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PENGANTAR

Ekologi didefinisikan sebagai suatu ilmu yang membicarakan tentang


hubungan timbal balik yang terjadi antara organisme dan lingkungannya serta
antara kelompok kelompok organisme. Ekologi merupakan gabungan dari
faktor faktor fisik, kimiawi, serta biologi. Semua itu dapat mempengaruhi
berlangsungnya

kehidupan,

pertumbuhan,

perkembangan,

reproduksi,

kesejahteraan manusia beserta organisme hidup lainnya. Lingkungan hidup tidak


bisa dilepaskan begitu saja dari peran dan pengaruh dominan manusia
Koordinator Praktikum

: A. H. Condro Haditomo, S.Pi, M.Si

Dosen Pengampu

: Prof. Dr. Ir. Slamet Budi Prayitno, M.Sc


Dr. Ir. Sarjito, M.App.Sc
Ristiawan Agung Nugroho, S.Pi, M.Si

Asisten

: Dimas Muhammad Arsyad


Manggala Bintang Idatra
Vicopramodya Armifzan
Achmad Mahendra Permadi
Richa Naimatul Faramida
Chondroresmi Bannur Fawaz
Ilham Agung Maulana
Dwi Pambudianto
Agus Nadlir
Rosalina Safitri

M O D U L I:
PAR AM E T E R F I S I K A

MODUL I: Parameter Fisika


Topik 1: Kecerahan
Nama :............................................ NIM : .................................. TTD : ..............
Pengantar Teori Praktikum
Kecerahan merupakan salah satu faktor yang penting dalam suatu sistem
ekologi perairan. Hal ini dilakukan untuk menentukan produtivitas suatu perairan,
intensitas cahaya, dan lainlain. Kecerahan dapat diukur menggunakan Secchi
disc yang berbentuk lempeng lingkaran berwarna putih dan hitam yang
mempunyai tongkat yang dilengkapi dengan skala.
Cahaya merupakan faktor penting bagi kehidupan ikan dalam pemangsaan,
tingkah laku reproduksi, mencari perlindungan, orientasi migrasi, pola
pertumbuhan (Bal and Rao, 1984 dalam Brotowidjoyo, 1995), dan fase
metabolisme ikan. Kemampuan sinar matahari pada kondisi cerah perairan dapat
diabsorbsi sebanyak 1% pada kedalaman 100 meter dan untuk perairan yang
keruh hanya mencapai kedalaman 10-30 meter dan tiga meter pada perairan
estuari (Brotowidjoyo, 1995).
Tujuan:
1. Mengukur kecerahan suatu perairan dan dapat mengetahui kualitas perairan
tersebut.
Prosedur Kerja:
a. Bahan
1. Badan Perairan.
b. Alat
1. Secchi disc (1 buah/kelompok).
c. Metode
1. Menentukan titik sampling (inlet, center, outlet);
2. Masukan Secchi disc kedalam perairan;
3. Membaca skala pada tongkat Secchi disc pada saat terlihat sama- samar dan
tepat hilang;
4. Masukan kedalam rumus berikut
K= K1+K2
2
Dengan :
K = kecerahan
K1 = Batas samar-samar
K2 = Batas tak terlihat
5. Mencatat hasil yang didapat ke papan data.

MODUL I: Parameter Fisika


Topik 2: Kedalaman
Nama :............................................ NIM : .................................. TTD : ..............
Pengantar Teori Praktikum
Kedalaman merupakan salah satu parameter yang penting dalam
memecahkan masalah teknik berbagai pesisir seperti erosi. Pertambahan stabilitas
garis pantai, pelabuhan dan konstruksi, pelabuhan, evaluasi, penyimpanan pasang
surut, pergerakan, pemeliharaan, serta rute navigasi.
Kedalaman perairan sangat berpengaruh terhadap kualitas air pada suatu
ekosistem perairan. Lokasi yang dangkal akan lebih mudah terjadinya pengadukan
dasar akibat dari pengaruh gelombang. Kedalaman perairan lebih dari 3 meter dari
pengaruh gelombang yang pada akhirnya kedalaman perairan lebih dari dasar
jaring (Setiawan, 2010).
Tujuan:
1. Mengukur suatu kedalaman perairan serta pengaruh kedalaman tersebut
terhadap kondisi perairan.
Prosedur Kerja:
a. Bahan
1. Badan perairan.
b. Alat
1. Tongkat berskala (1 buah / kelompok).
c. Metode
1. Memasukan tongkat berskala sampai dasar perairan (tidak menembus substrat);
2. Mencatat skala kedalaman yang terukur pada tongkat berskala;
3. Mengukur kedalaman pada titik inlet, outlet, dan center, dan
4. Mencatat angka kedalaman pada papan data.

MODUL I: Parameter Fisika


Topik 3: Temperatur/Suhu
Nama :............................................ NIM : .................................. TTD : ..............
Pengantar Teori Praktikum
Temperatur atau suhu merupakan salah satu faktor yang penting dalam
ekosistem suatu perairan. Suhu adalah besaran yang menyatakan derajat panas
dingin suatu benda. Alat yang digunakan untuk mengukur suhu adalah
termometer.
Suhu merupakan salah satu faktor yang sangat penting dalam mengatur
proses kehidupan dan penyerapan organisme. Proses kehidupan vital yang sering
disebut proses metabolisme. Hanya berfungsi dalam kisaran suhu yang relatif
sempit. Biasanya 0oC 40oC (Nybakken 1992 dalam sembiring, 2008).
Suhu air normal adalah suhu air yang memungkinkan makhluk hidup
dapat melakukan metabolisme dan berkembang biak. Suhu merupakan faktor fisik
yang sangat penting di air. Perubahan suhu mempengaruhi tingkat kesesuaian
perairan sebagai habitat organisme akuatik, karena itu setiap organisme akuatik
mempunyai batas kisaran maksimum dan minimum (Efendi, 2003).
Ikan merupakan hewan poikiloterm, yang mana suhu tubuhnya naik turun
sesuai dengan suhu lingkungan, sebab itu semua proses fisiologis ikan
dipengaruhi oleh suhu lingkungan. Suhu perairan berpengaruh terhadap respon
tingkah laku ikan, proses metabolisme, reproduksi, ekskresi ammonia dan
resistensi terhadap penyakit (Nabib dan Pasaribu, 1989).
Tujuan:
1. Mengukur kisaran suhu air di suatu perairan.
Prosedur Kerja:
a. Bahan
1. Badan Perairan.
b. Alat
1. Termometer air raksa (3 buah/kelompok).
c. Metode
1. Mengukur suhu udara dan suhu air pada setiap titik (inlet, center, dan outlet) di
setiap ekosistem; dan
2. Mencatat hasil yang didapat ke dalam papan data.

MODUL I: Parameter Fisika


Topik 4 : Substrat dasar perairan
Nama :............................................ NIM : .................................. TTD : ................
Pengantar Teori Praktikum
Substrat dasar perairan adalah sebuah habitat guna mendukung kehidupan
suatu organisme misalnya untuk memijah, mencari makan dan berlindung.
Kandungan bahan organik menggambarkan tipe substrat dan kandungan nutrisi di
dalam perairan. Tipe substrat berbedabeda seperti pasir lumpur dan tanah liat.
Suliati (2006) menyatakan bahwa kecerahan arus sungai dipengaruhi oleh
kemiringan, kedalaman dan kelebaran sungai, sehingga kecepatan arus di
sepanjang aliran sungai dapat berbedabeda yang selanjutnya akan mempengaruhi
jenis substrat dasar sungai pada umumnya. Tipe substrat dasar pada ekosistem
sungai dapat berupa lumpur, pasir, kerikil dan sampah.
Tujuan:
1. Mengenali jenis substrat dasar suatu perairan.
2. Memperlajari kaitan substrat dasar pada setiap organisme akuatik
Prosedur Kerja:
a. Alat
1.Cetok Pasir (2 untuk 1 kelompok); dan
2. Plastik kg ( Secukupnya untuk 1 kelompok).
b. Bahan
1. Suatu ekosistem perairan; dan
2. Sampel substrat dasar dari badan perairan tersebut.
c. Metode
1. Mengambil substrat dengan cetok pasir;
2. Mengamati jenis, bau, warna, dan tekstur substrat tersebut; dan
3. Mencatat hasil yang didapat ke dalam papan data.

MODUL I: Parameter Fisika


Topik 5: Arus
Nama :............................................ NIM : .................................. TTD : ..............
Pengantar Teori Praktikum
Arus air adalah faktor yang mempunyai peranan yang sangat penting baik
pada perairan letik maupun pada perairan lentik. Hal ini berhubungan dengan
penyebaran organisme, gas-gas terlarut dan mineral yang terdapat di dalam air.
Kecepatan aliran air akan bervariasi secara vertikal. Arus air pada perairan lotik
umumnya bersifat turbulen yaitu arus air yang bergerak ke segala arah sehingga
air akan terdistribusi ke seluruh bagian dari perairan.
Kecepatan arus dapat dibedakan dalam 4 kategori yakni kecepatan arus 00,25 m/dtk yang disebut arus lambat, kecepatan arus 0,25-0,50 m/dtk yang disebut
arus sedang, kecepatan arus 0,50 - 1 m/dtk yang disebut arus cepat, dan kecepatan
arus diatas 1 m/dtk yang disebut arus sangat cepat (Harahap dalam Ihsan, 2009).
Current meter merupakan alat pengukur kecepatan arus yang sering
digunanakan karena memberikan ketelitian yang cukup tinggi. Kecepatan aliran
yang diukur adalah kecepatan aliran titik dalam suatu penampang tertentu. Prinsip
yang digunakan adalah adanya kaitan antara kecepatan putaran baling-baling
current meter (Pijiharjo, A et al., 2013).
Tujuan:
1. Mengetahui kecepatan dan pengaruh terhadap biota yang ada diperairan.
Prosedur Kerja:
a. Alat
1. Bola Arus ( 1 buah/ kelompok).
2. Current meter
b. Bahan
1. Badan Perairan.
c. Metode
1. Meletkan bola arus dan current meter pada badan perairan
2. Melepaskan bola arus dengan masih memegang tali dan current meter,
kemudian nyalakan stopwatch.
3. Mematikan stopwatch ketika tali teregang sempurna.
4. Memasukan waktu yang didapat kedalam rumus; dan
v=s
t
dengan :
v = kecepatan (m/s)
s = jarak
t = waktu
5. Mencatat hasil yang didapat ke dalam papan data.

MODUL I: Parameter Fisika


Topik 6: Salinitas
Nama :............................................ NIM : .................................. TTD : ..............
Pengantar Teori Praktikum
Salinitas adalah kadar garam terlarut dalam air. Satuan salinitas adalah per
mil (), yaitu jumlah berat total (gr). Salinitas termasuk kedalam parameter fisika
selain suhu, substrat dan lainlain. Salinitas akan mempengaruhi densitas,
kelarutan gas, tekanan osmotik dan ionik air. Semakin tinggi salinitas, maka
tekanan osmotik air akan semakin tinggi pula. Salinitas merupakan parameter
kimia yang penting di laut dan menjadi faktor pembatas karena hampir semua
organisme di laut hanya dapat hidup pada daerah yang perubahan salinitasnya
sangat kecil, walaupun ada organisme laut yang mampu bertolerasi terhadap
perubahan salinitas yang tinggi.
Salinitas suatu perairan dapat sama atau berbeda dengan perairan lainnya,
misalnya perairan darat, laut dan payau. Kisaran salinitas air laut adalah 30
35, estuari 5 35 dan air tawar 0,5 5 (Nybakken, 1992).
Salinitas perairan menggambarkan kandungan garam dalam suatu
perairan. Garam yang dimaksud adalah berbagai ion yang terlarut dalam air
termasuk garam dapur (NaCl). Pada umumnya salinitas disebabkan oleh 7 ion
utama yaitu : natrium (Na), kalium (K), kalsium(Ca), magnesium (Mg), klorit
(Cl), sulfat (SO4) dan bikarbonat (HCO3). Salinitas dinyatakan dalam satuan
gram/kg atau promil () (Effendi, 2003).
Tujuan:
1. Mengetahui Kadar garam terlarut suatu perairan
Prosedur Kerja:
a. Alat
1. Refraktometer.
b. Bahan
1. Badan Perairan.
c. Metode
1. Mengambil air sampel dan masukan kedalam botol air sampel;
2. Mengkalibrasi Refaktometer;
3. Meneteskan air sampel sebanyak 1 2 tetes ke dalam refaktometer; dan
4. Kemudian Mengamati dan mencatat hasil yang terdapat di refaktometer.

DATA HASIL PENGUKURAN


Tabel 1. Hasil Pengukuran Parameter Fisika
Kedalaman
No

Kecerahan

Salinitas

(cm)

(ppt)

Suhu

(m/s)

(C)

Substrat

Ekosistem
(cm)

Arus
A

1.
2.

Keterangan :
A = Arus Permukaan (m/s)
B = Arus Dalam (m/s)
C = Suhu Perairan (C)
D = Suhu Udara (C)

PEMBAHASAN
1. Analisislah pengaruh antar variabel dari parameter fisika terhadap kualitas
perairan yang Anda amati!

.............

2. Menurut kelompok Anda, apakah faktor abiotik ataupun biotik yang


mempengaruhi kedalaman, kecerahan, suhu, salinitas, substrat dan arus?
Jelaskan!

3. Analisislah hasil pengukuran suhu dan salinitas Anda terhadap kondisi


lingkungan ekosistem yang Anda amati !

4. Berdasarkan hasil pengukuran yang telah didapat, faktor apa saja yang dapat
mempengaruhi hasil pengukuran tersebut ?

5. Apakah hasil pengukuran Anda sesuai untuk kegiatan budidaya ? Jelaskan !

NILAI

TTD ASPEN

(..................................)

M O D U L II:
PAR AM E T E R K I M I A

MODUL II: Parameter Kimia


Topik 1: Dissolved Oxygen (DO)
Nama :............................................ NIM : .................................. TTD : ...............
Pengantar Teori Praktikum
Kandungan oksigen terlarut (Dissolved Oxygen) adalah jumlah oksigen
terlarut yang terdapat di dalam suatu perairan. Oksigen terlarut umumnya berasal
dari difusi udara melalui permukaan air, aliran air masuk, air hujan, dan hasil dari
proses fotosintesis plankton atau tumbuhan air. Oksigen terlarut merupakan
parameter penting karena dapat digunakan untuk mengetahui kulaitas suatu
perairan.
Tujuan:
1. Mengetahui cara pengukuran kadar oksigen terlarut (DO) perairan
menggunakan metode titrasi dan mengetahui pengaruhnya terhadap perairan.
Prosedur Kerja:
a. Alat
1. Pipet tetes untuk reagen (1 pipet untuk 1 reagen);
2. Botol BOD 125ml atau 300ml (standar) (1 buah untuk 1 kelompok);
3. Gelas ukur 100ml (1 buah untuk 1 kelompok); dan
4. Labu erlenmeyer, 250ml atau 500ml (1 buah untuk 1 kelompok).
b. Bahan
1. MnSO4;
2. NaOH-KI;
3. SA (Sulfamid Acid);
4. Na2S2O3;
5. Amilum cair;
6. H2SO4; dan
7. Sampel air.
c. Metoda
Pengukuran in-situ Kandungan Gas Oksigen Terlarut:
1. Mengambil sampel air kedalam botol BOD;
2. Membuka tutup botol BOD, dengan pipet tetes tambahkan 1ml MnSO 4,
kemudian 1ml NaOH-KI;
3. Menggojog botol BOD dengan cara di bolak-balikkan, presipitat dibiarkan
mengendap di dasar. Kemudian tambahkan 1ml Sulfamid Acid; *Selalu
gunakan pipet berbeda dan jangan pernah tertukar agar reagen tidak
terkontaminasi sehingga tidak dapat digunakan.*
4. Memasukkan 1ml H2SO4 kedalam botol, kemudian ditutup kembali dan digojog
hingga semua presipitat terlarut kembali;
5. Mengambil 50ml air sampel dengan menggunakan gelas ukur dan masukkan ke
dalam erlenmeyer melalui dinding gelas agar oksigen yang sudah terlarut
dalam asam sulfat tidak terlepas lagi; dan

6. Titrasi dengan Na2S2O3 0,025 N hingga berwarna kuning muda, kemudian tetesi
dengan indikator amilum 2-3 tetes. Titrasi kembali dengan Na2S2O3 0,025
hingga warna biru menghilang.
7. Perhitungan Kandungan Gas Oksigen Terlarut (mg/l atau ppm):
DO (mg/l) = ml titran x N titran x 8 x

1000 ml
ml sampel yang dititrasi

MODUL II: Parameter Kimia


Topik 2: Karbon Dioksida (CO2) dan pH Air

Nama :............................................ NIM : ..................................TTD : ...............


Pengantar Teori Praktikum
Karbon dioksida (CO2) adalah senyawa kimia yang terdiri dari dua atom
oksigen yang terikat secara kovalen dengan sebuah atom karbon. Karbon dioksida
berbentuk gas pada keadaan temperatur dan tekanan standar dan hadir di atmosfer
bumi. Rata-rata konsentrasi karbon dioksida di atmosfer bumi kira-kira 387 ppm.
Karbon dioksida adalah gas rumah kaca yang penting karena ia menyerap
gelombang inframerah dengan kuat.
Karbon dioksida dihasilkan oleh semua hewan, tumbuh-tumbuhan, fungi,
dan mikroorganisme pada proses respirasi dan digunakan oleh tumbuhan pada
proses fotosintesis. Oleh karena itu, karbon dioksida merupakan komponen
penting dalam siklus karbon. Karbon dioksida juga dihasilkan dari hasil samping
pembakaran bahan bakar fosil.
pH adalah derajat keasaman yang digunakan untuk menyatakan tingkat
keasaman atau kebasaan yang dimiliki oleh suatu larutan. pH juga didefinisikan
sebagai aktivitas ion hidrogen (H+) yang terlarut. Skala pH bukanlah skala absolut.
Ia bersifat relatif terhadap sekumpulan larutan standar yang pH-nya ditentukan
berdasarkan persetujuan internasional.
pH di dalam perairan didefinisikan sebagai derajat keasaman atau
banyaknya kandungan ion hidrogen yang terlarut dalam suatu perairan. pH pada
perairan menunjukkan kualitas baik atau buruknya perairan tersebut. Klasifikasi
penilaian pH adalah sebagai berikut:
pH < 7 = Asam
pH = 7 = Netral
pH > 7 = Basa

Tujuan:
1. Mengetahui metode pengukuran kardon dioksida terlarut (CO2) di suatu
perairan; dan
2. Mengetahui metode pengukuran pH dari suatu perairan
Prosedur Kerja
a. Alat (1 set untuk 1 kelompok)
1. Gelas ukur 100 ml;

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

2.
3.
4.
5.

Pipet tetes;
Labu Erlenmeyer atau gelas Beaker 250 ml;
pH paper dan skala warna pH; dan
Botol sampel 50 ml.

b.
1.
2.
3.

Bahan
Na2CO3;
Indikator Phenol-Phtalein; dan
Sampel air.

c. Metode
Mengambil sampel air secukupnya kedalam gelas ukur;
Merendam pH paper kedalam air beberapa saat hingga berubah warna;
Mencocokkan warna pH paper dengan skala warna;
Mengambil sampel air 50 ml untuk analilis CO2;
Menambahkan 2-3 tetes indikator Phenol-Phtalein (PP);
6. Jika timbul warna merah muda seulas, titrasi tidak dilakukan. Hal ini
menunjukan kadar CO2 mendekati nol; dan
Bagaimana jika tidak timbul warna merah muda seulas?
7. Jika tidak timbul warna merah muda seulas, lakukan titrasi menggunakan
Na2CO3 hingga warna merah muda seulas
8. Perhitungan Kandungan Gas Karbondioksida (mg/l atau ppm):
CO2 (mg/l) = ml titran x N titran x 22 x

1000 ml
ml sampel yang dititrasi

DATA HASIL PENGUKURAN


Tabel . Hasil Pengukuran Dissolved Oxygen (DO)
NO
Ekosistem
ml titran
N titran
1
2
3
4
Tabel . Hasil Pengukuran Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
NO
Ekosistem
ml titran
N titran
1
2
3
4
Tabel . Hasil Pengukuran pH
NO
Ekosistem
1

ml sampel

DO

ml sampel

CO2

Line
2

1
2
3
4
PEMBAHASAN
1. Analisislah keterkaitan antar variabel pada parameter kimia (DO, CO2 dan pH
air) dengan parameter lain (parameter biologi)!

..

2. Bagaimana keadaan lingkungan ekosistem lokasi sampling Anda, jika dilihat


dari parameter kimia? Jika ekosistem tersebut tercemar, menurut Anda apa
penyebab hal tersebut terjadi? Jelaskan!

NILAI

TTD ASPEN

(..................................)

MODUL III:
PAR AM E T E R B I O LO G I

MODUL III: Paramter Biologi


Topik 1: Sampling Fauna/Makrozoobentos
Nama :............................................ NIM : .................................. TTD : .............
Pengantar Teori Praktikum
Hewan makrofauna bentik adalah hewan-hewan invertebrate yang tinggal
menetap atau bergerak dengan kemampuan sangat terbatas di habitatnya, dari segi
ukuran, hewan golongan ini belum memerlukan mikroskop untuk pengamatannya.
Kebanyakan komunitas invertebrate di badan air mengalir adalah insecta/serangga
yang menyelesaikan sebagian siklus hidupnya melalui air (telur, larva, pupa, dst).
Berdasarkan kebiasaan hidupnya organisme air dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi
bentos, perifiton, plankton, nekton, neuston, misalnya kelompok Mollusca,
Crustacea, Pisces, Annelida (Suprapti, dkk, 2002).
Tidak seperti komponen ekosistem yang lain, pengulangan pengambilan
sampel makroinvertebrata sebaiknya dilakukan setelah 3 bulan. Sebagai contoh,
pengambilan sampel insecta setiap bulan justru hanya akan mereduksi ukuran
populasinya, sehingga pada akhirnya akan sukar membedakan apakah struktur
komunitas yang berubah itu terjadi karena oversampling atau karena faktor lain,
misalnya pencemaran. Bahkan praktikum kali ini adalah makrofauna bentik,
umumnya meliputi Echinodermata, Crustacea, Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Oligochaeta,
Polychaeta, dan Platyhelminthes (Turbellaria).
Klasifikasi Hewan Bentik
Menurut Hutabarat dan Evans (1985), berdasarkan ukurannya
makrobentos dibedakan menjadi:
1. Golongan mikrofauna; golongan hewan-hewan yang mempunyai ukuran lebih
kecil dari 0,1 mm, termasuk golongan ini adalah seluruh Protozoa.
2. Golongan meiofauna; golongan hewan-hewan yang mempunyai ukuran 0,11,00 mm. Termasuk Cnidaria, cacing yang berukuran kecil, dan beberapa jenis
Crustacea.
3. Golongan makrofauna; golongan hewan-hewan yang mempunyai ukuran >1,00
mm. Golongan ini meliputi Echinodermata, Crustacea, Mollusca, dan filum
lainnya.
Cara lain untuk mengklaisfikasikan makrozoobentos adalah dengan melihat
letaknya terhadap tempat hidupnya, yaitu:
1. Golongan epifauna (hewan yang hidup diatas permukaan dasar).
2. Golongan infauna (hewan yang hidup dengan menggali lubang pada dasar
perairan).
Habitat dan Kebiasaan Makan
Makrozoobentos yang mendominasi daerah intertidal biasanya melekat
pada substrat, sessile, bersifat planktivora (pamakan pklankton) dan pemakan
serasah (detritus) yang mengambil pakannya langsung dari partikel yang
tersuspensi dalam air. Biasanya hewan hidup dalam celah-celah antar akar algae
di daerah yang relative tenag dan cukup mendapatkan perlindungan (Tomascik et
al., 1997), marozoobentos dibedakan melalui tiga mekanisme makan, yaitu:

1. Filter feeding, filter feeder biasanya mengkonsumsi material tersuspensi pada


batas air-sedimen. Mollusca pemakan suspense menggunakan insang, baik untuk
pertukaran gas maupun mengambil makanan. Anggota kelas Bivalvia yang tak
memiliki sifon menggunakan sillia dan setae untuk menciptakan arus yang
membawa makanan pada permukaan tempat hewan hidup. Makanan dibawa oleh
lendir ke saluran pencernaan dimana ekstraksi dilakukan.
2. Browsing, organisme browser mengikis material dari permukaan atau ruang
antar sedimen, termasuk invertebrata yang makan dengan cara mengikis
permukaan (tumbuhan, karang, dan pasir); dapat makan secara langsung dengan
menghisap atau menyerap dan menyedot cairan cell sap maupun jaringan halus.
Keong atau siput merupakan hewan yang mengikis permukaan dengan radula-nya
(gigi) yang senantiasa diperbaharui, karena selalu tumbuh kembali.
3. Deposit feeding, organisme yang menghisap partikel pada bagian
atas/permukaan maupun didalam sedimen. Bivalvia pesisiran Macoma dan
Scrobicularia memiliki sifon (inhalan dan ekshalan); sifon inhalan dapat
dijulurkan sampai beberapa millimeter diatas permukaan sedimen untuk
mengambil makanan. Pengambilan makanan tidak selektif; pemisahan partikel
organik dan anorganik kasar terjadi pada insang dan palpus, sedangkan partikel
kecil yang rendah kandungan bahan organiknya dieksresikan sebagai feses.
Tujuan:
1. Mengetahui teknik pengambilan sampel makrozoobentos penyusun struktur
komunitas suatu ekosistem perairan.
Prosedur Kerja:
a. Bahan
1. Badan perairan Tambak, Muara, Sungai, dan Pantai;
2. Biota hasil sampling.
b. Alat
1. Line Transek 10 m;
2. Kuadran Transek 1x1 m (3 buah per kelompok)
3. Cetok pasir (3 buah per kelompok);
4. Saringan dengan mata saring 0,5 mm atau 1 mm (3 buah per kelompok);
5. Plastik bening kg (1 kemasan per kelompok);
6. Alat tulis tahan air (spidol, kertas label, ballpoint, pensil, dll);
7. Botol sampel (6 buah per kelompok); dan
8. Nampan (3 buah per kelompok).
c. Metoda
1. Memasang line transek sebagai garis transek sejajar atau tegak lurus paras tepi
lokasi terpilih;
2. Memasang kuadran transek dengan posisi zig-zag di sepanjang garis transek;
3. Bila kepadatan makrobentos cukup tinggi, sampel dapat diambil hanya pada
luas kuadran (Banyak ahli tidak menganjurkan namun bila dilakukan, harus
dicatat dengan teliti bahwa luas kuadran diubah menjadi -nya);

4. Mengambil makrobentos hidup secara manual atau dengan cara menyaring


sedimen di tiap kuadran, kemudian menyortir, dan memasukkannya ke dalam
botol sampel berikut dengan sedikit air dari tempat tersebut; dan
5. Sampel dilabel lengkap, disimpan di tempat teduh/gelap selama waktu
pengambilan sampel.

MODUL III: Parameter Biologi


TOPIK 2: Identifikasi Fauna/Makrozoobentos
Nama :............................................ NIM : .................................. TTD : ..............
Pengantar Teori Prakitkum
Biota adalah faktor penting dalam mengukur suatu parameter kualitas
perairan. Kemampuan identifikasi biota sebagai penyusun ekosistem merupakan
kunci keberhasilan untuk bisa mengkaitkan dengan kondisi ekologi perairan. Hal
ini disebabkan setiap biota mempunyai preferensi kondisi ekologi tertentu pula
(salinitas, suhu, kecerahan, arus, dsb) sehingga kelimpahan suatu organisme dapat
dijelaskan melalui indikator jenis-jenis biota dan makrozoobentos yang ditemukan
di dalamnya.
Tujuan:
1. Mengetahui prinsip dasar determinasi dan identifikasi genus/spesies biota air di
perairan tropis berdasarkan ciri morfologisnya.
Prosedur Kerja:
a. Bahan
1. Sampel awetan makrozoobentos yang telah diperoleh pada saat sampling; dan
2. Aquades dan tissue (secukupnya).
b. Alat
1. Nampan plastik besar berwarna terang/putih (1 buah per kelompok);
2. Pinset (1 buah per kelompok); dan
3. Buku identifikasi makrozoobentos disediakan oleh praktikan (minimal 2 buku
per kelompok).
c. Metode
1. Membersihkan sampel dari substrat yang menempel dan mengelompokkan
secara taksonomi sampel yang diperoleh sesuai dengan lokasi pengambilan
sampel;
2. Menggunakan buku identifikasi yang baku untuk menemukan ciri-ciri
identifikasi tingkat Ordo, Familia, dan Genus;
3. Mengidentifikasi makrozoobentos dengan mengamati ciri-ciri khusus morfologi
sesuai dengan golongan taksonomi biota tersebut, misalnya bagian kepala,
badan, ekor, tipe cangkang, jumlah dan tipe alat gerak dll;
4. Membuat sketsa gambar dengan pensil 2B sesuai dengan ciri-ciri morfologi
sesuai hasil sampel yang didapat;
5. Membuat klasifikasi biota yang telah teridentifikasi, sedapat mungkin sampai
ke tingkat genus; dan
6. Dalam hal suatu individu meragukan atau belum dapat dipastikan
taksonominya karena spesimen yang rusak atau hal lain, maka menurut
Hallfors and Niemi (1990) ditaruh sebuah tanda tanya sebelum epitet ke dua
nama spesies (Capitella? capitata) atau sebelum nama genus (Capitella). Jika
hanya terdapat sebuah spesies dalam genus tersebut epitet ke dua spesies

tersebut adalah sp. (Captilla sp.), spp. digunakan jika terdapat lebih dari satu
spesies dalam genus tersebut (Capitella spp.)
Tabel . Hasil Identifikasi Fauna/Makrozoobentos
No
Gambar
Genus/Spesies
Ciri-ciri
Jumlah
.

MODUL III: Parameter Biologi


Topik 3: Perhitungan Indeks Struktur Komunitas Biota
Nama :............................................ NIM : .................................. TTD : ................
Pengantar Teori Praktikum
Indeks keanekaragaman, keseragaman dan dominasi merupakan indeks
yang sering digunakan untuk mengevaluasi suatu kondisi lingkungan perairan
berdasarkan kondisi biologinya. Hubungan ini didasarkan atas kenyataan bahwa
tidak seimbangnya kondisi lingkungan akan turut mempengaruhi suatu organisme
yang hidup pada suatu perairan (Odum, 1993).
Menurut Leviton (1982) yang dimaksud dengan indeks keseragaman
adalah komposisi tiap individu pada suatu spesies yang terdapat dalam suatu
komunitas. Indeks keseragaman (e) merupakan pendugaan yang baik untuk
menentukan dominasi dalam suatu area. Apabila satu atau beberapa jenis
melimpah dari yang lainnya , maka indeks keseragaman akan rendah. Odum
(1993) menyatakan bahwa, indeks keseragaman (e) berkisar 0 1. Bila nilai
mendekati 0 menandakan keseragaman rendah, dan bila mendekati 1 menandakan
keseragaman tinggi yang menunjukkan tidak ada jenis yang mendominasi.
Menuruut Wilhm dan Dorris (1968), indeks keragaman (H) merupakan
gambaran secara sistematika tentang struktur komunitas, termasuk di dalamnya
jumlah dan jenis organismenya. Adapun Ghufron (1997) menyatakan bahwa
indeks keseragaman (e) merupakan gambaran secara sistematika tentang jumlah
dan organisme yang menghuni suatu komunitas atau habitat tertentu. Nilai indeks
keseragaman dipengaruhi oleh kelimpahan setiap spesies. Semakin kecil indeks
keseragaman suatu komunitas, maka komunitas tersebut didominasi oleh satu atau
beberapa spesies tertentu. Menurut Odum (1993), indeks keseragaman (e) < 0,4
menandakan indeks keseragaman rendah; 0,4< e > 0,6 termasuk sedang
sedangkan e > 0,6 menandakan indeks keseragaman tinggi.
Odum (1993) menambahkan bahwa indeks kemiripan (R) merupakan
gambaran teoritis tentang kesamaan jenis diantara 2 komunitas; satu komunitas
dengan komunitas yang lain sangat mungkkin mempunyai kesaragaman yang
berbeda-beda. Jika ada dua komunitas mempunyai indeks kemiripan cukup tinggi,
maka terdapat kecenderungan bahwa kedua komunitas tersebut menghuni habitat
yang sama karena memiliki kesamaan spesies penghuni. Bila lokasi yang
dibandingkan bertetangga atau berdekatan, maka mungkin dapat disimpulkan
bahwa penghuni lokasi-lokasi tersebut bukan komunitas yang berbeda. Menurut
Michael (1984), nilai R dikatakan rendah apabila <50%; nilai R sedang apabila
50%-75% dan tinggi apabila nilai R>75%.
Dalam topik ini, praktikan berlatih menafsirkan kondisi komunitas tidak
secara parsial dari masing-masing indeks, melainkan memakai kelima indeks
sekaligus untuk mengilustrasikan struktur komunitas yang sedang dipelajari.
Tujuan:
1. Mempelajari keanekaragaman, keseragaman dan kemiripan biota dari sebuah
ekosistem.

Prosedur Kerja:
a. Alat
1. Pensil, kertas dan alat tulis lain; dan
2. Kalkulator.
b. Bahan
1. Biota sampel.
c.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Metoda
Mengklasifikasikan biota yang didapat berdasarkan spesies;
Menghitung jumlah seluruh biota sampel yang ada;
Memasukkan hasil identifikasi ke dalam tabel; dan
Menghitung indeks keanekaragaman, indeks keseragaman dan indeks
kemiripan biota.

Rumus Perhitungan Indeks


a) Indeks Keanekaragaman
s

( H )= Pi ln Pi
'

i=1

Nilai indeks keanekaragaman dikategorikan sebagai berikut :


H < 1

: Keanekaragaman rendah

1 < H< 3 : Keanekaragaman sedang


H > 3

: Keanekaragaman tinggi

b) Indeks Keseragaman
e=

H'
H max

Hmax = ln s
Nilai indeks keseragaman dikategorikan sebagai berikut:
e < 0,4
: Keseragaman rendah
0,4< e <0,6 : Keseragaman sedang
e >0,6
: Keseragaman tinggi

c) Indeks Kemiripan

R=

2c
x 100
a+ b

a = jumlah spesies pada ekosistem a


b = jumlah spesies pada ekosistem b
c = jumlah spesies yang sama pada ekosistem a dan b
Nilai indeks kemiripan dikategorikan sebagai berikut :
R<50%

: Kemiripan rendah

50%<R<75% : Kemiripan sedang


R>75%

: Kemiripan tinggi

d) Indeks Dominasi
(c) digunakan untuk menduga keakuratan nilai e (Odum, 1971; Seed &
Brotohadikusumo 1994; Afiati 2002b)
c=(

)2

c = Indeks Dominasi
n = jumlah individu spesies ke i
N= jumlah total Individu

Nilai indeks dominasi berkisar antara 0,0 1,0 dengan kategori sebagai
berikut :
a.

0 < C < 0,5

= Dominansi rendah

b.

0,5 C 0,75 = Dominansi sedang

c.

0,75 < C 1,0 = Dominansi tinggi

Tabel . Hasil Perhitungan Indeks Struktur Komunitas Biota pada Ekosistem ....
No

Genus/Spesies

Jumlah Total

ni

Pi

Pi2

ln Pi

Pi ln Pi

N=

-Pi ln Pi

Tabel . Hasil Perhitungan Indeks Struktur Komunitas Biota pada Ekosistem ....
No

Genus/Spesies

Jumlah Total

ni

N=

Pi

Pi2

ln Pi

Pi ln Pi

-Pi ln Pi

MODUL III: Parameter Biologi


Topik 4: Analisis Vegetasi
Nama :............................................ NIM : .................................. TTD : .............
Pengantar Teori Praktikum
Vegetasi (dari bahasa inggris: vegetation) dalam ekologi merupakan istilah
untuk keseluruhan komunitas tumbuhtumbuhan. Vegetasi merupakan bagian
hidup yang tersusun dari tumbuhtumbuhan yang menempati suatu ekosistem.
Beraneka tipe seperti hutan, kebun, padang rumput, dan tundra merupakan
contohcontoh vegetasi.
Analisa vegetasi biasa dilakukan untuk mempelajari kelimpahan jenis serta
kerapatan tumbuhtumbuhan pada suatu tempat. Analisis persebaran vegetasi
akan lebih memudahkan bagi peneliti untuk mempelajari suatu komunitas
tumbuhan. Kelestarian lingkungan salah satunya ditentukan oleh indikator yang
berupa ada atau tidaknya komunitas suatu tumbuhan tertentu pada lingkungan
tertentu pula. Hal ini dapat terjadi karena beberapa jenis komunitas tumbuhan
sangat sensitif terhadap perubahan yang terjadi pada tempat hidupnya (habitat).
Tujuan:
1. Mengenal dan mengetahui vegetasi yang terdapat pada suatu ekosistem serta
menganalisis keterkaitan vegetasi tersebut terhadap lingkungan sekitar.
Prosedur Kerja:
a. Alat
1. Gunting/cutter; dan
2. Buku identifikasi vegetasi.
b. Bahan
1. Vegetasi yang ada di ekosistem.
c. Metode
1. Mengambil sample daun dan ranting dari vegetasi yang ada di ekosistem
sampling;
2. Mengamati dan mengidentifikasi sample yang diambil; dan
3. Masukkan hasil identifikasi ke dalam tabel
Tabel . Hasil Pengamatan Vegetasi Ekosistem
No
Gambar
Spesies
1.
2.

PEMBAHASAN

CiriCiri Morfologi

1. Pada teknik sampling makrozoobentos ekosistem sungai dan muara


pemasangan line adalah melawan arus dan kuadran dipasang zig zag. Mengapa
demikian? Jelaskan!

..

..

2. Berdasarkan hasil sampling makrozoobentos, apakah ada biota yang


mendominasi ekosistem tersebut? Jika ada, maka pengaruh apa yang
ditimbulkan dan bagaimanakah kualitas lingkungan yang Anda amati tersebut?

3. Pengaruh apakah yang akan terjadi jika indeks keseragaman dan


keanekaragaman pada suatu ekosistem tidak sesuai dan apakah dampak yang
akan ditimbulkan jika itu terjadi pada ekosistem yang Anda amati tersebut ?

..


.......................
4. Berdasarkan sampling di ekosistem yang Anda amati, vegetasi apakah yang
ada di ekosistem tersebut? Apakah terdapat perbedaan yang spesifik dari
vegetasi pada setiap ekosistemyang Anda amati tersebut?

NILAI

TTD ASPEN

(..................................)

LAPO R AN PR AK T I K U M

BAB I. HASIL

1.1.

Parameter Fisika
Data hasil pengukuran parameter fisika dapat dilihat pada tabel berikut :

Tabel 1. Hasil Pengukuran Kecerahan (cm)


No.

Ekosistem

K1

K2

K3

K2

K3

1
2
Tabel 2. Hasil Pengukuran Kedalaman (cm)
No.

Ekosistem

K1

1
2
Tabel 3. Hasil Pengukuran Temperatur/Suhu (C)
No
.
1
2

Ekosistem

K1
Air

K2
Udara

Air

K3
Udara

Air

Udara

Tabel 4. Hasil Pengukuran Substrat Dasar Perairan


No. Ekosistem

K1

K2

K3

Warna
Jenis

Tekstur
Bau
Warna
Jenis

Tekstur
Bau

m
Tabel 5. Hasil Pengukuran Arus ( s )
No
.

Ekosistem

K1
A

K2
B

K3
B

1
2
m
Keterangan: A = Arus Permukaan ( s )
m

B = Arus Dalam ( s )
Tabel 6. Hasil Pengukuran Salinitas ()
No.

Ekosistem

L1

L2

L3

1
2

1.2.

Parameter Kimia
Data hasil pengukuran parameter kimia dapat dilihat pada tabel berikut :

Tabel 7. Hasil Pengukuran Dissolved Oxygen (DO)


No

Ekosistem

ml titran

N titran

ml sampel

DO

ml sampel

CO2

1
2
Tabel 8. Hasil Pengukuran Karbon dioksida (CO2)
N0

Ekosistem

ml titran

N titran

1
2

Tabel 9. Hasil Pengukuran pH


No
1
2

Ekosistem

Line
1

1.3.

Parameter Biologi

Data hasil pengamatan parameter biologi dapat dilihat pada tebel


berikut :
Tabel 10. Hasil Identifikasi Makrozoobenthos pada Ekosistem ....
No
Gambar
Genus/Spesies
CiriCiri Morfologi

Jumlah

Tabel 11. Hasil Identifikasi Makrozoobenthos pada Ekosistem ....


No
Gambar
Genus/Spesies
CiriCiri Morfologi

Jumlah

No
.

Genus/Spesies

Jumlah Total

ni

N=

Pi

Pi2

ln Pi

Pi ln Pi

-Pi ln Pi

Tabel 12. Hasil Perhitungan Indeks Struktur Komunitas Biota pada Ekosistem ....
Tabel 13. Hasil Perhitungan Indeks Struktur Komunitas Biota pada Ekosistem ....
No
Genus/Spesies
ni
Pi
Pi2
ln Pi
Pi ln Pi -Pi ln Pi
.

Jumlah Total

N=

Tabel 14. Hasil Pengamatan Vegetasi pada Ekosistem ....


No
Gambar
Genus/Spesies
CiriCiri Morfologi

Tabel 15. Hasil Pengamatan Vegetasi pada Ekosistem ....


No
Gambar
Genus/Spesies
CiriCiri Morfologi

PERHITUNGAN:
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BAB II: PEMBAHASAN

2.1. Parameter Fisika


2.1.1. Kecerahan

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2.1.2. Kedalaman

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2.1.3. Temperatur/Suhu

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2.1.4. Substrat dasar perairan

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2.1.5. Arus

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2.1.6. Salinitas

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2.2. Parameter Kimia
2.2.1. Dissolved Oxygen (DO)

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2.2.2. Karbon dioksida (CO2)

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2.2.3. pH

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2.3. Parameter Biologi

2.3.1. Sampling fauna/makrozoobentos

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2.3.2. Identifikasi fauna/makrozoobentos

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2.3.3. Perhitungan indeks struktur komunitas biota

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2.3.4. Analisa vegetasi

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2.4. Analisa kondisi ekosistem

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BAB III: KESIMPULAN DAN SARAN

3.1.

Kesimpulan

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3.2.

Saran

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DAFTAR PUSTAKA
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