britannica Deluxe Edition, 2007).
Chand (2003) claimed that the selection of suitable form of organization is based on
various factors such as capital requirement, legal formalities, tax incentives, limited liabilities,
professional requirement, location, nature of business, size of business, stability and
continuity, financial and non-financial incentive availabilities, economic considerations,
market factors. Whether sole, partnership, or corporation, an organization of a travel
company largely depends upon the size and type of business handled by it. Generally, in a
small and medium scale travel agency / tour operator, one will find a simple organization
structure being limited in terms of operation, size, division of labor and so forth.
Personnel. The gathered data show that 24 or 77.42% of the 31 travel agencies have
been operating with less than five (5) staff members , 5 or 16.13 % have 6-10 staff, and
only 2 or 6,45 % percent have more than 11 staff. This implies that travel agencies do not
need intensive manpower in order to operate the business.
A small-sized travel agency would have no more than ten (10) employees, with the
manager supervising all the departments of the agency. On the administrative side, the
back-up staff would be made up of a secretary, a bookkeeper, a cashier, and the utility staff
for janitorial and messenger services. Operations would have a travel counselor or counter
staff, backed up by a ticketing and reservation staff, and a liaison officer. The manager also
acts as the marketing person, backed up by an account executives to perform the sales
functions. To reduce the staff costs, the accounting functions would be contracted to an
outside individual.
Part-time workers are also welcome in this kind of business especially those that
concerns jobs related to sales and marketing. A part-time worker or freelancer as they call it
is a person who acts independently without being affiliated with the organization.
Freelancers do the selling and their income relies on their sales performance in terms of
commissions and rebates.

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Another reason why freelancers are hired is that they can expand the capabilities
and capacity of the organization and give it flexibility to scale up and down the number of
employees according to the organizations needs (Allen, 2007).

Todd & Rice (2002)

stressed that an independent travel counselor works for a travel agency selling its services
to businesses, groups, and individuals and gains its compensation in the form of
commission on products sold.
Travel related companies rely on customers wants and needs. Direct contact with
these customer-travelers is really vital to enhance their sales & marketing outcomes. Very
often, the more sales consultants an agency has, the more sales force is needed in its
employ. If freelancers can pursue the sales, it means more clients and possible income for
the company.

Juden (2005) said that freelancers can be the perfect complement to a

permanent workforce, especially when competition for staff is tough.


Hiring Employees. The travel agencies under study have their own criteria in the hiring of
personnel, All of the travel agencies employ college graduates. The data show that 14 or
45.16 % of the respondents prefer business-tourism graduates as employees. Since the
business is highly related to the tourism industry, it is expected that graduates of tourismrelated courses like BS Tourism and Foreign Service which concentrate on geography,
tourist spots, and customer service are preferred.
Nine (9) or 29.03 % of the respondents hire graduates who are specialized in
business related courses like BS Commerce with professional concentration on Marketing,
Management, or Accounting. This implies that the respondents choose employees who
possess basic business knowledge and skills. Eight (8) or 25.81 % of the respondents are
not really particular with the college degree obtained by their staff as long as they are
college graduates. Tourism manpower planning does not aim to determine quantity of
human resources. It aims to determine quality, estimate demand for the future, anticipate
specific jobs, and determines the sound recruitment of potential employees (Chand, 2003).
The fields of travel, tourism, and hospitality are constantly growing and changing. An
individual who has the necessary motivation, education, and experience will have the
opportunity to enjoy a highly satisfactory career or several careers if he or she is willing to
continue to learn and explore new challenges. He may have a challenging and exciting
future in one of the positions described previously or in a position which is not yet designed.
Individuals who want mobility have a variety of careers from which to choose. Not only great

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mobility within given field such as travel agency, but also among several career fields. A
well-trained professional can provide the same kind of competencies for airlines, cruise
lines, bus companies, state or local tourist agencies as well as a variety of hospitality-related
fields (Cruz, 2006).
Travel Trade Trainings. The gathered data show that the staff members of the travel
agencies attend four major trade trainings. There are 28 or 90.32 % of the respondents who
allow their employees to attend intranet training, and basic travel & tours operations.
Intranet trainings like Abacus, Amadeus, and PACERS are computerized systems which are
connected to all suppliers, travel agents, and tourism related providers. These systems
make the operation access sites that provide basic information on possible destinations,
lodging, hotel accommodation, and travel agencies among other things.
Before the advent of the intranet system, basic travel and tours operations already
exist.

But the operations were done manually in terms of reservations, ticketing, and

documentations, using pen & paper, calculator, and manual typewriters.


There are 20 or 64. 52% of the respondents who said they send their staff to attend
sales and marketing training. This kind of training is also one concern of a travel agency
because it deals with customers behavior. A travel & tours marketer should be aware of the
different moods and wants of travelers that shape the travel demands.
Only 10 or 32.26% of the agencies have their employees exposed to frontline &
customer service training. Frontline and Customer Service is part of sales & marketing as it
is

concerned with the daily walk-in clients who visit or call the agency and ask for

assistance.
Trainings for travel agents are provided by many vocational schools and colleges &
universities that offer full-time tourism courses. Some employers prefer agents who have a
background in computer science, geography, communication, foreign languages, or world
history, because these backgrounds suggest an existing interest in travel and culture and
help agents develop a rapport with clients (Cruz, 2006).

Courses in accounting and

business management also are important especially for those who expect to manage or
operate a travel agency (Horner, 1996).
Services Offered by the Travel Agencies. Travel agencies can offer as many travelrelated services as they can; but agencies have the so-called specialty service which makes
them known to clients. The respondents were requested to rank the services individually,

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with rank 1 reflecting the most common service rendered and with rank 5 the least common.
The ranks given by the respondents for each service were added to come up with the total.
The over-all rank was based on the total.
The gathered data show that passport processing & documentation and reservation
& ticketing lead the services offered by the agencies. These are followed by students
educational tour assistance, tour packages and visa assistance. Claravall (2008) mentioned
that in order to increase an agencys revenue, additional product line such as students
eductours, travel insurance, tour guiding, and events management services are also offered.
As published by Home Travel@Agency (2007), the travel agency today is vastly different
from the early agency operating out of a bus station or caf. Agencies offer many services
that no one even dreamed of forty years ago.
Preferred Tourist Destinations.

The gathered data reveal that 24 or 77.43 % of the

respondents claimed that Hongkong is the most preferred international tourist destination of
their clients. This is followed by Bangkok in Thailand and then Singapore. It is interesting to
note that these destinations are all located in Asia. Hongkong is considered the shopping
paradise of Asia. It also has the Disneyland World Park, its newest tourist attraction. Also,
Bangkok, Thailand is also preferred because of the oriental nature of its culture. Thailand
offers diverse culture - tourists love to visit Bangkok for the aesthetic appreciation of its
culture & heritage a touch of Buddhism. Singapore is called the Little America of Asia
because of its advanced technology and breakthroughs in its buildings and highways. Other
international tourist destinations mentioned by the respondents are, Jakarta, Indonesia, the
USA, United Kingdom, Europe, Macau, Australia, China, and Canada.
As for domestic travel destinations, Boracay in Aklan ranks first with 25 or 80.65 % of
the respondents claiming that it is the most preferred destination of their clients. An isolated
island in Aklan, Boracay was voted as the best beach in the world by ASTA Spots in 1995,
1997, and in 2000. Almost all Filipinos love to visit this eco-tourism spot all year round.
Boracay is known for its refined sugar-like sand and its clear quiet waters. Palawan is also
popular choice of the travelers according to 22 or 70.97% of the respondents. Palawan is
the choice of adventurous tourists. Cebu referred to as the Queen City of the South is also
preferred by the travelers. It is attractive because of its history, beaches, exotic foods, and
the hospitality of the Visayan people. Tagbilaran in Bohol, Davao, Bacolod, and Camiguin
are also in the list. In Northern Luzon, travelers prefer Banaue, Ifugao and Sagada of the
Mountain Province, Vigan City

of the Ilocos Region and the Hundred Islands of

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Pangasinan.. The capital city of Manila and the provinces of Laguna and Cavite are also
some of the choices.
The most obvious sellers of destinations are the travel agents. To be effective, the
travel agent must be aware of the various aspects of the places that the travelers favor
(Mancini, 1995). Selling a place is a genuine art. It requires knowledge of the destination
and of the travelers needs. The object is not simply informing people about destination, but
to motivate them to visit the tourist destination.
Occupation and Residence of Customer-travelers. In terms of occupation of the
travelers, businessmen lead the rank with 41.92 % of the respondents answering that they
are their number one clients. Businessmen often attend meetings and conferences in
different places; hence, there is a need for them to travel. Next are the private employees.
Apparently, these employees often travel to relax and have a break from the monotony of
their jobs.
In terms of clients residence, local residents are the most common clients of the
travel agencies as revealed by 24 or 74.19% of the respondents. . This implies that local
travelers avail of the services of a travel agency that is already within the locality or
community. Foreigners also avail of the services of the travel agencies. Some foreigners
consider availing the services of a travel agent in the processing of their papers and other
travel necessities for their convenience. Balikbayans also avail of the services of the
agencies in the processing of their papers and when touring the country.
Reasons for Traveling. Seventeen (17) or 54.84% of the respondents claimed that the
reason why their clients travel is business-related. The travelers are businessmen who
attend conventions, business conference, or some other kind of professional activity. Other
clients travel for personal reasons such as seeking for medical treatment, relaxation and
exploration, and relaxation or recreation. Some people visit a particular place for sightseeing
and recreation. They spend their leisure time engaging in various activities like sports,
sunbathing, talking, singing, taking rides, touring, reading, or simply enjoying the
environment. Some also travel for educational purposes or for conducting some kind of
scientific research or study. Visiting friends or relatives is also a reason given by the
respondents as a reason for their clients travel.
Linkages with Tourism Industry. Since tourism is a diverse industry made up of many
different segments, there is a need to interrelate and share information. This has led to the

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establishment of several public and private organizations at the international, national,


regional, state, and local levels (Cruz, 2006). Basically, a travel agency serves two (2) types
of clients: business travelers and leisure travelers. The requirements of these tourists are
different and an agency has to assemble or purchase related components from the principal
suppliers to cater their needs. Essentially, travel agencies, maintain close ties with the
airlines, hotels, car rentals, banks, insurance companies, government, trade associations,
tour operators, travel agents, and tourism educational institutes (Chand, 2003).
Travel companies provide business to organizations and in return receive
commissions. Such travel company can not work in isolation but is interdependent with other
related enterprises.
Nineteen (19) or 61.29% of the travel agencies in Baguio city are members of the
Baguio City Travel & Tours Association (BCTTA) while 12 or 38.71% are members of the
National Association of Independent Travel Agents (NAITAS). Both BCTTA & NAITAS are
regional associations based in the city. Some of the agencies are members of the Baguio
Tourism Council (BCT), Baguio City Visitors Bureau (BCVB), Hotel and Restaurants
Association- Baguio (HRAB) and others.
It is also noted that some agencies are members of national organizations like the
Philippine Travel Agencies Association (PTAA), the Philippine Conventions and Visitors
Corporation (PCVC), and the Philippine Tour Operators Association (PhilTOA). These
professional tourism organizations work closely with the government to promote the
development of the tourism industry. Some of the travel agencies are also accredited by the
Department of Tourism (DOT) and the Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA).
The International character of modern tourism and growing influence of international
agencies in various fields are shown in the growth of international cooperation and
organization in tourism. In the city, one (1) travel agency is a member of the International
Air Traffic Association (IATA) while another is a member of the American Society of Travel
Agents (ASTA) and another is a member of the Philippine-Asia Travel Association (PATA) .
It also noted that 3 travel agencies have no affiliations in any regional, national or
international organization in its based industry. Claravall (2008) said that a travel agency
can not isolate itself from associations that are actively involved in the trade.

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PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY TRAVEL AGENCIES


Based on the gathered data, the problems encountered by the travel agencies in
Baguio City are (1) lack of appropriate papers or documents, (2) demanding clients, (3)
booking, (4) limited skills of the staff, and (5) expensive tours.
Lack of Papers/Documents. There are 14 or 45.16 % of the agency-respondents who
claimed that lack of appropriate papers/ documents/information is a common problem in
their operations. These papers pertain to birth certificates (discrepancy of details or no
records), marriage contracts (legal or commonly married), school and/or employment
certification, properties documents, and even bank statements.

Embassies, and

government agencies like the DFA, Bureau of Immigration (BI), and the POEA, are so strict
in their authentication of documents, hence the processing of papers often becomes a
problem.
Confirmation of Bookings from Suppliers. Eight (8) or 25.81 of the respondents claimed
that their most common problem pertains to confirmation of bookings. Most of the travel
agencies in the city do not have direct access to suppliers ( airlines, hotels, resorts, and
other tourism-related establishments) hence they have a hard time asking for confirmation of
bookings because they only rely on the slots of their wholesalers, and its up to these
wholesalers to confirm the bookings. Only 1 or 3.23% of the travel agencies is a member of
IATA which means that only one agency has a direct access to suppliers to make
reservation and request for tickets online. This problem underscores the importance of
affiliating with national and international organizations.
Demanding clients. Seven (7) or 22.58% of the respondents claimed that a problem they
usually experience relate to the behavior of their clients or the travelers. They claimed that
some clients insist on what they want and they want it to be given quickly. Such behavior
they said is irritating and can hinder the smooth operation of the agency.
Price. Since all services and products of tourism should be quoted in terms of the US Dollar
as declared by the World Tourism Organization, the rates appears to be expensive for
travelers for they have to convert the Philippine Peso to the US Dollar in paying the services
that they have availed of. Rates in packages actually are inclusive of all government taxes
and insurances. This problem however is one of the least mentioned difficulties encountered
by the respondents.

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Limited Knowledge and Skill of Staff. Lack of adequate skill and knowledge of the staff is
also one of the least mentioned problems of the travel agencies. Although, this is not so
much of a problem to the agencies, there is still a need for a continuous training program for
travel consultants and other staff members in order to update them with latest strategies and
technology on how to improve their service and enhance the satisfaction of their clients.
PROSPECTS OF THE TRAVEL AGENCIES
Although travel is an important and constant force in world economy, it is a volatile
field and travelers can be very fickle. There are hundreds of destinations and companies
competing for travelers attention and their money.

Many, many things can affect the

popularity and acceptability of destinations to the worlds travelers (Fletcher, 2003).


Tourism industry today is the product of many forces that have shaped both its
structure and the manner in which it functions. A large number of factors have consistently
influenced the growth of tourism including economic prosperity, availability of leisure time,
higher levels of education, and increase in the number of retirees, credit availability, growth
of cities and improvement in transportation (Cruz, 2006).
Competitive Advantages. These are issues that include changing demographics, market
segmentation, frequent-guest programs, continuous staff career advancement, and role of
tri-media in marketing strategies.
priority of thirteen (13)

Of these issues, continuous training of staff is a top

or 41.94% of the agency-respondents, seven (7) or 22.59 %

agency-respondents favor the designing of attractive packages, and another six (6) or
19.35% want to employ market segmentation as top priority to keep their business
competitive. Promoting services through tri-media campaign is also suggested by five (5) or
16.13% of the agency-respondents. These findings imply that to be competitive in the
industry, the travel agencies acknowledge the importance of improving their services
through trainings, advertising, and other promotional programs.
Technology. At the travel agents fingertip is the ability to access information quickly. Ecommerce invites competitive purchasing of services from either local suppliers or directly
from global-site sellers. The ability to negotiate without one-on-one, intimidating personal
interaction, using web-based services, is changing the rules of commerce.
Based on the gathered data, twenty (20) or 64.52% of the agency-respondents
prefer to acquire latest equipments & gadgets for faster and better operations; additional

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intranet system is secondary, and applying e-commerce to their business is the last priority.
Home Travel Agency (2007) averred that the small agency of today is computerized and has
immediate access to worldwide travel information. It can issue a ticket and printed itinerary
in less than ten seconds. It can fax a hotel on the other side of the globe and have a
confirmed reservation for a client in a matter of hours, if not minutes.
It is also revealed in the study that the respondents concentrate on customer-traveler
convenience more than the internal prospects of the business. Marketing strategies and
technology play a vital role in making travel agency operations updated on business trends.
Although the customer is regarded as the heart of marketing, still internal forces like
human resources and marketing strategies make the business cells go, grow, and glow.
Technology is the name of the game today Digital Revolution of Business. E-commerce is
evolving to keep business wireless, touching the world in just a click of a finger, and see &
talk to suppliers, clients, and have video-conference through intranet transaction.

The

agency-respondents realize the value of modern technology for their business advantage.
IV. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Most of the travel agencies in Baguio city are under sole proprietorship, operated by a
few staff, prefer to hire graduates of tourism-related courses, send their staff to attend
Intranet trainings and basic travel and tours operations, offer passport processing, ticketing,
and reservations as their primary services, and are members of local/regional and national
tourism-related organizations. Very few are members of international organizations.
The clients of the travel agencies are mostly businessmen who attend meetings and
conferences in different places. The most preferred international tourist destination of their
clients is Hongkong while Boracay in the province of Aklan in the Visayas is the most
preferred Philippine tourist destination.
The most common problem encountered by the travel agencies relate to the
processing of the necessary papers/documents of their clients. Continuous training,
acquisition and use of modern technology and designing attractive tourism-related packages
are necessary strategies for competitive advantage in the field of the travel and tourism
industry.
As recommendations, travel agencies should develop a continuous training program
for their employees to update and enhance their knowledge and skills in performing their

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functions. Attendance to travel trade trainings and customer relations workshops is


necessary for the staff to gain expertise thereby promoting quality service.
Networking should be considered as a marketing strategy.

The travel agencies

should apply for more membership in national and international organizations. They should
invest on modern technology to help them keep abreast with latest trends and techniques in
the tourism industry.
Travel Agencies may adopt market segmentation and tri-media approach as
promotional strategies and conduct market researches to know the needs, problems, and
preferences of their clients.
REFERENCES
Allen, Scott (2007) Scott allens entrepreneurs blog, New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Asiatype, Eric (2001) Asia Travel News retrieved January 16, 2008 from
www.asiatype.com.
Business Network (n.d) retrieved April 7, 2008 from www.bnet.com
Chand, Mohinder (2003) Travel agency management, India: Anmol Publication
Chand, Mohinder (2003) Travel agency management: an introductory text, New
Delhi: Anmol Publications
Claravall, Bienvenido III (2008) Travel agency operations, Manila: Tourism Entreprises
Cuario, Lyra (2004) The Status and Problems of Tourist Spots in Pangasinan.
Unpublished Undergradaute Thesis, University of Luzon
Cruz, Zenaida L. (2006) Principles of tourism, part 1, Manila: Rex Bookstore
Elinzano, Marcela V (2005) Establishment of Wedding Coordination Service in
Dagupan City, A Feasibility Study. Unpublished Masteral Thesis:
Graduate Studies, University of Luzon
Fletcher, John (2003) Tourism: principles and practice, Malaysia: Longman
Fuertes, Virginia B (2006) Status, Problem, and Prospects of Fishing Operation
In Binmaley, Pangasinan. Unpublished Masteral Thesis: Graduate Studies,
University of Luzon
Gloria, Melinda L (2005) The Glory Dei Montessori School Financial Operation: An
Assessment. Unpublished Masteral Thesis: Graduate Studies, University of Luzon
Home-based Travel Agency (n.d) retrieved April 7, 2008 from
www.Hometravelagency.com

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Horner, Pauline (1996) Travel agency practice, England: Addison-Wesley


Longman
Juden, Simon (2005) 2005 Recruitment, Retention and Turnovers, published Sept. 5, 2005
from http://www.bytestart.co.uk/content/office_home/office/freelancers-hav
Landry, Janice L. (1994) The world is out there waiting, New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Leddy, RW (1993) Basic research and its applications, Manila: National Bookstore
Mancini, Marc (1995) Selling destinations geography for the travel professional
(2nd ed), Ohio: South-Western Publishing Co.
Mc Intosh, Robert and JRB Ritchie (2005) Tourism: principles, practices,
philosophies. 11th ed, New York: John Wiley
Marketing Tips (n.d) retrieved April 7, 2008 from www.marketingtips.com/t.cqi/10120
Merriam-Websters Dictionary (2007) Merriam Websters Dictionary, Deluxe Edition
Phillimore, Jenny and Lisa Goodson (2004) Qualitative research in tourism New
York: Routledge, pp. 37
Positive News Media (n.d) retrieved April 7, 2008 from
www.positivenewsmedia.net/am2/publish/Tourism_24Baguio.com
Syratt, Gwenda (2003) Manual of travel agency practice 3rd ed, Burlington: Elsevier
Butterworth-Heineman
Todd, Ginger and Susan Rice (2002) Travel perspective a guide to becoming a
travel professional, USA: Delmar
Women in Travel World (n.d.). Retrieved April 7, 2008 from
www.womenincorporate.htm

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PERSONAL RESPONSES TO STRESS: THE CASE OF THE NON-TEACHING


EMPLOYEES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF THE CORDILLERAS
Janus Carlo S. Pestao, BS Psych
Bernardo B. Avena, BSC
Teresa M. Bejar, BSC

ABSTRACT
The study dealt on the stress responses of the non-teaching staff of the University of
the Cordilleras. The respondents of the study were 102 or 80% of the non-teaching
employees in the different offices and departments of the university. Using descriptivecomparative method, it was revealed that the employees most prevalent stress responses
relate to the physical or physiological functioning of the body. Also, it was shown that age
and length of service made a significant difference on their stress responses. It was
recommended that the stress management program developed by the researchers be
implemented by the school administration to minimize the negative impact of stress to the
employees.
I. INTRODUCTION

Stress is inevitable in the workplace. It is a stark reality that employees have to deal
with everyday. Whether you are a bank manager or a teller, store supervisor or cashier,
office head or ordinary staff - no matter what you do- you cannot avoid the pressures of daily
work. As Figueroa (2007) puts it, Like the ubiquitous mug of coffee, stress is a staple of
every workplace (p. 4).
Many consider the 8-to-5 routine of the office as the ideal work environment. After all,
one has to sit at his or her desk all day writing and typing paperwork on a typewriter or
computer. Unknown to most people, however, the mundane tasks in the office can cause
can cause injuries if one does not pay attention to the signals of his or her body. These
injuries are called repetitive stress injuries. Repetitive stress injuries are injuries that develop
when a particular part of the body is subjected to intense and sustained strain for a long
period of time throughout the day. Several factors aggravate these injuries, which include
poor body posture and positioning while performing task, awkward movements of the body
part, few recovery breaks, and certain conditions in the workplace, such as type of
furnishings, type of office equipment and lighting (Pascual, 2005).
Cartwright and Cooper (1997) identified six primary work-related sources of stress:
(1) factors intrinsic to the job itself, (2) roles in the organization, (3) relationships at work
such as those with supervisors, colleagues, and subordinates, (4) career development

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issues, (5) organizational factors, including the structure and climate of the organization as
well as its culture and political environment, and (6) the home-work interface.
There are several theoretical models explaining stress in the workplace. Cooper,
Dewe, and ODriscoll (2001) discussed several theoretical models of job-related stress that
were used to illustrate the sequence of events in stress transactions as well as their
interrelationships. Much of research work on stress has been carried out using the
interactional framework. This model postulates that the perceived presence of certain work
conditions may be associated with a number of stress responses. This model also predicts
that various organizational characteristics, situational factors, and individual differences can
influence this stimulus-response relationship. Generally, the model has resulted in three
types of research applications. These include (1) identifying, describing, and categorizing
different stimuli; (2) demonstrating a relationship between the different categories of stimuli
and responses; and (3) exploring the nature of that relationship by investigating the
moderating effects of different organizational, job-specific, and individual-difference
variables.
Responses to Stress
Stress response refers to the response syndrome that accompanies exposure to a
stressor. It includes mental events such as emotion and interpretation or appraisal of
environment events and physiological responses (Baum, Fisher & Singer, 1985). Stress
response is categorized into four major dimensions namely physical, behavioral, cognitive
and emotional.
Physical Stress Responses. Stress can induce risky mind-body disorders.
Symptoms like dizzy spells, tension, nervousness, muscle cramps can result in chronic
health problems when we constantly remain under stress. Stress has been linked as well to
heart disease, stomach problems, and headache among others Kiecolt-Glasr (2003). Other
physical stress responses are backaches, shoulder stiffness, feeling fatigued or tired,
shortness of breath or breathing rapidly.
Behavioral Responses to Stress. A person suffering from stress also experiences
behavioral irregularities. Baum, Fisher & Singer (1985) said that the increased arousal that
results from our awareness of stress may interfere with other activities or reduce our ability
to deal with other things and may therefore affect a wide range of behaviors. Lingering
stress has been reported to alter the diet of a person, causing him to eat compulsively or too

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fast. Negative stress responses such as addiction to alcohol and substance abuse are also
attributed to stress (Castillo, 2005). Chandola (2008) also reported that stressed workers
usually eat unhealthy food, smoke, drink, and skip exercise.
Cognitive Responses to Stress. Negative thoughts have also been associated
with stress. One study revealed that people who experienced the most daily hassles had the
most negative self-images (Tolan, Miller, & Thomas, 1988). In 1975, Lazarus as cited by
Baum, Fisher & Singer (1985) considered the role of perception and cognitive appraisal in
the stress response to be very important. Cognitive stress responses also include worrying a
lot or having troublesome thoughts, unable to concentrate or focus, and forgetting things or
getting confused.
Emotional Stress Responses. Emotion is a feeling or affect that involves a
mixture of physiological arousal, conscious experience, and overt behavior. In many
instances, when we are under stress we display negative emotions such as anger, anxiety,
fear, and sadness. For example, an employee who faces the stress of completing an
assigned task may be angry at his boss for giving him little time to do the job, anxious about
the possibility of not completing the task, fearful that he might be fired as a consequence,
and sad that life isnt more enjoyable (Simons, Kalichman, & Santrock, 1994). Furthermore,
prolonged stress has been associated with depression, anxiety, hostility, and psychosomatic
illness (Baum, Fisher & Singer, 1985). Other emotional stress responses are feeling
worthless, trapped, disappointed, cynical, disenchanted, agitated, irritated, short-tempered
and impatient.
According to Villanueva as quoted by Parra (2005), When stress is recognized and
responded to appropriately, then and only then, will employees have a solid defense against
claims of work-related stress. (p. 65). It is in this light that this study was conceived. It
sought to determine the stress responses of the non-teaching employees of the University of
the Cordilleras along physical, behavioral, cognitive, and emotional dimensions. Certain
variables were also examined to determine if they cause variation on the stress responses
of employees. These are sex, age, civil status, length of service, and employment status. An
output of the study is a Stress Management Program for the non-teaching staff of the
University of the Cordilleras.

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II. DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY


This study applied the descriptive-comparative method. This method was utilized
because the researchers sought to compare the stress responses of the employees when
grouped according to sex, age, civil status, length of service, and employment status.
The respondents of this study were 102 or 80% of the non-teaching employees of
the University of the Cordilleras. Of the 102 respondents, 40 are males and 62 are females.
The research instrument used in this study is the Personal Stress Inventory. The
questionnaire is designed to measure the stress responses of the employees in four
dimensions namely physical, behavioral, cognitive, and emotional. The response options to
the items in the questionnaire are never (1), rarely (2); sometimes (3), often( 4), and
always (4).
The statistical tools used in this study are weighted mean, frequency distribution and
percentage, Independent sample t-test, and One-Way Analysis of variance (ANOVA). The
data were statistically processed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences,
Version 16 (SPSS,v.16).
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 1 reveals the stress responses of the non-teaching employees of the
University of the Cordilleras in the four dimensions. The obtained area means indicate that
the employees rarely respond to

stress in the physical, behavioral, cognitive, and

emotional dimensions. This means that generally, the employees seldom respond to
stressful circumstances in the workplace. This implies that they are able to manage their
responses to stress well and have a high level of stress tolerance.

Table 1. Stress Responses according to Dimension

Dimension

Area Mean

Description

Rank

Physical

2.44

Rarely

Behavioral

1.94

Rarely

Cognitive

2.30

Rarely

Emotional

2.07

Rarely

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31

Nonetheless, compared to the other areas, it is in the physical dimensions where the
employees respond to stress more as evidenced by the highest area mean of 2.44. This
means that work stress affects the physical health of the employees the most. Parra (2005)
claims that stress manifests itself in many ways but more recognizably, in our health and
disposition. She explains that long hours, infrequent breaks, heavy workload and lack of
opportunity for growth are great risks for headaches, strain indigestion, hypertension,
pounding of heart and even sudden bursts of aggression or depression. This implies that
there is a need to take care of the employees physical well-being because the healthier the
employees are, the more dynamic and motivated they will be in doing their jobs.

On the other hand, the non-teaching employees had the least stress responses in
the behavioral dimension as indicated by the lowest area mean of 1.95. This implies that the
employees least respond to stress behaviorally. Behavioral irregularities such as eating
compulsively or too fast, drinking alcohol or using mood altering drugs, unconsciously
grinding of teeth, clenching of fist or tapping of feet are seldom resorted to by the nonteaching staff as responses to stress.

It also appears that the non-teaching staffs rarely display negative cognitive stress
responses. Even under stressful situations, the employees seldom experience forgetfulness,
confusion, worrying, and difficulty in sleeping. Hardly ever do they experience emotional
stress responses as well. Even in the face of stress, the employees rarely feel depressed,
sad or unhappy. They seldom feel disappointed, cynical, disenchanted, agitated or irritated.

A quick glance at Table 2 would show the mean scores of the male and female
employees in all dimensions of stress response. To determine if the mean differences are
significant, the t-test was used. It was found that the computed t-values are not significant at
.05 level. This implies that sex has not caused a variation in the respondents frequency of
stress response in all the dimensions studied. Sex does influence the frequency of stress
response among the non-teaching staff of UC.

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Table 2. Stress Responses of the Employees according to Sex

Dimension

Male

Female

t(cv)

Sig. Level

Physical

2.31

2.53

1.58

.118

Behavioral

1.98

1.91

.615

.540

Cognitive

2.21

2.36

1.05

.297

Emotional

1.97

2.14

1.29

.201

Table 3 presents the stress responses of the employees according to age. It can be
observed that the obtained F-values indicate the existence of significant difference among
the employees along the behavioral, cognitive, and emotional dimensions. To determine
where the difference exists, Post-Hoc Analysis using Scheffe was utilized. It was found that
in the three aforementioned dimensions, the significant difference lies between the early
young adults (21-30 yrs. old) and the middle age (41-60 yrs. old) employees. This means
that the early young adult employees resort to behavioral, cognitive, and emotional stress
responses more frequently than the middle age employees. This is because young adults
are not as good as the middle age adults in controlling their responses to stress. In 2004,
Lachman explained that middle adulthood, ages 40 to 60, is a time when people reached
and maintain satisfaction in their careers. Middle adults experience less stress because they
are able to balance work and relationship responsibilities in the midst of the physical and
physiological changes associated with aging.

Table 3. Stress Responses of the Employees according to Age


21-30

31-40 yrs

41-60 yrs

Dimension

yrs old

old

old

F (cv)

Sig. Level

Physical

2.53

2.50

2.26

1.58

.211

Behavioral

2.07

1.91

1.76

3.33*

.040

Cognitive

2.50

2.33

1.97

5.30**

.006

Emotional

2.28

2.02

1.79

5.91**

.004

*Significant at .05 level

**Significant at .01 level

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In Table 4, single and married employees were compared as to who experience


stress responses more frequently in the different dimensions. The computed t-values in all
dimensions were found to be insignificant because the obtained significant levels are above
.05. This means that civil status does not make a significant difference on the stress
responses of the employees. This implies that the married employee experiences the same
stress responses as the single employee. Both groups claim that they rarely experience
stress responses across all dimensions. This finding does not support literatures saying that
civil (marital) status influences stress responses of individuals (Hildreth, 1987; Luecken et al,
1997; Coombs and Fawzy, 1982).

Table 4. Stress Responses of the Employees according to Civil Status

Dimension

Single

Married

t(cv)

Sig. Level

Physical

2.37

2.49

.877

.383

Behavioral

1.89

1.96

.631

.530

Cognitive

2.25

2.33

.577

.565

Emotional

2.03

2.09

.462

.645

Table 5 shows a comparison of the stress responses of the employees when


grouped according to length of service. To determine the existence of significant difference,
ANOVA was used. As observed, the computed F-values in the four dimensions are
statistically significant. This means that there is a significant difference among stress
responses of the employees when grouped according to length of service. Post-Hoc
Analysis was used to determine which group of employees is experiencing emotional stress
responses more frequently than the others. Employees who have been working in the
University for 5-9 years were found to be encountering stress responses more frequently
than the others. A reason for this could be that employees with 0-4 years of service are still
energetic and full of vigor in their jobs, ignoring the hassles of daily work. On the other hand,
employees with more than 10 years of service in the institution may have mastered the art of
managing their stress responses or they are already immune to the stresses in the
workplace. A similar study on work stress among 674 airline cabin crew reported that length

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of service had a minor moderating influence on work stress. Crew with longer service
consistently reported less stress than the more junior crew (Morley-Kirk & Griffiths, 2003).
Table 5. Stress Responses of the Employees according to Length of Service
15 yrs &
Dimension

0-4 yrs

5-9 yrs

10-14 yrs

above

F (cv)

Sig. Level

Physical

2.45

3.07

2.19

2.32

4.53**

.005

Behavioral

2.04

2.22

1.69

1.74

4.35**

.006

Cognitive

2.38

2.86

2.00

2.07

4.65**

.004

Emotional

2.20

2.44

1.70

1.85

4.89**

.003

**Significant at .01 level

The comparison of stress responses of the employees as to their employment status


is presented in Table 6. Evidently, there exists no significant difference between the
regular/permanent employees and contractual/probationary employees stress responses
across all dimensions. It can be observed that there is not much a difference in the mean
scores between the two groups. The t-values as well were found to be statistically
insignificant at .05 level. This means that employment status does not influence stress
responses of the non-teaching employees. The contractual/probationary employees are
encountering the same stress responses as the regular/permanent employees. Both groups
have rare occurrences of stress responses in the physical, behavioral, cognitive, and
emotional dimensions. This finding is not supportive of the findings of previous studies
showing that employment status affects the stress responses of employees (Morris, 2004;
Jackson et al, 1998; Latack et al, 1995).

Table 6. Stress Responses of the Employees according to Employment Status


Regular/
Dimension

Contractual/

Permanent Probationary

t(cv)

Sig. Level

Physical

2.44

2.47

.125

.901

Behavioral

1.90

2.03

1.26

.211

Cognitive

2.30

2.34

.129

.898

Emotional

2.06

2.09

.201

.842

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35

IV. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


Generally, the non-teaching employees of the University of the Cordilleras have a
high level of stress tolerance. Nonetheless, their most frequent stress response relates to
physiological functioning. It was also found that age and length of service significantly
influence the stress responses of the employees. Younger employees respond to stress
more frequently than the older employees.
In light of these findings and conclusions, it is recommended that direct physiological
measures of stress like diagnostic tests and consultation on stress should be conducted by
the Medical Clinic and Guidance Center. In addition, the management should take care of
their employees physical well-being by providing free medical examinations, conducting
more health-related seminars, hosting more stress management workshops among others.
Furthermore, the developed stress management program should be supplemented and
implemented by management to help the employees overcome their stress Conducting
similar studies that would other factors that could affect the stress responses of employees
like family situations, job satisfaction, income levels, and working hours is also
recommended.
REFERENCES
Baum A., Fisher J.D., & Singer, J.E. (1985). Social psychology. New York: Random
House Inc.
Castillo, Donna (2005, September). Bust off stress. Health News.
Manila: Manila Times Corporation. pp. 50-51.
Cartwright, S., & Cooper, C. (1997). Managing workplace stress.
California: Sage Publishing.
Coombs, R.H., & Fawzy,F.I. (1982). The effect of marital status on stress. USA:
Am J Psychiatry, 139, 1490-1493.
Cooper C.L., Dewe P.J., and ODriscoll M.P. (2001). Organizational stress.
London: Sage Publictions.
Figueroa, L. (2007). Overcoming stress in the workplace. Philippine Daily Inquirer
October 28, 2007. p. 4.
Hildreth, K. (1987). Social-psychological stress in work organizations. New york:
John Wiley.
Jackson, T., Iezza, A., Lafreniere K., Narduzzi, K. (1998). Relations of
employment distress among chronic pain patients: A path analysis. The Clinical
Journal of Pain. Canada: ETATS-UNIS.
Kiecolt-Glaser, J.K., preacher, K.J., Maccallum, R.C., Atkinson, C., Malarkey,
W.B., & Glaser, R. (2003). Chronic stress and age-related increases in the
Proinflammatory cytokine. Proceedings of the National Academy of
Science USA, 100, 9090-9095.
Lachman, M.E. (2004). Development in midlife. Annual Review of Psychology

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(vol. 55). Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.


Latack, J., Kinicki, A., & Prussia, G. (1995). An interactive process model of
coping with job loss. Academy of management Review, 20, 311-342.
Luecken, L.J. et al. (1997). Stress in employed women: impact of marital status
and children at home. North Carolina: Behavioral Medicine Research Center.
Morris (2004). Stress, mental health and suicide: Employment status. Retrieved:
May 6, 2008. http://www.dhsspsni.gov.uk/mentalhealthunemployment.pdf.
Morley-Kirk, J., Griffiths, A. (2003). Cabin crew work stress. International
Research. University of Nottingham (UK). Retrieved April 20, 2008.
http://www.workstress.net/downloads/CCWS_2003_Summary.pdf
Parra, M.A. (2005) Workplace wellness. Health News. Manila: Manila Times
Corporation. pp. 65-65.
Pascual, R.V. (2005, September). Injuries in the workplace. Health News.
Manila: Manila Times Corporation. pp. 46-49
Simons, J.A., Kalichman, S., Santrock, J.W. (1994). Human adjustment.
Madison: Wm C. Brown Communications, Inc.

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37

FRONT OFFICE OF ACCREDITED HOTELS IN BAGUIO CITY: PROFILE, PROBLEMS


AND STRATEGIES FOR QUALITY SERVICE
Ma. Beatriz C. Cimacio, M.A.
Minnie B. Nullar, M.B.A.
Daisy Blesilda C. Pormentira. M.B.A.
Olivia H. Reside, Ph.D.

ABSTRACT
The research focused on establishing the profile of accredited hotels in Baguio city, the
basic concerns of their front offices, and the strategies that they employ to ensure the
delivery of quality service. With descriptive-survey as a research design, the researchers
administered a questionnaire to the front office supervisors of 11 accredited hotels in the city
by the Department of Tourism (DOT). Based on the gathered data, it was revealed that 64%
of the hotels are corporations, with 8-60 employees, 34-71 rooms, 3-8 front office staff and
had been engaged in the business for 3 to 28 years. Majority of the front office supervisors
are young female professionals. Although minimal, problems encountered by the front
offices relate to reservation, check-ins/registration, settling of bills and check-outs. To
ensure quality service, the hotels design orientation and training programs for their front
office staff.
I. INTRODUCTION
Throughout history, people have always traveled, whether it is to conquer worlds,
discover new places, for business or pleasure. This need of man has consequently led to
the development of accommodation facilities.

Gray and Liguori (2003) said that inns

keeping has through the ages been closely associated with travel, always adapting itself to
the changing needs of the traveler (p. 10)
Giving of accommodation is a people business. It exists to provide services to the
traveling public and at the same time needs people to run it. A hotel, for example can be a
simple rooming house or a twenty storey building that provides room for rent or food and
beverage service, but one vital ingredient is common it must be a home away from
home.
Clients usually want their homes to be attractive, clean, relatively quiet and safe,
basic requirements that they usually look for in a hotel. Vacationers, for instance, want time
away from work so they expect a quiet atmosphere that will be conducive for relaxation.
Also, they expect that their lives, as well as their personal belongings will be protected
through safety and security measures that the hotels have. On the other hand, there are
clients who are not satisfied with what they have in their homes, so their stay in a hotel
offers them an opportunity to experience a style of living that they can only dream of
(Weissinger, 2000).

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The key to the success of a hotel business is service which starts with the first
contact between the guest and the hotel personnel of the Front Office. The way guests are
received and treated is very vital because this becomes the basis of their first impression
and conditions their disposition about the other services of the hotel. If guests receive the
brand of hotel hospitality at the onset, this can mean repeated patronage in the future
(Roldan, 2004). This is reiterated by Gray and Liguori (2003): The sleeping rooms in just
about all hotels are comfortable, well equipped, and clean. So the guests must evaluate a
hotel and its services by the courtesy and efficiency they find in its employees.

The

importance of the role played by the front office in promoting good guest relations is selfevident and cannot be overemphasized.

Less known, but almost as important to the

financial success of a hotel is the staffs role in credit, payroll, staff planning, and income
control (p. 114)
Because the Front Office provides the initial contact, this is also where customerrelated problems usually occur. Guests are willing to pay the price as long as they feel they
get their moneys worth. Thus, they will voice their discontent over a rude waiter or slow
room service and expect prompt solution to their complaints. Moreover, customers have
different expectations, attitudes and tolerance levels so some of them will be too demanding
or will be unwilling to follow rules and regulations of the establishment.
A hotels organization may vary according to its size and the services it offers but
one thing is certain, the Front Office Department is always present. The Front Office is
considered the nerve center of a hotel. Majority of the direct interaction in a hotel occurs
between the guests and the Front Office personnel more than in any other department. This
is where the stage is set for a pleasant or an unpleasant visit as this is where first
impressions are formed. A guest is usually eager to begin his vacation and business plans
and would like to get as much information as he can to make his stay as enjoyable as
possible. So he turns to the front desk clerk, bellman or concierge because they are the
most visible to the guests and are thought of to be the most knowledgeable.

Their

responses to requests for information or guests concerns are often reflective of how well the
hotel has prepared the front office staff for this important role. Furthermore, this gives the
guest a glimpse of the kind of

services offered by the hotel (Bardi, 2003; Roldan, 2004).

Good service means satisfied customers which will in turn lead to continued business for the
hotel.

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Weissinger (2000) lists ten (10) basic functions of the Front Office Department, as
follows:
1.

Processing advance reservations

2.

Registering guests

3.

Rooming guests

4.

Moving guests luggage

5.

Issuing room keys

6.

Providing information

7.

Handling guests mail

8.

Administering telephone service

9.

Accounting (making payments and billings)

10.

Checking out guests

In large, full service hotels, the Front Office is divided into separate sections that
handle different areas of operation as shown in Figure 1. These may vary depending on
circumstances, for example adoption of computerized front office recordkeeping systems

that confront a hotel.

FRONT OFFICE MANAGER

FRONT DESK
AGENT

RESERVA-TIONS
AGENT

SWITCH
BOARD
OPERATOR

FRONT OFFICE
CASHIER

UNIFORMED
SERVICE

CONCIERGE

Figure 1. Organizational Chart of Front Office in Large Hotels (Kasavana and Brooks, 1991)

The Front Office Supervisor or Manager oversees the day to day operations of the
Front Office as well as develops and maintains an effective communication system with the
front office staff, other departments in the hotel and the community, at large. The sections in
the Front Office, each tasked with interdependent functions are the Front Desk,
Reservations Section, Uniformed Service, Telephone Exchange/Switchboard Operator,

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Concierge/Guest Relations Assistance/ Airport/Transport Guest Assistance and the Front


Office Cashier/Business Center (Roldan, 2004).
The Front Desk takes charge of guests registration as they arrive; assigning of
rooms; handling of room keys, mails and telephone messages and serves a communication
center for guests requiring information about hotel facilities/services, points of interest,
transportation schedules and others.
Accepting and processing of reservations for room bookings is the function of the
Reservation Section.

Reservations are received and accepted through the telephone,

computer reservations systems (CRS) or through direct personal contact. This section also
handles inquiries about room rates and arrangements.
The Uniformed/Bell Service escorts and carries guests luggage during check in and
check out while the Telephone Service receives, answers and screens local and
international calls.

Billing statements are prepared by the Front Office Cashier in

coordination with the other hotel outlets, especially for charge accounts. Payments are also
accepted by this section. Guests requiring any kind of assistance like tour arrangements,
reconfirmation of tickets or transfers from the hotel to the airport will be assisted by the
Concierge/Guest Relations and the Airport/Transport Guest Assistance respectively.
In smaller

establishments,

however,

where there are lesser

rooms

and

lesser transactions, some sections typical to large organizations may be merged together
(Figure 2). There may be no difference between the front desk or reservations section and
front office cashiering.

Thus, the front desk clerk may also be the reservations clerk,

telephone operator and cashier while the bellboy may be one of the room attendants who
also functions as the doorman.

Sometimes the Front Office Supervisor/Manager may also

assist in processing reservations, checking guests in upon arrival and checking guests out
during departure.

Front Office
Supervisor

Desk Clerks

Night Auditor

Figure 2. Organizational Chart of the Front Office in Small Hotels (Bardi, 2003)

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The physical appearance of the Front Office varies from large to small or full service
to limited service hotels but is usually a counter located at the lobby. The personnel who fill
the other positions are stationed behind the front desk counter but the bellman usually
stands near the hotel door.

MAINTENANCE

MARKETING
AND SALES

BANQUETS

FOOD AND
BEVERAGE

FRONT OFFICE

HOUSE
KEEPING

HUMAN
RESOURCE
MANAGEMENT

CONTROLLER

SECURITY

Figure 4. The Front Office and other Departments (Bardi, 2003)


Cooperation and communication is very important in the hotel industry and this is
most evident in the Front Office (Gray and Liguori, 2003). The Front Office is at the center of
interdepartmental communication for it gathers and relays information to the other
departments to meet client needs at once.

For example, the Marketing and Sales

Department will be able to develop programs to attract more clients to the hotel based on
data that the Front Office can provide on guest history, frequency of visits, special
needs/requests and reservations. These programs in turn will help the Front Office to sell
rooms. Likewise, the Housekeeping and Front Office need to communicate with each other
about the rooms available for guest occupancy. Guest requests for supplies or additional
amenities are always coursed through the Front Office Department first. Consequently, the
Human Resource Department will provide competent personnel based on the volume of

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business transactions for the Front Office to be able to deliver hospitality as required by the
guests.
The success of a hotel business depends on the success or failure in giving
hospitable service. Because the Front Office is in the front line much depends on its staff.
Some attributes of an ideal front office employee, to name a few are courteousness and
friendliness, efficiency and promptness, the genuine desire to work with people and being
neat and attractively dressed. He must also have a feel of what a guest expects and wants.
Guests expect quick and efficient service; products and services that work; feeling safe and
secure while in the hotel and feeling that they are the most important people in the world.
Also, guests today value the use of their names in any situation. It not only makes them feel
important but extends friendliness, understanding and empathy between the employee and
guest or vice versa. If these expectations are not met, then the hotel, specifically the Front
Office is faced with a variety of customer related problems or complaints.
Common complaints received by the Front Office have something to do with the lack
of cleanliness; physical condition of the room such as problems on air conditioning, low
water pressure; discourteous or uninformed employees; telephone service; slow room
service or billing discrepancies (Weissinger,2003). Bardi (2003) reiterates this by citing

speed of service, high price, and poor selection of products, low quality products and
rude personnel as problem areas in which some hotels fail to meet guests
expectations.
In a recent Market Matrix study conducted among hotel guests in the United States,
researchers Barksy and Nash (2007) found out that 12% of the respondents have
encountered problems during their stay. Problems caused by staff, for example failure of
the telephone operator to attend to wake-up call requests, have the biggest negative impact
on guest loyalty. Problems with billing and food are the next most severe problems with
other respondents complaining about room accommodations.

It would seem that

customers today are less tolerant of mistakes than they have in the past. However, majority
of the customers said that once these difficulties are resolved at once, they may still remain
loyal to the hotel.
Lee, in his study entitled, Hotel Service Quality and Satisfaction Perceived by
Foreign Visitors to Korea, found out that wake up calls and helpfulness of the information
desk is among the attributes that satisfies visitors. On the other hand reasonable room

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price, baggage handling service, transportation arrangement, business center, efficiency of


the front desk, hotel staffs prompt service, and all functions of the Front Office contribute to
visitor dissatisfaction.

Lee, therefore suggested that proper attention be given to the

dissatisfiers as these are potential problems that hotels may face.

Furthermore, an

understanding of the changing desires and expectations of customers can improve hotel
services.
One concern of the Front Office worth looking into is on the habit of guests to get
items from their hotel rooms as souvenirs. These range from small items like bath towels,
bath robes, bed linens to expensive items like iPods and artworks. While some guests will
not mind having these items charged to their account, others may refuse to pay that part of
the bill. The decision of a hotel to charge the guest may also be questioned because of the
difficulty in determining whether it is the guest or the employee that takes an item (Hanna,
2008).
Ironically, one of the common problems encountered by the Front Office staff is on
guests who would like to extend their stay beyond the check out time without additional
charges. According to a survey, twenty seven (27%) percent of the guests who delay their
check- outs are younger than 42 years old and are unmarried (Dunn and Cudebec, 2007).
The qualities of effective Front Office employees are seen in the Hotel and Motel
Managements Third Annual Voice of the GM survey. This survey looked into the
competitive advantage of selected hotels in providing guest experience. Hughes (2007)
found out that on top of the list of hotel facilities that contribute to an excellent guest
experience is having a pleasant and knowledgeable staff that is able to recognize and
address issues promptly.
Researches are conducted for the addition of more knowledge or for the solution of
existing issues in a certain field. The importance of hospitality research has been recognized
only in the recent years as the industry has previously borrowed theories from other
disciplines (Lockwood and Medlick, 2001). Much will still have to be done, that is why
studies such as this will be very beneficial to several proponents:
For the management of all hotels, accredited or non-accredited, local or international,
identification of concerns encountered in Front Office will be the first step in taking corrective
or preventive action. Management will gain insight into common and less common problems
and find ways to deal with these so that they may be prevented from occurring in the future.
This research can also give them an insight on problem areas in the Front Office, for

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44

example, miscommunication during reservations or on the way front desk clerks treat their
clients, so that these can be improved. Thus staff members can be given trainings on how
to handle guests queries courteously and effectively. Organizations must not rest on their
laurels, but must continuously strive to provide better service to its clients. Furthermore, the
research will give them an idea on how efficient their front office personnel are.
Much has been said about guest complaints but researches on client-related
problems from the point of view of the establishment, especially those encountered in the
Front Office have been nil.

It is because of this reality that this research was

conceptualized.
It was the purpose of the study to look into the problems and issues that are
commonly encountered by the Front Office Department of accredited hotels in Baguio City.
Specifically, it sought answers to the following questions:
1.

What is the profile of the accredited hotels in Baguio City?

2.

What are the basic problems of the personnel of the Front Office in terms of?

3.

a.

reservation

b.

check in/registration

c.

settlement of bills

d.

check out

What strategies are adapted by hotel management to ensure the provision of


quality service by the Front Office staff?

II. METHODOLOGY
The researchers adopted a descriptive research design. Calderon and Gonzalez
(1993) defined descriptive research as a purposive process of gathering, analyzing,
classifying, and tabulating data about prevailing conditions . . . and them making adequate
and accurate interpretation . . . with or without the aid of statistical methods (p. 62).
Respondents of the study were limited to the front office supervisors of eleven (11)
accredited hotels in Baguio City. This was because of the difficulty in obtaining a complete
list of all hotels in the city. The Baguio Tourism Office (BTO), Baguio Licensing and Permits
Office (BLPO) and the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) had different listings so the
researchers decided to use the data from the Department of Tourism (DOT) on hotels
accredited by them. After all, the DOT is the agency that initially formulated standards for

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tourism oriented establishments to ensure minimum levels of operating quality and


efficiency.
The Front Office supervisors who responded to the questionnaire are employed at
Prince Plaza Hotel, Pines View Hotel, Ridgewood Residence, Hotel Supreme, Summer
Place, Cooyeesan Hotel, El Cielito Inn, Hotel Elizabeth, City Light Travel, City Travel Hotel,
and Hotel Villa Rosal. Data gathering was done from May 12 to 24, 2008.

III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Findings of the research on the profile of the accredited hotels, problems of the Front
Office, and the strategies employed to ensure delivery of quality service are presented and
discussed as follows:
Profile of the Accredited Hotels and the Front Office
The profile of the Front Office of the hotels included in the study pertains to the
nature of ownership of the hotel, number of years that the hotel is in operation, number of
employees of the hotel, number of rooms of the hotel, gender and age of the supervisor, and
number of front office staff.
Nature of Ownership. According to the gathered data, 7 or 63.64% of the hotels are
corporations, while 4 or 36.36% are under sole proprietorship. The hotels with corporation
status are Prince Plaza Hotel, Pines View Hotel, Ridgewood Residences, Cooyeesan Hotel,
El Cielito Inn, Hotel Elizabeth, and City Travel Hotel. On the other hand, Hotel Supreme,
Summer Place, City Light Travel, and Hotel Villa Rosal are under sole proprietorship. It is
apparent that there are more hotels with corporation status. This is because putting up a
hotel needs a big capital and equity and good business management. Decision-making
process though is more tedious as compared to sole proprietorship. In hotels under sole
proprietorship, the owners can make their personal decisions and steer the business into
whatever direction they want.
Chand (2003) claimed that the selection of suitable form of organization is based on
various factors such as capital requirement, legal formalities, tax incentives, limited liabilities,
professional requirement, location, nature of business, size of business, stability and
continuity, financial and non-financial incentive availabilities, economic considerations and
market factors.

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Whether sole, partnership, or corporation, an organization of a hospitality industry


largely depends upon the size and type of business handled by it. Generally, in a small and
medium scale, one will find a simple organization structure being limited in terms of
operation, size, division of labor and so forth.
Years in Operation. There are 5 or 45.45 % of the hotels that are in operation for
less than 10 years. These are Pines View Hotel (3 yrs.), Ridgewood Residences (3 yrs.),
Summer Place Hotel (6 yrs.), Hotel Elizabeth (3 yrs.), and City Travel Hotel (8 yrs). There
are 4 or 36.36% of the hotels that are in operation for more than 10 years but less than 20
years. These are Prince Plaza Hotel (11 yrs.), El Cielito Inn (15 yrs.), and City Light Travel
(11 yrs.) and Cooyeesan Hotel (11 yrs.) There are also 2 or 18.18% of the hotels that are in
operation for more than 20 years. These are Hotel Supreme (23 yrs.) and Hotel Villa Rosal
(22 years).
Baguio city, being a premiere tourist destination in northern Philippines, has hotels
that are in existence for many years. This implies that the hotel industry in the city is
profitable. The yearly influx of domestic and foreign tourists makes the hotel business viable.
This is also the reason why every now and then new hotels and inns are being constructed
to accommodate the tourists visiting the city.
Number of Rooms and Employees. There are 4 or 36.36% of the hotels that
have less than 50 rooms. These are Hotel Villa Rosal (44), City Travel Hotel (34), City Light
Travel (39) and El Cielito Inn (47). On the other hand, there are 7 or 63.64% of the hotels
have 50 and above number of rooms. These rooms are Prince Plaza Hotel (56), Pines View
Hotel (58), Ridgewood Residence (50), Hotel Supreme (55), Summer Place (60),
Cooyeesan Hotel (52, and Hotel Elizabeth (71). In terms of the number of employees, there
are 4 (36.36%) with 30 or less number of employees. These are Ridgewood Residence (20),
City Light Travel (26), City Travel Hotel (30) and Hotel Villa Rosal. There are 7 hotels with
more than 30 employees. The biggest number of employees is in Hotel Supreme (62). This
is followed by Prince Plaza Hotel (60), Pines View Hotel (50), Summer Place (40),
Cooyeesan Hotel (37), El Cielito Inn (32), and Hotel Elizabeth (32).
Kasavana (1991) explains that the size of a hotel can dictate on the number of its
personnel. Usually a in a small hotel, one front office agent performs nearly all the functions
with very little assistance. However, during seasonal influx, two or three desk agents may
be assigned to work at the same time to cope with the workload. Sometimes even the
supervisor or manager may help out in the Front Office. Hotels that would like to offer luxury

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service maintains a relatively high ratio of staff members to guests so that they can respond
quickly to guests requests. Multitasking is also being practiced in hotels. It is a common
practice in some hotels that they hire part time employees or get students on practicum
during peak seasons to augment the limited number of personnel.
Number of Front Office Staff. The number of Front Office staff ranges from 2-8.
There are 5 or 45.45% of the hotels with 5 or less number of Front Office staff. These are
Cooyeesan Hotel (5), Hotel Elizabeth (5), City Light Travel (3), Hotel Villa Rosal (3), and
Ridgewood Residence (2). Six (6) or 54.55 % of the hotels have more than 5 Front Office
Staff. These are Prince Plaza Hotel (8), City Travel Hotel (7), Pines View Hotel (6), Hotel
Supreme (6), Summer Place 6, and El Cielito Inn (6). The Front desk staff usually work on a
three shift rotation basis: the morning shift (7:00 am 3:00 pm), the mid-shift (3:00 pm
11:00 pm), and the graveyard shift (11:00 pm 7:00 am).
The number of Front office staff depends on the size of the hotel and the number
of employees. Ideally, the bigger the hotel, then more staff must be assigned at the Front
Office. This is to ensure prompt service provided to the guests. Because the Front Office is
in the front line much depends on the staff. Some attributes of an ideal front office
employee, to name a few, are courteousness, friendliness, efficiency, and promptness, the
genuine desire to work with people and being neat and attractively dressed.
Gender of Front Office Supervisor. There are 6 or 54.55% of the hotels with
female Front Office supervisors while there are 5 or 45.45% with males. It appears that
hotels prefer females to manage their Front Office. Also, the percentage distribution implies
that women have more interest in hospitality business. It means that the female gender is
good in managing any business that is related to the hospitality industry. According to the
research of Cheskin (2008), women are starting businesses at twice the rate of men and are
becoming a major force in both the traditional and e-business marketplace. Women of today
are very professional than women of yesterday. They are good supervisors and managers
and have learned all the ways on how to go to the top of management.
Age of the of the Front Office Supervisor. The age of the supervisors ranges
from 21-50 years. Seven (7) or 63.64% of the supervisors are 21-30 years old, while, 4 or
36.36% are more than 30 years old. This finding implies that the supervisors belong to
young businessmen who are still energetic and healthy to do eight to sixteen hours work

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loads a day.

The trend in business management today is hiring young, efficient, and

capable supervisors and managers.


Problems Encountered by the Front Office
Problems encountered by the Front Office relate to reservation, general behavior of
the guest, paying of the bills, registration, and checking out.
Reservation. The findings reveal that majority of the respondentsupervisors said
that guest claiming that they he or she has prior reservation, guest refusing terms and
conditions, miscommunication regarding reservation details, guest complaining that the
Front Desk clerk is rude, and guest is demanding and rude are

problems seldom

encountered by the Front Office. There is only one (1) or 9.09 % of the respondents who
claimed that rude and demanding guests are very often encountered. These findings
mean that generally, the reservation services of the hotels are appreciated and accepted by
their guest. This is also reflective of the quality service provided by the Front Office staff of
the hotels. Apparently, one reason why there are minimal complaints on reservation is that
most of the guests are walk-ins and the kind of service provided to them is personalized.
However, the implication is that hotels in Baguio city are not yet fully automated in terms of
their system. There is no central reservation system being used globally. It seems that
hotels in the city are not yet ready for such technology as it is very expensive.
Computer systems in the hospitality industry was first introduced in the 1970 but
were not considered viable because they were expensive that only large hotels could use
them. However, by the late 1980s, hotels of all sizes found these systems cost effective and
user friendly. Today, there front office software packages designed to assist the front office
employees perform functions related to reservations management, rooms management,
guest account management and general management (Kasavana, 1991). Walker (2004)
explains that central reservations systems are used for accurate guest reservations and
billings that can be completed quickly and with less error.
Paying of Bills. The findings reveal that majority of the respondents seldom
encountered a guest who refuses to give deposit, refuses to acknowledge part of his or
her bills, refuses to pay his F&B charges, and does not acknowledge missing items.
These findings imply that the Front Office thoroughly checks the order slips being signed by
the guest/s. Bills given to the guests are accurate. There is also very good housekeeping
procedure and Front Office management. There is an effective and efficient way of checking

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the missing item/s before the guest/s leave/s the hotel. Although generally, the problems
presented are seldom encountered, there are 3 or 27.27 % of the respondents who
claimed that they often encountered a guest refusing to pay his/her F &B charges. This
implies that the either the guest is not sure about the bill or the Front Office committed an
error in billing him the charges.
Checking Out. The gathered data reveal that 5 or 45.45% of the respondents
seldom encountered a guest who would like to extend his stay without additional charges
but 4 or 36.36% of them claimed that they often encountered such. This implies that the
guest failed to understand the general policy of the hotels about accommodations but if he
or she does, he/she might have been expecting a discount or a bargain. The
data also revealed that upon checking out, 5 or 45.45% of the respondents seldom
encountered guest complaining about their services, another 5 said that they fairly often
encountered such problem, while 1 or 9.09% claimed to have often encountered such
concern. This finding implies that generally, the hotel guests are satisfied with the quality of
service given to them. Kotler (2007) said, Customer satisfaction depends on a products
perceived performance in delivering value relative to a buyers expectations. If the products
performance falls short of the customers expectations, the buyer is dissatisfied.
performance matches expectations, the buyer is satisfied.

If

If performance exceeds

expectations, the buyer is delighted (p. 17)


Strategies for Quality Service. The hotels in Baguio city are in agreement
with Metleski ( 2007, p. 20) that trainings must be given to Front Office (FO) staff so they
can possess the essential skills and provide them with the necessary tools that will equip
them with the confidence to step in and be involved with any situation that presents itself in
the front office. The gathered data show that 10 or 90.91% of the hotels design trainings on
FO Standard Operating Procedures and Duties and Responsibilities in FO, seven (7) or
63.64% conduct trainings on Computerization and Use of Modern Technology and
Product/Services Updates, 6 or 54.55% conduct trainings on Handling Costumer Services,
and 5 or 45.45% implement training programs on Personality Development. Only 2 or
18.18% claimed to have conducted staff training on Industry Trends and Issues.
Specifically, 11 or 100% of the hotels conduct orientation sessions for their newly
hired staff, 10 or 90.91% update or maintain a logbook for record and purposes, 9 or

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81.82% offer trade trainings, 7 or 64.64% foresee daily monitoring checklist, 6 or 54.55%
conduct weekly meetings, and 4 or 36.36% conduct performance evaluation.
The hotels acknowledge that despite minimal problems they encounter, there is a
need for the continuous training of the Front office staff so that they can provide the best
quality service to the guests and to keep themselves updated on new technologies and
techniques in hotel operations.

IV. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


Based on the findings, it can be concluded that majority of the D.O.T. accredited
hotels in Baguio City are corporations, with young upwardly mobile female professional as
Front Office supervisors. The hotels deliver quality service to their guests. They also design
and conduct training programs as strategies for the maintenance and improvement of the
quality of service that Front office staff provide to their guests.
As recommendations, the hotels can look into the adoption of modern, automated
and computerized technology to become more competitive. Likewise, the hotels must have
a central reservation system (CRS) for prompt and accurate guest reservations and billing.
Front Office supervisors should encourage daily monitoring and continuous updating and
maintenance of a logbook for more efficient flow of operations.
Trainings and seminars on technical and interpersonal skills and new trends in office
management should be provided to Front Office personnel. Performance evaluation should
be conducted by hotels that do not practice such. Performance evaluation is necessary
because it can serve as a feedback mechanism on performance of employees. This is also
important in identifying training needs.

REFERENCES
Bardi, James A. (2003). Hotel front office management. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons,
Ltd.
Barsky, Jonathan and Nash, Lenny (2007). Staff problems can ruin guest loyalty. Hotel and
motel management. 222, p. 14.
Calderon, Jose F and Gonzales, Expectacion C. (1993). Methods of research and thesis
writing. Mandaluyong City: National Book Store.
Chand, Mohinder. (2003). Travel agency management. New Delhi: Anmol
Publications Pvt, Ltd.
Dunn, Greg and Cudebec, Jennifer (2007). Travelers rank free breakfast high on

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the must have list. Hotel and motel management, 21, pp. 26-27.
Gray, William S and Liguori, Salvatore C (2003). Hotel and motel management and
operations. Singapore: Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
Guerrier, Yvonne (1999). Organizational behavior in hotel and restaurants. England: John
Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
Hughes, Barbara (2007). Knowing your business means knowing your guests. Hotel and
motel management, 222, p. 38.
Kasavana and Brooks (1991). Managing front office operations. USA: Educational
Institute of the American Hotel & Motel Association.
Lockwood, A and Medlick, S. (2001). Tourism and hospitality in the 21st century. Oxford:
Butterworth-Heinemann.
Metelski, Julian (2007). Handle problems swiftly to minimize damage. Hotel and motel
management, 222, pp. 19-23.
Roldan, Amelia S. (2004). Front office procedures and guest relations. Paranaque: AR Skills
Develoment & Management Services.
Social Science Research Institute. (2007). International training on social research and
indigenous people manual. Baguio City: College of Social Science, University of the
Philippines Baguio.
Walker, John. (2004). Introduction to hospitality management. New Jersey:
Pearson Education, Inc.
Weissinger, Suzanne S (2000). Hotel/motel operations: An Overview 2nd ed.
Singapore: Delmar Publishing.

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PERFORMANCE OF UC STUDENTS IN ARCHITECTURAL


DESIGN COURSES
Virgilio E. Villanda, MS Arch
Nicanor K. Latogan, MS Arch
Robert V. Romero, BS Arch

ABSTRACT
The study dealt on the performance of BS Architecture students of the University of
the Cordilleras in the different architecture design courses or subjects offered during the 3rd
Trimester, S.Y. 2004-2005 to the 3rd Trimester, S.Y. 2006-2007. Performance was
measured in terms of frequency and percentage of students passing, failing, and dropping
the subject as well as those who obtained incomplete grades. Using descriptive method with
questionnaire and documentary analysis as means of data gathering, it was revealed that
Site Development, Planning and Landscaping (AR 321) was the course failed most by the
students while Creative Design in Architectural Interiors (AR 221) was the subject mostly
dropped by the students. Also, it was shown in the findings that it is in the subjects Design of
Complex Structures (AR 411) and Thesis Research Writing (AR 421) that the students
obtained incomplete grades the most.

I. INTRODUCTION
The architectural design course in the University of the Cordilleras is a 10-trimester
sequential program. These are considered synthesizing subjects where the students are
given the opportunity to find solutions to architecture-related problems involving the built
environment. It is essential that the students be trained to adopt a conceptual approach to
architectural design by providing them the skills to translate programs and develop the
solutions to completion.
Architecture is the art, science or profession of planning, designing and constructing
buildings in their totality taking into account their environment, in accordance with the
principles of utility, strength and beauty. An architect is a person professionally and
academically qualified, registered and licensed under this Act with a Certificate of
Registration and Professional Identification Card issued by the Professional Regulatory
Board of Architecture and the Professional Regulation Commission, and who is responsible
for advocating the fair and sustainable development, welfare and cultural expression of
societys habitat in terms of space, forms and historical context (CHED No. 61 series of
2006).
Modern learning in architecture is enormously changing, but its foundations are still
hinged on the learner, the teacher and facilities and equipments. As architecture students
enrollment continues to increase, meeting the instructional needs of the students is

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paramount. Serving students should include investigating curriculum structure as well as


different teaching style preferences. Researchers can turn to learning theories for a
foundation from which to develop their studies.
Academic performance is claimed to be an index of learning. Etulle (1995) defined
academic performance as that which refers to knowledge acquired and skill developed as
indicated by the grade computed and evaluated by the teacher. Moreover, Belsa (2000)
defined academic performance as a measured performance of an individual in school
brought about or as a result of his intelligence which includes ability to think and reason out,
to analyze and solve problems, memory and perceptual speed. In this study, academic
performance is defined in terms of the percentage of students who incurred an incomplete
grade and those who passed, failed, or dropped the subject.
A lot of studies were already conducted to identify factors that influence academic
performance. These researches revealed that academic performance is not only a product
of intelligence but also other factors found in the environment. Segnaben (1996) noted that
academic performance is brought about by the interplay of different factors including
intelligence, habits, motives, attitudes and personality.
Basaen (1991) in her study concluded that there is a significant relationship between
need for achievement and academic performance among students. Her findings showed
that both achievement motivation and intelligence influence the level of academic
performance; hence, both potential and effort are related to ones academic achievement.
The Architecture Design courses of UC are: Introduction to Design (AR 131),
Creative Design Fundamentals (AR 211), Creative Design in Architectural Interiors (AR
221), Space Planning 1 (AR 231), Site Development Planning and Landscaping (AR 321),
Community Architecture and Urban Design (AR 331), Design of Complex Structures (AR
411), Thesis Research Writing (AR 421) and AR 431 (Thesis Research Application).
It was the purpose of this study to determine the performance of the students in the
different architectural design subjects and the status of the architectural design subjects as
to the availability of the facilities with reference to the policies, standards, and guidelines for
the BS Architecture program. Moreover, it also sought to determine the perception of the
students on the extent of adequacy of these facilities.

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II. METHODOLOGY
The descriptive-survey method was adopted using document-analysis and the
questionnaire to gather data. Report on grades from the 3rd Trimester, S.Y. 2004-2005 to 3rd
Trimester, 2006-2007 were taken from the Office of the Registrar and the Office of the dean
of the College of Engineering and Architecture. Furthermore, those who responded to the
questionnaire were 74 BS Architecture students of UC distributed according to year level as
follows: 2nd year -32; 3rd year-29; and 4th year-13. Frequency percentage, and weighted
mean were used to statistically treat the data.
III. RESULTS
The status of students performance is presented and analyzed based on frequency and
percentage of students failing and dropping the subject. Moreover, the frequency and
percentage of students who obtained incomplete grades are also included.
Design Subjects Commonly Failed by Students
Failing Grade refers to the rating obtained by a student who did not pass the subject.
Table 1 presents the ranking of regular architectural design subjects commonly failed by the
students.
It is revealed that AR 321 followed by AR 311, AR 221 and AR 211 have the highest
percentage of students who failed the subject. AR 321 is a third year design subject that
deals on the study of natural and the built environment, green architecture, sustainable
architecture, design & disaster mitigation, topographical considerations in design, geological
considerations in design, seismological considerations in design, and introduction to the
fundamentals of landscaping, while AR 311, a prerequisite of AR 321, is intended to make
the students learn more complex architectural forms emphasizing on the development and
manipulation of the site through proper orientation and manipulation, and basic architectural
relationships with the environment and designing spaces for the various human behaviors.
The students deep understanding of the design exercises in this junior design level has
direct relationship to his previous related subjects such as, theory of architectural designs,
building laws and other related subjects. AR 221 analyzes space requirements through
climatological, ecological, solar & wind considerations, day lighting to design, basic to
complex space programming, basic proximity matrices, complex space programming, and

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Table 1. Average Percentage and Rank Distribution of the Design Subjects Failed
by the Students
Subject
Average % of Students
Rank
Who Failed the subject
AR 131
25.43
4
AR 211
18.57
5
AR 221
43.85
3
AR 231
16.67
6.5
AR 311
66.67
2
AR 321
78.34
1
AR 331
16.67
6.5
AR 411
0.00
9.5
AR 421
0.00
9.5
AR 431
13.26
8
detailed proximity matrices.

AR 211 a prerequisite of AR 221 covers anthropometrics,

modular coordination, functional relationships and activity circuits including basic design
techniques and tools.
Failing in these design subjects is due to the level of complexity of architectural
design problems given by their respective instructors. But the design problem given to the
students do not rest on complexity alone. When a design problem is given, it consists of
problem criteria as to its conditions and limitations, into which the student will work out the
solution of the problem translated into 2 or 3 dimensional presentations.

The design

solution developed by the student from the given problem has something to do with a good
foundation from the related subjects he has taken. An example of a problem topic in AR 321
is on the development and manipulation of the site through proper orientation and
manipulation. In this case, the student should have good grasp of the subject matter on
Tropical Design, a second year lecture subject. Anthropometrics, space programming,
matrices are all comprehensively discussed in the Theory of Architecture. That is why
architectural design problems in any particular year level are only applications of the related
subject matter taken in other architecture courses
Design Subjects Commonly Dropped by Students
Dropped mark is given to a student who stopped attending the subject officially or
unofficially. Table 2 presents the average percentage of student dropping the design
subjects with the corresponding rank.

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It is shown that AR 221 followed by AR 231, AR 131 and AR 311 have the highest
percentage of students dropping the subject. AR 221 is a second year design that covers
anthropometrics, modular coordination, functional relationships and activity circuits including
basic design techniques and tools. AR 231 deals with construction materials and systems as
design considerations, relation of form to structure, utility systems as design consideration,
indigenous building technologies and their influence to

Table 2. Average Percentage and Rank Distribution of the Design Subjects Dropped by
the Students
Subject
AR 131
AR 211
AR 221
AR 231
AR 311
AR 321

Average % of Students
Who Failed the subject
12.50
10.00
20.00
12.78
12.50
6.67

Rank
3.5
5
1
2
3.5
6

design, new building technologies, and adaptive reuse and restoration. AR 131 is the first
architectural design subject that the student will enroll in the BS Architecture program. This
course deals on design fundamentals involving basic creative design exercises with
emphasis on space, form and mass. For better understanding of the design problems, the
student should have finished or is simultaneously enrolled in a subject matter on Theory of
Architectural Design. AR 311 is a subject that deals on design exercises stressing the
analysis of space requirements based on organizational structure, functional set up, human
behavior and to focus on linkages and interaction to spaces. The students deep
understanding on the particular design exercises in this junior design level is dependent on
a good grasp of the theory of architectural designs, building laws and other related subjects
for him to be able to arrive at a good conceptual design.
The students dropping his or her enrolled architectural design subject varies in time
and reason. There is no known pattern when the student will drop his subject.

Some

students do not attend a single meeting while others drop within the term. Based on the
findings, dropping an architectural design subject is less frequent when compared to
students failing the subject. However, this finding should not be ignored. Two of the most
common reasons why students drop their architectural design subjects are : (1) complexity

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of architectural design problems and poor foundation of related subjects students think that
the given design problem is not within their level of mental competence hence they become
disinterested and eventually drop the subject; and (2) personal reasons such as financial or
family problems.
Mendoza (2003) averred that a student who is interested in what he is doing leads
him to purposeful activity. Gregorio (1976) also claimed that educators are in agreement that
students learn best when they are interested in what they are doing. It is very important,
therefore, for the educators as well as the administrators to sustain the interest of the
student in his or her studies. A sustained interest can minimize the probability of the student
dripping or failing the subject.
Students Obtaining Incomplete Grades in the Design Subjects
Incomplete is the notation placed on the report on grades if the student failed to take
the final examination. A mark of incomplete is given to the student but such incomplete
grade should be removed or completed within one month from the last day of the final
examination period (UC Handbook). However, in architecture subjects, an incomplete
grade may also be given to students who failed to submit major requirements such as
plates, scale models, or research works.
Table 3 reveals that AR 411, AR 421 followed by AR 311, and AR 331 are the
subjects with the highest percentages of students who obtained incomplete grades. In fact,
in AR 411 and AR 421, all the students enrolled in subjects were given incomplete ratings
for failure to submit requirements on time. AR 411 deals on design exercises
Table 3. Average Percentage and Rank Distribution of the Design Subjects where
Students Commonly Incur Incomplete Grades
Subject

AR 131
AR 211
AR 221
AR 231
AR 311
AR 321
AR 331
AR 411
AR 421
AR 431

Average % of Students
Who Incurred Incomplete
Grade
14.22
16.07
53.85
45.45
81.25
20.00
55.56
100.00
100.00
52.84

Rank

10
9
5
7
3
8
4
1.5
1.5
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giving emphasis to process and development of building structures, utilities, laws, structural
concepts and ecological planning, while AR 421 involves design exercises stressing the
importance of collaboration in solving architectural problems; preliminary research and
studies for the terminal project. It can be seen from the preceding course description that as
the design subject changes, different undertakings are needed to further elaborate the
problems through lectures, demonstrations and other means of gathering relevant
information. The elaboration of the design problems through lectures and demonstrations
covers pertinent subject matters within the given problem only. Moreover, this is the time
when the student utilizes his good foundation from the related subject matter being
discussed. The means of gathering relevant data or information come in different forms, like
library or field survey. Through this information, the full understanding of the student on the
problem at hand is enhanced. Good foundation of related subjects and gathering of relevant
information normally results to good design solution. The more complex the design
requirement is, the more data and time are needed to finish the design. Because of its
intricate requirements, a student cannot usually complete a design on the given time
requirement, which eventually results to his or her obtaining an incomplete grade in the
subject.

Availability and Adequacy of Facilities and Equipment for the BS Architecture


Program in the University
The status of the architectural design subjects is presented and analyzed based on
the availability of facilities in the university with reference to the policies, standards, and
guidelines for the BS Architecture Program.
Aside form the lecture rooms; there are four (4) studio rooms which are presently in.
use. Table 4 indicates that the maximum capacity for design and studio class is only 30
students way below the set standard. Rooms S-414 and S-415 are not within the PSG net
ratio facility of 2.00 students per square meter.

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Table 4. Capacity, Room Area, and Net Ratio of UC Architecture Design and
Studio Rooms
Design and Studio
Rooms
S 322
S 413
S 414
S 415

Capacity

Room Area
(s.m.)

Net Ratio Facility per


Student

60.52
57.50
47.00
58.17

2.09
2.05
1.95
1.93

29
28
24
30

Table 5 shows a comparison between the design and studio facilities of the
university and the requirements as indicated in the Policies, Standards, and Guidelines
(PSG) for the BS Architecture program. It is revealed that the student-faculty ratio of 30:1 is
below the set limit of 40:1. Furthermore, the range of net facility ratio of the university which
is between 1.93 and 2.05 students per square meter at rooms S-414 and S-415 are not
within the standard. All design and studio rooms can handle and accommodate design
lectures and drafting. Based on actual calculations, all design and studio rooms are within
the range of accepted sound level, but since these rooms are adjacent to the main
thoroughfare, sounds emitted from passing vehicles is a source of disturbance during
lecture periods.

Table5. Comparative Design and Studio Requirements between Policies, Standards, and
Guidelines for BS in Architecture and University of the Cordilleras (UC), Department of
Architecture

Design and Studio


Room
Requirements

Policies, Standards, and


Guidelines (PSG) for
Architectural Education

Student Faculty
Ratio
40 : 1 (maximum)
Net Ratio Facility
2.00 s.m. per student
Design and Studio
Can handle/accommodate
Rooms
lecture, drafting and modeling

University of the Cordilleras,


Department of Architecture

30 : 1
1.93 2.05 per student
Can handle/accommodate
lecture and drafting

Studio Equipment

Drafting Tables / Chairs

Drafting tables / Chairs

Illumination
Maximum Sound
Level (RT)

70 fc 150 fc

72.42 fc 86.48 fc

0.60 1.10 secs

0.64 0.90 secs.

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To determine the adequacy of drafting rooms in relation to existing lighting and


acoustical treatments, the researchers together with the Acoustics and Illumination lecture
class performed an actual calculation on the lighting and acoustical levels of the four drafting
and studio rooms. The acoustic levels of the drafting rooms were determined based on room
capacity, texture, and openings, whereas, lighting levels were based on the rooms area and

volume, type and height of lighting fixtures, textures and colors of the walls and
ceiling.
Table 6 reveals that the level of illumination of the different drafting and studio rooms is
sufficient with its existing features in relation to area, fixture type, textures and colors.
Furthermore, the result of the individual level of acoustical treatment of the different drafting
and studio rooms as shown in table 7 reveals that the desired level of reverberations is
adequate given its existing features in relation to room capacity, volume, textures, and
opening areas. Less reverberation implies a more articulately intelligible in speech.

Table6. Allowable and Computed Level of Illumination of the Architecture


Drafting and Studio Rooms
Allowable

Computed

Range of

Illumination

Illumination (fc)

(fc)

Fluorescent lamps

70 - 150

86.48

Sufficient

S 413

Fluorescent lamps

70 - 150

72.42

Sufficient

S 414

Fluorescent lamps

70 - 150

75.00

Sufficient

70 - 150

74.76

Sufficient

Room

Existing Lighting

Designation

Fixtures

S 322

S 415

Fluorescent lamps
& pin lights

Remarks

The influence of the classroom in the learning process cannot be underestimated.


According to Oyam (2007), the class room is an indispensable venue of education. Simply, it
is in the class room where teaching and learning take place, complicatedly, it is a venue
where different people and unique individuals are formed, transformed and reformed.

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Table7. Computed and Desired Level of Reverberation of Architecture Drafting and


Studio Rooms
Computed
Room
Desired RT Range for
Remarks
Reverberation
Designation
Lecture Rooms
Time (s)
S 322
0.64 secs.
0.60-1.10 secs
Adequate
S 413
0.90 secs.
0.60-1.10 secs
Adequate
S 414
0.85 secs.
0.60-1.10 secs
Adequate
S 415
0.65 secs
0.60-1.10 secs
Adequate

Perception of the Students on the Adequacy of the Facilities


The students perception on the adequacy of existing facilities is shown in table 8.
Over-all, majority (56.8 %) of the students claimed that the facilities are not enough.

This

perception has something to do with the actual use of the design rooms. Based on the
findings, some design rooms are not sufficient in relation to net area capacity particularly.
The number of drafting tables indicates equal number of occupants in these rooms, and the
room area influences the degree of comfort that the students experience when they use the
rooms.

Also, inconvenience in the use of drafting tables by the students is prevalent

because many of the flat type drafting tables are being used instead of the adjustable
drafting tables. Moreover, even if there is sufficient illumination in the drafting rooms, the
light types provided need regular replacement or check up because the intensity of the light
may diminish due to long period of use.
Table8. Responses on the Adequacy of Facilities for the Architectural Design Subjects.
Enough
Year Level
Frequency
Second Year
16
Third Year
10
Fourth Year
6
All Years
32

Not Enough
% to
Total
50.0
34.5
46.2
43.2

Frequency
16
19
7
42

% to
Total
50.0
65.5
53.8
56.8

Total
32
29
13
74

Physical resources in education are important in the achievement of quality education. The
learning environment should be conducive so that the student will be able to develop his or
her potentials to the fullest. Hurlock (1978) explained that there are conditions under which
students are most likely to learn. He emphasized that the educational environment is one
factor that enhances the learning process.

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IV. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


Based on the findings of the study, it is concluded that dropping, failing, and obtaining an
incomplete grade in the design subjects are brought about by the difficulty and complexity
of the courses. There are also more students who drop their design subjects as compared
to those who fail them. Students commonly incur incomplete ratings in subjects that require
them to design complex structures and write a thesis.
The student-faculty ratio of the University is within the set limit by Policies, Standards
and Guidelines for the BS Architecture program, however not all design and studio rooms in
the university are within the range of net facility ratio. The individual sound reverberation
level of the different drafting and studio rooms is acceptable and the level of illumination of
the different drafting and studio rooms is sufficient.
As recommendations, faculty members handling design subjects should clearly explain
to the students the requirements of the course at the beginning of the term. Students must
know what are expected of them. A full understanding of the requirements of the design
subjects will enable them to prepare adequately hence minimizing the possibility of their
failing or dropping the subject. Also, the teachers should see to it that the architectural
design and studio problems given to the students should be within the course description of
the subject.
The school administration should provide more facilities that can accommodate
modeling activities in all the design and studio rooms. Lighting and acoustic fixtures should
be regularly checked to ascertain that all the rooms are conducive for learning.
Another study should be conducted to determine the factors influencing the academic
performance of architecture students.
REFERENCES
Basaen, Cleofas (1991). The Need for Achievement (nAch) and Performance, Unpublished
Masters Thesis, Baguio Colleges Foundation, Baguio City.
Belsa, J. (2000). Academic Performance and Motivations of the 3rd Year P.T. Students of
University of Baguio, Unpublished Masters Thesis. University of Baguio, Baguio
City.
CHED Memorandum Order (CMO) no. 61 s. 2006. Course Specification-PSG for BS
Architecture
Ettule, C. (1995). Correlates of Academic Performance of Freshman College Students of
the University of Baguio, Unpublished Masters Thesis. University of Baguio, Baguio City.

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Gregorio, G. (1976). Principles and Methods of Teaching, Quezon City: GaroTech


Publishing.
Hurlock, Elizabeth (1978). Child Growth and Development. 5th edition, New York: Mc Graw
Hill.
Mendoza, Veralee (2003). The Academic Performance of Math and Non-Math Majors
Unpublished Masters Thesis, Baguio Colleges Foundation, Baguio City.
Oyam, Donna Marie A. (2007). Personality Traits and Academic Performance of
Freshman Teacher Education Students. Unpublished Masters Thesis, University of
the Cordilleras, Baguio City.

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HEALTH PRACTICES AND BELIEFS AMONGSOME ETHNIC


GROUPS IN BENGUET
Ericson J. Yang-ed, BSPT, PTRP, MAT SPED
Elizabeth S. Samaniego, BSN, RN, MAN
Josephine G. Minger, BSN, RN, BSED, MAN

ABSTRACT
The main aim of the study is to determine the health practices and beliefs
among some ethnic groups in the province of Benguet; considering some aspects of
health, such as health practices, health conditions as well as health remedies, causes of
human discomforts and health needs. Descriptive-survey was the research. There were
255 respondents of the study who belong to the Kankana-ey, Ibaloi, Ifugao, Kalinga, and
other tribes. Findings revealed that the respondents rarely consult doctors, nurses, and
other health workers concerning health practices and conditions. They believe that the
causes of human discomforts are natural and climactic factors, spirits, and even modern
scientific findings on the harmful effects of virus and bacteria. There is a felt need for
more doctors, nurses, and other health workers in the communities inhabited by the
ethnic groups.

I. INTRODUCTION
The maxim "health is wealth is popular among Filipinos. Filipinos assert that for
as long as a person is in good health, he or she can bravely overcome seemingly
insurmountable odds. With religious fervor, many of us believe that health is a blessing,
a grace that comes from faith in the Divine. That is why seeking medical attention is
usually interspersed with the healing power of prayer or an invocation to a patron saint.
Filipinos, especially the rural folk, have different explanations for illness. Humans and
the environment or nature are often viewed as being in need of equilibrium, thus the hot
and cold syndrome in which an illness is thought to be due to the imbalance between the
two. Another belief points to the supernatural beings or spirits as causes of illnesses. For
these kinds of illnesses, it is not the medical doctors that the people would approach but
the herbolarios.
Health care professionals play a major role in the treatment of individuals who are
in dire need of medical attention. In the rural areas though, traditional healers play an
important role in the well-being of Filipinos. They offer alternative ways to treat illnesses
and to promote good health and wellness. As stated by Tan (1987), to treat pilay sa
hangin or sprains, many Filipinos in the rural areas resort to herbolarios and the hilot

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pilay. This shows that presently, many Filipinos still cling to traditional medicine or
traditional healing practices.
In a report on the consultation meeting on Traditional and Modern Medicine last
November 22-26, 1999, at Beijing, China, the World Health Organization (WHO)
acknowledged that traditional medicine is an ancient and culturebound medical
practice which existed in human societies before the application of modern science to
health, it refers to health practices, approaches, knowledge and beliefs incorporating
plant, animal and mineral based medicines, spiritual therapies, manual techniques and
exercises, applied singularly or in combination to treat, diagnose and prevent illnesses or
maintain well-being. Furthermore, the WHO defined traditional medicine as the sum
total of knowledge, skills and practices of holistic healthcare, which is recognized and
accepted by the community for its role in the maintenance of health and the treatment of
diseases. Traditional medicine, based on the theory, beliefs and experiences indigenous
to different cultures, was developed and handed down from generation to generation.
To be effective in the context of Philippine health situation, the knowledge of
traditional medicine and medical sciences can be utilized in combination. However,
western medicine in the rural areas is not accessible to the majority of the people; this is
one reason why many Filipinos do not go to hospitals and medical doctors as a first
resort. They self medicate first, then go to traditional healers.
The people of the Cordilleras have a vast long-standing knowledge and beliefs
with regards to rustic curative means of treating common ailments. Fiar-od (1999),
shared one Igorot practice regarding medicine, which is the use of curative practices,
through the Mansip-ok or the traditional doctor or nurse who can be a medium and
talented enough to tell the cause of ones sickness. Health customs and beliefs among
the indigenous natives of the Cordilleras are closely related to their perception of
diseases based on folk beliefs and assumptions as well as the blending of western
medicine. This amalgamation of views can be the result of the entry of medical facilities
and personnel in the region, educational backgrounds of the younger generation of
Igorots, and the deep-rooted experience and practice among the elderly natives.
The primary purpose of this study is to find out what aspects of health are usually
consulted to health care practitioners by some ethnic tribes in the Cordilleras when they
are faced with any malady or ailment. The term aspect of health in this study refers to

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health practices, health conditions and health remedies. Likewise, health practices in this
study take into account both the modern and traditional health practices.
Moreover, this study not only sought to determine if the people of the Cordilleras
consult health care practitioners when they have health complaints, but also tried to find
out if they blend both modern and traditional elements of health and medical care
practices.
Aside form exploring and gathering information on what are the practices that the
natives of the Cordilleras, this study tried to look as well into the usual preference that
they employ in a particular health practice such as personal hygiene, sanitation, bathing
practice, circumcision, pregnancy and others; a particular health condition such as
painful urination, wounds, lacerations, arthritis, diarrhea, diabetes among others; the use
health remedies such as herbal remedies, consulting

folk healers, doctors among

others; and the beliefs regarding the causes of human discomforts, and eventually
determine the particular and essential health needs of these groups of inhabitants in this
part of the country.
Moreover, there is little current research and literature on this theme and this
study seeks to create awareness on the modern as well as traditional knowledge and
spiritual beliefs of the natives of the Cordilleras regarding the causes of illnesses and
physical and spiritual healing. As claimed by Fiar-od (1999), many of the traditional
practices of non-western communities cannot be explained by conventional concepts.
Generally the understanding and appreciation of spiritual practices is lacking and there is
little theory related to spiritual phenomenon.
In some countries, remedies used by traditional medicine have reemerged.
Such techniques are usually known as alternative or complementary medicine, which
as a form of medicine has evolved recently as a reaction to high technology medicine as
cited in the website www.who.org. In addition, the same website mentioned that
countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America use traditional medicine (TM) to help meet
some of their primary health care needs. In Africa, up to 80% of the population uses
traditional medicine for primary health care. In industrialized countries, adaptations of
traditional medicine are termed Complementary or Alternative. In a survey conducted
by Eisenberg et.al. (1998), the use of traditional / complementary medicine in
industrialized countries has increased significantly. Studies conducted in the US show
that complementary therapy usage increased from 34% in 1990 to 42% in 1997.

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In a survey conducted by the Philippines National Demographic and Health


Survey (NDHS) (2003) conducted by the National Statistics Office and was supported by
U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), on the aspect of health care during
pregnancy and childbirth and after delivery, although, it shows that most births are
assisted by a health professional: 34% by a doctor, 25% by a midwife and 1% b a nurse
and less than 2 in 5 births are delivered in a health facility, still, majority of births (61%)
occur at home with the assistance of a hilot. Obviously, traditional medicine is
commonly accepted by the society.
Understanding their modern health literacy and especially traditional health
culture can help all medical and nursing practitioners to be able to provide adequate
care while taking into consideration their deeply-rooted and effective health practices
and at the same time disregarding their inappropriate practices. Likewise, Determining
the modern and traditional health practices and medicine amongst the people of the
Cordilleras is important since the region is not only wealthy of customary health
approaches and knowledge but also a common area of community immersions among
nursing students from different nursing schools as part of their commitment of service to
the community and conducting primary health care.
According to Bautista (1999), Primary Health Care began in the 1960s and was
adapted by the Department of Health in the 1970s. It is a holistic approach that included
health education, promotion of food supply and proper nutrition, adequate supply of safe
water and basic sanitation, maternal and child health care, family planning, immunization
against major infectious diseases, prevention and control of locally endemic diseases,
appropriate treatment of common diseases and injuries and provision of essential
drugs. Primary Health Care can be used as a tool in health education among the
people in the community.
In the rural areas, Primary Health Care operates alongside traditional medicine.
However there is little research on how many natives in a particular rural area really
consult traditional healers, this was supported by the World Health Organization, as cited
from the website, www.who.org, there are no solid data on the extent of usage of
traditional medicine in the Western Pacific Region, however, data from several countries
and areas in the region show that around 40% to 60% of the population of these
countries and areas use traditional medicine. For example, traditional medicine accounts
for around 40% of all health care delivered in China and in Hong Kong, approximately

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60% of the population has consulted traditional medicine practitioners at one time or
another.
Primary Healthcare can be seen as a method to introduce modern medicine in
the rural areas, however, in order for traditional societies to accept modern views of
health and health care, modern medical advocates must learn to accommodate these
societies beliefs and practices. Understanding traditional medicine can add more
knowledge to modern health care practitioners when confronted with certain discomforts
that can not be explained through conventional means.
Since both traditional and modern systems of health care coexist within the
communities in the Cordilleras and serve the same target populations, collaboration
between the two not only enhances the services being provided by each system
individually, but also ensures transparency and trust benefiting individuals and the
community as a whole.
In a study conducted by Palaganas et al. (2000) about the health beliefs of the
people of Barangay Badeo in Kibungan Benguet, it was revealed that their community
health beliefs are influenced by the interplay of traditional perceptions and modern
(western) medical views. Traditions are strongly observed in maintaining health. But
because of continuous interactions with other communities and the inroads of recent
western technological advances, scientific explanations have already begun to influence
old customs and traditions in the management of health.
The peoples traditional beliefs include an idea of the existence of supernatural
beings and spirits that influence their day to day life. They believe that there are spirits
as well as an ultimate being that guide them in every aspect of their lives. Good health,
good harvest, success in work and business undertakings are recognized and attributed
to the good relationship to Kabunyan. As stated by Fiar-od (1999) Kabunyan is the
name of the supreme god. Prayers addressed to Kabunyan are with intercession of the
spirits of ancestors. Just like any religious sect in the country, the natives of the
Cordilleras communicate to their supreme being through prayers. Prayers are means of
communicating to Kabunyan as god, and to Lumauig, the son of Kabunyan, who came
down to earth to guide the people and who taught the people to pray. They believe in
the spiritual power of prayers, if someone is physically sick, the am-ama who is a
ritualist and have obtained a status through his broad knowledge in tradition and culture
of his community communicates to Kabunyan through a prayer called lualo or sapu

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There are specific classifications and different purposes of prayers, There are prayers
for healing, supplication, prayer of thanks, and prayers to communicate with animals
believed as spiritual entities; prayers for healing includes a prayer for physical healing,
prayers for spirit possessed, prayers for psychological problems, and prayers for
preventive measures. One example, as cited by Fiar-od (1999), includes sibisib a
prayer to stop bleeding caused by a wedge, bolo, knife or stone.
The idea of the Igorots in line with health practices and beliefs can be understood
and appreciated through the article of Ike Picpican on the Indigenous Knowledge on
Health: Linking Practice and Beliefs. As cited in his article, Picpican (ND) claimed that
whatever problems they meet, like ones poor health, misfortunes, can be due to a
breach in relationship with the spirit beings. Successes or misfortunes in life are seen as
twin experiences that can be sought or avoided. He further explained that, In the
Igorots daily encounter with her/his environment, s/he is guided by her/his belief system
on a hierarchy of gods and goddesses. The Igorots believe in Kabunyan of Maknungan
as the supreme deity, or in lesser gods and goddesses who are believed to be in control
of the various facets of human endeavor. For example, Lumawig is the God of War,
Bangan as the goddess of agriculture, Balitok as the god of mines and mineral
resources, Caruntugan as the god of the mountains and forests, Masiken as the god of
the waters. Another realm in the hierarchy are the other spirit beings who are classified
as to whether these are nature spirits, ancestral spirits, are spirits of the living. Nature
spirits (anito) dwell in the natural environment (rocks, trees, caves, rivers, etc.).
Ancestral spirits (ammed) are the spirits of ancestors, who are generally considered as
benevolent, but would occasionally visit living relatives to ask for gift or offerings. The
spirit of the living is referred to as the kadkadua, ab-abiik, or adia. When the spirit
separates from the physical body, it will cause discomfort to the person.
To the Igorots, physical discomforts can be caused by several factors. It can be
due to a tala or padpadya. According to Fiar-od (1999), tala, kedet or padpadya
or simply black magic is a power to inflict pain or illness to anyone, either innocent or
not, through the power of prayer or through a ritual with prayer.

There are other

traditional knowledge in the roots and causes of diseases and infirmities. Picpican
further claimed that physical discomforts can be due to natural factors such as those
arising from accidents or negligence (injury, bruises, fractures), climatic changes (cough
and colds), exposure to or contact with virus or bacteria, indigestion, animal bites, insect

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bites etc. Or it can be due to some spirit related afflictions brought about by ones
breach of social relations (sorcery, magic, or witchcraft) or infractions with ones relation
with the spirits or deities, which demand for curative rituals.
Just like any tribe in the Cordilleras, there are a lot of traditional practices that are
being utilized in order to alleviate physical discomfort and suffering. A ritual can be
performed as an antidote to the evil intentions of kedet. Picpican further stated that:
Illness arising from natural factors can be remedied by indigenous pharmacology.
Plants can be therapeutic. These can offer a number of remedies to various natural
afflictions. Folk healers (the herbolario, man-ilut, mannultop, mannibisib, etc.) can also
cure the sick. For afflictions that are induced by sorcery, magic, or witchcraft, these may
take the form of physical discomfort, deformities or lingering illness that could be cured
through the performance of rituals (gamud, sagawsaw, tala, anja). Sickness caused by
spirits also requires the performance of curative rituals to remedy such afflictions.
Palaganas (2000) also cited the use of guava leaves for bathing and cleaning of
affected areas in cases of gaddil (sores) is a practice among different life stages, not
only for children. Ripe guavas, on the other hand, are also used as an anti-diarrheal.
Lelek (otitis media) can also be treated with benday or bulak manok by extracting the
herbs juice to be applied on the infected ear; fever can be treated with boiled sangitan
(eleusine indica) to be given to a child to drink.
There are also some practical indigenous ways of taking care of pregnant women
and women who have just given birth. Umaming (2007) noted that in one community in
the Mountain Province, an unborn child is already counted as a member of the village.
He or she already gets a share of village resources, particularly food. When a family
prepares a chicken meal, a choice chicken leg is reserved for the unborn baby. It is
given to the mother to eat and its nutrients passed on to the baby in her womb. One
should always be willing to forgo his etag (salted meat) and green papaya in favor of
lactating mother. He further stated that, tradition dictates that a pregnant mother should
be prevented from carrying heavy loads, and the husband is required to do most of the
work and the village elders sees to it that the husband goes home before sunset lest the
wife might be tempted to do heavy chores. After giving birth, the mother is obliged to
wear a traditional belt. She is regularly given a warm massage by the grandmothers of
the village before and after giving birth. The husband s also trained in the art of
massaging.

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Palaganas (2000) also cited some practices among the people of Badeo, if a
mother is experiencing difficult labor, a mambunong is called to perform the dawdawak,
a ritual where a pig is butchered, if the dawdawak performed was not successful, they
then call a mansip-ok who, in turn, tries to determine the causes of the difficult labor
being experienced by the woman. The mansip-ok is believed to know how to identify the
possible reasons for the difficult situation. Moreover, during pregnancy, women go to a
trusted hilot who possess the ability to determine a difficult delivery caused by suni,
(breech position), through careful and skillful massage techniques, the hilot will then
massage the pregnant womans abdomen to reposition the child.
Moreover, Caneda (1979) claimed that medical beliefs and practices in
Philippine tribal society persist because they answer instrumental and moral imperatives
of the society and are found empirically effective there. This is not to say that such
beliefs and practices are effective from the standpoint of western medicine, or that they
always bring in the desired results. Caeda, referring to the study of Allan Young (1979),
says, The empirical effectiveness of these practices has important ontological
consequences, since it enables sickness episodes to confirm ideas about the real
world.
Various rituals and traditional prayers are therefore performed to cure an ill
person, in order to appease some angered spirit, or to exorcise some demon from the
patients body. Palaganas et al. (2000) in their Research project entitled, Mainstreaming
Indigenous Health Knowledge and Practices shared some health beliefs among the
natives of Badeo, a remote Barangay in Kibungan. Natives of Badeo believe that
diseases are caused by supernatural beings and that the mambunong, mansip-ok,
and mankutom still exist and their practices continue to flourish. Ceremonies and rituals
are still being performed to cure sickness, enhance body functioning, promote health,
secure good harvest and marriage, communicate with ancestors and even ensure that
the dead make a safe trip to the unknown.
There are other tribes in the Cordilleras that have traditional perceptions about
health and wellness. The Isnegs, for example, believe that diseases and accidents are
caused by supernatural beings or spirits who live in the house, in the woods, or in the
heavens. Failure to observe certain prohibitions or to offer appropriate sacrifices could
result in the occurrence of these unwanted situations. Similarly, the natives of Bontoc
attributes the occurrence of diseases and accidents to the anito (The spirit of dead

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person that can cause sickness to a living person or it can help the living attain good
fortune).
Today with the convenience of modern health care providers and hospitals as
well as health centers, the people of the Cordilleras ideas of health and illness has
blended with western knowledge and orientation. The concept of health and illness is
influenced by the interaction between traditional belief and modern medical views.
There are changes in local practices as a result of education, the information and
communication revolution, government health policies, and the continuing and intense
exposure of indigenous peoples, like the Igorots, to information and communication
technology. In present day Igorot society, there seems to be a trend toward consulting
medical doctors. The trend does not imply, however, that the Igorots now believe less in
the folk healers. Igorots resorting to the native healer is not entirely rejecting scientific
cure, either. Reasons include inadequate delivery of social health care services and if
there is it hardly reach the indigenous communities. In addition, there are no easy
accessible roads to hospitals and health centers and medical personnel. Or simply no
hospitals and health centers and medical personnel that are available. Cases in which
the family may not afford the doctors fees and the prescribed medicine usually end up
with the native healer, to whom only a kilo of meat or chicken is paid.
As confirmed by Picpican, The accessibility of modern health providers as well
as the appurtenances of modernity has their toll on indigenous healing practices. While
some continue to practice folk medicine, others seek the amenities offered by modern
science. The patient is first referred to the barangay health worker (BHW) or nurse in the
community who gives the necessary remedies or referral. The patient is brought to a
doctors clinic for consultation and treatment. Otherwise, the patient is brought to the
hospital as a final resort. If the patient is not receptive to modern medicine and his
sickness worsens, the patient is brought out of the hospital, even against doctors
advise, brought to some other alternative healers (like faith healers, herbalist, etc.) or
brought home as a last resort to perform some curative rituals. Sometimes after healing
ritual the patient gets well. But put in dilemma when modern medicine cannot render
effective cure or cannot explain certain illnesses, the Igorot reverts back to folk healing
or traditional rituals as best alternatives. In some hinterland communities, the family of a
sick patient usually exhausts all possible remedies such as herbs and healing rituals

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before the sick is brought to the clinic or the hospital. Sometimes the patient gets well
but sometimes the illness worsens and when the patient is brought to the clinic or the
hospital, it is already too late.
Furthermore, Fiar-od (1999) added that the people in Besao, Mt. Province are
rich in traditional knowledge, but they neither romanticize traditional knowledge nor
condemn western knowledge. They are ritualistic like the people from the other
municipalities of Mountain Province and at the same time see the importance of
education and other external knowledge. Until today, in spite of the external knowledge
as an influence of modernization or state-of-the-art technologies, rituals are still being
practiced by majority of the Besao people including the highly educated and the regular
churchgoers. Parts of the rituals are the indigenous prayers based on their spiritual
belief. It is believed that there are powers of sprits in all creatures on earth, which affect
the success or failure of people in their endeavor. To the people who are educated, who
still adhere to the traditional spiritual healing through the power of prayers, volunteer,
mensapu do the ritual for them. It is significant that the traditional knowledge on the
spiritual beliefs is dominant in the lives of people who depend on the vagaries of nature
in carrying out agricultural and health practices.
To understand the health practices and beliefs of some of the ethnic tribes in the
province of Benguet, the aspect of health such as health practices, health remedies,
health conditions, causes of human discomforts and the different health needs were
considered.

Statement of the Problem


The study sought to determine the health practices and beliefs among some
ethnic groups in Benguet, considering some aspects of health, such as specific health
practices and health conditions as well as health remedies, causes of human
discomforts and health needs.
Specifically, the study sought answers to the following questions:
1. What aspects of health are consulted to health care practitioners by some of the
ethnic groups considering certain health practices, and health conditions?
2. What are the health remedies of the respondents when they experience health
problems?

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3. How do the respondents extent of consultation with health care providers and use of
health remedies compare when they are grouped ethnic affiliation?
4. What are the primary health beliefs of the respondents as to the factors causing
human discomforts?
5. What are the health-related needs of the respondents?
II. DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
The study made use of descriptive research design using survey type. Gall, Borg
and Gall, as cited by Fox (1969), identified research by questionnaire or survey as
being systematic method of gathering data and analysis used extensively in educational
research to collect information that is not directly observable. The survey instrument
developed for this research was a questionnaire designed to gather and analyze data
pertinent to the purpose of the study.
Respondents are from the province of Benguet, the biggest province in the
Cordilleras Administrative Region (CAR) in terms of population and land area.
Specifically, the respondents are from the municipalities of Sablan, Kapangan, Atok, La
Trinidad, Camp 8 and Balucas. These are the areas where the students of the University
of the Cordilleras, particularly, the College of Nursing usually undertake their regular
community outreach services.
The respondents in this study were chosen through purposive sampling. The
ethnic tribes are distributed as follows: K ankanaey tribe, 109 or 42.75%; Ibaloi, 81 or
31.76%; Ifugao,23 or 9.02%; Kalinga, 17 or 6.67 % and other tribes (Ilocano, Cagayano,
etc) which makes up 25 or 9.80% of the total sample of 255.
The particular areas were selected because of the greater chance of interaction
between the students of the College of Nursing of UC and the local residents during their
community health exposure.
The researchers personally delivered the questionnaire to the clinical instructors.
After an orientation on the mechanics of data gathering, the clinical instructors assisted
their students in the administration of the questionnaire to the respondents in their area
of responsibility.

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III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


The health practices and beliefs of the respondents are tabulated, compared,
and analyzed as follows:
Respondents Health Practices Consulted to Health Practitioners
Table 1 shows that the mean scores of the items, except on pregnancy, indicate that
the respondents rarely consult a doctor, a nurse or a health worker. Pregnancy is
sometimes consulted to the health practitioners by the respondents. The respondents
realize the delicate condition of a pregnant woman that is the reason why among the
mentioned health practices, it is pregnancy that is mostly consulted to health workers.
Menstruation got the lowest weighted mean interpreted as rarely. This is due to the fact
that females accept and acknowledge that there are different bodily changes that occur
during menstruation.
Apparently, the respondents from the different ethnic groups rely on the
traditional ways by which they take care of their bodily health. One important aspect of
health that they ought to consult with health practitioners is childbirth but this is also
rarely consulted with the health professionals. Aside from the lack of opportunity to
consult with health practitioners because they are unavailable, it could also be that the
use of traditional medicines or techniques are still used and resorted to during childbirth
with even with the advent of modern medicine. This is supported by a survey conducted
by the Philippines National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) (2003) of the
National Statistics Office (NSO) which was supported by U.S. Agency for International
Development (USAID), on the aspect of health care during pregnancy and childbirth and
after delivery. Although it was shown that most births are assisted by a health
professional: 34% by a doctor, 25% by a midwife and 1 % b a nurse and less than 2 in 5
births are delivered in a health facility, still, majority of births (61%) occur at home with
the assistance of a hilot.

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Table1. Health Practices Consulted to Doctors, Nurses or Health Workers by the


Respondents
Health Practices
Weighted Mean
Interpretation
Personal hygiene
2.13
Rarely
Home sanitation
2.11
Rarely
Bathing practice
2.00
Rarely
Circumcision
2.05
Rarely
Menstruation
1.82
Rarely
Pregnancy
2.65
Sometimes
Childbirth
2.53
Rarely
Nutrition
2.43
Rarely
Palaganas (2000) said that there are different Filipino traditions in relation to
health practices. For example, if a woman has difficulty getting pregnant, a
mambunong is called to perform a dawak, a ritual requiring that a pig be butchered; if
a dawak is not successful then they have to perform the ritual again. Clearly, traditional
medicine is still highly regarded, as claimed by Caneda (1979). Traditional medical
beliefs and practices in Philippine tribal society persist because they answer
instrumental and moral imperatives of the society and are found empirically effective.

Respondents Health Conditions Consulted to Health Practitioners


Table 2 reveals that generally, the respondents rarely consult health workers
about their health conditions. This is evidenced by the mean scores of the identified 14
out of 15 health conditions identified. It is in cough and colds only that the respondents
sometimes consult health practitioners. These findings imply that the respondents do
not consult their health problems to doctors, nurses, or any other health practitioners
because they are not available when they are needed. According to a publication by the
United Nations Population Fund (2005) titled Community Perspectives: Our Views,
Voices, and Challenges, it is claimed that financial constraints and the distance of
hospitals and clinics, poor road conditions and bridges are the main reasons why people
often resort to herbal concoctions to cure illnesses. Some consult local midwives (hilot)
and folk healers, while others resort to prayer. Ethnic groups still resort to traditional
ways of healing when confronted with illnesses. The kanyaw remains to be the most
important ritual for driving away evil spirits believed to be causing their illnesses.
The albularyo or quack doctor is also consulted by these northern ethnic tribes.
The quack doctor is considered a general practitioner and is believed to heal a lot of

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77

ailments. The hilot is also popular among these groups and is usually called for bone
related ailments. There is also the tawas who is called for snake bites. Others resort to
using herbs that abound in the mountains.

Table 2. Health Conditions Consulted to Doctors, Nurses and Other Health Workers
Condition
Weighted mean
Interpretation
Painful urination
2.42
Rarely
Wounds and lacerations
2.44
Rarely
Abdominal Pain
2.45
Rarely
Abscesses and Swelling
2.44
Rarely
Arthritis
2.10
Rarely
Asthma
2.43
Rarely
Diarrhea
2.48
Rarely
Coughs & Colds
2.70
Sometimes
Diabetes
2.14
Rarely
Dysmenorrhea
1.92
Rarely
Fever
2.44
Rarely
Headaches
2.33
Rarely
Hypertension
2.58
Rarely
Snake Bites
2.36
Rarely
Toothache
2.04
Rarely
Health Remedies
The following discussion deals with the health remedies that are preferred by some
ethnic groups in the Cordilleras.
Table 3 shows the health remedies that are preferred by some ethnic groups in the
Cordilleras. It is shown from the table that the use of herbal medicines is often
preferred by the respondents as indicated by the mean score of 3.71. The use of herbal
remedies is the most preferred remedy because the respondents reside in the mountain
areas where many herbal plants are found. These plants are used by the residents to
treat some kind of illnesses. The presence of these herbal plants provides a relief among
the ethnic tribes in the Cordilleras. Palaganas (2000) cited that the use of guava leaves
for bathing and cleaning of affected areas in cases of gaddil (sores) is a practiced by
the residents. Ripe guavas, on the other hand, are also used as an anti-diarrhea. Lelek
(otitis media) is treated with benday or bulak manok by extracting the herbs juice and
then applied on the infected ear. Fever is treated with a concoction of boiled sangitan
(eleusine indica) given to a sick child for him or her to drink.

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Table3. Health Remedies for Health Problems


Health remedies
Use herbal remedies
Consult folk healers like the herbolario,man-ilut,
mannultop, mannibisib
Consult ritual practitioners like diagnostic specialist
such as manbuyon, mansip-ok, man-ila, manbuton
Consult ritual practitioners like ritual performers such
as manbaki /mumbaki, man-ated, manbunong
Consult barangay health worker or nurse
Consult a doctor for consultation and treatment
Want to be brought to the hospital

Weighted
mean
3.71
2.52

Interpretation
Often
Rarely

2.20

Rarely

2.25
3.43
3.33
3.00

Rarely
Often
Sometimes
Sometimes

Unavailability of health professionals in the barangay and the distance between


their community and the hospital as well as financial constraint are also some of the
reasons why they resort to herbal products. Again as cited from a study conducted by
the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) in 2005, it is claimed that due to financial
constraints and the distance of hospitals and clinics, poor roads conditions and bridges,
people often resort to herbal concoctions to cure illnesses. Furthermore, this finding is
supported by the World Health Organization (WHO) which claimed that countries in
Africa, Asia and Latin America use traditional medicines to help meet some of the
primary health care needs.
If available, the respondents also often prefer to go to the barangay clinic for
consultation. This implies that they also acknowledge the importance of going to a health
professional if they are available. It is also noteworthy that consulting folk healers and
ritual practitioners as well as ritual performers and relying on folk healers are rarely
preferred by the respondents.

Differences on the Extent of Consultations on Health Practices and Health


Conditions among the Respondents by Ethnic Group
Table 4 presents the mean values reflecting the extent of consultations of health
practices among the respondents considering their ethnic. As shown, the ethnic groups
vary significantly in terms of their over-all mean. This means that some ethnics groups
tend to consult health professionals more than the others. It appears that the Kalingas,
for having the highest mean, are more likely to consult a doctor or any other health

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worker than the other ethnic groups. Those who are least likely to consult a health
worker are the Kankana-eys.
Specifically, it is revealed that the respondents when compared according to
ethnic group vary significantly in their extent of consultation on health practices relating
to personal hygiene, home sanitation, menstruation, and nutrition.
Table 4. Mean values as to Extent of Consultation on Health Practices According to
Ethnic Group
HEALTH
PRACTICES
Personal Hygiene
Home sanitation
Bathing practice
Circumcision
Menstruation
Pregnancy
Childbirth
Nutrition
Overall Mean

ETHNIC GROUP

Ibaloi

Kankana-ey

2.12
2.16
2.07
1.99
1.95
2.85
2.73
2.42
2.29
*Significant at. 05

2.01
1.98
1.88
2.09
1.58
2.52
2.40
2.33
2.11

Ifugao

Kalinga

2.52
2.76
2.81*
2.47
2.88
3.34*
2.43
2.59
2.43
2.22
2.56
.986
2.52
2.41
6.46**
2.83
2.76
.770
2.61
2.71
.761
3.13
2.71
3.15*
2.60
2.97
5.921**
** Significant at .01

Sig. level
.040
.020
.066
.400
.000
.512
.517
.026
.001

The Kalingas are more likely to consult a health worker in comparison to the
other ethnic groups on practices related to personal hygiene and home sanitation. On
the other hand, those who are less likely to consult are the Kankana-eys. In terms of
health practices related to menstruation, it is shown that the Ifugaos are the ones more
likely to consult a health professional while those who are less likely to do so are again
the Kankana-eys. In terms of Nutrition, the Ifugaos are the ones more likely to consult a
health worker while the one who are less likely to consult are the kankana-eys. No
significant difference was found among the mean values on bathing practice,
circumcision, pregnancy and child birth.
Table 5 reveals that generally, there is no significant variation on the overall mean
scores of the 4 ethnic groups. Specifically however, a significant difference is noted in
health conditions pertaining to painful urination, arthritis, and dysmennorhea.

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Table 5. Mean values as to Extent of Consultation on Health Conditions According to


Ethnic Group
HEALTH
PRACTICES
Painful urination
Wounds and
Lacerations
Abdominal Pain
Abscesses and
Swelling
Arthritis
Asthma
Diarrhea
Coughs & Colds
Diabetes
Dysmenorrhea
Fever
Headaches
Hypertension
Snake Bites
Toothache
Overall Mean

ETHNIC GROUP
Ifugao
Kalinga
3.09
2.47

Ibaloi
2.53

Kankana-ey
2.27

2.36

2.49

2.91

2.42

2.46

2.32
2.10
2.36
2.43
2.74
2.11
1.90
2.42
2.27
2.36
2.17
2.01
2.30
*Significant at. 05

F
3.50*

Sig. level
.016

2.29

1.85

.138

2.70

2.71

.697

.555

2.46

2.78

2.65

1.21

.306

2.03
2.39
2.51
2.70
2.21
1.80
2.56
2.43
2.70
2.57
2.07
2.39

2.26
3.00
2.43
2.94
2.14
3.00
2.35
3.06
2.04
2.71
2.35
2.47
2.22
2.18
2.26
2.18
2.78
2.76
2.70
2.47
2.17
2.41
2.48
2.62
** Significant at .01

3.17*
.973
1.68
1.15
1.26
2.75*
1.02
.470
1.35
1.56
.686
1.02

.025
.406
.173
.330
.288
.044
.384
.703
.260
.201
.562
.383

The Ifugaos and the Kalingas are more likely to consult a doctor regarding painful
urination in comparison to the Ibalois and the Kankana-eys. The same can be said on
arthritis and dysmennorhea. No significant difference can be gleaned among the mean
scores in wounds and laceration, abdominal pain, abscesses and swellings, asthma,
diarrhea, cough and colds, diabetes, fever, headache, hypertension, toothache and
snake bites.
Differences in the Extent of Use of Health Remedies by Ethnic Group
Table 6 presents the extent by which the ethnic tribes in the Cordilleras differ in the
use of the health remedies. As shown, the means of the ethnic groups significantly vary
on the extent of use of herbal medicines, on consulting the barangay health workers,
and wanting to be brought to the hospital. The differences are brought about by the
distinct cultural values and beliefs of the ethnic groups. The kankana-eys use of herbal
plants as a health remedy more often as compared to the other ethnic groups. They are
followed by the Ibalois and the Ifugaos. The Kalingas use herbal medicines the least.

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Table 6. Mean Values as to Extent of Use of Use of health Remedies by Ethnic


Group
Remedy
Use Herbal remedies
Consult Folk healers like the
herbolario, man-ilut,
mannultop, mannibisib
Consult ritual practitioners like
diagnostic specialist such as
manbuyon, mansip-ok, manila, manbuton

Ibaloi

Kankana-ey

Ethnic group
Ifugao
Kalinga

3.29

4.07

3.14

3.13

7.44**

Sig.
Level
.000

2.17

2.66

2.43

2.35

2.23

.086

1.88

2.23

2.35

2.41

1.92

.128

1.94

2.26

2.39

2.71

2.06

.107

3.14

3.66

3.00

3.25

3.67*

.013

3.19

3.42

2.96

3.29

1.18

.320

2.75

3.16

2.43

2.88

2.75*

.044

Consult ritual practitioners like


ritual performers such as

manbaki /mumbaki, man-ated,


manbunong
Consult Barangay health
worker or nurse
Consult a doctor for
consultation and treatment
Want to be brought to the
hospital

In terms of consulting barangay health workers as a remedy, the Kankana-eys


also do these more often in comparison to the other ethnic groups. They are followed by
the Kalingas and the Ibalois. The Ifugaos resort to this remedy the least. As far as
wanting to be brought to the hospital as a health remedy is concerned, the Kankana-eys
again resort to this the most. They are followed by the Kalingas and the Ibalois. The
Ifugaos use this remedy the least.
No significant variation is evident in consulting folk healers and ritual, practitioners,
and consulting a doctor. This means that ethnic group does not influence the extent of
use of the aforementioned remedies by the respondents.
Beliefs as to Factors Causing Human Discomforts
Table 7 shows the ranking of the factors believed by the respondents as causing
human discomforts. The respondents were asked to rank the factors according to what
they believe as the cause/s of illnesses besetting the people in their community. The
individual ranks were added to come up with a sum of ranks such that the lower the sum
of ranks, the higher is the overall rank. As reflected in the table, the first (1st) in rank is

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natural factors such as those arising from accidents or negligence; second (2nd) in rank
is climatic changes causing cough and colds, etc; ranked 3rd is exposures to or
contact with virus or bacteria, indigestion, animal bites and insect bites; followed by
infractions with ones relation with the spirits or deities which demand for curative
rituals and lastly due to spirit related afflictions brought about by ones breach of social
relations. These findings mean that the respondents understand and are already aware
of proven and scientific explanations of diseases or disorders. There are however some
who still believe that illnesses are caused by spirits. Picpican (n.d.) claimed that
problems, poor health, and misfortunes are still believed by some people of the tribes to
be caused by spirits. He went on to say that successes and misfortunes in life are seen
as twin experiences that can be sought or avoided. Fair-od (1999) also said that to the
Igorots, physical discomfort is caused by a tala, kedet, or padpad-ya. These are
practices associated with sorcery- a means to inflict pain or illness to anyone, an enemy
or an innocent being through rituals and or prayers.
Table7. Factors Causing Human Discomforts
Factor
Natural factors such as those arising format accidents or
negligence (eg. injury, bruises, fractures)
Climatic changes (eg. cough and colds)
Exposure to or contact with virus or bacteria, indigestion, animal
bites, insect bites etc.
Infractions with ones relation with the spirits or deities, which
demand for curative rituals.
Due to some spirit related afflictions brought about by ones
breach of social relations (eg. sorcery, magic, or witchcraft)

Sum of
Ranks

Over-all
Rank

601

602
680

2
3

938

955

Health-related Needs in the Community


The health-related needs of the respondents from the different ethnic groups are
presented in Table 8. It appears that health-care professionals such as doctors, nurses,
and barangay health workers are the priority needs of the people in the community.

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Table 8. Health-related Needs of the Respondents


Need
Doctor
Nurse
Barangay Health Worker
Health Center
Pharmacy
Hospital

Sum of Ranks
607
782
845
918
1008
1123

Overall Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6

This finding implies that there is a lack of health-care professionals to look into
the health-related needs of the people. They would like to have a health-worker who can
immediately respond to the needs of a sick or injured person in times of emergency.
Doctors are also needed to diagnose diseases and prescribe medicines after the
diagnosis. The lack of health-care professionals is not only true to the communities
under study but to the nation as a whole. For example, results of the 2003 Philippine
National Demographic and Health Survey revealed that 93% of the women- respondents
reported problems in accessing healthcare for themselves and that 53% of them do not
know where to go in case of pregnancy complications.
IV. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The study revealed that the various ethnic groups living in the communities under
study rarely consult health professionals on matters relating to health practices and
health conditions. Moreover, the use of herbal medicines is the most prevalent remedy
resorted to by the people in the community in treating their ailments. Ethnic background
significantly influences the extent of consultation of the people living in the communities
in some municipalities of Benguet on matters related to health practices. The Kalingas
tend to consult a professional health workers on matters related to health practices more
than the Ifugaos, Ibalois and the Kankana-eys. The ethnic groups believe that natural
factors are the primary causes of human discomforts. Also, the presence of health
professionals is the most urgent need of the people in the community.
It is recommended that educational and information campaigns should be
conducted by the Department of Health (DOH) in coordination with the different Nursing
Schools in Benguet and Baguio city to increase the awareness and knowledge of people
in far-flung communities on the use of alternative medicines such as herbals in the
treatment of some illnesses or disorders. This is because people in these communities

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rarely consult health care professionals due to their unavailability. Moreover, nursing
schools should include in their extension programs the fielding of their doctor or nurse
instructors to communities needing health-care assistance.

REFERENCES
Bautista, V.A. (1999). A State-of-the-art review of primary health care in the philippines:
Two decades of government initiative. NCPAG, UP for the Department of
Health. Asian Medical Information Center www.who.org
Caeda, Rose V. N. (1979) The concept of illness among major philippine tribes: A
preliminary survey. Data Paper No. 3. Papers in Mindanao Ethnography.
MSU-University Research Center, Marawi City.
Community Perspectives: Our views, voices, and challenges (2005) United Nations
Population Fund (UNFPA), Philippines Second Philippines progress report on
the millennium development goals (2005) National Economic and Development
Authority (NEDA), Philippines
Eisenberg DM, Davis RB, Ettner SL, Appel S, Wilkey S, Van Rompay M, Kessler RC.
(1998) Trends in alternative medicine use in the United States, 1990-1997:
results of a follow-up national survey. JAMA 1998; 280(18):1569-75
Fiar-od C. (1999) Besao traditional knowledge on spiritual beliefs: Its contributions to
sustainable development, CHG Tangib Printing Press.
Fox (1969) The research process in education, New York: Holt, Rineheart and Winston,
Inc.
Palaganas E., Cardenas M., Bagamaspad A., Josef J., Tolentino L. (2000):
Mainstreaming indigenous health knowledge and practices
PhilippinesNational demographic and health survey (NDHS), (2003): National
Statistics Office (NSO), Solicarel Building, Ramon Magsaysay Boulevard,
Santa Mesa, Manila Philippines

Picpican I.: Indigenous knowledge on health: Linking practice and beliefs (ND)
Shohet, L. (2002) "Health and literacy: perspectives in 2002." Adult Literacy and
Numeracy Australian Research Consortium Online Forum, March 15-April 19,
2002. http://www.staff.vu.edu.au/alnarc/onlineforum/AL_pap_shohet.htm
Tan, M.L. (1987). Usog, kulam, pasma: Traditional concepts of health and illness in the
Philippines. Quezon City: Alay Kapwa Kilusang Pangkalusugan (AKAP)
www.cordilleraonline.com
World Health Organization, Western Pacific Region (2000). A report of the consultation
meeting on traditional and modern medicine: Harmonizing the two
approaches, (22-26 November 1999, Beijing, China) Publications Unit,
Umaming, S. (2007) Like a virgin? Media journal:experiences in advocating
reproductive health, gender and population and development in the newsroom
and beyond (2007): Pages 19-21 Philippine NGO Council on Population,
Health and Welfare, Inc.

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RATIONALIZING THE OFFERING OF SPECIAL EDUCATION (SPED) AS A FIELD OF


SPECIALIZATION IN THE BACHELOR OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION (BEED)
PROGRAM OF THE UNIVERSITY OF THE CORDILLERAS
Cardidad P. Pagaduan, Ed.D.
Merian E. Abenes, M.A.

I. INTRODUCTION
The Philippine Constitution spells out that one of the objectives of tertiary
education is to train the nations manpower in the required skills for national
development; and to instill and foster the appropriate and relevant attitudes, skills and
knowledge to enable each individual to become a useful, productive and gainfully
employed member of society (Art. IV, Sec. 23, par. 2). This provision can be realized if
graduates of Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs) can find jobs after finishing college.
Reports however show that for the past decade, only few college graduates were
able to land jobs related to their courses. The rest of the graduates join the other
graduates

who

become

underemployed

or

unemployed

(Braid,

2007).

Underemployment happens when the graduates find jobs which are not related to the
courses they have finished.
The problems on unemployment and underemployment is attributed not to lack of
college graduates, nor to lack of available jobs, but to mismatch between the demands
of the industry and the course offerings of HEIs. The HEIs are not offering the needed
courses such that college graduates do not possess the skills needed by the industries.
In an interview at the program Adyenda hosted by Joel Villanueva last April 19, 2008,
with the topic, Kurso Uso, Jean Donald Abuan, Department of Labor Undersecretary
said that there are a number of job advertisements both in print and broadcast media,
job fairs are also held in different places in the country.

While there are many

applicants, many of them are not considered for the jobs because they did not meet the
degree qualification.
Neri (2007) suggested that

one solution to the problem is for the HEIs to

coordinate with the industries, find out what these industries really want, to make sure
that the course offerings is relevant to the needs of the industries. HEIs cannot just go
on offering the courses or programs they had been offering for the past years. With the
changes in the society brought about by globalization and technology emerge different

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86

needs and skills that have to be satisfied and acquired. The higher education institutions
have to respond to the challenge as they are tasked to prepare and train the nations
workforce.
For decades now, the College of Teacher Education (CTE) of the University of
the Cordilleras (UC) is offering two curricular programs, Bachelor of Secondary
Education and Bachelor of Elementary Education.
major fields:

The former has the following as

Mathematics, General Science, English, Filipino, Social Studies, and,

Physical Education, Health and Music. The latter used to have fields of specializations
like English, Filipino, Math, General Science, Computer Education, Music, Arts, Physical
education and Health (MAPEH) and Heograpiya, Kasaysayan at Sibika (HEKASI)
however, by virtue of CHED Memo. No. 30, s. 2004, the Bachelor of Elementary
Education program has become a general education program for teaching the
elementary subjects. This program aims to develop elementary school teachers who are
either (a) generalists who can teach across the different learning areas in grade school,
(b) special education teachers, or (c) pre-school teachers (TEC, DepEd, CHED, 2007).
As an institution of higher learning committed to achieving its goal of providing
relevant education to make graduates productive members of the society, the University
of the Cordilleras, College of Teacher Education keeps on enriching its curriculum in
order to enrich its course offerings and make the courses more relevant to the emerging
needs of the changing times and to globalization.
Calderon (2004) asserted that an enriched curriculum can be done by making all
offerings relevant to the needs of business, industry, community and the government.
Ornstein and Levine (2004) added that relevant curriculum entails revision of existing
courses and development of new courses considering learners interests and societal
needs.
The lifeline of universities and colleges are the students. Without the students,
an educational institution cannot continually do its function such that in order for higher
education institutions to continually exist, it should cater to the needs of the students and
to the needs of the industries.
In the study of Lumiwan (1995), she found out that high school students of Pines
City National High School prefer to enroll courses which they believe are needed by
companies. Likewise, the students prefer to enroll courses that are in-demand abroad.

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Among the courses preferred by the high school students are:

87

first, computer

technology; second, nursing; third, engineering; and fourth, education.


In a similar study conducted by Adora (1998), she found out that fourth year
students consider employability in the country and abroad as their primary reason of
selecting a course to enroll in college. The respondents preferred the following courses:
first, Arts and Sciences; second, teacher education; third, engineering; fourth, medical
and allied health courses.
In the same vein, Verona (1997) found out in his study that fourth year high
school students prefer to enroll in courses that are in-demand so that after graduation,
they can immediately be employed. Among the courses preferred by the students are:
first, Nursing and Allied Health Courses; second, Engineering; third, Education, and
fourth; Technical-Vocational courses.
Likewise, in a study conducted by Laoingco (2002), he found out that schools of
higher learning offer courses that are needed by the consumers. In his study, it came
out that health care is what the consumers need, hence, many schools of higher learning
are offering nursing to keep up with the demands of nursing abroad.
The survey conducted by PEW Research Center for the People and the Press
(2006) revealed that there is an increase of Asian immigrants in the United States. From
65% last 1998, it became 85% in 2001 and almost one half of the immigrants are
Filipinos. Majority of the Filipino immigrants are nurses and teachers (special education,
science, and mathematics) because of high demand for these professionals, and the
demand is increasing especially with special education teachers.
With the affirmed commitment of the Philippines being one of the members of
UNESCO to achieve Education for All (EFA) by 2015, there is an urgent need for more
teachers who are imbued with the needed knowledge, skills and attitudes to teach in
order to help achieve one of EFAs six key measurable educational goal that is, expand
early childhood care and education especially for the most vulnerable and
disadvantaged children (UNESCO, World Conference on EFA, Dakar, Senegal, 2000).
Included among those who will benefit from the EFAs goal are children of school
age and children with disabilities. UNESCO reported that there are at least 650 million
people with disabilities worldwide, approximately 80% live in less developed countries
(Art. 24 on Education, Convention on the Rights of people with Disabilities). Snyder and
Hoffman (2002) claimed that only about 6,293,00 children are receiving special

88

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education services in 2001.


services

designed to meet

Special education is a set of educational programs or


particular

needs

of

children with disabilities

or

exceptionalities. Special education is provided to meet the needs of such children who
cannot profit normally from general education. Special education trains the children with
exceptionalities or disabilities for regular school or it prepares them for livelihood
(Lecture delivered by Prof. R. Mamaat, February 2008).
Educating the children with exceptionalities or disabilities is the key to make them
become productive members of the society. The US Department of Labor, Bureau of
Statistics reported that special education teachers held a total of about 459,000 jobs in
the US in 2006. The number is expected to increase as many districts report problems
finding adequate number of certified special education teachers. The number of special
education teachers is expected to increase by 15% from 2006 to 2016, faster than the
average for all occupations.
The need to educate the children with disabilities is also contained in Education
for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 and the Individuals with Disabilities Education
Act (IDEA) of 1990. It is further strengthened by the 1997 Reauthorization of the IDEA
to improve services for these students.
In the Philippines, the constitution mandates that basic education is a universal
right of all. Basic education refers to the grade school and high school education. The
ever increasing population requires more teachers to teach children of school age.
As regards children with disabilities, Act No.3203 provides for the care and
protection of the disabled. Likewise, Republic Act No. 3562 provides that teachers,
administrators, supervisors of special children shall be trained by the Department of
Education.
The number of children with disabilities is undetermined, likewise the number of
those receiving special education and special education teachers. Soho (2008) in her
program Kapuso Mo, Jessica Soho aired at GMA last February 9, 2008 reported that
there is a dearth of special education teachers in the country. Most of the experienced
special education teachers were lured to become special education teachers abroad
because of high salary. This makes the country in dire need of professional special
education teachers.
In the past decade, there had been very few teacher education institutions
offering special education as a field of specialization. Most of the teachers teaching in

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special education schools are not special education teachers; they had just undergone
seminars and special trainings. With the EFAs goal in education, attention is given to
educating children, including those with disabilities, hence the need to offer a course that
would prepare the teachers in handling the needs of these children and to fill the dearth
of special education teachers in the country and abroad.
The study focused on determining the course preferences of fourth year high
school students of Baguio City and Benguet during the school year 2007-2008.
Specifically, it sought to identify their course preferences, the field of specialization in the
Teacher Education program that they prefer, and the rank of SPED along the identified
fields of specialization. An output of the study is a designed curricular program for
SPED as a field of specialization.
II. DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
This is a descriptive research since its main purpose is to conduct a survey on the
course preferences of high school students. Hair, et al. (2000) stated that descriptive
studies allow decision makers to draw inferences about environmental factors or other
phenomena of concern. Respondents of the study were the fourth year high school
students during the Academic Year 2007-2008. These students will be entering college
during the Academic Year 2008-2009. This study was conducted in selected public and
private secondary schools in Baguio City and Benguet.
Table 1. Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents by School
SCHOOL
Baguio City National High School
(BCNHS)
Pines City National High School
(PCNHS)
Irisan National High School
PCNHS Bonifacio Annex
St. Louis High School- Aurora Hill
St. Louis High School- Sablan
Evelio Javier National High School
BCNHS- Roxas Annex
PCNHS- Magsaysay Annex
UC Laboratory School
Baguio Patriotic High School
BCNHS- Bakakeng Annex
TOTAL

FREQUENCY
406

PERCENTAGE
19.60

382

18.45

214
191
172
121
116
102
94
93
91
89
2071

10.33
9.22
8.31
5.84
5.60
4.93
4.54
4.49
4.39
4.30
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90

Of the 2071 students surveyed, 2022 or 97.64% claimed that they are going to
college while 49 or 2.36% said that they will not.
A questionnaire was used in gathering the data. The questionnaire contains items
that can be answered by checking (/) the appropriate space. Likewise, an interview was
also conducted to some students and teachers to generate additional information
pertinent to the problem. The questionnaires were distributed to the fourth year classes
through the different subject teachers on January 2008. After the questionnaires were
retrieved, these were sorted out and then the responses were tallied and analyzed.
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Based on the data, there were 40 identified courses that the students would like to
enroll in college. Of these, 403 of the 2022 students or 19.93% claimed that they prefer
to enroll in an engineering course. This is followed by Nursing with 329 or 16.27% and
Hotel and Restaurant Management with 171 or 8.46%. These courses are ranked 1st,
2nd, and 3rd respectively in terms of student preference. There were 63 or 3.12 % of the
students who claimed to prefer Teacher Education as a course. Teacher Education is
ranked 9 in the list.
The Engineering course is made-up of different fields (Electronics and
Communications, Civil, Mechanical, Computer, Geodetic, sanitary, Mining, Electrical,
etc) that is why it has the greatest percentage as the most preferred course by the
students. Nursing ranks next because the demand for Filipino nurses worldwide is very
high (Tandoc, 2007). Hotel and restaurant management ranks third because this is also
one of the in-courses today.
Of the 63 respondents who preferred Teacher Education, 21 or 33.33 % claimed
that they will enroll in BEED SPED while 10 or 15.87% will enroll BSEd major in English,
and 6 or 9.52% will enroll BSEd major in Mathematics. These major fields are ranked 1st,
2nd, and 3rd respectively. The most preferred fields of specialization are SPED and
English because the respondents are aware of the employability of teachers in these
fields. In local and national papers, teaching positions in English are always advertised;
likewise, with English, graduates who may not be employed in schools can find jobs as
tutors. Sabangan (2007) claimed that during the last decade, Filipinos who are English
teachers are in-demand in Asia because of their fluency in the language and their pay
being lower than the native English speakers.

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Mathematics is also a preferred specialization. An interview with some teachers


revealed that there is now a dearth of mathematics teachers in the public schools
because most of those who had been teaching for the last five years are going abroad to
teach because of the high demand for mathematics teachers . This was also supported
by Mrs. Leticia Sab-it, the Department Head of mathematics at Pines City National High
School (PCNHS) and Dr. Rachel Bugtong, the principal of the same school. Dr. Elma
Donaal , the principal of Baguio City National High School also mentioned in an interview
that she is having problems with her mathematics teachers. Most of those who are
already employed in the school are resigning for teaching employment abroad.
The least preferred fields of specialization are Values Education (2 or 3.18%)),
Social Studies ( 3 or 4.76%) and, Physical Education, Health and Music (PEHM) also
with 3 or 4.76% of the respondents preferring it . These are the least preferred fields
because these fields had been made as components of the Makabayan subject and not
full one -unit subjects in the basic education curriculum (BEC Manual).
It can be inferred from the gathered data that students consider the employability
of graduates of particular courses in choosing their courses in college. In the field of
Teacher Education alone, most students are aware of the employability of special
education teachers not only in the country but also in other countries particularly the
United States. The high demand for special education teachers is supported by statistics
from the US Department of Labor that special education teachers held a total of about
459,000 jobs in the US in 2006. The number is expected to increase as many districts
report problems finding adequate number of certified special education teachers. The
number of special education teachers is expected to increase by 15% from 2006 to
2016, faster than the average for all occupations. (http://www.bls.gov/oco07070.htm).
This high demand of special education teachers abroad is now the reason why many
students are enrolling in special education course.
The finding is also supported by the studies of Lumiwan, (1995), Adora (1998),
and Verona (1997. These aforementioned studies found that the primary consideration
of high school students in choosing courses to enroll in college is the high demand for
the job the courses provide after graduation from college. Furthermore, the data
released by the Peoples Education Worlwide (PEW) Research Center (2006) showed a
remarkable increase of Filipino immigrants in the United States to teach special
education

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IV. CONCLUSION and RECOMMENDATIONS


Based on the findings, it can be concluded that one of the fields of specialization
preferred by the high school students who are planning to enroll in Teacher Education is
special education. It is then recommended that the university offers special education
(SPED) as one of the major fields under the BEED program of the College of Teacher
Education. Moreover, the university should continue to improve its human and physical
resources related to SPED in order to attract more high school students to enroll in the
program.

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