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Problems 4

Observe the rules of significant figures in expressing your answer.


4.1 A student finds that a sample of liquid weighing 12,562 g occupies a volume
of 8,04 cc. Calculate the density of the liquid.
Answer:
m= 12,562 g
V=8,04 cc = 8,04 mL
Density=.....?

m
12,562 g

1,56 g
mL
v
8,04mL

4.2 A block of metal wih dimensions 5,2 cm x 2,1 cm x 4,6 cm weighs 109,82 g.
Calculate the density of the metal.
Answer:

V 5,2cmx 2,1cmx 4,6cm


V 50,232cm3
m= 109,82g
Density=....?

m
109,82 g

2,186 g 3
3
cm
V
50,23cm

4.3 A student weighs an empty flask, adss some potassium nitrate to it, and
reweighs. The two masses are 12,162 g and 12,498 g.
a. What is the masse of potassium nitrate?

m1 12,162 g

m2 12,498 g

mKNO3 m2 m1 12,498 g 12,162 g 0,336 g


b. What volume does the potassium nitrate occupy? (density = 2,107 g/mL)

m
0,336 g
2,107 g

mL
V
V
0,336 g
V
0,1595mL
2,017 g
mL

2,107 g mL

4.4 Calculate the total mass of a solution prepared by additing 12,0 g of sodium
chloride, 4,28 g of potassium nitrate, and 1,03 g of potassium chromate to
6,00 x 102 g of water.
Answer:
m NaCl=12,0 g

Total mass of the solution=....?

m KNO3=42,8 g
m K2CrO4=1,03 g
m H2O=6,00 X102
Total mass = m H2O + m NaCl + m KNO3 + m K2CrO4
=6,00 X102 + 12,0 g + 42,8 g + 1,03 g
=617,31 g
4.5 In order to calibrate a pipet, a student weighs the water which drains forms it
after it has been filled to the mark. He obtains a mass of 9,9654 g. The
density of water is 0,9970 g/mL. What is the volume of the pipet?

m 9,9654 g

V=.....?

0,9970 g mL
m
9,9654 g
0,9970 g

mL
V
V
9,9654 g
V
9,954mL
g
0,9970
mL

4.6 The gram equivalent weigh of an element can be defined as the weight that
combines with the 8 g of oxygen. A student finds that when a metal oxide
sample weighing 2,148 g is reduced with hydrogen, the pure metal remaining
weighs 1,509 g.
a. What is the weight of oxygen in the sample?
b. What is the gram equivalent weight of metal?
4.7 A sample of a certain compound weighing 2,040 g is found by analysis to
contain 0,721 g of carbon and 0,050 g of hydrogen. It is known that the only
other element present is iodine.

a. What is the weight of iodine in the sample?


Total mass=2,040 g

mass of iodine=....?

m Carbon=0,721 g
m Hydrogen=0,050 g
Total mass= mCarbon + mHydrogen + mIodine
2,040 g = 0,721 g + 0,050 g + mIodine
mIodine = 2,040 g 0,771g
mIodine = 1,269 g
b. What are the percentages by weight of three elements in the compound?
4.8 When carbon burns in air, 3,667 g of carbon dioxide are formed for every
gram of carbon. What mass of carbon dioxide is formed from samples of
carbon weighing:
a. 2,000 g
b. 6,2 g
4.9 The molarity of a solution of sodium chloride can be expressed as:

M=

no. of grams NaCl/58,44


no. of liters solution

A solution is prepared by dissolving 12,08 g of sodium chloride to give 9,00 x 102


mL. What is the molarity of this solution?
Answer :
mNaCl = 12,08 g
V= 9,00x102 mL= 0,9 L

M=

no. of grams NaCl/58,44


no. of liters solution
12,08 g / 58,44 g

0,9 L
M 0,2297 mol
L

mol 0,20671mol
0,9 L

4.10 A sample of gas weighing 1,602 g occupies 224 mL at a pressure of 749

mmHg and a temperature of 100,0 0C. Calculate the gram of molecular


weight(M) of the gas using the equation:

gRT
PV

Where g = mass in gram


T = Temperature in K = 0C + 273,17
P = Pressure in atm = pressure in mmHg/760,0
V= Volume in mL
R= Gas constant = 82,06 mL atm/mole K
Answer:
m=1,602 g
V=224 mL
T=100 0C= 373 K
P=749mmHg= 749/760= 0,99atm
R=82,06mL.atm/mol.K

M
M

1,602 g .82,06mL.atm / mol.K .373 K


0,99atm.224mL

49034,63 g
221,12 g
mol
221,76mol

4.11 A student measures the pH of a certain solution, using instruments of


successively greater precision. The values he obtains are as follow:
Using the definition : pH log(conc.H ) , calculate the concentration of
H+ corresponding to each measurement.
a. pH= 4

pH log[ H ]
4 = log[ H ]
[H+]= antilog -4
[H+]= 10-4

b. pH=4,1

pH log[ H ]
4,1 = log[ H ]
[H+]= antilog -4,1
[H+]= 7,94 X 10 5

c. pH=4,12

pH log[ H ]
4,12 = log[ H ]
[H+]= antilog -4,12
[H+]= 7,59 x10 5

d. pH= 4,118

pH log[ H ]
4,118= log[ H ]
[H+]= antilog -4,118
[H+]= 7,621 X 10 5

4.12 The equation relating the vapor pressure, P, of a liquid to the temperature
can be written in the form:

log P

H
B
2,303 RT

When R = 1,987 cal/K, T = Temperature in K= 0C + 273,16, H= heat of


vaporization in calories, and B is a constant known to be 5,169 for a particular
liquid (when the vapor pressure is expressed in mmHg).
If the vapor pressure of the liquid is 12,8 mmHg at 25,00 0C, what is the
numerical value of H?
4.13 The energy change, E , in a nuclear reaction is related to the difference
mass, m , beetwen products and reactants by the equation:

E 2,15 X 1010

kcal
xm
g

In a certain nuclear reaction, 225,9971 g of radium decomposes to give 221,9703


g of radon and 4,0015 g of helium. Calculate E for this reaction.