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The Comparative Anatomy of the Coelom and

of the Digestive and Respiratory Systems


!!
Coelom
!!
Origin
!
coelom or body cavity of vertebrates !
!
- cavity of the hypomere!
!
- not segmented!
parietal peritoneum!
!
- lining of the body wall!
visceral peritoneum/ serosa!
!
- derivative of the inner walls of hypomere!
!
- covering layer of the intestine and other !
!
viscera!
mesentery!
!
- double-walled membrane!
!
-origin: two walls of hypomere in contact!
dorsal mesentery!
!
- portion of the mesentery between the !
!
dorsal wall of the coelom and intestine!
!
- intact for its entire length!
ventral mesentery!
!
- potion of the mesentery between the !
!
ventral wall and intestine!
!
- disappears except in certain regions!

In amphioxus, mesoderm pouches off from archenteron


as a paired axial series of sacs whose cavity later combine
to form the definitive coelom.!

Divisions of the Coelom


coelom !

- consists of a continuous cavity extending the


-

entire length of the trunk region!


divided into two longitudinal halves by the dorsal
and ventral mesenteries!

transverse septum!
!
- partition that divides the coelom of adult
!
vertebrates into two compartments!
!
- develops at the posterior end of the heart and
!
cuts off the heart from all of the other viscera!
pericardial cavity!
!
- small anterior compartment !
!
- contains only the heart!
pleuroperitoneal cavity!
!
- large posterior compartment!
!
- contains all of the other viscera!
fishes and urodeles!
!
- pericardial cavity is anterior to the !!
!
pleuroperitoneal cavity!
!
- transverse septum passes transversely across
!
the body!

anura and all vertebrates above anura!


!
- pericardial cavity has descended posteriorly
!
(ventral to the anterior part of the pleuroperitoneal
!
cavity)!
!
- transverse septum assumes an oblique position!
!
-in that portion of the pleuroperitoneal cavity !
!
which, in consequence of the descent of the
!
pericardial cavity, lies dorsal to the pericardial
!
cavity, the lungs are situated (anura and most
!
reptiles)!
in reptiles (crocodilia), birds, and mammals!
!
- pleuroperitoneal cavity is divided into anterior
!
and posterior parts by various fusions between
!
the transverse septum and other coelomic folds!
!
- in mammals, the closure is accomplished chiefly
!
by the !
pleuroperitoneal or nephric fold !
!
- descends from the dorsal body wall !
!
- fuses with the transverse septum !
oblique septum!
!
- partition formed in birds!
!
- slightly muscular!
diaphragm!
!
- partition formed in mammals!
!
- extensively muscularized from the cervical
!
myotomes !

both the oblique septum and diaphragm form


immediately posterior to the lungs!
portion of the pleuroperitoneal cavity that is cut off,
contains the lungs!
two pleural cavities are completely separated from each
other!
pericardial cavity is situated in the median line between
their ventral portions!
peritoneal/ abdominal cavity!
!
- part of the pleuroperitoneal cavity that cut off
!
posterior to the oblique septum or diaphragm!
!
- incloses the digestive part of the digestive tract
!
and urogenital system!
Birds and Mammals Coelom is divided into:!
!
- pericardial cavity!
!
- two pleural cavities!
!
- peritoneal cavity!
this arrangement greatly increases the efficiency of lung
respiration!
viscera are outside the coelom cavity!

Digestive tract
Origin

and its derivatives

primitive intestine/ archenteron!


!
- produced by the process of invagination or other
!
processes in the gastrula stage of the embryo!
!
- first a simple tube of entoderm with one!
blastopore!
!
- opening to the exterior !
!
- situated at the future posterior end of the embryo!
entodermal tube persists as the lining of the adult
digestive tract and of all its derivatives; to it there are
other layers (connective tissue and muscular layers)
derived from the splanchnic mesoderm of the hypomere!
adult digestive tract consists of a thick-walled tube,
composed of both entoderm and mesodermal elements!
anterior and posterior ends of the digestive tubes are
lined by ectoderm as a result of invagination processes!
stomodaeum!
!
- anterior invagination!
proctodaeum!
!
- posterior invagination!

Parts and outgrowths of the Digestive tube

a. Oral or buccal cavity


!
-bounded by jaws in front and on the sides!
!
-palate above!
!
-buccal floor bearing the tongue below!
vestibule!
!
-space between lips and teeth!
in amphioxus and ammocoetes!
!
-oral cavity consists of the space inclosed by the
!
oral hood and is bounded from the pharynx by the
!
velum!
!
-position of velum corresponds to the boundary
!
between stomodaeum and pharynx of !
!
gnathostomes!
in dipnoi, crossopterygii, and tetrapods!
!
-nasal cavities open into the roof of the oral cavity
!
by the !
internal nares or choanae!
!
-purpose is to separate the food and respiratory
!
passages!
nasopharyngeal passages!
!
-constituted by the inclosure between the !
!
secondary palate and the original palate or buccal
!
roof by which the nasal cavities are prolonged
!
posteriorly to open by the choanae!
soft palate!
!
-secondary palate in mammals!
primary tongue (fishes)!
!
-part of the buccal floor demarcated anteriorly
!
by a fold!
!
-sheaths the anterior end of the hypobranchial
!
apparatus and contains no muscles or glands!
gland field (amphibians)!
!
-develops in front of the primary tongue and fuses
!
with it to form the definitive tongue (crescentic)!

tuberculum impar (amniotes)!


!
-functions like a gland field!
lingual swellings (amniotes)!
!
-joins the tuberculum impar!
!
-four swellings!
!
-invaded by voluntary musculature, derived from
!
hypobranchial musculature, innervated by the
!
twelfth (hypoglossal) cranial nerve!
!
-furnished with glands and taste organs!
!
-develops intrinsic muscle fibers!
very long, mobile tongues are see in in some lizards,
in snakes, woodpeckers, and ant-eating mammals!
mechanism of protrusion of a woodpecker tongue!is
chiefly skeletal because the supporting hyoid
apparatus is very long, slender!
tongue is commonly armed with a horny covering or
with spines and thorns!
b. Oral glands
two general kinds:!
mucous-secreting!
serous glands(secreting enzymes, poisons, etc.)!
c. Rathkes pouch
!
-blind pouch produced by the epithelial !
!
evagination in the roof of the buccal cavity!
!
-extends toward, comes in contact with, fuses with
!
the brain wall!
hypophysis or pituitary body!
!
-compound structure formed!
!
-important gland of internal secretion!
adenohypophysis!
!
-part derived from the oral epithelium!
Hatscheks pit and groove!
!
-considered forerunners of the adenohypophysis!
d. Pharynx
!
-part of the digestive tube immediately caudad to
!
to the oral cavity!
!
-characterized by the gill slits through its wall in
!
adult or embryonic chordates!
in amphioxus and ammocoetes, pharynx is very exactly
delimited anteriorly by the velum!
in gnathostomes, its anterior boundary is indefinite but
may be set just anterior to the first gill slit or its
representative (opening of the auditory tube)!
gill slits!
!
-passages from the pharynx to the exterior!
!
internal gill slits!
!
-pharyngeal openings!
external gill slits!
!
-exterior openings!
gill pouch/ visceral pouch!
!
-passage from internal to external gill slit in the
!
pharyngeal wall!
visceral arch/ branchial bar!
!
-tissue between successive gill slits !
!
-incloses the skeletal gill arch, a blood vessel
!
termed an aortic arch, and a cranial nerve!
branchial musculature originated from the mesodermal
tissue of the branchial bar!
in the development, pharyngeal wall puts out paired
evaginations, the visceral pouches, typically 6 in
number !

visceral furrow!
!
-invagination of the ectoderm opposite each !
!
pouch!
pouches meet the furrows, and the fusion area breaks
through as a gill slit or gill cleft, which persists as the
external gill slit!
hagfishes- 14 gill slits; gnathostomes- 6!
spiracle!
!
-modified or reduced gill slit (1st) between the
!
mandibular and hyoid arches!
gills/ branchiae!
!
-thin-walled projections!
!
-richly supplied with blood vessels and presenting
!
a large surface for the exchange of respiratory
!
gases!
!
-may be lamellar (plate-like) or filamentous!
two sorts of gills in vertebrates:!
external gills!
internal gills!
e. Thyroid gland
!
-epithelial evagination from the buccal or !
!
pharyngeal floor at the level of the hyoid arch,
!
between the primary tongue and the tuberculum
!
impar!
!
-separates from the floor, so that it becomes !
!
ductless and proliferates into a considerable mass
!
of follicles, usually becoming bilateral!
!
-vital endocrine gland whose secretion is !
!
necessary for normal growth and sexual !
!
development !
!
-of entodermal origin !
f. Pharyngeal glands
g. Tympanic cavity and external auditory meatus
h. Swim bladder, lungs, larynx, and trachea
i. Esophagus
j. Stomach or ventriculus
k. Small intestine
l. Liver
m. Pancreas
n. Yolk sac
o. Caecum
p. Large intestine or colon
q. Urinary bladder
r. Anus
s. Postanal gut

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The coelom and the digestive and respiratory


systems of Elasmobranchs
!
Body wall and pleuroperitoneal cavity
pleuroperitoneal cavity!
!
-large internal cavity!
!
-constitutes the greater part of the coelom!
parietal peritoneum!
!
-smooth shining membrane that lines the !
!
pleuroperitoneal cavity!
!
-adheres closely to the inside of the body wall!
body wall is composed of three layers:!
!
-skin!
!
-muscles!
!
-parietal peritoneum!

Viscera of the pleuroperitoneal cavity

liver!
!
-located at the anterior end of the cavity!
!
-large, brownish, greyish!
!
-consists of long left and right lobes and a small
!
median lobe!
gall bladder!
!
-located in the small median lobe of the liver!
!
-long, greenish!
dorsal to the liver on the left side is the large J-shaped
esophagus-stomach !
esophagus!
!
-anterior part of the organ!
stomach!
!
-continues straight backward from the esophagus
!
to a point somewhat posterior to the caudal ends
!
of the liver lobes!
!
-makes a sharp bend, decreasing considerably in
!
diameter!
pylorus! !
!
-constriction at the end of the stomach!
spleen!
!
-a dark-colored organ that is a part of the !
!
lymphatic system!
!
-located at the posterior margin of the bend of the
!
stomach !
from the pylorus, the short intestine extends to the
anus!
duodenum!
!
-first part of the intestine beyond the pylorus!
!
-extends for a short distance to the right then
!
curves posteriorly!
bile duct!
!
-a long stout duct!
!
-easily seen descending from the gall bladder to
!
enter the duodenum shortly caudad of the bend!
!
-accompanied by some blood vessels, runs in a
!
strip of mesentery!
!
!

!
!
!
!

-passes to the dorsal side of the duodenal wall


and runs for a short a short distance caudad,
imbedded in the wall, before it penetrates into the
cavity of the duodenum!

pancreas!
!
-white gland!
ventral lobe of the pancreas reposes the curve of the
duodenum!
dorsal lobe of the pancreas should be located by
raising the stomach and duodenum and looking dorsal
to them!
!
-long and slender!
!
-reaching to the spleen!
!
-located by raising the stomach and duodenum
!
and looking dorsal to them!
beyond the duodenum, intestine widens, and its surface
is marked by parallel rings- attachment of spiral valve!

spiral valve !
!
-spiral fold !
!
-occupies the interior of intestine!
valvular intestine!
!
-part of the small intestine occupied by the spiral
!
valve!
large intestine/ colon!
!
-caudal to the small intestine!
!
-narrower, proceeds to the anus!
rectal/ digitiform gland!
!
-small cylindrical body attached to the colon by a
!
duct !
cloaca!
!
-terminal chamber of the colon!
!
-opening by the anus!
esophagus!
!
-anterior part of the digestive system!
!
-has projections called papillae!
stomach!
!
-remainder part of the digestive system !
!
-with lengthwise folds or rugae!
gonads!
!
-pair of sot bodies against the dorsal wall of the
!
anterior part of the pleuroperitoneal cavity!
mesogaster!
!
-part of the dorsal mesentery supporting the !
!
stomach!
!
-incloses the spleen between its two walls !
gastrosplenic ligament!
!
-portion of the mesogaster from the spleen to the
!
stomach!

!!

mesentery!
!
-portion of the dorsal mesentery which supports
!
the small intestine!
mesorectum!
!
-portion of the mesentery in the region of the !
!
rectal gland!
gastro-hepato duodenal ligament!
!
-remnant of ventral mesentery!
!
-extending from the right side of the stomach to
!
the liver and duodenum, also called the lesser
!
omentum !
two portions:!
hepatoduodenal ligament!
!
!
-extending from the liver to the !
!
!
duodenum !
!
!
-containing the bile duct and blood !
!
!
vessels!
gastrohepatic ligament !
!
!
-extending from stomach to the liver and
!
!
duodenum!
suspensory/ falciform ligament !
!
-another remnant of the ventral mesentery!
!
-found at the anterior end of the liver, extending
!
from the mid ventral surface of the liver to the mid
!
ventral line of the body wall!
in mature females the mouth of the oviduct will be
noticed in the falciform ligament as a funnel-shaped
aperture!

Mesenteries
each gonad has a mesentery !
mesovarium!
!
-mesentery of the ovary!
mesorchium!
!
-mesentery of the testis!
mesotubarium!
!
-mesentery of the oviduct!
transverse septum!
!
-partition, closing the anterior end of the !
!
pleuroperitoneal !
coronary ligament!
!
-connects the liver to the heart!
!
-a portion of the septum!
abdominal pores!
!
-found on each side of the anal opening!
!
-concealed by a fold of skin!
!
-where the pleuroperitoneal cavity communicates
!
with the exterior !

Pericardial Cavity

visceral pericardium!
!
-covering layer!
!
-fused with the heart wall!
sinus venosus!
!
-fan-shaped chamber at the posterior end of the
!
heart!
wings of sinus venosus are buried in the transverse
septum; they constitute large venous channels through
which the venous blood is returned to the heart!

The Oral and Pharyngeal Cavities and the


Respiratory System

buccal/ oral cavity!


!
-anterior part of the cavity inclosed by jaws and
!
gill arches!
!
-bounded in front by the upper and lower jaws,
!
provided with teeth!
upper & lower jaws!
!
-two halves of the first or mandibular gill arch!

!!

tongue!
!
-PRIMARY tongue!
!
-flat, slight, practically immovable projection on
!
the floor of the mouth back of the teeth!
!
-supported by the second or hyoid gill arch!
pharynx!
!
-posterior and greater part of the cavity!
!
-wall is pierced with 6 internal gill slits!
spiracle!
!
-first internal gill slit!
!
-rounded opening in the roof of the pharynx !
!
immediately posterior to the mandibular arch!
remaining 5 gill slits are elongated!
gill pouches!
!
-large cavities that internal gill slits open into!
branchial bar/ visceral arch!
!
-tissue between successive gill pouches!
!
-continues to the body surface as a thin partition!
interbranchial septum!
!
-thin partition which bears gill lamellae!
branchial/ gill lamellae!
!
-series of low, thin folds or plates!
demibranch!
!
-half-gill!
!
- set of lamellae on one face of septum !
holobranch!
!
-gill!
!
-two demibranchs of both faces of a septum !
afferent branchial blood vessels!
!
-brings venous blood to the gills!
efferent branchial gills!
!
-carries the aerated blood away from the gills!
lamellae!
!
-respiratory mechanism of the in which the blood
obtains oxygen and gives up carbon dioxide!

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T~he Coelom and the Digestive and


Respiratory systems of the Turtle

The divisions and relations of the Coelom

parietal peritoneum!
!
-covers and conceals the viscera!

muscle layer which is normally present between the


skin and the peritoneum is lacking in the ventral body
wall because of the presence of the plastron!
two layers in the ventral body wall:!
!
-skin with its contained exoskeleton!
!
-peritoneum!
pericardial sac!
!
-triangular membranous sac which incloses the
!
heart!
!
- located in the median line in the anterior part of
!
the parietal peritoneum shortly posterior to the
!
pectoral girdle!
pericardial cavity!
!
-space between the pericardial sac and the heart!
ventral abdominal veins!
!
-two conspicuous veins that run longitudinally in
!
the parietal peritoneum between the pericardial
!
sac and the pelvic girdle!
pleuroperitoneal cavity!
!
-large cavity whose walls are lined by parietal
!
peritoneum!
two parts of the turtles coelom:!
!
-small pericardial cavity!
!
-larger pleuroperitoneal cavity!

pericardial cavity is ventral to the pleuroperitoneal


cavity!

transverse septum disappeared!

The viscera and their mesenteries

liver!
!
-large, brown lying on each side of the heart in the
!
anterior part of the pleuroperitoneal!
intestine!
!
-posterior to the liver!
ovaries!
!
-conspicuous objects in the lateral and posterior
!
part of the pleuroperitoneal cavity!
!
-contain eggs of various sizes!
oviduct!
!
-coiled!
!
-running alongside each ovary!
urinary bladder!
!
-large, bilobed!
!
-located in front of the pelvic girdle !

pericardial sac rests in a depression between the two


lobes !

posterior to the heart the liver is united to the parietal


peritoneum by very short mesenteries , corresponding
to the falciform ligament of other vertebrates!

in these mesenteries the ventral abdominal veins


leave the peritoneum and pass into the liver!
ventral (original anterior) face of the septum is part of
the wall of the pericardial cavity!
dorsal (original posterior) face forms part of the
parietal peritoneum!

coronary ligament!
!
-attaches the liver and the transverse septum!
stomach!
!
-elongated!
!
-found curving dorsal to the lateral border of the
!
left liver lobe!
esophagus!
!
-following the stomach anteriorly !
!
-soft narrow tube lying dorsal to or to one side of
!
the trachea!
gastrohepatic ligament!
!
-attaches the stomach to the liver!
duodenum!
!
-first part of the small intestine!
hepatoduodenal ligament!
!
-connects the duodenum to the right lobe of the
!
liver!
pancreas!
!
-long white gland located int he hepatoduodenal
!
ligament!
pancreatic duct!
!
-passes from the pancreas into the duodenum!
gall bladder!
!
-located on the dorsal surface of the right lobe of
!
the liver near its lateral border!
!
-connected to the duodenum by a short but stout
!
bile duct!
dorsal mesentery!
!
-attaches the small intestine to the median dorsal
!
line of the coelom !
mesoduodenum!
!
-mesentery of the duodenum!
!
-fused to the hepatoduodenal ligament !
mesogaster!
!
-mesentery of the stomach!
!
-distinct from the gastrohepatic ligament !
colic caeca!
!
-slight projection at the junction of the small and
!
large intestine!
mesocolon!
!
-mesentery of the large intestine!

colon generally crosses the pleuroperitoneal cavity


transversely and then turns posteriorly and runs
straight caudal to the cloaca!

transverse part of the colon is fused to the mesogaster!

spleen!
!
-rounded red body that is part of the lymphatic
!
system!
!
-located in the mesocolon on the dorsal side of
!
the colon shortly beyond the caecum!
urinary bladder!
!
-large, thin-walled, bilobed !
!
-ventral to the colon!
!
-greatly distended with urine!
!
-has no ligaments !
!
-found at the point of entrance of the colon into
!
the cloaca, attached to the ventral surface of the
!
cloaca by a stalk!

oviduct!
!
-found only in females on each side of the stalk of
!
the bladder, entering the cloaca!
!
-large, white!
ovaries!
!
-pair of large saclike bodies containing in their
!
walls eggs of various sizes!
mesovarium!
!
-mesentery of the ovary!
mesotubarium!
!
-mesentery of the oviduct!

The Respiratory system


oral cavity!
!
-bounded by the jaws, which have no teeth but
!
are clothed with horny beaks of epidermal origin!
!
-beaks extend as plates into the mouth cavity!
posterior nares!
!
-pair of elongated openings in the roof of the !
!
mouth cavity posterior to the plate!

tongue is of DEFENITIVE type!

no gils nor gill slits!

laryngeal prominence!
!
-elevation behind the base of the tongue!
glottis !
!
-elongated slit in the center of laryngeal !
!
prominence!
arytenoid cartilage!
!
-one on each side of the glottis!
!
-derived from one of the gill arches!

on each side of the roof of the pharynx, posterior to the


muscles which connect the skull and lower jaw!
auditory/ Eustachian tube!
!
-canal which leads from the pharynx to the cavity
!
of the middle ear!
trachea/ windpipe!
!
-tube stiffened by rings of cartilage!

two pairs of horns of the hyoid extends posteriorly!

hyoid and its horns are derivatives of the second, third


and fourth gill arches!
larynx!
!
-an expanded chamber at the anterior end of the
!
trachea !

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cricoid!
!
-ring-shaped cartilage !
!
-located posterior to the glottis!
!
-wider ventrally than dorsally!

arytenoids, cricoids, and tracheal rings are derivatives


of the lateral cartilages of urodeles!

anterior to the heart, trachea bifurcates into the two


bronchi which proceed to the lungs!

lung is in contact with the inner surface of the


carapace and that the parietal peritoneum passes over
the ventral surface of the lung, leaving the lung outside
of the membrane !

retroperitoneal!

posterior end of the lung projects into the


pleuroperitoneal cavity and is clothed with the
peritoneum !
alveoli!
!
-air spaces inside the lungs!
!
-divided by the cords of connective tissue!
path:!
external nares > nasal cavities > internal nares > oral
cavity > pharyngeal cavity > glottis > larynx > trachea >
bronchi > lungs!

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in the pharyngeal cavity, the paths of food and air


cross!
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The Coelom and the Digestive and


Respiratory systems of the Pigeon

Oral cavity and the pharynx

a. Oral cavity!
roof and floor are bounded laterally by horny
beaks !
teeth are absent!
roof of mouth cavity bears a pair of elongated
palatal folds with free fimbriated margins!
palatal folds corresponds to the secondary or
hard palate of mammals!
palatal fissure !
split palate!
!
-hard palate of many birds !
posterior nares!
!
-located above and concealed by the palatal folds!
floor of the oral cavity is occupied by the pointed
tongue!
tongue is of COMPOUNDED DEFINITIVE type
but is not very muscular!
b. Pharynx!
gill slits are absent from the lateral walls of the
pharynx!
auditory tubes !
!
-in the roof of the pharyngeal cavity just posterior
!
to the caudal ends of the palatal folds !
!
-extends from this opening to the cavity of the
!
middle ear!
!
-tube and cavity represent in part an evagination
!
from the first gill pouch!
in birds, the two auditory tubes unite to one at the point
of communication with the pharynx !
posterior to this opening, the roof of the pharynx bears
a pair of folds with fimbriated borders, which hang down
like a curtain into the pharyngeal cavity !
split palate!
!
-folds!
laryngeal prominence!
!
-hardened elevation in the floor of the pharynx,
!
immediately posterior to the caudal end of the
!
tongue!
glottis!
!
-elongated opening in the center of the laryngeal
!
prominence!
laryngeal cartilages!
!
-support; located in the walls of the glottis!

The hyoid apparatus, larynx, trachea and


esophagus

trachea/ windpipe!
!
-a tube with walls stiffened by rings of cartilage!
!
-broad, hard, bony ventrally!
!
-narrower, softer, cartilaginous dorsally !

hyoid apparatus!
!
-consists of remnants of the hyoid (second) and
!
third gill arches!
!
-composed of three median elements, arranged in
!
a longitudinal series, and two pairs of horns or
!
cornua!
entoglossal cartilage!
!
-most anterior of the three median pieces!
!
-situated inside of the tongue!
!
-represents the 2 fused ceratohyals!
from its posterior end projects posteriorly on each side
a small cartilage which occupies the caudal point of the
tongue!
anterior horns!
!
-two cartilages!
!
-consists of the free ends of the two ceratohyals
!
whose anterior portions fused to form the !
!
entoglossal cartilage!
basihyal!
!
-median bony piece posterior to the entoglossal
!
cartilage!
basibranchial (of the third gill arch)!
!
-located posterior to the basihyal!
from the point of junction of basihyal and basibranchial
projects on each side the long posterior horn of the
hyoid, consisting of portions of the third gill arch!
on following the posterior horns they will be found to
extend toward the ears and to be divided into a:!
!
ceratobranchial!
!
!
-proximal longer portion!
!
epibranchial!
!
!
-distal shorter rod!
larynx!
!
-expanded chamber at the top of trachea and
!
opening into the the pharyngeal cavity by way of
!
the glottis!
arytenoid cartilage!
!
-slender, curved, partially ossified !
!
-located on each side of the glottis!
cricoid cartilage!
!
-enlarged, triangular!
!
-located on the ventral side of the larynx !
procricoid!
!
-median cartilage located between the two dorsal
!
ends of the cricoid cartilage!
!
-in contact with the posterior ends of the aryteroid !
!
-separated piece of cricoid!
esophagus!
!
-soft tube located dorsally to the trachea!
crop!
!
-enormous bilobed sac in which the food, !
!
swallowed whole, is detained for a time and may
!
be subject to muscular and enzymatic action!

The anterior Air sacs and the Pectoral muscles


air sacs (viscera) and air spaces (bones)!
!
-communicate with the lungs by means of !
!
branches of the bronchi!
!
-aids in decreasing the specific gravity of the bird !
!
-insures a more complete exposure of the lung
!
tissue to the air !
residual air is retained in the air sacs not in the lungs!
interclavicular air sac!
!
-located dorsal to the crop in the angle formed by
!
the two halves of the furcula or wishbone!
!
-ventral wall of which is delicate and is in contact
!
with the dorsal wall of the crop!
!
-consists of 2 lobes, one on each side of the !
!
median line !
cervical air sac!
!
-located dorsal to interclavicular sac on each side!
pectoralis major!
!
-muscle covering the entire sternum and !
!
extending to the humerus!
!
-origin: keel of the sternum, the surface of the
!
body of the sternum, and the furcula, which will be
!
found imbedded in its atelier border; its fibers
!
converge toward the humerus and, passing over
!
the shoulder, are inserted on the outer and dorsal
!
surface of the humerus!
!
-action: depresses the wing!
pectoralis minor!
!
-origin: body of the sternum and converges toward
!
the humerus!
axillary sac!
!
-air sac found between the pectoralis and
pectoralis major!
!
-anterior wall of which is in contact with the !
!
coracoid bone !
pneumatic foramen!
!
-a large opening into the humerus!
!
-entrance to the air space of the humerus which
communicates with the axillary air sac!
axillary air sac communicates in front with the
interclavicular air sac!
pectoralis minor converges to a tendon which passes
ventral to the posterior end of the cervical air sac and
beneath the shoulder to the dorsal side of the humerus
on which it is inserted!

The divisions of the Coelom and the Posterior


air sacs

peritoneal cavity!
!
-small cavity posterior to the sternum!
ventral ligament of the gizzard!
!
-mesentery which extends to the ventral body wall
!
to the left of the median line !
!
-continuous anteriorly with the falciform ligament
!
of the liver!
falciform ligament!
!
-extends from the median ventral region of the
!
liver to the mid ventral line of the body wall and
!
inner surface of the sternum!

falciform and ventral ligament together constitute a


partition which divides the peritoneal cavity into a large
right and smaller left portion!
pericardial sac!
!
-contains the heart!
!
-formed of the anterior face of the transverse
!
septum and the parietal pericardium!
pericardial cavity!
!
-a portion of the coelom!
!
-space between the pericardial sac and the heart!
oblique septum!
!
-a membranous partition that extends obliquely
!
posteriorly on each side!
!
-from the points where the pericardial sac meets
!
the lateral body wall!
!
-contains a large air sac!
!
-stretches across from the lateral body wall to that
!
part of the pericardial sac which is derived from
!
the transverse septum, thus, divides the !
!
pleuroperitoneal cavity into anterior and posterior
!
portions!
part of the original pleuroperitoneal cavity left anterior to
the oblique septum consists of the two pleural cavities,
one on each side of the pericardial cavity!
peritoneal cavity!
!
-part of the pleuroperitoneal cavity posterior to the
!
oblique septum!
four compartments of the coelom of birds !
pericardial cavity!
2 pleural cavities!
peritoneal cavity!

Peritoneal cavity and its contents

!
!
!

lined by the parietal peritoneum!


-deflected at certain points to form mesenteries!
-continues over the surface of the viscera as the
visceral peritoneum!

liver!
!
-right (larger) and left lobe!
!
-anterior end of the peritoneal cavity!
!
-where the pericardial sac rests!
coronary ligament!
!
-attaches the liver to the pericardial sac!
gastrohepatic ligament!
!
-connects the liver to the gizzard!
mesogaster!
!
-connects the gizzard to the dorsal body wall!
proventriculus!
!
-found extending anteriorly from the gizzard dorsal
!
to the liver!
!
-contains gastric glands and performs the !
!
stomachic digestion!
gizzard!
!
-located next to the left lobe of the liver!
!
-triturates food since bird has no teeth!
proventriculus and gizzard together correspond to the
stomach of other vertebrates!
at the junction of of proventriculus and gizzard, small
intestine arises!

duodenum makes a long U-shaped loop posteriorly!


hepatoduodenal ligament!
!
-attaches the beginning of the duodenum to the
!
right lobe of the liver !
mesoduodenum!
!
-mesentery of the intestine!
!
-between the two sides of the duodenal loop!
pancreas!
!
-lies between the two limbs of the loop!
!
-on the mesoduodenum!
bile ducts!
!
-emerge from a deep depression in the dorsal
!
surface of the right lobe of the liver and pass into
!
the duodenum!
left bile duct!
!
-stouter and shorter!
!
-enters the left limb of the duodenum about half
!
an inch beyond the gizzard!
right bile duct!
!
-more slender!
!
-passes to the right limb of the duodenal loop!
there 3 pancreatic ducts which pass from the right side
of the pancreas into the right limb of the duodenal loop!
colic coeca!
!
-a pair of small lateral diverticula that marks the
!
point of junction of large and small intestine !
the short large intestine passes into the cloaca!
urinary bladder is absent, but is present in the embryo
as an allantois!
oviduct of females- entering the left side of the cloaca!
spleen!
!
-rounded, red body between the proventriculus
!
and the anterior end of the right limb of the !
!
duodenal loop!

Pleural cavities and their contents

posterior intermediate air sac is situated in the oblique


septum!
lung!
!
-reddish, spongy flattened organ!
!
-solid, not hollow!
pleural cavity!
!
-cavity in which each lung is contained!
pleura!
!
-coelomic membrane which lines the pleural cavity!
!

The Syrinx

sternotracheal muscles!
!
-2 slender muscles that diverge from their !
!
insertion on the ventral surface of the trachea to
!
their origin on the sternum!
syrinx!
!
-where the voice of the birds comes from!
!
-an expanded chamber where the trachea forks
!
into the 2 bronchi!
!
-walls are supported by the last tracheal rings and
!
the first bronchial half-rings!

!!

intrinsic syringeal muscle!


!
-muscle along each side of the of the trachea
!
extending from the point of insertion of the !
!
sternotracheal muscles to the lateral walls of the
!
syrinx!
last 2 tracheal rings are widely separated from each
other but are connected in the mid ventral line by a
narrow bridge of bone !
external tympaniform membranes!
!
-formed by the thin tracheal wall to either side of
!
the bridge!
internal tympaniform membranes!
!
-located on the inner side of the bronchi at their
!
junction with the trachea !
semilunar membrane!
!
-slight vertical fold in the dorsal wall of the interior!
pessulus!
!
-bony ridge that supports the semilunar !
!
membrane!
voice is produced by the vibrations of the pessulus and
the tympaniform membranes!
large thickenings in the lateral walls of the syrinx also
play a role, and the syringeal and sternotracheal
muscles aid by changing the shape of the syrinx!

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