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A STUDY ON SOCIO ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF

SALT WORKERS IN ARUMUGANERI TOWN,


THOOTHUKUDI DISTRICT
A PROJECT WORK SUBMITTED TO

MANONMANIAM SUNDARANAR UNIVERSITY


In partial fulfillment of the requirement of the
Award of the degree of

MASTER OF ARTS IN ECONOMICS


Submitted by

S. RAMESH
Reg. No. 15701967
Under the guidance of

Dr.P.MARUTHIAH PANDIAN., M.A., M.Phil., Ph.D.,


Asst. Prof. of Economics,

DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS & RESEARCH CENTRE


Aditanar College of Arts and Science
Verapandianpatnam 628 216
November 2016
1

Dr.P.MARUTHIAH PANDIAN., M.A., M.Phil., Ph.D.,


Asst. Prof. of Economics,
P.G. Dept & Research centre in Economics,
Aditanar College of Arts & Science,
Verapandianpatnam 628 216.

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project entitled A STUDY ON SOCIO ECONOMIC
CONDITIONS OF SALT WORKERS IN ARUMUGANERI TOWN, THOOTHUKUDI
DISTRICT is a bona fide project work done by S. RAMESH (Reg No. 15701967), II M.A
Economics., Department of Economics & Research centre, Aditanar College of Arts and
Science, Tiruchendur under my supervision and guidance. This project has not previously
formed the basis for the award of any Degree, Diploma, and Associate, Fellowship or any
similar title. It represents entirely an independent work on the part of the candidate.

Place: Tiruchendur
Date:

(Dr. P.MARUTHIAH PANDIAN)


Forwarded By

(Dr C.RAMESH, M.A., M.Phil., Ph.D.,)


Head of the Department of Economics
Aditanar College of Arts & Science,
Verapandianpatnam 628 216,
Tiruchendur.

External Examiner
Researcher
2

S. RAMESH
Reg. No. 15701967
II M.A ECONOMICS.,
Aditanar College of Arts and Science,
Verapandiyanpatnam 628 216.

DECLARATION OF THE CANDIDATE

I hereby declare that the project entitled A STUDY ON SOCIO


ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF SALT WORKERS IN ARUMUGANERI
TOWN, THOOTHUKUDI DISTRICT is the original work done by me
during

July

2016

November

2016,

under

the

guidance

of

Dr.P.MARUTHIAH PANDIAN., M.A., M.Phil., Ph.D., Of and Reader in


Economics and her project has not previously formed the award of any Degree,
Diploma, and Associate, Fellowship or any similar title.

Place: Tiruchendur
Date:
(S. RAMESH)
Signature of the Researcher

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all, I thank God Almighty for abundantly pouring his blessings
and grace to finish this project successfully. Without her, this humble piece of
work would not have appeared in this present form.
Let me indeed acknowledgement in unambiguous terms my sincere
thanks to

Dr.P.MARUTHIAH PANDIAN., M.A., M.Phil., Ph.D.,

Asst.Prof.of.Economics, Aditanar College of Arts and Science, Tiruchendur.


But for her intellectual provocations, relentless efforts and sustained
encouragement this project would not have got this form and shape than it
presently does.
I sincerely thank to are H.O.D Dr.C.Ramesh M.A.,M.phil.,Ph.D and
Faculty members of Department of Economics & Research Centre,
Aditanar College of Arts and Science, Tiruchendur for their valuable
suggestions to my project work.
I wish to place on record my gratitude and deep indebtedness to My
Parents for their moral encouragements during the preparation of this project
report.
I am very thankful to the Teachers for their co-operation extended to me
by providing necessary data for the completion of this project work.
My special thanks are due to My Friends for helping me to carry out
research work.

ARRANGEMENT OF CHAPTER
CHAPTER
NO.

PARTICULARS

PAGE NO.

Certificate

Declaration

ii

Acknowledgement

iii

Arrangement of chapters

iv

List of Tables
List of Figures
I

Introduction And Design Of The Study

II

Review Of The Literature And Concepts

III

Theoretical Aspects Of Salt Workers

25

IV

Profile Of The Study Area

35

Analysis And Interpretation Of Data

40

VI

Summary Of Findings And Suggestion

84

Bibliography

89
5

Appendix

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION AND DESIGN OF THE STUDY


1.1 Introduction
In ancient time when sea water evaporated in pits, white layer was
formed and it was found tasty and people started to consuming it. The white
layer was nothing but salt. As the time advanced, uses of salt increased and the
method of producing salt also become a very important process. In modern
times, salt has about 14,000 known uses. Presently about 120 nations are
actively engaged in salt production.
Salt has been equally important in trade and politics. Many countries
controlled salt as a state monopoly. The salt tax, among other things provoked
the French revolution. A similar salt tax was a principal issue in Gandhis civil
disobedience movement against the British that eventually lead to Indias
independence. India is the third largest salt producing country in the world after
China and USA. Global annual production being about 230 million tones. The
growth and achievement of salt industry over the last 60 years has been
spectacular.
When India attained independence in 1947, salt was being imported from
the United Kingdom and Adens to meet its domestic requirement. But today it
has not only achieved self sufficiency in production of salt to meet its domestic
requirement but also in a position of exporting surplus salt to foreign countries.
7

As per the Government of TamilNadu, there are around 13581 Salt


workers and most of the salt workers in TamilNadu belong to Schedule Caste
community. Around 11000 acres are used for salt manufacture. This is a
scheduled employment under the minimum wages Act, 1948 and work is carried
out from the month February to September providing around 200 to 250 days
work. Arumuganeri occupies a very important place in the history of salt
industry in India because of its geographic location and other favourable factors.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The salt workers suffer enormously from the saline environment in which
they live and work in Arumuganeri. They get occupational illness and
disabilities such as sight impairment and blindness caused by the reflected glare
of the sun of the salt crystals. They develop skin ulcers which are very painful
and do not heal up quickly. They also suffer from stomach problems. Their life
expectancy is quite low and infant mortality is high. Their wages are low. The
salt open for only about eight months of the year. So, in the process of making
two ends meets the seasonal workers invariably fall into the hands of the local
money lenders who generally change interest at the rate of 10 per cent per
month. Salt workers work during the whole season and perform all kinds of
activities. In the beginning of the season, the workers get small amount as
wages and wages increase as the production of the salt increases with

temperature. The minimum daily wages reaches upto Rs. 156 at the end of the
season.
The salt workers face health hazards like blisters, burns, cuts, eye
burning, falling hair, headaches and lower legs and feet develop lesions like
ulcers and wart. Skin problems occur like scaling, atrophic scars and fissures.
This facilities enhanced adsorption of salt into body, which could be one of the
causes of high blood pressure. The incidence of vitamin A deficiency, night
blindness, tuberculosis, infant mortality and gynecological problems are
common. Salt workers are living in very poor household income due to seasonal
employment, inadequate access to state resource, no representation in decision
making groups poor literacy level girl child school drop outs in 5th to 6th
standard is very high among salt workers. No proper information execution of
law, no proper information about salt labourers in the state. There is no
organization working for the salt workers other welfare measures are also not
sufficient to their expectation. Therefore, the condition of the salt workers in
Arumuganeri area is poor. Hence, the researcher tries to analyze the economic
condition of salt workers in the study area.

1.3 Objectives of the Study


9

The broad objective of the study is to known the economic conditions of salt
workers in Arumuganeri Town Panchayat, Thoothukudi District, Tamil Nadu.
The primary objectives of the study are
1.
2.
3.
4.

To find the prevailing working condition of the salt workers and


To known the wage difference between male and female salt workers
To analyze the labour welfare of the salt workers
To bring out the suggestions to improve the conditions of workers in
the salt industry.

1.4 METHODOLGY

10

Salt laboures constitute the largest chunk of rural work force in


Arumuganeri salt labourers from the most unorganized and neglected section of
the rural society who are the victims of the low wages, seasonal unemployment,
low incomes, poverty and indebtedness. Their meager income hardly permit
them to meet both the ends. To ameliorate the conditions of these vulnerable
sections, several department programs have been implemented to relieve them
from the clutches or poverty and indebtedness. Inspire of four decades of
planned development it is still believers that their conditions have not improved.
How far it is true? Hence, in this study an attempt has been made to enquire into
the Grassroots Economics. This micro level study will be highly useful to
understand the economic conditions of the major section in depth.
1.5 Sampling design
Arumuganeri was selected for the present study because, the salt industry
are the major work in this district. The sample households for the study have
been selected using random sampling method.

1.6 Study Design

11

The main focus of the study is to examine the wages employment,


income, expenditure and indebtedness of the salt workers in Arumuganeri so as
to ascertain the Grass roots Economic. The study also makes an attempt to
estimate the poverty among the salt labourers households and to identify the
factor influencing the employment and wages in the study area.
1.7 Sample Size
The present study is based on the primary data, collected from the
Arumuganeri area. The researcher selected 30 sample workers were collected
information on through a structured questionnaire method. In the 30
respondents 12 were male and 18 were female workers.
1.8 Period of the Study
This study focused on the data collected by sampling survey pertaining to
the year 2015 2016.
1.9 Collection of Data
The survey method was used to collect the required data for the study.
The required information and data were collected on various aspects from the
sample respondents through personal interview with the concerned with the aid
of schedules conducting a pilot survey. Due care was taken to have cross checks
in schedules of the level of knowledge of the respondent and all the precautions

12

were taken to ensure the accuracy and reliability of data. All the schedules have
been scrutinized so as to appraise the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the
data before each schedule was passed for tabulation.
1.10 Statistical tools
The statistical methods are a mechanical process especially designed
to facilitate the condensation and analysis of quantitative data. The aim of
statistical methods is to facilitate the comparative study of the relationship
between the two phenomena. There are different types of statistical tools and
techniques for analyzing the collected data. But the present study, the statistical
tools like chi-square test, diagrams and graphs, column chart, cone chart, line
chart were used for the analysis of data.
1.11 Scope of the study
In this study the working conditions of salt workers in Arumuganeri
and analyses with a view to identify the various aspects of their income,
expenditure, savings, borrowings, working days, wages, annual allowance,
yearly bonus and welfare measures.

1.12 Limitations
13

The researcher has collected data of salt workers only n he Arumuganeri


and not the entire state of Tamil Nadu. The researcher went to a village for data
collection then only found most of the people are migrated from their village to
other villages for jobs. Other people in higher caste not tell about anything to
these people even if they know because they do not want these people to receive
any kind of benefit so researcher found difficult to identify the people. Then,
most of the salt workers still now not ready to disclose in front of other. So they
scared to disclose data about their owners. The researcher finished his research
work with in a limited time.
1.13 Frame work of the study
This project is organized into five chapters as follows.
The first chapter is introduction and Design of the study. It contains
the statement of the problem, objectives of the study, methodology,

limitations of the study and frame work of the study.


The second chapter presents the review of literature and concepts.
Third chapter deals with the profile of the study area.
The fourth chapter deals with the theoretical aspects of salt workers.
The fifth chapter deals with the analysis and interpretation of data.
The sixth chapter contains the summary and conclusions.

CHAPTER- II
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND CONCEPTS
A review of the studies of economic conditions of salt workers in the
unorganized sector. The major concentration of these studies is simply on the
14

trends of work participation of salt workers where as their family life, the
working conditions and condition of work have been excluded. But he present
study intends to explore a wide range of issues ranging from economic
conditions, family life, working relationship, labour legislations to looking
into the terms of employment and living conditions of the salt workers of
unorganized sector.
Gadgil (1965) states that Basically unorganized labours whether in the
rural or urban area is conterminous with poverty because whether if the
marginal farms or land less labourers or migrant urban slum worker, they are
such involved in a set of survival activities on the margin of poverty. 1

1. Gadgil D.R.Women In the Working Force In India, Asia Publishing House.


Bombay 1965, Page No:30.

The Labourers are forced by economic circumstances to sell him self. He


must work only for their owner. Employment determines the regularity and
volume of income and sets a limit on the standard living. The nature of
employment would also reflect the occupational structure and the economic
progress achieved by a nation. 2
15

Income is perhaps the only important and the most basic yardstick for
measuring the economic performance and welfare of the people. 3
Manonmoney examined the Problems and prospects of women in
India she said that many females workers bear the Double Burden of
running a household and pursing a career or holding in employment. 4

2. Desai S.S.M.Slavery in Rural areas of India. Rural Banking in India, April


1983. Page no:14.
3. Herman, P.Nailler, Income of the American People, John Wileys Sons,
Newyork, 1955, Page no:21.
4. Manonmoney Problems and Prospects of Women in India Southern
Economist Vol.33 No.11 Jan 1 1995. Page no:18

Mohanan pillai (1996) has conducted a survey on Social Security For


Workers in unorganized sector- Experience of Gujarth. He observed that the
need for social security justified essentially on grounds of quity and social
justice. In Kerala, Workers are suffering large scale exploitation in terms of
hours of work as well as wage and absence of permanent employee
employer relationship. The non wage benefits especially bonus and holiday
wages are found to be in equitable. He suggested that the steady and regular
16

income has also change the life style of the worker which evaluation his status
in society. 5
Bairagya Indrajit Conducted study on Measuring the informal
economy in developing countries The goal of this study was to measure the
economic importance of the informal sector in India economy by its share,
growth and composition from the year 1970 to 2006. Another objective was
the measurement of efficiency performance of the unorganized sector. 6

5. Mohan Pillai.s (1996) Social Security for Workers in Unorganized Sector


Experience Gujarth. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol 31. PageNo: 31,
(August 3), 1996. Page no: 2098-2107.
6. Indrajit Bairagya (2009) Measuring the informal Economy in Developing
Countries

Kimera Musooka Moses (2010) conducted a study on Dignity of


workers in Wakiso town: Wakiso District the study contributed to the
management theory and practice by establishing the thesis that regard for
workers dignity by the tripartite partners is indispensable for the improvement
of the workers conditions. The study was conducted to change the prevailing
plight of workers. A combination of qualitative and quantitative method was
applied and data was collected via interviews. Questionnaires observation and
literature review. 7

17

Geetha K.T (2010) Conducted study on women in informal sector A


case study this study was focused on different types of Socio-economic
problems of female workers in urban informal sector. The study was based on
primary data collected. An interview schedule was administered 100 females
workers in various activities in the informal sector in urban areas. Finding
revealed that females in informal sector were over burdened with work and
exploited. 8
7. Kimera Musooka Moses (2010) Regard for workers Dignity: A Remedy to the
Poor Conditions of Workers in Wakiso town, Wakiso District
Page no:1-8.
8. Geetha K.T (2010) Conducted study on women in informal sector A case
study this study was focused on different types of Socio-economic problems of
female workers in urban informal sector.

Jeyaraj (1984) conducted study a study on A History of salt monopoly


in Madras presidency (1805-1978). The study point out that the monopoly
system on salt was first introduced by regulation -1 of 1805 in the madras
presidency and continued up to 1878. This system increased the revenue of
the government. The East Indian Company rationalized it into a logical chain
of government control reading to better salt, which led to more consumption
which in its turn resulted in more revenue. However, it was based on many
administrative problems. 9

18

Suresh Babu (1981) conducted a study in Cochin district in Kerala, in


1981 and collected data both from primary and secondary sources. The author
has come to the conclusion that in certain factories they begin their work as
early as 4 a.m. They continue to work till 6 pm or even later. If the labourers
are put to such long and continues work their health will certainly be
affected. 10
9. K.V.Jeyaraj, A History of Salt Monopoly in Madras President Thes is
Submitted to the Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai-(1984).
10. M.Suresh Babu Evaluation of Unionization and changes in Labour Processes
Under Forms of Capitalist Production. A Study of Chashew Industry in
Kerala. Working Paper, Page no:128, Centre for Development Studies,
Tiruvandram, May 1981, Page no:6

Nagarajan (1995) conducted a survey on quality of salt in India. The


survey pointed out that, about two per cent of the salt wee produced by the
private manufacturer and the rest of the salt by the public sector, co-operative
societies and on licensed private manufacturer. Due to the rapid industrial
development, the demand for salt has increased. He has estimated the future
salt demand also. 11
Kamalaj (2001) conducted a study on Salt industry in Tamil Nadu,
Trends and prospects. The study shows that the production of salt in India
increased from 8311.50 thousand tonnes in 1988 to 11964.40 thousand tonnes
in 1998. The production of salt in Tamilnadu in 1988 was about 1277 thousand
19

tonnes in 1977. The average incremental production of salt was 5.23 lakh
tonnes. The rising trend in the production was mainly due to the fact that the
total area of salt production has been increased. The uncultivated area was
under cultivation increased year by year. 12

11. S.Nagarajan Salt Quality Aspect to the For Survey on Indian Industry.
The Hindu, 1995, Page no:243
12. M.Kamalraj Salt Industry in Tamilnadu, Trends and Prospects Paper
Presented in 84th Annual Conference of India Economic Association, held at
Vellore From 28-12-2001 to 30-12-2001

Ramallingam (2001) in his report on salt production and marketing gives


importance to highlight the existing problems in salt factories at Nagercoil
circle. He pointed out the problem of ownership, renewal of license etc., The
main findings in the salt factories in the study area are suffering from high cost
of labour competition from Thoothukudi salt. The chief source of brine
supply is losing its salinity as it is in undated by fresh water drained from
irrigation fields. More over he explained how regular visits to salt works to
import instruments on manufacture of quality salt would help to improve the
quality of salt exports.13
Perumal (2004) studied the working conditions of Salt workers in Tamil
Nadu. His study deals with wages, working days, working hours, bonus,
welfare measures etc., Hew explained salt industry in Tamil Nadu is labour
20

intensive sectors, because it provides more employment to rural agricultural


surplus labour force both male and female are engaged in the salt producing
activities. He concluded that there is no job security and welfare measures are
also not sufficient to the workers expectations. So the salt workers living
conditions should be improved. 14
13. Ramalingam, Report on the First Regional Conference on Salt Production and
Marketing, Madras, 3-4 January 2001, Page no:6
14. V.M.S.Perumal, Working Conditions of Salt Workers in Tamilnadu: A Study
Southern Economist Vol 42, no:21, March 2004, P.P. 17-18

A study Solomonraj (1986) on marketing of salt on Agasteeswaram


Taluk of Kanyakumari District. He calculated the total production of the
Agasteeswaram Taluk in the year 1985-1986 Which was amounting to 2.22
Tonnes. More ever, he had maintenance about the selling system of salt in the
Agasteeswaram area. Mostly the were sold in the home taluk. The area is
faced high competition from Thoothukudi salt. He suggested that the
government should give support-price during the times very low price. 15
Sujata Gothoskar (1992) focuses the problems of women at work place
as struggled of women at work. For men, struggle is generally confined to the
work place, while home and leisure office a contrast, where as for almost
every women, like her work, struggle seems to occupy her entire life. For
women, there is no clear division in their work and leisure, in paid and unpaid

21

work, in work and non-work relations. Some of the most persistent issues in
industry have been security of employment, living, wages, regulation of hours
of work, basic facilities, and allowances and discriminatory treatment. 16

15. D. Solomonraj Marketing of salt in Agasteeswaram Taluk of kanyakumari


district. Thesis submitted to the Madurai Kamaraj university, June-1986
16. Sujata Gothoskar, (1992) Struggles of women at work, vikas publishing
house, pvt,ltd.

Singh (2005) has found that women in the brick industry in Haryana were
mostly migrant labourers. Labourers from areas with in as well as outside the
state. They are no better off than other poor women in the unorganized sector,
with ignorance and illiteracy compounding their social and economic
suffering. The study has observed that the lives of women working in brick
kilns are exhausting and tough. 17
Tour sophorn, veasna noun (2009) conducted study on Living and
working conditions of domestic workers in Cambodia: in phnom phenh, the
study on working conditions of domestic workers levered four districts and a
total of 30 communes. Information was collected from members of 9 trade
unions. Main findings of the research were employing some one to undertake
domestic households chores is a long time practice in Cambodia associated

22

with gentry stereo types on the traditional role of women in the households as
caretakers and caregivers. 18

17. Singh, (2005), Women workers in the Brick kiln Industry in haryana, India,
Indian Journal of gender studies, Vol,12, Issue 1,January-April.
18. Sophorn tour, Noun Veasna (2009) study on living and working conditions of
domestic workers in Cambodia report of ILO.

John weeks (1975) in her study Employment policies in the informal


urban sectors of developing economics analyzed that the employment
policies in the informal urban sector of developing economics. In this study
the position of enterprise vis--vis the state emerges as the main distinguishing
feature between two sectors. All government activities fall under formal
sector. The private sector units are recorgnised, supported by rules and
regulations of the government like licensing, wages, tariffs, quotes tax rebates
and holidays preferences to use foreign technology.19
Rao who found that the workers were living in poverty and bondage.
They were not paid properly according to their work and they were very
unsafe. The study revealed that child labour was a phenomenon in the
industry; they were suffering from tuber culosis and were unorganized,
ignorant, illiterate and unaware of their basic rights in the brick industry. 20
23

19. John weeks, Employment polices in the informal urban sector of developing
economics International Labour Review, Jan 1975 Page no.13.
20. Amiya Rao, Brick kiln labour living in poverty and Bondage, Economic and
Political Weekly, VOL XVI, June 1981, Page no.131

2.1 Concepts
A brief discussion of the concepts used in the study is given below.
2.1.1 Labour
Labour consists of all human efforts of body or mind are undertaken in
the expectation of reward. Thus any work done in return for a monetary reward
is labour. Thus the term Labour consists of the work of an ordinary wage to
the work of expert professionals undertaken for some monetary rewards.
2.1.2. Working conditions
It is the situation in which the salt workers are working in the salt. It
includes nature of work, working days per week, working hours (per day), lunch
bread status of work and security for job.
2.1.3 Living conditions

24

The living condition include the age distribution assets holding the
burden of debt and the expenditure on various items like food, clothing etc.,
including the expenditure on housing.

2.1.4 Wages
Wages are paid for the services of production and include only the
performance wage. Wages may be paid daily, weekly or monthly. In this study
the term, wages is used refer to weekly wages, irrespective of the mode or
time of payment of wages.
2.1.5 House hold
A group of persons normally living together and taking food from the
same kitchen constitute a household. Normally, such resident members exclude
guests but include temporary absentees.
2.1.6 Health

25

Health is prevention of disease and injury. The health of the industrial


labour depends on many complex factors, such as working conditions, living
conditions and diet.
2.1.7 Income
The word income is used to refer to the total amount of money earned
or collected during a given period of time, usually a year. Income includes all
income of the households from all sources computed from the primary data.

2.1.8 Workmens compensation


Workmens compensation, the first from of social insurance to develop
widely in the United States, provides protection for workers who are injured on
the job and for their families in the event of total injuries.
2.1.9 Indebtedness
Indebtedness in this study refer to capital expenditure of the family for
social functions, investment in profit making ventures and current expenditures
made to both ends meet and for other miscellaneous item like education, and
transitory item like unforeseen medical expenses.
2.1.10 Consumption expenditure

26

Consumption represents the total quantity of goods brought and


consumed by consumer during a period that is the expression of total
consumption demand. Consumption expenditures include expenditure on food,
clothing, heat and light housing, Social and religions functions, traveling,
education, health litigation and other miscellaneous expenditure on durable
goods.

2.1.11 Piece wages and time wages


Piece wages are the wages paid on the basis of work done. When the
quality of work is controlled by machine or some other factors or quality is of
secondary importance this method of wage payment can be adopted when a
worker produces more or tune more output, he receives more rewards or more
income.
2.1.12 Occupational diseases
Reduction in the health standards of the workers due to conditions
prevailing in the workplace. i.e temperature, type of work, hours or work etc.
2.1.13 Salt

27

The site on which salt water is actually allowed to evaporate.


2.1.14 Salt workers
The salt workers are those who engaged in salt and other connected
activities for raising salt on payment of wages.
2.1.15 Production
Production is an activity that creates utility or value. It consists annual
output of salt per acre of land.

2.1.16 Cost
Total cost is simply the sum of all the costs a firm includes when it
produces a particular level of output. The total cost of producing any particular
output is total fixed cost plus the total variable cost of producing that output.
2.1.17 Revenue
Total revenue is simply a firms total earnings from sale. When a firm
sells only a single produce at a uniform price, total revenue obtained by
multiplying price and quantity sold.
2.1.18 Profit

28

Profit are usually regarded as the difference between a firms total


revenue and its total costs.
2.1.19 Price
Average revenue is simply total revenue dedicated by quantity sold.
When a firm, Sells a single product at a uniform market price, average revenue
and price will be identical.
Price are bases on direct of cat per unit (i.e average variable cost) Plus a
mackup based on an assumed level of output to cover overhands and the
required profit margin.

2.1.20 Bonus
The additional amount to be paid in wages for increased output on the
part of the workers.
2.1.21 Economic study
The size of family, caste, income and expenditure pattern, assets and
wages are important indications caused in evaluating the economic study of salt
workers.

29

CHAPTER III
THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF SALT WORKES
3.1 Introduction
Salt is an important physiological necessity of life with an enormous and
growing population, the demand for salt is of vital importance. Actually there
was a salt famine in certain parts of Indian during the second world war.
Salt is used for several purposes. It is used for cooking as table salt and
as a preservative in the preparation of condiments, pickles and food stuffs. It is
also used to a limited extend in agriculture as an insecticide, wood killer and for

30

stock feeding. It finds use in curing fish, meat packing, dairying and other
industries to prevent deterioration. It is used in several industries such as glass,
leather, soap, oil purification, dyestuffs, tertiles, ceramics refrigeration etc. Its
largest use in the manufacture of sodium components viz. Soda ash, caustic
soda sodium sulfate etc.
In united states, out of the total production of 90.3 million tonnes, the
demand for the manufacture of soda ash, caustic soda and sodium sulfate
amounted to 5.32 million tonnes. In India since the out break of the second
world war, the industrial uses of salt have been growing up steadily.
Out of the total production, about 60 per cent comes from the private
sector and the rest from the public sector. Small scale sector, co-operative and
unlicensed sector account for 30 per of the production.
Weather plays an important role in this industry. A major portion of the
production is concentrated on the west coast in Gujarat and Maharastra and
Rajasthan contributing 55-60 per cent.
The seasonal rains threaten the salt Industry in the East coast s a result of
which salt become clearer to the consuming centers. As the industry handles
bulk commodities, the pricing and profits depend on the end uses.
3.2 History of culture of salt

31

The History of salt production can be tracked back to the done of human
civilization. In ancient time when sea water evaporated in pits, white layer was
formed and it was found tasty and people stated to consuming it. The white
layer was nothing but salt. As the time advanced, uses of salt increased and the
method of producing salt also become a very important process. In modern
times, salt has about 14,000 known uses from to industry de-icing. Presently,
about 120 nations are actively engaged in salt production.
Salt has been equally important in trade and politics. Many countries
controlled salt as a state monopoly. The salt tax, among other things provoked
the French revolution. A similar salt tax was principal issue in Gandhis civil
disobedience movement against the British that eventually led to Indias
independence. Salt is an essential item subject under the seventh schedule of
the constitution and all aspects of the salt industries are controlled by the central
government through the salt commission organization.
3.3 Salt Industry organization in India
Salt is a central subject in the constitution of India and appears as item
No.58 of the Union list of the 7th schedule, which reads.
a) Manufacture, supply and distribution of salt by union agencies and
b) Regulation and control of manufacture, supply and distribution of salt by
other agencies.

32

The central government is responsible for controlling all aspects of the


salt industry. The salt commissioners organization under the ministry of
commerce and industry, Government of India is entrusting with the above
task.
The salt commissioner head office at Jaipur and the deputy salt
commissioners posted at Chennai, Mumbai, Ahmedabed and Jaipur. There are
four assistant commissioners posted at Jodhpur, Kolkata and two in Gujarat.
The chief labour commissioner (central) of ministry of labour is one of the
members of salt welfare board since 1999.

3.4 Salt Industry in India


India is the third largest salt producing country in the world after china and
USA. Global annual production being about 230 million tonners. The growth
and achievement of salt Industry over the last 60 years have been spectacular.
When India attained independent in 1947, salt was being imported from the
United Kingdom and Adens to meet its domestic requirement. But today it has
not only achieved self sufficiency in production of salt to meet its domestic
requirement but also in a position of exporting surplus salt to foreign countries.
The production of salt during 1947 was 1.9 millions tones which have increased
tenfold to record 22.18 million tones during 2011-2012.

33

3.5 Sources of Salt


The main sources of salt in India are
Sea brine
Lake brine
Average annual production of salt in India is 215.80 lakh tones whereas ever
high production of 240 lakh tones was recorded during 2009 2010 following
by 221 lakh tones during 2012 2013 (upto 2/3). Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and
Rajasthan are surplus salt producing states accounting for about 96 per cent of
countrys production. Gujarat contributes 76.7 percent to the total production,
followed by Tamil Nadu (1.16 per cent ) and Rajasthan (9.86 per cent ) the rest
2.28 per cent production comes from Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa,
Karnataka, West Bengal, Goa, Himachal Pradesh, Diu and Daman, on an
average 62 per cent of the total production is from large salt producers followed
by small scale producers.
The average annual supplies of salt for human consumption is about 59
lakh tones and for industrial consumption is about 107 lakh tonnes 60% of the
salt for human consumption moves by rail and 40 per cent by road. 88 per cent
of the salt for industrial consumption moves by road. 10 percent by rail and 2
percent by coastal shipment by various industries; when the total indigenous
supplies is taken, 72 percent moves by road 27 percent moves by rail and 1 per
cent by sea. India exports surplus production of salt to the tune of about 35 lakh
34

tonnes on an average during the year 2011 2012, a record export of 38 lakh
tonnes was achieved primarily due to surge of demand from China other major
countries importing salt form India are Japan, Bangaladesh, Indonesia, South
Korea, North Korea, Malaysia, U.S.E. Vietnam Qwatar etc.
3.8 Salt Industry in Tamil Nadu
With its extensive coast line along the Arabian sea and the Bay of Bengal,
India is one of the important countries in Asia and the far east, producing salt by
solar evaporation process. The salt industry in Tamil Nadu is lone established
one. Salt industry has been one of the oldest industries on coastal tracts on
Tamil Nadu.
In Tamil Nadu, particularly salt has been manufactured in the Chinglepet
district especially at cove long and Chanampet in the south Arcot District at
Marakkanam and cuddalore in the Tanjore district at Nagapatinam,
Vedaraniyam and Adirapatnam in the Tuticorin District at Kayal, Arumuganeri,
Kernaur, Kulesekearapatnam and Mullakadu, Vattanam in Ramnad and in the
neigh bout bood of Madras city and the cape.
In Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin is the major salt producing center. It
contributed more than 20 percent of the total production. The second rank goes
to Nagapatnam Ramanathapuram occupied the third place Cuddalore gets the
last place in manufacturing salt. Salt produced in Tamil Nadu is sold
throughout the country and it is exported to foreign countries also. By road and
35

railways salt is being carried over the entire country shipping services are used
to export salt.
As per the government of Tamil Nadu there are around 13581 salt
workers and most of the salt workers in Tamil Nadu belong to scheduled caste
community. Around 11000 acres are used for salt manufacture. this is schedule
employment under the minimum wages act, 1948 and work is carried out from
the month February to September providing around 200 to 250 days work.
There is a sales tax on the product. No separate welfare fund has been
contributed for the salt workers. However, these workers contribute their
premium to the Tamil Nadu labour welfare board which is common for all
industries.
3.9 Salt production in Thoothukudi
Thoothukudi occupies a very important place in the history of salt
industry India because of its geographic location and other favourable factors.
The coastal belt of the gulf of manner is in the Rain shadow region of the south
west monsoon and therefore, spread of summer rain that prevails over the rest of
the country . The north east monsoon is comparatively week and the average
rain fall in Thoothukudi gets an interupted manufacturing of 8 to 9 moths in a
year.

36

Salt industry is the main back one of economic development of the


Thoothukudi district. It is the cluster group of industry of Thoothukudi distict
and was extended in an area of 15700 acres with production of 17.12 lakhs
Thoothukudi district is endowed with a coastal line of about 121 kms and
territorial waters covering thousand of hectares. The total area found viable for
salt cultivation is about 40,000 aces.
Further it is reported from the survey 126 permitted salt plants and 4
refined free low salt plants and 4 refined free flow iodised manufacturing units
are functioning produce about 70000 per annum. The concentration of salt unit
is centered on Thoothukudi, Sirivikundam and Tiruchendur taluks. Also a
considerable number of salt units are clustered in Vilathikulam block. There are
about 200 small scale salt manufactures and traders in Thoothukudi district .
3.10 working days
The working days for salt workers are the entire week. Suppose any
worker absence for the duty, he will lose the wage of that day. In other words
caused leave and no medical leave and given to the salt workers.
3.11 Living and working conditions of salt workers
The salt cess act does not provide for the terms of protection or the
service conditions of the salt workers. The salt-pan workers suffer enourmously
form the saline environment in which they live and work in Arumuganeri. Hey
37

get occupational illness and disabilities such as sight impairment and blindness
caused by reflected glare of the sun of the salt crystals.
They develop skin ulcers which are very painful and do not heal up
quickly. They also suffer from stomach problems, their life expectancy is quite
low and infant mortality is high. Their wages are low. The salt open for only
about eight months of the year. So, in the process of making two ends meets the
seasonal workers invariably fall into the hands of the local money lenders who
generally charge interest at the rat of 10 percent per month.
Seasonal workers work during the whole season and perform all kinds of
activates on pan. In the beginning of the season the workers get small amount
as wages and wages increase as the production of the salt increases with
temperature. The maximum daily wages reached upto Rs.156 at the end of the
season. The salt owners of 10 to 100 acres hire workers through labour unions.
they supply daily wages as well as seasonal workers for different activates.
Big private companies employ workers on salary basis for fetching water
with a pump or bore well, circulation of water in ponds and as supervisors. The
remaining labour is hired in larger number from the surrounding villages as
daily wages.
There is vast disparity in salt prices and wages. The salt owners sell at
Rs.450 to Rs.500 per metric tonnes while workers get as low as Rs.15 per

38

metric tonnes. It is also believed that small plots owners and cooperative
societies get lower price of salt as compared to the big owners. The middlemen
play a significant role in this price variation.
The salt workers face health hazards like blisters, burns cuts, eye burning,
falling hair, headaches and lower legs and feet develop lesions like ulcers and
wart.
Skin problems occur like scaling, atrophic scars Keratodermia, callosities,
and fissures. This facilitates enhanced absorption of salt into body, which could
be one of the causes of high blood pressure. the incidence of vitamin A
deficiency, night blindness, tuberculosis, infant mortality and gynecological
problems are common.
Salt workers are living in very poor household income due to seasonal
employment, inadequate skills, inadequate access to state resource, no
representation in decision making groups. Poor literacy level girl child school
drop outs in 5th to 6th standard is very high among salt worker. No proper
information execution of law, no proper information about salt labourers in the
state. No priority to the salt workers in the policies and programs etc.

39

CHAPTER- IV
PROFILE OF THE STUDY AREA
4.1 Introduction:Arumuganeri Town Panchayat is Located at 12kms. Away From
Tiruchendur Town. Total area of this village is 30square kilometers. According
to 2011 Census the total population of Village is 25,846. Among them 14,418
are Males and 11,428 are Females. It has an Average literacy rate of 78 per cent
higher then the national average of 59.5 per cent. 11 per cent of the population
is under 6years of age.

40

A major cultivation in Arumuganeri is rice. It is the only place where you


can see the miracle of land with salt and rice field situated opposite to each
other.
4.2 Industries:Dharangadhara Chemical Work is running is Sahupuram area in
Arumuganeri. This chemical company provide a huge job providence. It
produces polymer and many chemical products etc. The company has quarters
facility for higher officials and some employees working there.

4.3 Education:Arumuganeri Town has 5 primary schools and 3 Higher Secondary


Schools for Higher education the two private Higher Secondary school. More
over the students are to go to Tiruchendur for their Higher studies.
4.4 Medical Facilities:In Arumuganeri there are 6 health centres, one Government Hospital
and one veterinary Hospital are rendering medical facilities to public and the
animals. More over, a number of private hospitals are functioning here.
4.5 Water Facilities:41

This panchayat is having adequate drinking water facilities. Even though


the panchayat supplying water to the people, still there is scarcity of water in
this town.
4.6 Lighting:Arumuganeri town has two electricity boards. The area of the panchayat
is divided into 18 wards. The panchayat has provided 876 street lights out of
these 57 are sodium vapour lamps, and 30 automatic lights made available to
the people.

4.7 Transport Facilities:Transport facility in this area is good because it is a main route of
Thoothukudi. There are frequent buses to go to Thoothukudi, Tirunelveli, and
Tiruchendur and them sum other local places to mini buses.
4.8 Recreational Facilities:There is one cinema theatre in Arumuganeri. Regarding recreation there is
a park situated near bus stand. Arumuganeri town has 12 nutritious centres for
children belong to the age group of 3-5years. This village has 10 fair price shops

42

and one Post office and one Library. The panchayat union is having a Reading
room, and Playground etc
4.9 Area Under Salt Production:In the Arumuganeri area, totally 2810 acres of land is used for salt
production out of this 2000 acres of land is tilled by private manufactures, 110
acres are in the salt producers co-operatives society and 700 acres are owned
by Dharangadhara Chemical Works. The season for salt production in middle
January to September. Arumuganeri salt is not only sold in the neighbour states
like Andhrapradesh, Karnataga, Kerala, Maharastra, Orissa and Pondichery.

4.10 Working Days:The working days for salt workers in the Arumuganeri are the entire
week. Suppose any worker absence for the duty, he/she will lose the wage of
that day. In other words no casual leave and no medical leave are given to the
salt workers. So workers usually work in six to seven days per week.
4.11 Working HoursIt varies to male and female workers. The fixed working hours is 6 to 8
hours. The working hours for female workers is 6 hours,
43

i.e early morning 5 O clock to 11 am and for male workers the minimum
working hours is 7 hours, and maximum is 8 hours. After working in the salt the
male workers are engaged in loading the salt and other works.
4.12 Lunch time:Lunch break is given only for male salt workers. Female workers leave
the salt after 11 O clock. Therefore for them there is need of lunch time. But
male workers are continuously working after 11 O clock. In the study area hour
is given for lunch break.

4.13 Wages:Wages is the price paid for labour services. It is defined as a sum of money
paid under contract by an employer to a worker for services rendered. The wage
is two types workers are paid time wage and workers are paid price wage.
The wage is fixed of the sex and criteria.
4.14 Job Security:-

44

Job Security motivates the workers to work in the salt in efficient manner.
But unfortunately, salt industry is an unorganized sector. As such there is no job
security for the salt workers. All the salt workers are temporary labourers.

CHAPTER V
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
Introduction
The researcher shows interpretation through the primary data from the
respondents. The researcher analysis the table and figure based on primary data
and find the main findings from this chapter.

5.1 AGE WISE CLASSIFICATION


45

Composition of age group is an important factor which determines the


earnings of economic units. For this Purpose the composition of age of the
respondents has been analyzed in following table.

Table 5.1
AGE-WISE CLASSIFICATION
S.No
1

Age
30-35

No. of Respondents
2

Percentage
6.67

35-40

20

40-45

10

33.3

45-50
Total
Source: Primary Data

12
30

40
100

The table 5.1 shows that 6.67 per cent of the respondents are under the age
group of 30-35 and 20 per cent of the respondents belong to the age group of 35-40
and 33.3 per cent of respondents belong to the age group of 40-45 and 40 per cent of
the respondents belong to the age group of 45-50. Majority of the salt workers belong
to the age group of 45-50.i.e 40 per cent.

5.2 SEX WISE CLASSIFICATION


Quantity of the work fore in a town can be assessed by the means of the
sex composition. So sex play an important role in deciding the quantum of work
under any scheme in rural areas. The following table shows that the sex wise
distribution of the respondents.

Table 5.2
SEX-WISE CLASSIFICATION

46

S.No

Sex

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Male

12

40

Female

18

60

30

100

Total
Source: Primary Data

The table 5.2 Shows that 40 per cent of the respondents belong to the
Male and 60 per cent of the respondents belong to the Female. From the table
5.2 it is concluded that majority of the respondents belong to female i.e 60 per
cent.

5.3 RELIGION WISE CLASSIFICATION


Religion is also one of the importance factors which determines the
ability of economic conditions of the members.

Table 5.3
RELIGION-WISE CLASSIFICATION
S.No

Religion

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Hindu

26

86.7

47

Christian

Total
Source: Primary Data

13.3

30

100

The above table 5.3 shows that 86.7 per cent of the respondents are
Hindus, 13.3. per cent of the respondents are Christians
It is concluded that majority of the respondents belong to Hindus i.e 86.7
per cent.

5.4 COMMUNITY WISE CLASSIFICATION


In this study the researcher has classified the workers according to caste
into BC, MBC, and SC/ST. The Community wise classification.

Table 5.4
COMMUNITY-WISE CLASSIFICATION
S.No

Community

No. of Respondents

Percentage

BC

19

63.3

48

MBC

16.7

SC/ST

20

Total

30

100

Source: Primary Data


The table 5.4 respondents that 63.3 per cent of the respondents belong to
the Backward community and 16.7 per cent of the respondents belong to the
Most Backward community and 20 per cent of the respondents belong to the
SC/ST.
It is concluded that majority of the respondents belong to Backward
Community i.e 63.3 per cent

5.5 MAITAL STATUS


The researcher for the purpose of analysis economic conditions studied
the marital status of the workers. In this study the salt workers are classified
according to their marital status of unmarried, married and widow.

Table 5.5
MARITIAL STATUS
S.No

Marital Status

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Married

27

90

49

Unmarried

3.3

Widow

6.7

Total

30

100

Source: Primary Data


The table 5.5 shows that the marital status of the respondents 90 per cent
that respondents are married and 3.3 per cent of the respondents are unmarried
and 6.7 per cent of the respondents are widow.
It is concluded that majority of the respondents are married i.e 90 per cent

5.6 TYPE OF FAMILY


The type of the family followed by the respondents is presented in the
following table. There are two types of family system such as joint family and
nuclear family. Joint family is a traditional in the society. But in the modern
world, all of them want to live in nuclear family.

Table 5.6
TYPE OF FAMILY
S.No

Type of family

No. of Respondents

50

Percentage

Joint family

86.7

Nuclear family

23

13.3

30

100

Total
Source: Primary Data

The table 5.6 shows that 23.3 per cent of the respondents are living in the
joint family and the remaining 76.7 per cent of the respondents are living in the
nuclear family system.
It is concluded that majority of the respondents are living in the nuclear
family i.e 76.7 per cent.

5.7 EDUCATIONAL STATUS


Educational status plays a very important role in the physical and mental
development of an individual. In todays modern world, without education it is
impossible to manage and live in the world. Education is a basic parameter of
the level of development.

Table 5.7
EDUCATIONAL STATUS
S.No

Educational status

No. of Respondents

51

Percentage

Literate

20

66.7

Illiterate

10

33.3

30

100

Total
Source: Primary Data

The table 5.7 shows that 66.7 per cent of the respondents are
having literate, 33.3 per cent of the respondents are having illiterate.
It is concluded that majority of the respondents are having literate i.e 66.7
per cent.

5.8 EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION


Education is one of the most powerful instruments for reducing poverty
and inequality. It is the fourth necessity after food health and shelter in todays
competitive world. The following table explains the literacy and illiteracy level
of members of salt workers.

Table 5.8
EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION
S.No

Educational
Qualification

No. of Respondents

52

Percentage

Primary

15

50

Secondary

16.7

Uneducated

10

33.3

Total

30

100

Source: Primary Data


The socio economic condition is also depending on the level of
literacy rate. The table 5.8 shows that 50 per cent of the respondents have
completed primary education and 16.7 per cent of the respondents have
completed secondary education and 33.3 per cent of the respondents are
uneducated.
It is concluded that majority of the respondents have completed
primary education i.e 50 per cent.

5.9 FAMILY SIZE


Social status of the respondents is related to the number of
members in a family. Since size of the family is an important factor, which
affects the income, expenditure and also savings of the people.

Table 5.9
FAMILY SIZE
S.No

Family size

No. of Respondents

Percentage

2-4

14

46.7

53

4-6

14

46.7

6-8

6.6

Total

30

100

Source: Primary Data


The table 5.9 shows that 46.7 per cent of the respondents are
having 2- members in their family and 46.7 per cent of the respondents are
having 4-6 members in their family and 6.6 per cent of the respondents are
having 6-8 members in their family.
It is concluded that majority of the respondents are having 2-4 and
4-6 i.e 46.7 per cent.

5.10 NATURE OF HOUSE


Nature of house also shows the economic conditions of the people.
Hence an attempt has been made to analyses the housing condition of the salt
workers.

Table 5.10
NATURE OF HOUSE
S.No

Nature of house

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Tiled

11

36.7

Thatched

10.0

54

Concrete

Total
Source: Primary Data

16

53.3

30

100

The table 5.10 shows that the housing conditions of the respondents in the
study area 36.7. per cent of the respondents are living in tiled houses and 10 per
cent of the respondents are living in thatched housing and 53.3 per cent of the
respondents are living in concrete house.
Even though salt workers are getting low salary, most of them live in
concrete houses. Because they have been benefited from government housing
scheme.

5.11 TYPE OF HOUSE


Type of house is another indicator of poverty. Type of house determines
the economic status of the households.

Table 5.11
TYPE OF HOUSE
S.No

Type of house

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Own house

23.3

Rented

20

66.7

Lease

10.0

55

Total
Source: Primary Data

30

100

The table 5.11 shows that 23.3 per cent of the respondents are living in
own house and 66.7 per cent of the respondents are living in rented house and
10 per cent of the respondents are living in lease houses.
It is concluded that majority of the respondents are living in Rented house
i.e 66.7 per cent.

5.12 WATER CONNECTION


The following table shows that the water connection of the respondents.

Table 5.12
WATER CONNECTION
S.No

Water connection

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

26.7

No

22

73.3

30

100

Total
Source: Primary Data

56

The table 5.12 shows that 26.7 per cent of the respondents are living in
water connection in their house and 73.3 per cent of the respondents do not have
water connection in their house. They are use street tap as a source of water.

5.13 POSSESSION OF DURABLE GOODS


Durable goods holding is one of the indicator of economic
conditions are good to the family. So families standard of living is high in the
society. The durable goods are Television, Mobile, Cycle and Motor cycle.

Table 5.13
POSSESSION OF DURABLE GOODS
S.No

Having facilities

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Television

11

36.7

Mobile

30

Cycle

23.3

57

Motor cycle

Total
Source: Primary Data

10

30

100

The table 5.13 shows that 36.7 per cent of the respondents are living in
television and 30 per cent of the respondents are living in mobile and 23.3 per
cent of the respondents are living in cycle and 10 per cent of the respondents are
living in motor cycle.
It is concluded that majority of the respondents are having television i.e
36.7 per cent.

Figure 5.1
POSSESSION OF DURABLE GOODS

58

No.of Respondents

18%

50%

15%

12%
5%

5.14 EXPERIENCES IN SALT WORKERS


Experience of workers is classified in to Co-operative society and
non Co-operative society member, Well-experienced workers are working easily
and perfect. Bonus is given on the basis of experience of the workers.
59

Table 5.14
EXPERIENCES IN SALT WORKERS
S.No

Work Experience

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Below 5 years

27.7

5 10 years

15

50

10 15 years

16.7

Above 15 years

6.6

30

100

Total
Source: Primary Data

The table 5.14 shows that 26.7 per cent of salt workers have 5 years
experience, 50 per cent of the respondents have been working for 5 10 years,
16.7 per cent of the respondents have been working for 10 15 years, 6.6 per
cent of the respondents have been working for 15 20 years.
It is concluded that majority of the respondents have been working for 5
10 years i.e 50 per cent.

Figure 5.2
EXPERIENCES IN SALT WORKERS

60

100%

100%

200%

500%

300%

90%

400%

80%
70%
60%

27.7

50

100
16.7

50%

6.6

40%
30%
20%
10%

15

30

0%
No.of Respondents

Percentage

5.15 WORKING HOURS


The fixed working hours is minimum and maximum. The work is fixed
on the basis of the sex and criteria.

61

Table 5.15
WORKING HOURS
S.No

Working hours

No. of Respondents

Percentage

(per day)
1

6 hours

16

53.3

8 hours

14

46.7

30

100

Total
Source: Primary Data

With a view to collect factual information on the daily hours of work the
workers are interviewed and the working hours are presented in Table 5.15
shows that 53.3 per cent of the respondents are 6 hours and 46.7

per cent of

the respondents are 8 hours per day.

It is concluded that majority of the respondents are 6 hours i.e 53.3 per
cent.

Figure 5.3
WORKING HOURS

62

WORKING HOURS
No.of Respondents

Percentage

100
1
2
53.3

16

46.7
30
14

5.16 ADVANCE FROM THE OWNER


The following table shows that the advance from the owner of the
respondents
63

Table 5.16
ADVANCE FROM THE OWNER
S.No

Advance Received

No. of Respondents

Percentage

5000 7000

18

60

7000 9000

23.3

9000 11000

16.7

30

100

Total
Source: Primary Data

Among the 30 respondents and some workers received bonus from the
employer. The table 5.16 shows that 60 per cent of the respondents are living
in 5000 7000, 23.3 per cent of the respondents are living in 7000 9000 and
16.7 per cent of the respondents are living in 9000 11000.
It is concluded that majority of the respondents are living in 5000 7000
ie 60 per cent.

5.17 WAGE DISTRIBUTION OF WORKERS


Wage is the price for labour service. The employers give different
rate of wage to the workers. The wage is fixed on the basis of the sex and other
criteria.

64

Table 5.17
WAGE DISTRIBUTION OF WORKERS
S.No

Wage (per day)

No. of Respondents

Percentage

150 200

18

60

Above 200

12

40

30

100

Total
Source: Primary Data

The table 5.17 shows that 60 per cent of the respondents are living in 150
200, 40 per cent of the respondents are living in above 200. The wage is fixed
on the basis of the sex and criteria.

METHOD OF PAYMENTS
In our study 100 per cent of the respondents were paid wages on
the weekly basis.

Figure 5.4
WAGE DISTRIBUTION OF WORKERS

65

No.of Respondents

30%

50%

20%

5.18 WELFARE PROVIDED BY EMPLOYER


The basis facilities offered to the worker in the work spot are very poor.
The employer do not provide protected drinking water, rest room and transport
facility.
66

Table 5.18
WELFARE PROVIDED BY EMPLOYER
S.No

Welfare provided by employer

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Drinking water

12

40

Transport

10

33.3

Accident rescue measures

26.7

30

100

Total
Source: Primary Data

The table 5.18 explains that welfare measure provided by the employer to
the respondents. Out of 30 respondents, 40 per cent of the respondents said that
they were satisfied with water facility and 33. 3 Per cent of the respondents with
transport facility and 26.7 per cent of the respondents with accident rescue
measures facility.

Figure 5.5
WELFARE PROVIDED BY EMPLOYER

67

WELFARE PROVIDED
No.of Respondents

Percentage

100

1
2
3

40
33.3
26.7

30
12

10

5.19 WORKERS SATISFACTION


The following table shows that the workers satisfaction of the
respondents.

68

Table 5.19
WORKERS SATISFACTION
S.No

Satisfaction with

No. of Respondents

Percentage

present work
1

Yes

15

50

No

15

50

30

100

Total
Source: Primary Data

A worker over all satisfaction with his job is the result of combination
factors such as financial compensation, managements role, working
environment and welfare facilities provided by the employer etc.

The table 5.19 indicates that 50 per cent of the respondents are satisfied
with their work and the remaining 50 per cent of the workers do not have
satisfaction with this work. Due to health problem and low wage, they didnt get
satisfaction.

Figure 5.6
WORKERS SATISFACTION

69

100
100
90
80
70
50

50

60
50
40
1

30
20

30

15
15

10
0

No.of Respondents

Percentage

5.20 DIWALI BONUS


Bonus means the additional amount to be paid in wage for the increased
output on the part of workers in the salt industries, where the bonus is given.
Bonus is one of the financial motivations. Which is an incentive to increase the
70

productivity of the labour and to maintain the good relationship between


producers and workers.

Table 5.20
DIWALI BONUS
S.No
1

Diwali bonus
Below 1000

No. of Respondents
5

Percentage
16.7

1000 2000

26.7

2000 3000

23.3

Above 3000
Total
Source: Primary Data

10
30

33.3
100

The table 5.20 shows that 16.7 per cent of the salt workers gets diwali
bonus range between below 1000 and 26.7 per cent of the salt worker gets
diwali bonus rage between 1000 2000 and 23.3 per cent of the salt worker gets
diwali bonus rage between 2000 3000 and 33.3 per cent of the salt worker gets
diwali bonus rage between above 3000.
Bonus in the salt industry of Arumuganeri is given on the basis of
experience of the workers.

5.21 MONTHLY INCOME


The details above the distribution of the sample respondents
according to their monthly income are presented in table.

71

Table 5.21
MONTHLY INCOME
S.No

Income level
(in Rs.)
1
Below 5000
2
5000 6000
3
6000 7000
4
7000 8000
5
8000 9000
6
9000 10000
7
Above 10000
Total
Source: Primary Data

No. of Respondents

Percentage

3
6
5
4
8
2
2
30

10
20
16.7
13.3
26.7
6.67
6.67
100

The table 5.21 shows that 10 per cent of the respondents have income Rs.
5000 and 20 per cent of the respondents have income Rs. 5000 6000 and 16.7
per cent of the respondents have income Rs. 6000 7000 and 13.3 per cent of
the respondents income Rs 7000 8000 and 26.7 per cent of the respondents
income Rs 8000 9000 and 6.67 per cent of the respondents have income 9000
10000 and 6.67 per cent of the respondents have income Rs. Above 10000.
It is concluded that majority of the respondents have income i.e 26.7 per
cent.

Figure 5.7
MONTHLY INCOME

72

100
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
26.7
30

20

20
10

16.7

10
1
3

13.3
4

2
5

30

5
8

6
6.67
2

7
6.67

0
No.of Respondents

Percentage

5.22 MONTHLY EXPENDITURE


Money spend on consumption reveals welfare of the households more
remittance leads to more consumption and rise in the standard of living of the
household.
73

Table 5.22
MONTHLY EXPENDITURE
S.No

Monthly Expenditure
(in Rs)

No. of Respondents

Percentage

5000 6000

16.7

6000 7000

23.3

7000 8000

20

8000 9000

12

40

30

100

Total
Source: Primary Data

The table 5.22 explains that monthly expenditure of the respondents. 16.7
per cent of the respondents spent the amount 5000 6000 per month, and 23.3
per cent of the respondents spent the amount 6000 7000 per month, and 20 per
cent of the respondents spent the amount 7000 8000 per month, and 40 per
cent of the respondents spent the amount 8000 9000 per month.

Figure 5.8
MONTHLY EXPENDITURE

74

MONTHLY EXPENDITURE
No.of Respondents

Percentage

100

40

23.3
16.7

30

20

12
6

5.23 DEBT
The following table shows that the member in debt of the respondents.

75

Table 5.23
DEBT ( in Rs)
S.No

Debt (in Rs)

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Below 5000

10

5000 10000

10

33.3

10000 20000

10

20000 30000

30

Above 30000

16.7

30

100

Total
Source: Primary Data

The table 5.23 shows that out of the total respondents 10 per cent of the
respondents have debt below Rs.5000 and 33.3 per cent of the respondents have
debt Rs. 5000 10000, 10 per cent of the respondents are between Rs 10000
20000, 30 per cent of the respondents are between Rs. 20000 30000, 16.7 per
cent respondents have debt above 30000.

Figure 5.9
DEBT ( in Rs)

76

5.24 SOURCES OF BORROWINGS

77

The workers earn low level of income, It is not enough to fulfill their
family expenditure like health, education, recreational expenditure etc. So they
are indebted to Banks, Money lender, Salt owner, Friends, Relatives and SHGs.

Table 5.24
SOURCES OF BORROWINGS
S.No
1

Sources of borrowing
Salt owner

No. of Respondents
10

Percentage
33.3

Money lender

10

Bank

13.3

Friends

10

Relatives

6.7

8
30

26.7
100

SHGs
Total
Source: Primary Data

The table 5.24 shows that 33.3 per cent of the respondents are borrowed
money from the salt owner and 10 per cent from the money lenders and 13.3 per
cent of the bank and 10 per cent of the respondents are their friends, 6.7 per cent
from their relatives and 26.7 per cent from SHGs.

Figure 5.10
SOURCES OF BORROWINGS
78

10

3
30

4
3
2
8

5.25 SAVINGS

79

Saving is very important as it provides security against unforeseen


expenditure and future needs. As income increases, the savings also increase.

Table 5.25
SAVINGS
S.No

Amount of savings

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Below 5000

13.3

5000 10000

11

36.7

10000 20000

23.3

20000 30000

16.7

Above 30000

10

30

100

Total
Source: Primary Data

The above table 5.25 shows that the savings pattern of the salt workers
about 13.3 per cent of the respondents have savings below 5000 rupees 36.7 per
cent of the respondents have savings between Rs. 5000 10000 and 23.3 per
cent of the respondents are having the amount of saving between Rs 10000
20000 and 16.7 per cent of the respondents are having the amount of saving
between Rs. 20000 30000 and 10 per cent of the respondents are having the
amount of saving the amount 30000 and above.

Figure 5.11
80

SAVINGS

SAVINGS
No.of Respondents

Percentage

100

36.7

3
23.3

1
13.3
4

11

5.26 SOURCES OF SAVINGS


81

4
16.7

10
3

30

The following table shows that the sources of savings of the respondents.

Table 5.26
SOURCES OF SAVINGS
S.No

Sources of savings

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Post Office

18

40

Bank Deposit

12

16.7

SHGs

13

43.3

Total
Source: Primary Data

30

100

The above table 5.26 respondents that 40 per cent of the respondents save
their money in Post office, 16.7 per cent in Bank, 43.4 per cent of the
respondents of the Savings through SHGs.
According to Keynesian economics, saving in the amount left over when
the cost of persons consumer expenditure is subtracted from the amount of
disposable income that he earns in a given period of time.

5.27 HEALTH PROBLEMS

82

Salt workers in this sector face a variety of health hazard. An alarming


number of labourers are not able to earn their livelihood of the diseases to which
they are exposed during working hours and the accidents they suffer.

Table 5.27
TYPES OF HEALTH PROBLEMS
S.No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Disease
Rish of blindness
Blood Pressure
Swine lessions
Knee injury
Back pain
Stomachache
Others
Total
Source: Primary Data

No. of Respondents
2
1
2
10
5
8
2
30

Percentage
6.7
3.3
6.7
33.3
16.7
26.7
6.6
100

A disease is an abnormal condition that affected the body of an organism.


The table 5.27 indicates that there are some factors causing diseases due to the
heavy work. There is a risk of blindness for 6.7 per cent of the respondents 3.3
per cent of the respondents are affected by blood pressure. 6.7 per cent of the
respondents have been suffering from swine lesions, and 33.3 per cent from the
knee injury, 16.7 per cent and 26.7 per cent the respondents are suffered from
back pain and stomachache respectively. The remining 6.6 per cent of the
respondents are affected by other diseases.

Figure 5.12
83

HEALTH PROBLEMS

HEALTH PROBLEMS
No.of Respondents

Percentage

100

4
6
33.3

1
6.7
2

2
3.3
1

3
6.7
2

26.7

16.7
10

5.28 TREATMENT
84

7
8

6.6
2

30

The following table shows that the Treatment of the respondents.

Table 5.28
TREATMENT
S.No

Treatment

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Government Hospital

18

60

Private Hospital

12

40

30

100

Total
Source: Primary Data

Private hospitals being much expensive and costly than the public
hospitals. Public hospitals is considered to be preferable option for the poor
people.
The table 5.28 shows that 60 per cent of the respondents have got
treatment from Government hospital and remaining 40 per cent of the
respondents have got treatment from private hospital.

Figure 5.13
TREATMENT
85

No.of Respondents

30%

50%

20%

5.29 MEMBER IN SHGs


The following table shows that the member in SHGs of the respondents.

86

Table 5.29
MEMBER IN SHGs
S.No

Member in SHGs

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

17

56.7

No

13

43.3

30

100

Total
Source: Primary Data

Self Help Groups provide a social support system, especially in


conditions that isolate people. Its primary purpose is to provide help and support
for its members in dealing with their problems and improving their
psychological function and effectiveness.

The table 5.29 shows that 56.7 per cent of the respondents are the
member of SHGs and 43.3 per cent of the respondents are not the members of
SHGs.

Figure 5.14
MEMBER IN SHGs
87

MEMBER IN SHGs
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
Percentage

50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%

5.30 MEMBERS IN SOCIAL SECURITY SCHEME

88

The following table shows that the member in social security scheme of
the respondents.

Table 5.30
MEMBERS IN SOCIAL SECURITY SCHEME
S.No

Member in social security

No. of Respondents

Percentage

scheme
ss1

Yes

16

53.3

No

14

46.7

30

100

Total
Source: Primary Data

The above table 5.30 shows that 53.3 per cent of the respondents are the
members of Tamil Nadu manual workers of social security welfare scheme. The
remaining respondents are note the members of this scheme.

CHILDREN TO CONTINUE IN SALT WORK


All the respondents do not want their children to continue the work in
salt. Due to low wages, health hazard, all the respondents strongly says that they
will not send their children to continue the work in salt.

CHAPTER- VI

89

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND SUGGESTION


6.1 Introduction
The data that was analyzed and interpreted in the previous chapter. It was
consolidated and presented as man findings by the researcher. The chapter also
deals with the summary of the main findings and conclusion drawn from the
finding in which researcher as drawn the suggestion.
6.2 Summary of findings
Majority of the salt workers belong to the age group of 45-50 i.e 40 per
cent.
Our study concluded that 60 per cent of the respondents belong to female.
Our study concluded that 86.7 per cent of the respondents belong to hindu
religion.
From this study, it is understood that majority of the respondents belong
to backward community i.e 63.3 per cent.
Most of the respondents are married i.e 90 per cent.
Our study revealed that 76.7 per cent of the respondents are living in the
nuclear family system.
Our study shows that 66.7 per cent of the respondents are having literacy.
Our study shows that 50 per cent of the respondents have completed the
Primary education.
Our study shows that 46.7 per cent of the respondents are having 2-4 and
4-6 members in their family.
It is found that 53.3 per cent of the respondents are living in Concrete
houses.

90

As per the data, 66.7 per cent of the respondents are living in their Rented
houses.
Our study shows that 73.3 per cent of the respondents do not have water
connection in their house
Our study shows that 100 per cent of the respondents living in their
Electricity connection.
Our study shows that 36.7 per cent of the respondents are living in

television.
Only 50 per cent of the respondents have the experience 5-10 year.
Salt workers engaged in their work for 6 hours per day.
Among the 30 respondents, all the workers have got advance amount.
Male workers have been paid Rs. 200-250- as wage and Female workers

have been paid Rs. 150-200 per day.


In our study all the respondents were paid wages on the weekly basis.
Male workers have been paid Rs. 2000-3000 as bonus an female workers
have been paid Rs. 1000-2000 per annum.
Only 50 per cent of the respondents are satisfied with their work.
Our 100 per cent of the respondents said that they were satisfied with
water facility, transport and accident rescue measures facility.
Regarding the monthly expenditure of the respondents, 40 per cent of the
respondents, were spending 8000-9000 rupees per month.
Our study revealed that 33.3 per cent of the respondents are having debt
above Rs.5000-10000.
Our study showed that 33.3 per cent of the respondents are borrowed
money from the bank.
It is found that 36.7 per cent of the respondents have saved the amount
Rs.5000-10000.
Most of the respondents 43.3 per cent have saved their Self Help Groups.

91

33.3 per cent of the respondents are suffered from knee injury due to
heavy work.
Our study reveals that majority of the respondents went to government
hospitals for getting treatment.
It is known from our study that 56.7 per cent of the respondents are the
member of Self Help Groups.
From this study, it is understood that 53.3 per cent of the respondents are
the members of the Tamil Nadu workers of social security welfare
scheme.
Due to low wages and health hazards all the respondents strongly said
that they will not sent their children to continue the work in salt.
6.3 Suggestions
The researcher provides the following suggestions
1. The salt workers must be provided with the necessary equipments to
work inside the salt like foot war etc.
2. The owner must take interest and should organized periodical medical
campaign for their workers which ensure a good relationship between
the employer and employee.
3. Government should provide some subsidies or alternative work for the
salt workers in the off-season period.
4. Holidays must be provided to the workers without the loss of pay in
case of sickness and any important personal work.
5. The welfare measure such as good drinking water, first aid box and
rest rooms must be provided to the workers.

92

6.4 Conclusion
Salt industry is labour intensive sector in Arumuganeri. It provides
employment for the coastal rural area people. However, the working conditions
of the salt worker in this are not by far. This is caused by the wage is not equal
to the working hours. The job security is paramount important motivational
measure but in this area there is no job security to the salt workers. It should be
taken into account by the labour welfare department. Other welfare measures
are also not sufficient to the workers expectation. Therefore the conditions of
the salt worker in the Arumuganeri are poor. It is high time for the government
to address the grievances to the salt workers in the Arumuganeri which will in
turn help them to elevate themselves from the present dismal state of affairs.

93

BILIOGRAPHY
BOOKS
1. Balram, (1984) Marketing Aspects of Salt Hindustan Salts Limited
2. Agarwal, S.C(1976) Salt Industry in India the controller of publication,
New Delhi.
3. Desai S.S.M.Slavery in Rural areas of India. Rural Banking in India,
April 1983. Page no:14.
4. Sujata Gothoskar, (1992) Struggles of women at work, vikas publishing
house, pvt,ltd.

JOURNALS
1. Gadgil D.R. Women In the Working Force In India, Asia Publishing
House. Bombay 1965, Page No:30.
2. V.M.S.Perumal, Working Conditions of Salt Workers in Tamilnadu:
A Study Southern Economist vol 42, No:21, March 2004, p.p. 17-18
3. D. Solomonraj Marketing of salt in Agasteeswaram Taluk of
kanyakumari district. Thesis submitted to the Madurai Kamaraj
university, June-1986

94

4. Singh, (2005), Women workers in the Brick kiln Industry in haryana,


India, Indian Journal of gender studies, Vol,12, Issue 1,January-April.
5. John weeks, Employment polices in the informal urban sector of
developing economics International Labour Review, Jan 1975 Page
no.13.
6. Geetha K.T (2010) Conducted study on women in informal sector A case
study this study was focused on different types of Socio-economic
problems of female workers in urban informal sector.
7. K.V.Jeyaraj, A History of Salt Monopoly in Madras President Thes is
Submitted to the Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai-(1984).
8. S.Nagarajan Salt Quality Aspect to the For Survey on Indian Industry.
The Hindu, 1995, Page no:243
9. M.Kamalraj Salt Industry in Tamilnadu, Trends and Prospects Paper
Presented in 84th Annual Conference of India Economic Association, held
at Vellore From 28-12-2001 to 30-12-2001
10. Ramalingam, Report on the First Regional Conference on Salt
Production and Marketing, Madars, 3-4 January 2001, Page no:6
11. Mohan Pillai.s (1996) Social Security for Workers in Unorganized
Sector Experience Gujarth. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol 31.
PageNo: 31, (August 3), 1996. Page no: 2098-2107.
12. Manonmoney Problems and Prospects of Women in India Southern
Economist Vol.33 No.11 Jan 1 1995. Page no:18.

A STUDY ON SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF SALT


WORKERS IN ARUMUGANERI TOWN, THOOTHUKUDI
DISTRICT

95

INTERVIEW SCHEDULE
1.
2.
3.
4.

Name of the Respondent


Age
Sex
Religion

:
:
:
:

5. Community

6. Educational Status
7. Educational Qualification

:
:

8. Marital Status

9. Type of Family

family
10.Family Details

S.

Name of

No

the family

Age Sex

a) Male
b) Female
a) Hindu
b) Christian
c) Muslim
d) Others
a) OC
b) BC
c) MBC
d) SC/ST
a) Literate
b) Illiterate
a) Primary
b) Secondary
c) Higher Secondary d) Degree
a) Married
b) Unmarried
c) Widow
a) Joint family
b) Nuclear

Relationship Marital
Status

11.Type of House

Lease
12.Nature of House

Educational
Qualification

a) Own House b) Rented

d) Hut
f) Thatched
13.Do you have Electricity connection in your house?
a) Yes
14.Do you have Water connection in your house?
a) Yes
15.What are facilities do you have?
a) Television
96

Occupation

Monthly
Salary

c)

e) Titled
g) Concrete
b) No
b) No
b) Mobile

c) Cycle

d) Motor cycle

16.How long you have been working in salt industry?


a) Below 5 years
c) 10-15 years
e) 20-25 years
30years
17.Number of working hours per day?
a) 5 hours
c) 8 hours

b) 5-10 year
d) 15-20 years
f) above

b) 6 hours
d) 10 hours

18.What kind of welfare measure provided by your employer?


a) Drinking water b) Rest Room
c) Accident rescue measure
d) Transport
19.How much did you get advance for the owner? :
20.What is your wage per day?
:
21.Method of payment?
a) Daily
Monthly

b) Weekly

22.How much did you get bonus for Diwali?:


a) Upto 1000

23.Are you satisfied with present work?


24.Pattern of Expenditure?
S.No
1
2
3
4
5

c)

b) 1000 - 2000

c) 2000 - 3000

d) 3000 - 4000

e) 4000 - 5000

f) above 5000

:
a) Yes

b) No

Expenditure details
Food
House Rent
Education
Health
Cloth

Monthly Expenditure

97

6
7
8

Electricity & Gas


Fuel
Others

25.Amount Of debt
(in Rs)
26.Amount of savings (in Rs)

:
:

27.Sources Of Savings

Sources
a) Post Office

Amount ( in Rs)

b) Bank Deposit
c) Chit Funds
d) SHGs
Total

28.Where did you borrow?

:
a) Saltpan owner

b) Bank

c) Money lender
Friends

d)

e) Relatives

f) SHGs

g) Co-operative Bank

h) Others

29.What are the diseases caused by your work?:


a) Risk of blindness b) Blood
pressure
c) Swine lesions

98

d) Knee injury

e) Back pain

f)

Stomachache
g) Others
30.Where will you go for a treatment

:
a) Government hospital
b) Private
hospital?
31.Are you a member of SHGs?
:
a) Yes
b) No
32.Are You a member of Tamil Nadu manual workers social security and
welfare scheme?
:
a) Yes
b) No
33.Do you like your children to continue in salt work?
a) Yes

b) No

If yes Give Reasons .


If No Give Reasons

Date :

Signature

Place :

99