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2014 Ukrainian revolution

For the general protests, see Euromaidan and Timeline pro-Russian unrest in some south-eastern regions,[45][46]
of the Euromaidan.
a stando with Russia regarding the annexation of
Crimea and Sevastopol,[47][48] and a war between the
and Russia-backed separatists in
The Ukrainian revolution of 2014 (also known as the Ukrainian government
the Donbass.[49][50][51]
Euromaidan Revolution or Revolution of Dignity;
Ukrainian: , Revoliutsiya hidnosti)
took place in Ukraine in February 2014, when a series
of violent events involving protesters, riot police, and un- 2 Overview
known shooters in the capital, Kiev, culminated in the
ousting of Ukrainian President, Viktor Yanukovych (who A period of relative calm in the anti-government demonhad won the 2010 Ukrainian presidential election[31] ). strations in Kiev ended abruptly on 18 February 2014,
This was immediately followed by a series of changes in when protesters and police clashed. At least 82 people
Ukraines sociopolitical system, including the formation were killed over the next few days, including 13 policeof a new interim government, the restoration of the previ- men; more than 1,100 people were injured.[52]
ous constitution, and a call to hold impromptu presidential elections within months.[32]

Background

After the breakup of the Soviet Union, Ukraine endured


years of corruption, mismanagement, (years long) lack
of economic growth, currency devaluation, and problems
to secure funding from public markets.[33][34] Successive
Ukrainian governments in the 2000s sought a closer relationship with the European Union (EU).[35][36] One of
the measures meant to achieve this was an association
agreement with the European Union, which would have Crowds of protesters at a mass rally on Independence Square in
Kiev.
provided Ukraine with funds in return for liberalising
[37]
reforms.
President Yanukovych announced his intention to sign the agreement, but ultimately refused to do
so at the last minute.[38] This sparked a wave of protests
called the "Euromaidan" movement.[39] During these
protests Yanukovych signed a treaty and multibilliondollar loan with Russia.[39] The Ukrainian security forces
cracked down on the protesters, further inaming the situation and resulting in a series of violent clashes in the
streets of Kiev.[40] As tensions rose, Yanukovych ed to
Russia and did not return.[39]
Russia refused to recognize the new interim government, calling the revolution a coup d'tat,[41] and began a military reenforcement of the Crimean Peninsula
in Ukraine.[42][43] The newly appointed interim government of Ukraine signed the EU association agreement
and agreed to reform the countrys judiciary and political systems, as well as its nancial and economic policies. The International Monetary Fund pledged more
than $18 billion in loans contingent on Ukraines adopting those reforms.[44] The revolution was followed by

A line of riot police in Kiev on 12 February.

On 18 February, some 20,000 Euromaidan protesters advanced on Ukraines parliament in support of restoring
the Constitution of Ukraine to its 2004 form, which had
been repealed by the Constitutional Court of Ukraine
shortly after Yanukovych was elected president in 2010.
1

2
The police blocked their path. The confrontation turned
violent; the BBC, citing correspondents, reported that
each side blamed the other.[53] The police red guns with
both rubber bullets and, later, live ammunition (including automatic weapons and sniper ries), while also using
tear gas and ash grenades in an attempt to repel thousands of demonstrators. The protesters fought back with
crude weapons, rearms, and improvised explosives,[54]
and broke into the headquarters of the Party of Regions.
Police ocers stormed the main protest camp on Maidan
Nezalezhnosti and overran parts of the square.[53] The
Trade Unions Building, which served as the Euromaidan
headquarters, was burned down. Political commentators
suggested that Ukraine was on the brink of a civil war.[55]
Some areas, including Lviv Oblast, declared themselves
politically independent of the central government.[56]

BACKGROUND

ing fascists from the rest of Ukraine.[68]


On 28 February, Yanukovych attended a press conference
in southern Russia and answered questions from mostly
Russian reporters. He said that the early presidential
elections scheduled for late May were illegal and that he
would not be participating in them. He also said that
while the 21 February agreement could have calmed the
situation, the opposition had not agreed to it.[69]
On 1 March, Russias parliament approved a request from
President Vladimir Putin to deploy Russian troops to
Ukraine.[70]

3 Background

On 19 February, the authorities instituted police checkpoints, restrictions on public transportation, and school
closures in Kiev, which the media referred to as a de facto
state of emergency.[57]
On 20 February, Internal Aairs Minister Vitaliy Zakharchenko announced that he had signed a decree authorising the use of live ammunition against protesters.[58]
Central Kiev saw the worst violence yet, and the death toll
in 48 hours of clashes rose to at least 77.[59] In response,
the chairman of the Ukrainian parliament, Volodymyr
Rybak, announced the next day that he had signed a parliamentary decree condemning the use of force and urging all institutions (the Ministry of Internal Aairs, the
Cabinet of Ministers, etc.) to cease immediately all mil- Pro-European Union Euromaidan protesters in Kiev, December
itary actions against protesters.[60] Parliament also sus- 2013.
pended Zakharchenko from his duties.
Protests originally erupted in November 2013 after
On 21 February, President Yanukovych signed a comproYanukovych refused to sign a political association and
mise deal with opposition leaders. It promised constitufree trade agreement with the European Union at a meettional changes to restore certain powers to Parliament and
ing of the Eastern Partnership in Vilnius, Lithuania,
called for early elections to be held by December.
choosing closer ties with Russia instead. Prime MinisDespite the agreement, thousands continued to protest in ter Mykola Azarov had asked for 20 billion (US$27
central Kiev, and the demonstrators took full control of billion) in loans and aid.[71] The EU was willing to ofthe citys government district: the parliament building, fer 610 million ($838 million) in loans,[72] but Russia
the presidents administration quarters, the cabinet, and was willing to oer $15 billion,[72] as well as cheaper gas
the Interior Ministry.[61][62] On 21 February, an impeach- prices.[72] In addition, the EU demanded major changes
ment bill was introduced in Parliament.[63] On the same to Ukraines regulations and laws, but Russia did not.[71]
day, Yanukovych left for Kharkiv to attend a summit of Russia also applied economic pressure on Ukraine and
southeastern regions, according to media reports.
launched a propaganda campaign against the EU deal.[73]
On 22 February, the protesters were reported to be in
control of Kiev, and Yanukovych was said to have ed
the capital for eastern Ukraine.[64][65] The parliament, or
Verkhovna Rada, voted 3280 in favour of impeaching
Yanukovych and scheduled new presidential elections for
25 May.[66]

Yanukovych was widely disliked in Ukraines west but


had some support in the east, where his native Russian
is much more spoken, and in the south. The rallies were
initially peaceful but became violent in January 2014 after Parliament, dominated by Yanukovychs supporters,
passed laws intended to repress the protests. The EuParliament named its speaker, Oleksandr Turchynov, as ropean Union and the United States urged Yanukovych
interim president on 23 February.[1] A warrant for the ar- to negotiate a peaceful end to the conict and said they
ocials if they
rest of Yanukovych was issued by the new government on would impose sanctions on government
[74]
were
found
responsible
for
violence.
[67]
24 February. Over the next few days, Russian nationalist politicians and activists organised rallies in Crimea In the lead-up to the February riots, an amnesty agreeand urged Russia to help defend the region from advanc- ment was made with protesters wherein they would be

3.1

Russian involvement

spared criminal charges in exchange for active protesters


leaving occupied buildings.[75] The demonstrators vacated all occupied Regional State Administration buildings, and activists in Kiev left the Hrushevskoho Street
stando; Kievs City Hall was also released back to government control on 16 February.[75] All those previously
jailed for taking part in protests were scheduled to be released after 17 February.[75]
On 14 February, Yanukovych had said: I want to say
that I was incited, and I'm incited to use various methods
and ways how to settle the situation, but I want to say I
don't want to be at war. I don't want any decisions made
using such a radical way.[76] He called on all politicians
to refrain from radicalism and to understand that there
is a line that shouldn't be crossed, and this line is law.[76]

3.1

Russian involvement

3
keep the west from Russian speaking countries such as
Ukraine. Thus Ukraines revolution was a big threat
that showed western inuence in its assumed-ally countries and a chance to openly attack pro-western power.
Therefore, its stretch of hand on Ukraine was something
more than a correspondence of a neighboring country.
Kremlin openly argued that Russias security and future
are threatened by Ukraines extreme nationalists, who receive funding from the West (mainly the United States)
and support from fth columnists (national traitors) inside Russia. [78] Russian ocials had been pressuring
the Ukrainian administration to take decisive action to
crush the protests, and the police assault on Euromaidan
protesters was ordered hours after the $2 billion from
Russia was transferred.[79][80] Several government ministers from across Europe blamed Russia for exacerbating
the violence.[81]
In an interview on 20 February, a retired[82] colonel of the
Main Intelligence Directorate of Russia (GRU), Aleksandr Musienko, said that the conict could only be solved
by force, and that Ukraine had proven it could not exist as an independent, sovereign state.[82][83] According to
government documents released by former Deputy Interior Minister Hennadiy Moskal, Russian ocials served
as advisers to the operations against protesters. Codenamed Wave and Boomerang, the operations involved the use of snipers to disperse crowds and capture the protesters headquarters in the House of Trade
Unions. Before some police ocers defected, the plans
included the deployment of 22,000 combined security
troops in Kiev.[84] According to the documents, the former rst deputy of the Russian GRU stayed at the Kiev
Hotel, played a major role in the preparations, and was
paid by the Security Services of Ukraine.[85] According
to Reuters, the authenticity of the documents could not
be conrmed.[86] Interior Minister Arsen Avakov said
that the conict had been provoked by a non-Ukrainian
third party and that an investigation was ongoing.[87]

See also: Russia Ukraine relations


The perception that Yanukovych was trying to establish
closer ties with Russia played a major role in the protests.
Yanukovych accepted bail-out money$2 billion out
of a $15 billion packagefrom Russia, and this was interpreted as a sign that he would seek close ties with
Putin.[77] As the trigger of the event tells, Russia is a main
actor of the revolution that was deeply involved from the
very beginning of it.

On 21 February, after a failed crackdown that killed as


many as 100 people, Yanukovych made some concessions. In response, Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev of
Russia said that Yanukovych needed to stop behaving like
a doormat, and that further loan installments would be
withheld. A Russian political adviser, Sergey Markov,
said, Russia will do everything allowable by law to stop
[the opposition] from coming to power.[88] On 24 February, Russias Foreign Ministry issued a statement urging
Ukrainians to crack down on the extremists who are trying to get established in power,[89] and Medvedev refused to recognise Ukraines provisional government as
legitimate.[90]

But even before this crisis, Russia had a long history


of intervention in Ukraine. Since Ukraine was a member of old Soviet Union, Russia treated Ukraine with
paternalism and condescension. With this perception,
Moscow also had an ambition of the old unions reunication in modern form. Under this goal it tried to

During a press conference on 3 April 2014, Ukraines


new interior minister, chief prosecutor, and top security
chief implicated more than 30 Russian Federal Security
Service (FSB) agents in the crackdown on protesters, saying that, in addition to taking part in the planning, the
agents had own shipments of large quantities of explo-

17 December 2013 UkrainianRussian action plan

4 TIMELINE

sives into an airport near Kiev. Valentyn Nalyvaichenko,


the interim head of Ukraines SBU state security agency,
said the agents had been stationed in Kiev throughout
the Euromaidan protests, had been provided with state
telecommunications while residing at an SBU compound, and had kept in regular contact with Ukrainian
security ocials. We have substantiated grounds to consider that these very groups which were located at an SBU
training ground took part in the planning and execution of
activities of this so-called antiterrorist operation, Nalyvaichenko said. Investigators, he added, had established
that Yanukovychs SBU chief, Oleksandr Yakymenko,
who later ed the country, had received reports from FSB
agents stationed in Ukraine, and that Yakymenko had
held several briengs with the agents. The FSB rejected Trucks that had been carrying troops were burned in Kievs city
these claims as groundless accusations and otherwise center on 18 February.
refused to comment.[91]

Timeline

See also: Timeline of the Euromaidan

4.1
4.1.1

18 February
Initial clashes (Mariinsky and Lypky)

Protesters throwing bricks and Molotov cocktails at police ocers


behind the burning barricade.

Protesters building a barricade.

broke through the police barricade of several personneltransport trucks near the building of the Central Ocers Club of Ukraine[93] and pushed the cordon of police aside.[94] The clashes started after some two dozen
demonstrators moved a police vehicle blocking their path
to Parliament.[54] At 10:00, a member of Parliament representing Batkivshchyna, Lesya Orobets, reported that
police armed with Fort-500T shotguns had begun to attack with ash and stun grenades from Shovkovychna
Street and Lypska Street.[93]

As the column neared the Verkhovna Rada building at


10:08, it met resistance from another cordon of police ocers.[93] There were reports that the number of
protesters had swelled to 50,000.[93] At 10:18, according to other reports, explosions and smoke were seen on
Instytutska Street as people started to tear up roadway
paving blocks.[93] Protesters started to throw the pavement blocks at the police, while ocers defending themselves with shields tried to subdue the crowd with stun
That morning, around 20,000 demonstrators marched grenades.[93] Protesters who had barricaded themselves
on the Verkhovna Rada[77] as Parliament was set to near the Dynamo Stadium colonnade began setting re
consider opposition demands for a new constitution to tires.[93] At about 10:30, Parliament was set to vote
and government. Around 09:45, the demonstrators on whether to restore the 2004 constitution.[93] However,
The night before the clashes, Right Sector called on all
of its members to ready themselves for a peace oensive on 18 February. The Maidan Peoples Union also
urged all concerned citizens to take part in the peace offensive, which student unions had agreed to join as well.
The Maidan Union reported on the morning of 18 February that columns of protesters would begin a march on
Parliament at 08:30.[92]

4.1

18 February

Speaker Rybak did not register the bill, despite being


legally obligated to do so.[54] Oleksandr Doniy, an independent lawmaker, said: They handed out the agenda
[for todays session] as if there is no crisis in the country. All the issues on it are secondary. The opposition
leader Vitali Klitschko accused President Yanukovych of
coercing members of Parliament and orchestrating the
situation.[54] Around that time, MP Volodymyr Ariev reported that police ocers were shooting at female opposition MPs.[93]

5
protesters were breaking down the doors of the Party
of Regions headquarters on Lypska Street.[93] At 11:30,
protestersincluding the journalist Tetyana Chornovol[54] sacked and set re to the building.[95][96] At
12:12, Minister of Healthcare Raisa Bohatyriova was attacked by protesters as she left Mariinsky Park, but she
escaped unharmed.[93] By 12:30, the police had regained
control of the Party of Regions oce.[54]
By 13:00, thousands of police ocers had encircled the government district and begun chasing down
protesters.[54] One protester with a head wound told the
Kyiv Post that charging police ocers had smashed everybody in their path, including women and girls.

Conict on Independence Square at night.

At 10:33, the street ghts between protesters and the


police shifted to Shovkovychna Street.[93] Protesters
started to wave 200-hryvnia banknotes in the face of
titushkymercenaries who supported Yanukovychs police forcesin Mariinsky Park.[93] An activist, Oleksandr
Aronets, reported that snipers were targeting civilians.[93]
By 11:00, protesters had sustained serious wounds.[93]
Molotov cocktails[93] were thrown, and on Shovkovnycha
Street, a barricade of dump trucks was set on re.[93] At
11:10, police ocers started to use shotguns and throw
grenades from rooftops into crowds.[93]

A barricade line separating interior troops and protesters.

Around 13:30, four ocers on Instytutska Street were


stationed atop a building, lobbing stun grenades at the
crowd and shooting, when protesters stormed the building
and set part of it on re. The protesters forced their way
to the roof, forcing the police to retreat.[54] The building
on Instytutska Street was described as the scene of the
days most violent clashes. Berkut and Internal Troops
servicemen opened a full-scale assault, ring directly into
the crowd.[93] There were reports of police using water
cannons to break through.[93]

A barricade burning outside the headquarters of the internal defence forces in Lviv, caused by mass protests.

4.1.2

Raid on Party of Regions oce and police re- A masked protester during clashes in Kiev.
taliation
By mid-afternoon, police ocers using tear gas drove as
At 11:23, the Berkut special police forces tried to launch many as 10,000 protesters from Mariinsky Park, where
an assault on the crowd, but the protesters attacked barricades had been built earlier in the day. Demonstraback.[93] Two minutes later, the rst report came that tors threw stun grenades at titushky, lling the park with

4 TIMELINE

smoke. Other anti-government activists tried to keep the clear the streets within two hours, saying, If by 18:00 the
pro-government and anti-government forces apart.[54]
lawlessness doesn't cease, we shall be forced to use all le[54]
Multiple news outlets published photographs showing the gal means to bring order. At the October Palace, vispolice armed with AK-74 assault ries.[97][98] Former ible from Independence Square, riot police threw bricks
women, from a
Deputy Minister of Internal Aairs Hennadiy Moskal down the hill at protesters, including
[54]
bridge
along
Instytutska
Street.
[99]
speculated that they were Alpha Group units.
A
Berkut leader, Vladimir Krashevsky, said the armed po- At 20:00, it was reported that 50 unknown assailants were
lice ocers in black with yellow armbands were part of trying to break into the Canadian Consulate.[103]
a Berkut unit that had been deployed to help evacuate the
interior troops.[8]
4.1.4 Attack on aidan
Protesters re-occupied City Hall.[100] And according to
the Russian state-owned newspaper Izvestia, opposition Following the warning, the police advanced on thouactivists armed with bats and iron rods beat a computer sands of protesters on Maidan Nezalezhnosti (Indepenengineer, Valery Konstantinovich Zakharov, to death in dence Square) with guns, a water cannon, and an armored
the raid on the Party of Regions oce.[101]
personnel carrier. Tents housing protesters were burning on the main square.[54] The police justied their actions as part of an anti-terror campaign against individ4.1.3 Advance toward Maidan
uals who had clearly armed themselves.[104] Opposition
leader Arseniy Yatsenyuk called on the police to retreat
200 meters up Instytutska Street and urged both sides to
call a truce until morning.[25] Protesters on the square
stacked tires and other burning debris to create a wall of
re between themselves and security forces.[25]
The TV channel 5 Kanal's broadcast was shut down
countrywide[25][105] but remained available via satellite
(with a brief interruption) and a live feed on YouTube.[25]
It resumed service some hours later.

Clashes between protesters and internal troops.

At 15:45, hundreds of riot police ocers advanced toward Parliament, attacking protesters.[102] An ocer
grabbed the gas mask of a Kyiv Post journalist on Instytutska Street and said of the police advance: I love it!
We love it!"[54]

A riot police ocer is thrown to the ground during clashes in Kiev.

Kievs Trade Union building, used as Euromaidan headquarters,


on re after a police raid.

At 16:00, the acting chief of the Ukraine Security Services, Oleksandr Yakymenko, and acting Interior Minis- At approximately 22:00, it was reported that the police
ter Zakharchenko issued a public warning to protesters to had broken through the protesters barricades on the east-

4.2

19 February

ern side of the square.[106] Ocers then tried to retake


the occupied Trade Unions building but failed.[25]
Presidential adviser Hanna Herman said that negotiations
between the government and the opposition would only
happen once peace was restored and the crowds retreated,
and that calling further for armed conict is a great
crime against the Ukrainian people and the Ukrainian
state.[25] General Prosecutor of Ukraine Viktor Pshonka
said: Organisers of mass protests will be held accountable. We will demand the heaviest punishment both for
those who revved people up to take part in todays action
and for those who organised and controlled them.[104]
At 01:35 the next morning, street lights were switched o
around the square. The activists believed that this her- Internal troops form a phalanx against protesters. Berkut policealded the beginning of a decisive assault.[107]
men are standing behind.
4.1.5

Opposition leaders meeting with President also closed, but according to a Euronews correspondent,
Yanukovych
Life away from the barricades is business as usual.[113]

Emerging from a meeting with President Yanukovych,


opposition leader Vitali Klitschko told Hromadske TV
that the talks had not been successful. Klitschko said that
opposition leaders had listened for more than an hour to
Yanukovychs claims that they were to blame for the 20
deaths on 18 February. The president also demanded that
the opposition force the protesters to leave Maidan Nezalezhnosti.[25] He reportedly threatened opposition leaders
with criminal prosecution.[108]
In a message on Ukrainian television, Yanukovych told
the opposition leaders, Separate yourself from the radical elements that seek bloodshed and conict with law
enforcement agencies, and said that if they did not, he
would talk dierently with them.[109] He added: The
opposition leaders have ignored the basic foundation of
democracy. The line had been crossed when they called
people to arms.[109]

In the early morning, titushky shot two protesters, killing


one.[114] By this point, the death toll had risen to 26 on
both sides.[115]
The Security Service of Ukraine (SBU) launched an
anti-terrorist operation, while the intelligence services
began investigating unnamed politicians over what was
described as an illegal attempt to seize power.[112] The
decision to begin the anti-terrorist operation involved the
SBU, the Interior Ministry, the Ministry of Defence, the
State Border Guard Service of Ukraine, and the central and local governments, according to a statement on
the SBU website.[116] According to political analyst Taras
Berezovets, the decree meant that the SBU could search
protesters, seize their property, and detain them at will,
without a court order or other legal safeguards.[116]

On 20 February, three opposition parties (Batkivshchyna,


UDAR, and Svoboda) said in a statement: We never
have and never will call people to arms. This is our principled position. The death of each person is a personal
tragedy for each of us.[110] Later that day, the parties
said, To hold talks with the regime, the policies of which
led to the deaths of many people, is an extremely unpleasant thing, but we must do everything possible and even the
impossible to prevent further bloodshed.[111] They said
that dissolving the protests would be counterproductive
and unrealistic and stated: It was not we who brought
Maidan together, and it is not for us to disperse it! Peo- Euromaidan crowds on 19 February.
ple will decide themselves what to do depending on when
and how their demands are satised.[111]
In the early morning, Olena Lukash announced that the
opposition had refused to sign a declaration disapproving
of radical measures. President Yanukovych demanded
4.2 19 February
that the opposition stop occupying buildings and seizing
arms; the opposition, however, would not concede.[117]
The Kiev Metro was closed and main roads blocked by The acting minister of defence, Pavlo Lebedyev, acpolice.[112] Bigger stores and malls on Khreshchatyk were knowledged that he had sent some airborne troops from

8
Dnipropetrovsk to Kiev.[118] Ciphered telegrams were
discovered in which Yuriy Ilyin, the newly appointed
chief of the general sta of the Ukrainian Armed Forces,
gave direct orders to deploy military units.[119]

4 TIMELINE
arms depots had been attacked in several regions.[124]

The European Investment Bank froze activities in


Ukraine,[125] saying, For the time being, the situation is
so cruel that it would be politically the wrong signal, but
Also on 19 February, a military An-26 made a secret also irresponsible vis-a-vis the people we asked to do the
ight from Kiev to Russia to pick up a large batch of anti- job, to be active on business in Ukraine.[126]
riot weapons and ammunition; this only became known in
Following a meeting between government and oppo2015.[120]
sition leaders late at night, both sides declared a
A Euronews correspondent on Independence Square truce and agreed to start negotiations.[116][127] President
reported that protesters were arriving from all parts Yanukovych said in a statement that he had agreed to
of Ukraine.[121] By 14:50, about 5,000 remained on start negotiations with the aim of ending bloodshed and
the square.[116] Right Sector occupied the Kiev Cen- stabilising the situation in the state in the interests of sotral Post Oce and the State Committee for Televi- cial peace.[127] According to opposition politician Yatsion and Radio, with the post oce serving as a new senyuk, the truce included a pledge from Yanukovych
headquarters.[116][122]
not to launch a police assault that night.[127] Right Sector
did not agree to the truce.[128] A Euronews correspondent on Independence Square reported that the number
of protesters had grown, saying, In general, all I have
heard from people is the more they are attacked and the
worse they are beaten, the more determined they are to
stand back up and resume the struggle.[129]

4.3 20 February

Burning of the Euromaidan headquarters in the Trade Unions


Building.

Police snipers.

At 00:35, Interfax reported that Yanukovych had declared


20 February a day of mourning for those killed in the
clashes.[130]
Around 03:50, activists claimed that they had torn a
shoulder patch from the uniform of a Russian Ministry of Internal Aairs (MVD) soldier during the
clashes, brandishing the patch as alleged proof of
Russian involvement.[131] Protesters at Independence
Protesters burning tires near Kiev Conservatory to obscure
Square continued to hear gunshots, despite the ceasesnipers visibility.
re agreement.[132] Around 04:20, ve buses carrying
[133]
President Yanukovych red the chief of the general sta protesters from Ivano-Frankivsk arrived.
of the Ukrainian Armed Forces, Volodymyr Zamana, and Each side blamed the other for igniting the deadly
replaced him with Ilyin, who was previously the comman- conict.[134] Yakymenko blamed Ukraines current Euder of the Ukrainian Navy.[123] The Ministry of Defence romaidan government, claiming they were responsible
announced that it was redeploying units around the coun- for hiring snipers on 20 February.[135] In a statement,
try to guard military facilities.[123] The director of the the Presidential Administration of Ukraine claimed that
SBU, Oleksandr Yakymenko, said that military bases and the protesters had gone on the oensive: They are

4.3

20 February

working in organised groups. They are using rearms,


including sniper ries. They are shooting to kill, it
said.[136] Protesters accused the police of starting the conict by throwing Molotov cocktails and improvised explosive devices.[134] Opposition politician Klitschko issued a
statement saying: Armed thugs have been let loose in the
streets to attack people and create an illusion that there is
a confrontation between citizens.[136]

9
had been seized from an Interior Ministry armory in Lviv
and transported to the outskirts of Kiev.[146]

The head of the Kiev City State Administration,


Volodymyr Makeyenko, resigned from the Party of Regions but said he would continue to perform his duties to
ensure that the city functioned properly.[136] He then ordered the reopening of the Kiev Metro.[136] By 15:00, the
metro was still not running, and ground-based transport
At 09:25, protesters pushed the Berkut back to the in the city was scarce.[147] The metro was partly reopened
October Palace[137] after security forces tried to set re in the early evening, but interchange stations remained
to Kiev Conservatory, which was being used as a eld closed.[148]
hospital for wounded protesters.[138] At 09:32, it was an- The Embassy of the United Kingdom in Kiev was temnounced that Parliament would not convene.[137] Euro- porarily closed.[149]
maidan protesters marched on the police with shields and
Molotov cocktails and forced them to retreat, thus re- Radio Liberty published video footage of police special
gaining control of Independence Square and capturing forces shooting protesters with Kalashnikov and sniper
[150]
Acting Interior Minister Zakharchenko anup to 67 police ocers.[139][140] Around 10:49, law en- ries.
forcement personnel were captured while sleeping in the nounced that combat weapons had been provided to the
Ukrainian House and during clashes on barricades near police, saying in an address to the nation, We signed relethe October Palace.[139] Many of the men were only 18 vant orders as part of the Antiterrorist Centers work: the
or 19 years old, were not trained, and were armed only law enforcement ocials have been provided with comwith rubber truncheons. Those with minor injuries were bat weapons, and they will be used in line with the law
[151]
The ministrys website said the riot police
treated by medics.[139] The captured police were from on police.
had
the
right
to
use their weapons to free hostages being
Crimea, the central-eastern cities Dnipropetrovsk and
[152]
[134]
held
by
protesters.
The ministry further stated that a
Kryvyi Rih, and eastern Luhansk.
Interior Troops solsniper
had
injured
20
of
its police ocers.[152]
diers, of whom almost 100 surrendered during the clashes
[141] [142]
(mostly conscripts aged 1920
),
were held pris- In Donetsk, billboards were erected showing members of
oner at the headquarters of the Energy Company of the Berkut juxtaposed with images of children, promotUkraine and at the October Palace.[139]
ing the Berkut as defenders of peace.[153]
At 10:00, between 10,000 and 20,000 demonstrators re- Interfax-Ukraine reported that at 15:00, a group of unmained, according to the Kyiv Post.[139] According to known individuals headed to the Presidential Adminisa UNIAN correspondent, there were more than 30,000 tration Building, and shots and explosions were heard.
people on Independence Square.[143] At 10:55, the chief The Euromaidan self-defense force had repeatedly urged
of the presidential administration, Andriy Klyuev, an- protesters not to go outside the squares perimeter.[154]
nounced that the president was prepared to sign a treaty
with the opposition on the demanded changes to the
Constitution of Ukraine, and that the ongoing clashes
should compel politicians to nd a quick consensus.[144] 4.3.1 Diplomatic eorts

A masked protester with an air rie.

Trains between Kiev and Lviv, one of the protesters


strongholds, were temporary suspended; a railway
spokeswoman said this was because of damage to the
lines.[145] Coincidentally, there were reports that arms

The above-mentioned clashes erupted shortly before


three visiting EU foreign ministersRadosaw Sikorski
of Poland, Laurent Fabius of France, and Frank-Walter
Steinmeier of Germanywere due to meet with President Yanukovych to push for a compromise with the
Ukrainian opposition.[155][156] The meeting was delayed
for security reasons and began an hour late.[155] Before the meeting, Fabius said in an interview with BFM
TV: Our purpose is to cause the Ukrainian administration to conduct elections. There is no solution other
than elections.[157] The negotiations lasted six hours.[158]
Prime Minister Donald Tusk of Poland told reporters
soon afterward, It was agreed with Yanukovych that
there was a willingness to hold early elections this year,
both presidential and parliamentary. Tusk also said that
Yanukovych was willing to form a national unity government in the next 10 days and to change the constitution
before the summer. Further talks were scheduled to negotiate the signing of the relevant document.[159][160]

10

4 TIMELINE

After a telephone conversation between Yanukovych and


the Russian president, Vladimir Putin, Russian human
rights ombudsman Vladimir Lukin was sent as an envoy
to Ukraine, at Yanukovychs request, to try to mediate
talks between the government and the opposition.[155]
The United States imposed visa bans on 20 Ukrainian
ocials it considered responsible for ordering human
rights abuses related to political oppression.[155] The
European Union introduced a visa ban and a nancial
asset freeze against those responsible for the violence in
Ukraine, and a ban on export to Ukraine of equipment
that could be used for repression.[161][162][163] The scale
of implementation will be taken forward in the light of developments in Ukraine, the EU Council concluded.[164]

4.3.2

Ukrainian political developments

The leader of the ruling Party of Regions, Oleksandr


Yefremov, travelled to Luhansk to meet with local leaders and law enforcement agents to discuss the possibility of southeastern Ukraines declaring independence
and seceding from the state.[165][nb 1] The chairman of
the Supreme Council of Crimea, Vladimir Konstantinov, travelled to Moscow, where he announced that the
Autonomous Republic of Crimea would secede from
Ukraine if there were a change of power.[168][169]

450mostly from the opposition, but some from the


Party of Regionswere present.[177] Out of 238 deputies
present, 236 voted to condemn the recent violence, ban
the use of weapons against protesters, and withdraw
troops and the police deployed against them.[178][179] The
entire parliamentary faction of the Communist Party of
Ukraine and some 80% of the Party of Regions chose to
miss the session.[180] Lawmakers barred chiefs and commanders of the Interior Troops, the Armed Forces of
Ukraine, the SBU, and other government agencies from
carrying out any counter-terrorism operations because
they violated the Constitution of Ukraine.[181] They were
also ordered to stop blocking roads and bridges, squares
and streets in Kiev and other cities and towns.[181] The
Party of Regions MPs at the sitting agreed to form an
anti-crisis group.[182]
Late in the evening, it was announced that ve more
MPs had left the parliamentary faction of the Party of
Regions.[183]
The Parliament of Crimea called for an extraordinary
session on 21 February. The leader of the Mejlis of
the Crimean Tatar People said he suspected that lawmakers would ask for Russian military intervention, stating, Tomorrow may be a decision that will bring chaos
and disaster to Crimea.[184] Several scholars discussed
the possibility of Russian intervention in Crimea specifically, because of its unique geopolitical nature and
demographics.[185]

Party of Regions MP Sergiy Tigipko called for the resignation of Parliament Speaker Volodymyr Rybak, his
replacement with an opposition parliamentarian, and the
4.4
urgent election of a prime minister supported by all factions. The president, the parliament speaker, the acting
prime minister, and opposition leaders have completely
lost control of the situation in the country and do not oer
any solutions to pacify the country, he said. Their inaction is leading to increased confrontation and deaths.[170]
Immediate concrete steps, rather than negotiations, are
needed to resolve the crisis in the country.[170] In the
evening, Tigipko held talks with opposition politicians
Yatsenyuk and Klitschko.[171]

21 February

The head of the Kiev City State Administration,


Volodymyr Makeyenko, and 17 MPs resigned from the
Party of Regions.[172] In Rivne and Zhytomyr, the Party
of Regions formally disbanded, with all MPs from those
regions leaving the party as well.[173]
Ten Party of Regions and two independent MPs[nb 2]
called for a return to the parliamentary-presidential form
of government.[174][nb 3] They also called on security
forces to execute the oath they swore to the Ukrainian
people, not to follow criminal orders to use rearms, not
to allow the participation of law enforcers in provocations
involving gangs against the peaceful public and protesters
all over Ukraine.[174]

Euromaidan crowds on 21 February.

The Armed Forces deputy chief of sta, LieutenantGeneral Yuri Dumansky, resigned because he disagreed
with the involvement of the army in the conict.[186]
Today the army is being involved in the civil conict,
which could lead to the mass deaths of civilians and
soldiers, he said.[187] At around midnight, journalist
At 16:42, Parliament convened for an emergency Artem Shevchenko, referring to his sources in the Gensitting.[175] The Party of Regions did not take part.[176] eral Sta of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, announced
According to a UNIAN correspondent, 227 MPs out of that 10 BTRs had departed from Kozachia (Cossack)

4.4

21 February

11

Bay, where the Black Sea Fleet of Russia is based, es- all Interior Ministry troops and police ocers to return
corted by DAI (Road Auto Inspection) vehicles.[188] Ac- to their barracks.[206]
cording to Shevchenko, 1,500 airborne soldiers and 400
marinesincluding the 25th Airborne Brigade, the 1st
Marine Brigade, the 831st Anti-sabotage Unit, and the 4.4.2 Deals aftermath
2nd Marine Spetsnazhad been transferred on 20 February under the command of the SBU for the anti-terrorist
operation.[189]
In the lead-up to the days parliamentary session, it was
reported that many members of the Party of Regions and
their families had ed the capital,[190] including acting
Interior Minister Zakharchenko and Prosecutor General
Viktor Pshonka.[191]
Later, Maidan activists released the Interior Troops servicemen whom they had captured the previous day.[141]
Meanwhile, the entire police force of Radekhiv joined
the protesters in Kiev.[192]
The Security Service of Ukraine ocially ended its Right Sector activists stand in front of a Belarusian opposition
preparations for antiterrorist operation introduced on movement ag.
19 February.[193]
4.4.1

Deal

A compromise deal was agreed to on 21 February after


hours of negotiations led by the European Union mediators and Foreign Ministers Radosaw Sikorski of Poland,
Laurent Fabius of France, and Frank-Walter Steinmeier
of Germany.[194][195] Ocially called the Agreement on
Settlement of Political Crisis in Ukraine, but unocially
called the 21 February Agreement, it was signed by both
opposition leaders and the president after overnight negotiations (read the full text of the agreement here).[196] The
agreed-to provisions included a restoration of the constitution as it was between 2004 and 2010; constitutional
reform to be completed by September; early presidential
elections no later than December 2014; an investigation
into the violence conducted under joint monitoring of the
administration, the opposition, and the Council of Europe; a veto on imposing a state of emergency; amnesty
for protesters arrested since 17 February; the surrender
of public buildings occupied by protesters; the forfeiture
of illegal weapons; new electoral laws, and the formation of a new Central Election Commission.[197][198]
The three EU foreign ministers signed the document as
witnesses;[199] Russian mediator Vladimir Lukin did not,
because he had no mandate to sign an agreement on the
crisis.[200][201]

Right Sector leader Dmytro Yarosh rejected the agreement, saying, We have to state the obvious fact that
the criminal regime had not yet realised either the gravity of its evil doing. He noted that the agreement did
not include provisions for the arrest of Interior Minister
Zakharchenko; the punishing of Berkut commanders alleged to have been involved in the murder of civilians;
the removal of the general prosecutor and defence minister; a ban on the Party of Regions and Communist Party;
and guarantees of safety for those involved in the opposition. He called for the peoples revolution to continue
until power had been completely removed from the governing authorities.[187] Euromaidan leader Andriy Parubiy insisted that elections be held as soon as possible and
reiterated that one of the main demands of protesters had
been the resignation of President Yanukovych.[207] Automaidan also announced that it would not accept anything short of Yanukovychs resignation.[208]

Vitali Klitschko apologised to the crowd on Independence Square after shaking hands with Yanukovych.[209]
Protesters there responded to the deal by booing opposition leaders. Activist Volodymyr Parasiuk warned from
the stage that if Yanukovych did not resign by 10:00
the next day, an armed coup would be staged.[210] Oleh
Lyashko echoed the demand, saying, Either he resigns,
or we take him away. Outside of Kiev, it was later discovered that the summer home of pro-Russian politician
[211]
Parliament voted unanimously, 3860, to return to the Viktor Medvedchuk had been set on re.
2004 constitution, and then 3320 to suspend acting By late afternoon, hundreds of riot police ocers
Interior Minister Zakharchenko.[187] Another bill made guarding the presidential compound and nearby govchanges to the Criminal Code, allowing for the release ernment buildings had vanished.[206] Radosaw Sikorski,
of Yulia Tymoshenko.[202] 310 MPs voted in favour of the Polish foreign minister, described the withdrawal
the measure, including 54 from the Party of Regions and of forces as astonishing, noting that it was not part
32 Communists.[203][204] Mykola Rudkovsky introduced of the agreement.[212] The riot police had begun witha bill to impeach President Yanukovych.[205] Parliament drawing early in the morning because they feared that
also adopted a resolution late that evening that ordered Yanukovychs government would pin the responsibility

12

5 CASUALTIES

for the violence on them, and because they feared being


attacked after protesters stole around 1,200 pistols and
Kalashnikov ries from the police on 18 February during
the occupation of government buildings in Lviv.[206] The
Ukrainian Interior Ministry was left without leadership.
Deputy Interior Minister Viktor Dubovik ordered the riot
police to leave the city, but it is unclear where this order
originated.[206] Opposition member Serhiy Pashynsky arranged escorts out of the city for more than 5,000 ocers,
Interior Ministry forces, and other special forces.[206] After the riot police vanished, Andriy Parubiy reported that
Euromaidan self-defence had peacefully gained control
over Kiev and its government buildings,[213] and that the
military was standing with the opposition.[214]
A new parliamentary coalition was created after 28 MPs
left the Party of Regions' faction.[215] Within the remaining faction, a group of 31 deputies with a special position was formed by Sergiy Tigipko to persuade other
Party of Regions MPs to vote progressively.[216]

Casualties

the bodies (15 at the Kozatsky Hotel, 12 at the Ukraine


Hotel, 7 at the Central Post Oce).[139] In the early afternoon, Kyiv Post journalists reported a further eight bodies on Khreshchatyk Street.[139] According to the coordinator of medical services on Independence Square, Oleh
Musiy, between 70 and 100 protesters had been killed
by 17:30 on 20 February.[219] Meanwhile, the Kiev City
State Administration reported 67 deaths based on the
number of bodies delivered to forensics.[220] The Ministry of Healthcare reported 75 deaths since the start of
the conict.[29]

5.2 Speculation on snipers


CNN reported that ocials had intercepted a telephone
call between Foreign Minister Urmas Paet of Estonia and
High Representative of the Union for Foreign Aairs and
Security Policy Catherine Ashton in which Paet relayed a
doctors testimony that the sniper killings of protesters
and Berkut troops had been committed by the same
people.[221] Paet later asserted that he had not been implying that the opposition was involved, but merely relaying
the content of the doctors testimony.[222] Olga Bogomolets, the doctor who allegedly claimed that protesters and
Berkut troops had come under re from the same source,
said that she had not made such a claim to Mr. Paet; that
she had not implied that the opposition was involved in
the killings; and that the government had informed her
that an investigation was underway.[223]
Hennadiy Moskala former deputy head of Ukraines
main security agency, the SBU, and of the Ministry of
Internal Aairs (MIA)suggested in an interview published in the Ukrainian newspaper Dzerkalo Tizhnya that
snipers from the MIA and SBU, not foreign agents, were
responsible for the shootings and had acted on contingency plans dating back to Soviet times. He said:[224][225]

A memorial in Kiev.

In addition to this, snipers received orders to shoot not only protesters, but also police
forces. This was all done in order to escalate the
conict, in order to justify the police operation
to clear Maidan.

After the rst day of clashes, 26 people were reported


dead: 16 protesters and 10 police ocers. Those hospitalised included three minors, ve journalists, and 79 police ocers.[24] According to Olga Bogomolets, an honored doctor of Ukraine, snipers were aiming at heart, He further suggested that the current minister of interlungs and neck.[217]
nal aairs, Avakov, and the chairman of the SBU, Nalivaichenko, were protecting the personnel who actually
planned and carried out the killings, in order to pre5.1 Deaths
vent backlash against the ministry and to avoid a loss of
prestige.[225] Avakov said that the conict had been proSee also: List of people killed during Euromaidan
voked by a non-Ukrainian third party and that an investigation was ongoing.[87]
From 1819 February, the ocial death toll according On 31 March 2014, the Daily Beast published photos
to the Ministry of Healthcare was 28, of whom 10 were and videos showing that the snipers were members of the
police and Berkut troops.[218]
SBUs anti-terrorist Alpha unit who had been trained in
By 13:00 on 20 February, at least 34 more protesters had Russia. The media suggested that it was not the Ukrainian
been fatally shot by the police, with reporters verifying riot police who red on the protesters, as previously be-

6.2

Political developments

13

lieved, although the members of the Alpha team are whereabouts were unknown.[237] Former Interior MinisUkrainian citizens.[226][227]
ter Zakharchenko also tried to y out of Donetsk and was
similarly turned back.[238]

6
6.1

Aftermath
Removal of Yanukovych

On 23 February, Parliament deputy Oleh Lyashko


claimed that Yanukovych had been seen at the Russian
naval base in Sevastopol, preparing to ee the country
on board a Russian military vessel.[239] Journalist Tetyana
Chornovol speculated that he was actually trying to ee
on his private yacht, also in Sevastopol.[240]

On 21 February, President Yanukovych and Parliament


declared 22 and 23 February to be days of mourn- On 24 February, acting Interior Minister Avakov aning due to the loss of human life as a result of mass nounced that Yanukovych had been placed on the countrys most wanted list and that a criminal case on mass
disturbances.[228]
killings of civilians has been opened for him and other
In Parliament, Speaker Rybak submitted his resignaocials.[241][242]
tion, citing illness.[229] Yanukovychs whereabouts were
unknown, despite media reports that he had own to On 25 February, Parliament asked the International
Kharkiv (according to the governor of Kharkiv Oblast at Criminal Court to establish and bring to justice senior
the time, Mykhailo Dobkin, Yanukovych was in Kharkiv Ukrainian ocials, including Yanukovych, for crimes
that day[206] ). Oleksandr Turchynov said that most of against humanity committed during peaceful protests
the ministers had disappeared, including Interior Min- of citizens from 21 November 2013 to 22 Februister Zakharchenko, who was reported to have ed to ary 2014.[243] On the same day, Yanukovych and ZaBelarus.[230] In Parliament, deputies voted 3280 (of 447 kharchenko were declared internationally wanted.[244]
total deputies)[231] to schedule a presidential election for Criminal proceedings were launched in the 20 February
25 May.[66][232] They did not follow the impeachment killings of Euromaidan demonstrators. Yanukovych; the
process specied by the constitution, which would have former head of the presidential administration, Andriy
involved formally charging Yanukovych with a crime, Kliuyev; former Prosecutor General Pshonka; former Ina review of the charge by the Constitutional Court of terior Minister Zakharchenko; former SBU head YakyUkraine, and a three-fourths majority voteat least 338 menko; the commander of the Interior Troops, Stanislav
votes in favorin Parliament. Instead, Parliament de- Shuliak; and a number of others were declared suspects
clared that Yanukovych withdrew from his duties in an in the case.[245]
unconstitutional manner and cited circumstances of extreme urgency as the reason for early elections.[233] Lawmakers then elected Turchynov to be the chairman of 6.2 Political developments
Parliament and acting president and prime minister of
Ukraine.[1][234][235]
See also: First Yatsenyuk Government
Turchynov claimed that Yanukovych had agreed to resign as president, but after consulting with advisers,
he disavowed that and even pre-recorded a resignation
statement.[187] Yanukovych said he would not resign or
leave the country and called Parliaments decisions illegal. He added, The events witnessed by our country
and the whole world are an example of a coup d'tat, and
compared them to the rise of the Nazi Party in Germany
in the 1930s.[236]
6.1.1

Disappearance and prosecution

Following the parliamentary procedures to transfer power


to the new provisional government, General Prosecutor
Pshonka and Minister of Revenues and Duties Oleksandr
Klymenko were stopped at the Russian border while trying to ee the country. According to the State Border Service, Yanukovych also tried to ee via a charter
ight from Donetsk, but was stopped by border guards.
The guards were met by a group of armed men who
oered money for ying without the proper clearance.
Yanukovych then left by armored car, and his subsequent

On 22 February, Yulia Tymoshenko was released from


prison and addressed more than 100,000 people on Independence Square.[246] The same day, Parliament appointed Avakov as acting interior minister.[247] Lawmakers also ousted Pshonka as general prosecutor of Ukraine
in a no-condence vote.[248]
On 23 February, the second day of national mourning,
Parliament voted to abolish the law on language policies that had given the Russian, Romanian, and Hungarian languages the ocial status of regional languages
in some areas.[4][249] However, this measure was later
vetoed by the acting president, who said he would not
sign the bill until new legislation protecting minority languages was developed.[5] The same day, Parliament dismissed Foreign Minister Leonid Kozhara, Health Minister Raisa Bogatyrova, and Education Minister Dmytro
Tabachnyk and nationalised Yanukovychs private estate
Mezhyhirya.[4][250] Warrants were issued for former Incomes Minister Oleksandr Klymenko and former Prosecutor General Pshonka.[4] Parliament also passed amendments restoring its power to appoint and dismiss judges,

14

6 AFTERMATH

which had belonged to the Supreme Council of Justice.[251]

nels, including the international versions of the main


state-controlled stationsRossiya 1, Channel One, and
[267]
On 24 February, Parliament dismissed Social Policies NTVas well as Rossiya 24.
Minister Natalia Korolevska and Culture Minister Leonid
Novokhatko;[252] it also dismissed Ihor Sorkin as gover6.5 Lustration
nor of the National Bank of Ukraine and replaced him
[253][254]
The same day, it appointed
with Stepan Kubiv.
See also: Lustration in Ukraine
Valentyn Nalyvaichenko as head of the Security Service of Ukraine after dismissing Oleksandr Yakymenko
from the post.[255] Meanwhile, the leader of the Party of On 26 February, Ehor Sobolev was nominated to lead
Regions faction, Oleksandr Yefremov, declared that the the Committee on Lustration in the new Yatsenyuk govparty was moving into the opposition.[256] Seventy-seven ernment.[268] Months later, on 14 August 2014, Parliaof its MPs had left the faction over the past few days.[256] ment adopted a bill that established procedures for conducting checks of government ocials and people nomOn Tuesday, 25 February, acting President Turchynov
inated for government position with the purpose of decalled for the formation of a national unity government
ciding whether they meet certain criteria for occupying
[257]
by Thursday.
(Two days earlier, he had asked for the
relevant post.[269][270]
[258]
) Also on
formation of such a government by Tuesday.
the 25th, Anatoliy Kinakh and 32 other deputies, mostly The law on lustration, which excluded from government
former Party of Regions members, created the Economic most ocials who had worked in the Yanukovych administration, aected up to a million people.[271] Volodymyr
Development faction.[259][260]
Yavorsky of the Kharkiv Human Rights Protection Group
On 26 February, Turchynov assumed the duties of the
called it unreasonable and a serious, systematic violasupreme commander-in-chief of the Ukrainian Armed
tions of human rightsamong other reasons, because it
Forces.[261][262]
meant too many people would lose their jobs, including
ocials who could not be easily replaced.[272]

6.3

Juridical developments

On 24 February, Parliament decided to release all political prisoners, including the father and son in the
Pavlichenko criminal case,[263] and terminated the powers of ve judges of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine,
appointed from Parliaments quota, for violating their
oath.[264] Lawmakers also oered to dismiss, for the
same reason, two judges appointed by the president of
Ukraine, and called on the Council of Judges of Ukraine
to convene an extraordinary congress within three days
to consider dismissing ve Constitutional Court judges
appointed by the Council. In the same resolution, Parliament assigned the prosecutor general of Ukraine to begin
criminal proceedings against all judges who, in the opinion of the Peoples Deputies of Ukraine, were guilty of
adopting on 30 September 2010 a decision of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine ( 20-rp/2010) on the procedure of introducing constitutional amendments. On
27 February, judges of the Constitutional Court sent a
letter to European organizations, international organizations, and human rights institutions questioning the constitutionality of the parliamentary resolution.[265]

The Security Service of Ukraine arrested the former chief


of its counterintelligence service, Volodymyr Byk.[273]
On 3 July 2014, former Prime Minister Mykola Azarov
was placed on the international wanted list for alleged
abuse of power. After the Euromaidan, eight former ofcials tied to Yanukovychs Party of Regions were found
to have committed suicide. When Newsweek asked the
General Prosecutors Oce about the deaths, the oce
initially replied that all information about them was a state
secret, a response that Newsweek called staggering. The
prosecutors oce later said that four of the deaths were
being investigated as murders; a suspect was also charged
with murder in a fth case, the death of prosecutor Sergei
Melnychuk.[274]

6.6 Blockage of trac

On 18 February at 16:00, the Kiev Metro stopped because of a terrorist threat.[275][276][277] On 20 February
at 10:00, Euromaidan's activists picketed the main ofce at the Kiev Metro station Politekhnichnyi Instytut,
demanding that the system be reopened.[278] A former
head of the Kiev City State Administration, Ivan Saliy,
On 27 February, Yanukovych was accused of having
also called for the reopening of the metro.[279] At 16:00
[266]
stolen $70 billion from the state budget.
that day, the Titushky were transported by metro from the
Pozniaky station to the Pecherska station, Lvivska Gazeta
reported.[280] The government also closed highways and
6.4 Censorship
railway access.
The Ukrainian National Council for TV and Ra- The metro became fully operational again, including the
dio Broadcasting instructed all cable operators on 11 reopening of the Maidan Nezalezhnosti station, on 24
March to stop transmitting a number of Russian chan- February.[281]

6.8

6.7

Protests against the new government

15

Berkut dissolved

the federalisation of the country into semi-autonomous


regions.[288] Following the agreement with the opposiOn 25 February, acting Interior Minister Avakov signed tion and measures passed by Parliament, Yanukovych
a decree dissolving the Berkut.[282] In March, Russia an- ew from Kiev to Kharkiv to attend the Ukrainian Front
nounced that the Crimean Berkut unit would preserve congress; sources indicated that Berkut forces had gathits name as it was incorporated into the Russian Interior ered in Kharkiv in anticipation of the event.[289][290][291]
Ministry.[283][nb 4]
As Yuriy Lutsenko reported, past midnight on 22 February, the SBU opened criminal proceedings against Governor Mikhail Dobkin of Kharkiv and Mayor Hennadiy
6.8 Protests against the new government
Kernes for advocating separatism.[292]
According to Cathy Young, in the Antimaidan protests
against the revolution, street posters, Internet posts, and
even speeches at rallies attacked the new government as
a Jewish clique seeking to use Ukrainians to defend the
interests of wealthy Jews, and depicted the revolution as
a Zionist coup.[286]
6.8.1

Southern and Eastern Ukraine

At the Congress of the Southern and Eastern regions in


Kharkiv on 22 February, the deputies passed a resolution declaring that they were ready to take responsibility for protecting constitutional order in their territory.
They stated that the recent events in Kiev had paralyzed
the central government and destabilised the country.[293]
They also signed a statement rejecting the authority of
Parliament.[294] The Interior Ministry reported that Governor Dobkin and Mayor Kernes then ed to Russia.[295]

On February 23, Parliament adopted a bill to repeal the


Main article: 2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine
countrys law on minority languages. If signed by the
The pro-Russian Ukrainian Front organisation held
president, the bill would have established Ukrainian as the
sole ocial state language of Ukraine, including Crimea,
which is populated by a Russian-speaking majority.[296]
The Christian Science Monitor reported that the bill
only served to infuriate Russian-speaking regions, [who]
saw the move as more evidence that the antigovernment protests in Kiev that toppled Yanukovychs government were intent on pressing for a nationalistic
agenda.[297] Acting President Turchynov vetoed the bill
on 28 February.[298]

Pro-Russian protesters in Donetsk, 1 March 2014.

Also on 23 February, clashes erupted in Kharkiv between


thousands of equally sized pro- and anti-government rallies, and Mayor Kernes was blocked from entering the
City Council building.[299] Pro-Russian protesters stood
guard over the statue of Vladimir Lenin in the city
center,[300] but the deputy head of the Regional State Administration announced that the city would dismantle the
statue regardless on 25 February.[301]
On 24 February, acting Interior Minister Avakov announced that a criminal case had been launched against
Yevhen Zhylin, leader of the Kharkiv-based antiEuromaidan organisation Oplot.[302]

On 1 March, thousands of people in Kharkiv, Donetsk,


Simferopol, Odessa, Luhansk, Melitopol, Yevpatoria,
Kerch, and Mariupol protested against the new
government.[303][304][305] Public surveys in April revealed that most people in Ukraines eastern regions
considered all levels of the government illegitimate. Half
of respondents believed that President Turchynov was
illegally occupying his post. Roughly half held the
Pro-Russian activists march on the streets of Odessa, 30 March same opinion about the central government led by Prime
2014.
Minister Yatsenyuk.[306] However, nearly 70% agreed
that Yanukovych was also not the legal president of the
a meeting on 22 February with representatives from
country.[307]
[287]
southern and eastern Ukraine.
Andriy Kluyev, an organiser of the event, said the group intended to discuss

16
6.8.2

6 AFTERMATH
Crimea

Main articles: 2014 Crimean crisis and Russian military


intervention in Ukraine (2014present)
Following the Ukrainian revolution, a secession crisis began in the Russian-leaning Crimean Peninsula. On 1
March 2014, Yanukovych put into writing his request that
President Putin of Russia send military forces to establish legitimacy, peace, law and order, stability and defending the people of Ukraine.[308] On the same day,
Putin requested and received authorization from the Rus- Euromaidan-occupied regional government oces on 3 March
sian Parliament to deploy troops to Ukraine in response 2014.
to the crisis.[70] Russian troops accordingly mobilized
throughout Crimea and the southeast of Ukraine. By
2 March, Russian troops had complete control over 6.11 Economic
Crimea.[309][310][311]
In May 2014, the International Monetary Fund disbursed
US$3.2 billion to stabilise Ukraine. The European Union
required Ukraine to secure this aid package from the IMF
in order to obtain about 1.6 billion euros pledged under the recently signed Ukraine-EU Association Agree6.9 Destruction of monuments
ment.[322]
See also: List of communist monuments in Ukraine

6.12 Sports
The monument to the Russian eld marshal Mikhail
Kutuzov was demolished in the city of Brody in
western Ukraine.[312][313] At least 25 statues of Lenin
were destroyed by Euromaidan protesters.[314] The militant group Right Sector was blamed for much of the
destruction.[314][315] In addition, a statue honouring Soviet soldiers was removed from the western Ukrainian
city of Stryi.[316][317] In early December 2013, unknown
activists partially painted in red and black (similar to
the ag of the nationalistic Ukrainian Insurgent Army)
a statue honouring the workers of the Arsenal factory
in Kiev who died in 1918.[318] On 28 February, a monument dedicated to Soviet forces who fought in World
War II and one dedicated to Soviet soldiers who fought
in Afghanistan, both in the city of Dnipropetrovsk, were
vandalized and painted with nationalistic slogans. [319] On
its English-language Twitter account, the Russian Foreign Ministry described the targeting of Russian- and
Soviet-built monuments as "Russophobic vandalism and
an outrage, and demanded that it be stopped.[320]

On 19 February 2014, UEFA announced that it had decided to change the venue of the 201314 UEFA Europa League Round of 32 match between Dynamo Kyiv
and Valencia from Olympic Stadium in Kiev to GSP
Stadium, in Nicosia, Cyprus, because of the riots in
Kiev.[323][324][325]
Dynamo Kyiv and the other clubs competing in the Round
of 32 held a minute of silence for the victims in Kiev before the match, and the athletes played wearing mourning
armbands.[326][327][328]
On 25 February, subsequent games of the 2013
14
Ukrainian
Basketball
SuperLeague
were
postponed.[329][330] On 26 February, the second part of
the 201314 Ukrainian Premier League was suspended
because of the situation in the country.[331]
On 3 March, a scheduled friendly match between the
United States and Ukraine in Kharkiv was moved to
Nicosia because of safety concerns regarding potential instability in Kharkiv Oblast.[332]

Three HC Donbass home KHL playo games were


moved from Donetsk's Druzhba Arena to Slovnaft Arena
6.10 RSA occupations
in Bratislava, Slovakia.[333] After playing Game 7 of their
rst-round series against Dinamo Riga and Games 3 and
Main article: 2014 Euromaidan regional state adminis- 4 in the second round against Lev Praha in Bratislava, the
Slovak capital, the team returned to Donetsk for the sixth
tration occupations
game of the series against Lev.
Starting on 18 February, Euromaidan activists occupied
regional state administration (RSA) buildings in several 6.13
oblasts (regions).[321]

Domestic responses

6.13
6.13.1

Domestic responses
Verkhovna Rada

On 20 February, Parliament resumed its work around


16:00 and worked until about 23:00. Members adopted
a draft law that expressed condemnation of the violence
that led to the deaths of peaceful citizens of Ukraine.[334]
On the morning of 21 February, Parliament announced
that Speaker Rybak had signed a resolution titled About
condemning violence in Ukraine, which led to loss of
life. The resolution ordered the Cabinet of Ukraine and
all siloviks to stop the use of force and prohibited the use
of any weapons and special measures against citizens of
Ukraine.[335]
6.13.2

Political response

Iryna Herashchenko, a member of Parliament with


Klitschkos opposition Ukrainian Democratic Alliance for Reform party, commented on the critical
state of Ukrainian health services, saying: Emergency services and all are lled to the brink. There
is nowhere to put people up. The doctors are
wonderful. Their sacrice is impressive. They
work with full dedication, ght for everyone who is
injured.[336]
After negotiations with Yanukovych, opposition
leader Yatsenyuk said that the talks had ended with
nothing. ... Deputies from the opposition said
Yanukovych threatened all opposition leaders with
criminal responsibility. We only had one item: immediately start the truce, but they told us to eectively give in. Since a truce has not been announced
and the government has no such desire, we're standing on the brink of the most dramatic page of the
history of Ukraine.[336]

17
Acting Minister of Justice Olena Lukash accused the
opposition of violating agreements and demanded
an immediate end to violence. She argued that the
escalation was the fault of extremists.[337]
Party of Regions MP Oleh Tsariov appeared on
Russian TV and announced that ocials would
clear Independence Square within an hour, saying,
After we bring order to Maidan, we'll bring it
nationwide.[25]
Party of Regions MP Vadym Kolesnichenko blamed
the opposition and the German chancellor, Angela
Merkel, for the violence in Ukraine.[338]
On 18 February, in an interview with Hromadske
TV, Inna Bohoslovska said that she had seen policemen disguised as protesters shooting at other
policemen.[339] The same day, the MVS website showed people dressed as protesters with
rearms.[340]
Yulia Tymoshenko called on the opposition to cease
any talks with Yanukovych.[341]
An international group of researchers who specialize in the study of far right political movements published a joint statement in which they
disagreed with claims about the nationalist character of the Ukrainian revolution, pointing out that it
had a mostly democratic and liberal character. According to the letter signed by these researchers,
while nationalist groups were present and involved
in the protests, their inuence on the movement was
marginal. However, they said, this inuence was disproportionately highlighted by the Russian media,
which was using the claims as a weapon of Russian
imperialism.[342]

In a statement on his partys website, Klitschko


wrote: Yanukovych reacts to the situation abso- 6.13.3 Regions
lutely inadequately. All hes been talking about is
The presidium of the Supreme Council of Crimea
that the leaders of the opposition should call on peo(the parliament of Crimea) said: Peaceful Crimea
ple on Maidan (Kyivs Independence Square) to end
is extremely worried by another outbreak of viothe stando and lay down arms. ... These are police
lence in the center of Kiev. Slaughter on the capitals
forces that are violently shooting at protesters downstreets proves that the opposition has perceived nutown Kyiv. This is what I suggest: authorities should
merous concessions on the part of the authorities as
immediately withdraw law enforcers and put an end
a manifestation of weakness and has taken advanto the bloody crackdown, as people continue to die.
tage of the amnesty law[nb 5] to take a respite before
This is what I've told Yanukovych. Could talks be
a new attempt to forcibly seize power in the couna solution while blood has been shed? But unfortutry. It added: Innocent people died at the hands
nately he has no understanding of the situation.[336]
of the lawless gunmen on February 18. These are
Acting Prime Minister Serhiy Arbuzov said at a
no longer peaceful protests, of which the opposition
19 February cabinet meeting, It is unacceptable
leaders and biased mass media outlets have said reto talk about European values and the desire for
peatedly, and not even mass unrest. This is the bea new level of Ukraines development and at the
ginning of a civil war.[343]
same time sacrice human lives, destroy the states
Deputies of Luhansk Oblast declared: We turn to
and citizens goods, burn their cars and apartments,
the President of Ukraine Viktor Yanukovich with
and shame the country in the eyes of international
the demand to take strict measures concerning those,
community.[124]

18

6 AFTERMATH
who today virtually went to war against our country,
and to introduce a state of emergency. The time of
peaceful negotiations has ended negotiations cannot be held with terrorists and extremists!"[344]

Manuel Barroso, issued a statement expressing his


condolences to the families of those killed and calling for an end to the violence. He also said: The EU
has been oering its sincere assistance to facilitate
political dialogue between the sides and de-escalate
the situation. We continue to believe that constitutional reform, formation of a new inclusive government and creating conditions for democratic elections constitute the only way out of this deep and
long-lasting political crisis. [...] Yet, we have also
made it clear that the EU will respond to any deterioration on the ground. We therefore expect that
targeted measures against those responsible for violence and use of excessive force can be agreed by
our Member States as a matter of urgency.[350]

Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People's former chairman, Mustafa Abdlcemil Qrmolu, said: They
will answer for the blood of every patriot. I urge all
citizens to create pockets of resistance.[345]
6.13.4

Oligarchs

Rinat Akhmetov, a Yanukovych supporter, denounced the violence, saying: There are no circumstances that would justify the use of force against
peaceful citizens. Peaceful citizens must not suer
in any situation. This must be the main objective
for the government, the opposition and all conicting parties. Human losses and injuries suered by
protesters and law-enforcers during street clashes is
an unacceptable price for political mistakes.[25][346]
On 26 February, Akhmetov released a statement in which he called for reforms in Ukraine,
including the introduction of eective public
administration mechanisms, a considerable expansion of the powers of regional administrations, and increased transparency and accountability of civil authorities.[347]
Viktor Pinchuk said: A peaceful solution must be
found. It is imperative to refrain from the use of
force and nd a compromise. Ukraine since its independence has avoided bloodshed. We must return
to this tradition immediately. From this minute, this
is the responsibility of everyonethose in power,
the opposition, civil society, business. It is time
for all sides to take courageous steps towards compromise that they may not yet have been ready to
take even this morning. For each of us, love for
Ukraine must be immeasurably more important than
any other feelings and interests.[25]

Organisation for Security and Co-operation in


Europe The OSCE chairperson-in-oce, Foreign Minister Didier Burkhalter of Switzerland,
urged Ukrainian authorities on 19 February to do
their utmost to defuse the menacing situation in
the country and to suggest measures to de-escalate
the conict, including the assignment of an impartial international facilitator, possibly working in tandem with a respected Ukrainian personality, and
dispatching an international expert team to establish facts on violent incidents and human rights
violations.[351]

Council of Europe The secretary general of


the Council, Thorbjrn Jagland, said in a statement
on 18 February that the Ukrainian Parliament should
have a serious debate on how to end the crisis and
oered the legal and constitutional support of the
Council of Europe.[352]

Weimar Triangle in a joint statement by the foreign ministers of France, Germany, and Poland issued on 28 February, the three countries urged the
new Ukrainian authorities to respect minority rights,
stating, A lasting accommodation of the existing
diversity in Ukrainian society necessitates reaching out to Eastern and Southern regions and engaging with all legitimate interests, including minority
rights, especially regarding language issues."[353]

6.14 International reactions


6.14.1

International organisations

United Nations Secretary-General Ban Kimoon called on 19 February for an end to the unacceptable violence in Ukraine and for amnesty for
those detained during the unrest.[348]

European Union Foreign policy chief


Catherine Ashton urged Yanukovych, the government, and leaders of the opposition to address
the root causes of the crisis.[349] In addition,
the president of the European Commission, Jos

6.14.2 Nations

Armenia A Foreign Ministry spokesman


said on 20 February: We deeply regret the tens of
victims as a result of clashes in Kiev. Ukraine is
a friendly country for Armenia. We hope that the
sides will resume talks to achieve a peaceful settlement of contentious issues.[354]

Australia Foreign Minister Julie Bishop on


19 February condemned the violence and loss of life
in Ukraine and urged both sides to resume positive
political negotiations to resolve the crisis.[355]

6.14

International reactions
Canada Foreign Minister John Baird declared in a statement on 18 February: Canada calls
on all sides to show restraint and to cease all acts of
violence immediately. No act of violence or repression today will go unnoticed by the Government of
Canada, and we will work with our allies in the international community to ensure that those responsible
will be held to account.[356] On the same day, Baird
also said that Canada would supply demonstrators in
Ukraine with medical aid.[357]
Colombia The Foreign Ministry, on behalf of the Colombian government, issued a press
release expressing deep concern about the situation in Ukraine while also deploring the acts of
violence that have taken place in the last couple
of days. In the same statement, Colombia urged
the government of Ukraine to guarantee security,
human rights, and the fundamental liberties of its
citizens.[358]
Czech Republic Foreign Minister Lubomr
Zaorlek, meeting with the Ukrainian ambassador
on 19 February, described the use of violence
against protesters as absolutely unacceptable and
said that under no circumstances should internal
problems be solved in such a manner.[359]
Estonia Foreign Minister Urmas Paet said
in a statement on 19 February, We need to help
Ukraine out of this crisis, and added, Estonia is
prepared to consider punitive measures against all
those responsible for the increase in violence.[360]

Finland Foreign minister Erkki Tuomioja,


in a statement on 18 February, expressed his condolences to the families of those killed, urged an end
to the violence and praised the attempts of the EU,
the OSCE, and the Council of Europe to mediate in
the conict.[361]

Georgia The Foreign Ministry released a


statement on 18 February condemning the use of
force and adding that Georgian ocials were extremely concerned over tragic events in Kiev.[362]
On 20 February, President Giorgi Margvelashvili
said that use of arms against own people does not
speak well of any government and warned that not
a single government has managed to get away with
it.[363]
In an interview with The Guardian, Irakli
Alasania, Georgias defence minister, said that
the Ukrainian revolution was the rst strategic
failure for Putin. Alasania was sanguine about
the potential for escalation, saying: Theres a
lot of rhetoric and chest-thumping. Its not unusual. But Russia won't go into military confrontation. I don't think theres a military option on the table for Putin.[364]

19

Germany Foreign Minister Frank-Walter


Steinmeier warned, Those responsible for making
decisions that lead to further bloodshed should know
that Europes decision on sanctions will be reconsidered for sure.[349]

Hungary The Foreign Ministry expressed


deep concern and extended condolences to the victims families. It also stated that, as a neighbouring country, Hungary was interested in a stable,
democratic, and integrated Ukraine, as well as directly interested in the legal certainty of the Trans
Carpathian Hungarians".[365]

Israel Foreign Minister Avigdor Lieberman


said that Israel was concerned about the events and
expressed hope that the situation would resolve without further loss of human life.[366]

Italy Foreign Minister Emma Bonino called


on 20 February for visa sanctions against those responsible for violence, a weapons embargo, and humanitarian support.[367]

Latvia The Ministry of Foreign Aairs issued a statement on 19 February putting the full responsibility for the escalation of the crisis on the
Ukrainian government. The statement also read,
Those guilty of causing violence must be held
responsible.[368]

Lithuania The Foreign Ministry issued a


note stating in part: We demand to halt violence
immediately and thoroughly investigate all the incidents, which have resulted in deaths and injuries,
and to arraign the perpetrators before court. Once
again, we invite the European Union member states
to discuss a possibility of applying target measures
against those responsible for the use of force.[369]

Poland Secretary of State Henryka


Mocicka-Dendys from MSZ told the JyllandsPosten daily on 21 February 2014 that Poland
trusted the Ukrainian people to decide for themselves what future they wanted for Ukraine, while
stressing the signicance of Polish-Ukrainian
relations both in history and in individual family
ties. There was a time, she said, when Poland,
Czechoslovakia, and Hungary were expected to
remain in the Soviet Bloc forever, and yet it was
a Russian leader, Boris Yeltsin, who changed that
belief. She said that situation was analogous to
the current one because in the long run, a more
democratic Russia could only benet from a
pro-European Ukraine.[370]

Romania President Traian Bsescu stated


that the events threatened the stability of the region.
He added that Romania agrees with the proposed
individual sanctions, for the silver lining has been

20

6 AFTERMATH
crossed. The 25 deaths serve as evidence for the
fact that both parties (e.n. the Ukrainian government and the protesters) have crossed the line.[371]
Prime Minister Victor Ponta made an immediate appeal for peace, saying that diplomatic eorts will
lead to the cessation of violence.[372]

countries with a strategic location in the Black Sea


basin. Stability of Ukraine and peace in the country
is of vital importance to the whole region.[379]

United Kingdom Foreign Secretary William


Hague said: It is clear ousted President Viktor
Yanukovychs authority is no longer widely accepted
in Ukraine, and Britain is working with the new government in Kiev. ... Ukraine had a pressing need
for constitutional reform, improvements to its political culture, free elections, and an end to pervasive corruption. Meanwhile, the international community must work with the new government to discourage further violence and agree on international
nancial support. Ukraines nancial situation is
very serious and, without outside assistance, might
not be sustainable. An economic crisis in Ukraine
would be a grave threat to the countrys stability and
have damaging wider consequences. It wasn't clear
the country could wait until presidential elections in
late May for a nancial package as it faced dwindling reserves, a depreciating currency, and large
foreign exchange debts that were falling due, and it
was also shut out of international capital markets.
Asked who the UK recognized as the current head of
state, Hague said Britain was working with the new
government.[380] There is, of course, a dispute constitutionally about who is the president, but in this
situation it is very clear that, whatever the constitutional provisions, the authority of Mr. Yanukovych
is no longer widely recognized as president, he said.
And in order to achieve the objectives that I've just
set out, its necessary for us to talk to the speaker
who has been declared the acting president.

United States President Barack Obama


warned on 19 February that there would be consequences if violence continued in Ukraine and that
the Ukrainian military should not step into a situation that could be resolved by civilians.[381][382] The
US also imposed a visa ban on 20 senior Ukrainian
ocials and other people it accused of being behind the violent crackdown on protesters.[383] On 20
February, President Obama sharply criticized Russian support of the Yanukovych government and
called for respect of peoples basic freedoms.[384]

Russian Federation The Russian Foreign


Ministry stated on 19 February: What is happening is a direct result of the policies of appeasement by Western politicians and European institutions, which from the beginning of the crisis turned
a blind eye to the aggressive actions of radical forces
in Ukraine, thereby encouraging them to escalate
and provoke the legitimate authority.[373] According to the press secretary of the president of Russia,
Russia considered the events in Ukraine a coup attempt.[374][375]
On 20 February 2014, Prime Minister Dmitry
Medvedev stated that Russia could only cooperate fully with Ukraine when its leadership
was in good shape.[136] He added that Russia wanted a strong government in Ukraine
so that people don't wipe their feet on the authorities like a doormat.[145] Foreign Minister
Sergei Lavrov likened threats of EU sanctions
on those responsible for Ukraine violence to
blackmail and said, The EU is also trying to
consider the introduction of sanctions, and at
the same time they come to Kiev on uninvited
missions.[155]
On 24 February, Medvedev questioned the
legitimacy of the authorities who replaced
President Yanukovych, saying, If you consider Kalashnikov-toting people in black masks
who are roaming Kiev to be the government,
then it will be hard for us to work with that
government.[376]
The following day, Foreign Minister Lavrov
expressed concern about the faith of the
TV channel "Inter", Russian TV channels in
Ukraine, freedom of speech in Ukraine, and
the abolition of the Ukrainian law on language.
He added that his government was interested
in preventing the inuence of radicals and nationalists who are now trying to play the rst
violin.[377]

Sweden Foreign Minister Carl Bildt issued


a statement saying in part, The EU will not hesitate
on measures against interests of persons associated
with repression and violence in Ukraine.[25] He also
said that Yanukovych had blood on his hands.[378]
Turkey Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu
said in a press conference, Ukraine is one of the

6.14.3 Politicians
Former President Mikhail Saakashvili of Georgia
said Russia had bought Ukraines sovereignty with
its latest oer of cash. He also said that Europes
reaction was absolutely inadequate.[25]
The former Romanian minister of foreign aairs,
Mircea Geoan, said that a civil war in Ukraine
was not excluded. Geoan called the events the
most severe crisis at Romanias border in many
years.[385]

21
Former President Leonid Kravchuk of Ukraine said
that a state of emergency should be introduced in
Kiev in order to prevent a civil war.[386]

Notes

[1] In Luhansk Governor of Luhansk Oblast Valeriy Holenko


said: We believe that Ukraine becoming a federation will
ensure the security of the people. No ones going to teach
us how to live, how to love our motherland or what political interests we defend.[166][167]
[2] The MPs from the Party of Regions were Andriy
Derkach, Volodymyr Zubyk, Hryhoriy Smitiukh,
Oleksandr Kuzmuk, Volodymyr Pekhov, Volodymyr
Prodyvus, Volodymyr Struk, Mykola Soroka, Viktor Bondar, Viktor Tykhonov, and two independent lawmakers
were Oleksandr Tabalov and Andriy Tabalov.[174]
[3] On 4 February 2014 the opposition had unsuccessfully
tried to push through an unconditional amnesty for all detained protesters, and the returning to the constitution as
it was between 2004 and 2010, in the Verkhovna Rada
(Ukraines parliament).
[4] The status of Crimea and Sevastopol is currently under
dispute by Ukraine and Russia; Ukraine and the majority of the international community consider Crimea an
autonomous republic of Ukraine and Sevastopol one of
Ukraines cities with special status, while Russia, on the
other hand, considers Crimea a federal subjects of Russia and Sevastopol one of its federal cities.[284] Both are
completely under Russian control.[285]
[5] This law regulated the exempt from criminal liabilities
and punishment for Euromaidan protesters who committed crimes in the period 27 December 2013 through 2
February 2014 and had came into eect on 17 February
2014.[75]

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9 External links

34

10

10
10.1

TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses


Text

2014 Ukrainian revolution Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2014_Ukrainian_revolution?oldid=741685136 Contributors: The


Anome, Tpbradbury, Pigsonthewing, Kizor, Altenmann, Psychonaut, Cloud200, Piotrus, Kaldari, Anythingyouwant, DanielDemaret, Discospinster, Herzen, Vapour, Alistair1978, Bender235, Calton, Ynhockey, Titanium Dragon, Tripodics, Stefanomione, BD2412, Koavf,
Wikidgood, Nihiltres, Itinerant1, Cyko149, DVdm, Volunteer Marek, Bgwhite, Wavelength, Alex Bakharev, Rsrikanth05, Marcus Cyron,
Number 57, Froth, Amakuha, Emesik, NeilN, Matt Heard, FungusFromYuggoth, Slashme, Nickst, Okinasevych, Zanetu, Kintetsubuffalo, Kudzu1, Chris the speller, Jprg1966, Hibernian, Colonies Chris, Sct72, Muboshgu, Smallbones, Dbdb, Tdl1060, Valenciano, Yulia
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editor, Poeticbent, Denghu, Doug Weller, Nishidani, Pstanton, Faustian, EdJohnston, Nick Number, Tocino, Mrodowicz, Yellowdesk,
Ghmyrtle, HolyT, DagosNavy, Nunamiut, Ericoides, Hello32020, PhilKnight, Dream Focus, Rothorpe, Y2kcrazyjoker4, Magioladitis,
Jetstreamer, Norden1990, Rif Wineld, Attesaarela, Warren Dew, Amitchell125, Sm8900, Keith D, Aleksandr Grigoryev, Kwasura, Maurice Carbonaro, TomCat4680, It Is Me Here, Martinhellman, Adamdaley, Molly-in-md, KylieTastic, Greatestrowerever, Kolja21, RVJ,
Bricology, Nug, Martinevans123, EuTuga, Lvivske, SheGru, Inteloutside2, Truthanado, Frans Fowler, WereSpielChequers, Adam
Cuerden, Kalidasa 777, Dima io, Haberstr, Invertzoo, YSSYguy, Martarius, Pke81885, Niceguyedc, Ktr101, Gomes89, Fishiehelper2,
Rhatsa26X, Rhododendrites, Uhhlive, Another Believer, A.h. king, Stickee, Ost316, Q Valda, Surtsicna, Nomadic Whitt, USchick,
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Materialscientist, Pipeafcr, Quebec99, Gilo1969, Mathonius, Sayerslle, Gui le Roi, Spesh531, FrescoBot, Tobby72, HCPUNXKID, NuclearWizard, Launchballer, Redrose64, Ahnoneemoos, Jonesey95, Moryak, Seryo93, , Mumbo-jumbophobe, Lightlowemon, Moscow
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BattyBot, Tomh903, David.moreno72, Solntsa90, Triggerhippie4, Jmcontra, Cyberbot II, ChrisGualtieri, ZappaOMati, Thevaluablediamond, Uanyc, SNAAAAKE!!, Dylanvt, Qbek16, Billyshiverstick, Dexbot, Irondome, Jonny Nixon, Mogism, Morfusmax, Vlad Rutenburg,
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MikhailBakhtinAEGEE, InternetArchiveBot, Helmut von Moltke, GreenC bot, Nznk and Anonymous: 244

10.2

Images

File:2014-02-21_11-04_Euromaidan_in_Kiev.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/72/2014-02-21_
11-04_Euromaidan_in_Kiev.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Amakuha
File:2014-03-01.____0085.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0b/2014-03-01._%
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File:A_police_officer_attacked_by_protesters_during_clashes_in_Ukraine,_Kyiv._Events_of_February_18,_2014-1.jpg
Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9d/A_police_officer_attacked_by_protesters_during_clashes_in_Ukraine%
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File:Alpha_SBU_emblem.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/86/%D0%9D%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%
83%D0%BA%D0%B0%D0%B2%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B9_%D0%B7%D0%BD%D0%B0%D0%BA_%D0%A6%D0%A1%
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File:Barricade_line_separating_interior_troops_and_protesters._Clashes_in_Kyiv,_Ukraine._Events_of_February_18,
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File:Berkut_attacks_Maidan._War_in_Kiev.ogv Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/76/Berkut_attacks_
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File:Berkut_emblem.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/db/C%D0%BF%D0%B5%D1%86%D1%96%


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File:Euromaidan_in_Kiev_2014-02-19_10-22.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b7/Euromaidan_in_
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to match the image at [1].
File:Flag_of_Europe.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b7/Flag_of_Europe.svg License: Public domain
Contributors:
File based on the specication given at [1]. Original artist: User:Verdy p, User:-x-, User:Paddu, User:Nightstallion, User:Funakoshi,
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File:Flag_of_Georgia.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0f/Flag_of_Georgia.svg License: Public domain


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File:Flag_of_Hungary.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c1/Flag_of_Hungary.svg License: Public domain Contributors:
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File:Flag_of_Israel.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d4/Flag_of_Israel.svg License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/History/Modern%20History/Israel%20at%2050/The%20Flag%20and%20the%20Emblem Original artist: The Provisional Council of State Proclamation of the Flag of the State of Israel of 25 Tishrei 5709 (28 October 1948) provides
the ocial specication for the design of the Israeli ag.
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svg License: Public domain Contributors:
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Zirlands codes of colors
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svg License: Public domain Contributors: Flag of the United Nations from the Open Clip Art website. Modications by Denelson83,
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United Nations (1962) The United Nations ag code and regulations, as amended November 11, 1952, New York OCLC: 7548838. Original
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File:MVS_of_Ukraine.gif Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d4/%D0%93%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B0%
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