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Name: Weny Fitriana

NIM: 1503046060
Subject: Morphology

A word and its relatives: Derivation

5.1 Relationships between lexemes

The suffix ance is not one of the small class of suffixes (so- called
inflectional suffixes) whose use is tightly determined by grammar.

What sort of suffix is it then?

Derivational all aspects of word structure involving affixation that is

not inflectional.

This chapter shows how derivation works in English.

Performance what lexeme could this be?

There is a plural form performances, so performance and

performances are two forms of the lexeme PERFORMANCE.

The relationship is one of lexemes not of word forms. (PERFORM and


Derivational morphology is concerned with one kind of relationship

between lexemes.

Here, the concern is with relationships involving affixation, and the

grammatical and semantic tasks that such affixation can perform.

Base partially complete word form to which an affix is attached so as

to create either an inflected word form or a new lexeme.

Some bases are roots, whether bound (e.g. wive, the base for wives) or
free (e.g. cat, base for cats)

Others contain a root and one or more affixes, helpful as the base for

5.2 Word classes and conversion

Word classes= parts of speech= lexical categories

PERFORM and PERFORMANCE do they belong to the same word class?

No PERFORMANCE has two word forms, and PERFORM has 4 word


PERFORM is a verb, PERFORMANCE is a noun,

On the basis on syntactic and inflectional behavior, not of meaning.


Is RESEMBLE a doing word or describing word? (e.g. TALL,


RESEMBLE has a set of forms (resembles, resembled, resembling and


To classify words such as PERFORM and RESEMBLE as doing words

would be to mislead us into neglecting the syntactic and inflectional
parallels that justify them as verbs.

Does that mean, then, that a lexeme cannot have both noun forms
(singular and plural) and verb forms?

The lexemes HOPE and FEAR both have verb (she hoped/feared for the
future) and noun forms (hope/fear for the future)

Ambivalent noun-like in its grammatical behavior (e.g. DOOR, SISTER,

DESK, JOY) or purely verb-like (e.g. HEAR, SPEAK, WRITE, BELIEVE)

English in particular:

Compare HOPE and FEAR as verbs with other verbs that can be
followed by that-clauses, as in (1) and (2):

a. She stated that it would rain.

b. She knew that it would rain.
c. She denied that it would rain.
d. She admitted that it would rain.
e. She acknowledged that it would rain.

For all of these sentences we can identify a nominal counterpart, that

a counterpart of the form her that it would rain:
(2) a. her statement that it would rain
b. her knowledge that it would rain
c. her denial that it would rain
d. her admission that it would rain
e. her acknowledgement that it would rain

The verbal construction in (1) is basic, the nominal construction in (2)

being derived from it.

Look at HOPE and FEAR they are also derived from verbs even though
they carry no affix.

This is called zero-derived which is called conversion

Conversion a lexeme belonging to one class can simply be

converted to another, without any overt change in shape.

FATHER the noun form is more basic.

5.3 Adverbs derived from adjectives

DIOECIOUSLY and DIOECIOUS distinct lexemes (different word class)

but not distinct lexical item.

Derivational processes change the word class of the bases to which

they apply, unlike inflection.

Mono-morphemic adverbs (OFTEN,SELDOM,NEVER,SOON), and some

other adverbs are morphologically complex without containing ly
HARD (derived from adjectives)
5.4. Nouns derived from nouns

Not all derivational processes change word class.

Examples:lexical items, unpredictable meanings.

5) small X: -let, -ette, -ie
e.g. droplet, booklet, cigarette, doggie
(6) female X: -ess, -ine
e.g. waitress, princess, heroine
(7) inhabitant of X: -er, -(i)an
e.g. Londoner, New Yorker, Texan, Glaswegian
(8) state of being an X: -ship, -hood
kingship, ladyship, motherhood, priesthood
(9) devotee of or expert on X: -ist, -ian
e.g. contortionist,, Marxist, logician, historian

This gappiness helps to confirm that these affixes are derivational

rather than inflectional even though they do not change the word

These examples GLASWEGIAN, LOGICIAN and HISTORIAN illustrates at

least superficially, the possibility that the base for a derivational
process may be bound rather than free.

GLASWEGIAN contains an idiosyncratic bound allomorph Glasweg- of

the free morpheme Glasgow, which is also the only word form
belonging to the lexeme GLASGOW
5.5 Nouns derived from members of other word classes

Nouns derived from adjectives and from verbs are extremely


Suffixes used to derive nouns from adjectives:

-ity, e.g. purity, equality, ferocity, sensitivity

-ness, e.g. goodness, tallness, fierceness, sensitiveness
-ism, e.g. radicalism, conservatismProperty of being X, where X is
the base adjective.

Formed from bases other than the freeform of the corresponding

adjective, e.g. FEROCITY from feroc-(not ferocious), CONSERVATISM
from conservat- (not conservative).

All nouns in ity are lexical items

5.6 Adjectives derived from adjectives

Prefixes predominate

Un-adjectives most dictionaries may not even list them

In with allomorphs such as il-ir-im as in INTANGIBLE, ILLEGAL,

IRRESPONSIBLE, IMPOSSIBLE see examples ,the use of IN is more



5.7: Adjectives derived from members of other word classes

The modifier very and the comparative construction (more than)

show that interesting, drunk and damaged are adjectivesexamples
a not very interesting book
b. The party-goers sounded very drunk.
c. The car seemed more damaged than the lamp-post.

Suffixes that form adjectives from verbs:

-- -able to be Xed: breakable, readable, reiable, watachable
-- ent,-ant tending to X: repellent, expectant, conversant

--ive tending to X: repulsive, explosive, speculative

Suffixes that form adjectives from nouns

-ful, e.g. joyful, hopeful, helpful, meaningful

-less, e.g. joyless, hopeless, helpless, meaningless
-al, e.g. original, normal, personal, national
-ish, e.g. boyish, loutish, waspish, selfish

5.8 Verbs derived from verbs

Prefixes re and negative ones such as un, de, dis

paint, enter
repaint, re-enter
tie, tangle
untie, untangle
compose, sensitise
decompose, desensitise
entangle, believe
disentangle, disbelieve

Look at the columns in Intransitive and Transitive

Lie (past lay)
Rise (past rose)
Fall (past fell)
Sit (past sat)

Lied (past laid)
Raise (past raised)
Fell(past felled)
Set(past set)

Transitive verbs are ones with an object noun phrase, usually

indicating the thing or person that is the goal of the action of the verb
a. Jill laid the book on the table.
b. The book lay on the table

Intransitive verbs, such as lay in (b), lack such an object.

The transitive verbs in (35) are all causative cause to X where X

stands for the meaning of the corresponding intransitive

Involve conversion as in
Jill boiled the water.
The water boiled.
5.9. Verbs derived from members of other word classes

Some affixes for deriving verbs from nouns are:

de-, e.g. debug, deforest, delouse

-ise, e.g. organise, patronise, terrorise
-(i)fy, e.g. beautify, gentrify, petrify

Verbs derived by replacing the final voiceless consonant of a noun with

a voiced one, perhaps with some vowel change too
House(s) House(z)
The suffixes ise and ify can derive verbs from adjectival bases too, as

When the roots they are attached are bound (e.g. CAUTERISE,
SANITISE, PETRIFY, SATISFY, MAGNIFY),it is often impossibe to decide
whether these roots are fundamentally nominal or adjectival.

The suffix ate is the same.

Suffixes play a larger role than prefixes in English derivational


One prefix to be mentioned en, with an allomorph em

cause to become X or cause to possess or enter X from a few


Adjectives BOLD and LIVE as bases, the prefix en: EMBOLDEN, ENLIVEN



These verbs have either an intransitive meaning become X or an

transitive one cause to become X

It turns out that the adjectives that can be bases for deriving en verbs
are all monosyllabic and all end in plosives (the sounds usually spelled
p,b,t,d, k and g)

Not listed in dictionary-- -ly,un-,-ing,-ness