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BIOLOGY FORM 4 NOTES CHAPTER 5 : CELL DIVISION

5.1

MITOSIS

5.1.1
What is Mitosis?
Mitosis is a division of the nuclear to produce two new daughter cells containing
chromosomes identical to the parent cell.

The necessity for the production of new cells in organisms


1. Cells in the body are continuously dividing, growing, and dying.
2. New cells are produced from existing cells, through a process known as mitotic
cell division.
3. Mitosis is the process of nuclear division which results in the formation of two
genetically
identical daughter cells.

5.1.2
Significant of Mitosis.
1.
Growth:
Mitosis increases the number of cells in all living organisms, thus allowing growth
and development in living organisms.
2.
Repair and replacement:
Mitosis allows dead or damaged cells to be repaired, replaced and generated.
3.
Asexual reproduction:
Mitotic cell division forms the basic of asexual reproduction, in which the
daughter cells produced are genetically identical to the parent cell.
4.
Regeneration
Some animal are able to regenerate whole pats of the body such as starfish
5.1.3

Chromosomes and chromosomal number

1.
Two types of cells in a sexually reproducing organism:
(a) Somatic cell
all body cells except the reproductive cells, which formed through mitosis
(b) Reproductive cell
reproductive cells or gametes, which formed through meiosis
2.
Chromosomes consist of DNA molecules, which carried genes that
determine the individual
characteristics of an organism.
3.
The number of chromosomes present in the nuclear of each cell is constant
for the species

concerned. The characteristics number is referred to as the chromosomal


number.
For example:
Onion Cell has 16 chromosomes
Fruit fly has 8 chromosomes
Human being has 46 chromosomes
4.
Somatic cells have 2 sets of chromosomes, one set inherited from each
parent. Since the
chromosomes in the nuclear exist in pairs, the chromosomal number is said
to be diploid (2n).
for example: the nucleus of a typical human somatic cell has 46
chromosomes arranged in 23
pairs or 2n = 46.

the two
have the same
referred to as the
homologous
2.
The gametes
number of
set of unpaired

chromosomes in each pair


structural features and
chromosomes.
contain only half the
chromosomes, that is one
chromosomes, the
number is said to be

chromosomal
haploid (n).
for example: the nucleus of a typical human reproductive cell / gamete has
23 chromosomes or
n = 23.
5.1.1
The Cell Cycle
1.
The cell cycle is the period that extends from the time a new cell is
produced until the time the
cell completes a cell division.
2.
The cell cycle can be divided into two major phases:
(i)
Interphase (G1, S and G2)
(ii)
Mitotic cell division ( M phase)

1.
The Interphase
accounts for 90% of the cell cycle
is the stage for cells to grow larger and prepare for cell division
occurs gradually and continuously for 8 to 24 hours
the interphase is divided into three 3 shorter stages of subphases:
(i)
G1 (gap or growth phase 1)
(ii)
S (DNA synthesis)
(iii)
G2 (gap or growth phase 2)
During interphase:

The nucleus is big and well-defined

The chromosomes are not condensed and are visible as thread-like


structures called chromatin

A pair of centrosomes (found only in animal cells) is formed. Each


centrosome consists of a pair
of centrioles.

Each pair of centriole will later migrate towards the opposite poles of the
cell and help in the
formation of the spindle fibres.
Interphase
Events
G1

Protein and new cytoplasmic organelles such as


(gap or growth phase
mitochondria
1)
and chloroplasts are synthesized.

The metabolic rate of the cell is high.

The chromosomes are not condensed and are


visible as
thread-like structures called chromatin
S (DNA synthesis)

Synthesis of DNA

The DNA in the nucleus undergoes replication

Each duplicated chromosomes are now consists of


two identical
sister chromatids.
3

G2 (gap or growth
phase 2)

1.
The M phase
Phases
PROPHASE

METAPHASE

.
In animal cells, the centrioles duplicate

The cell continues to grow and remain


metabolically active
.
Enzymes and proteins are synthesised for the cell
division

The cell accumulates energy and completes its final


preparations
for the next stage of cell division.

Events
.
During prophase, the chromosomes in the
nucleus condense
and become more tightly coiled.
.
The chromosomes appear shorter and thicker and
are visible
under the light microscope.
.
Each chromosome now consists of a pair of sister
chromatids
joined together at the centromere.
.
In the cytoplasm, the spindle fibres begin to
form and extend
between the centrioles.
.
Each pair of centrioles then migrates to lie at the
opposite poles
of the cell.
.
The chromatids are attached to the fibres of the
spindle by their
centromeres.
.
In most plant cells, the spindle forms without the
presence of
centrioles.
.
At the end of prophase, the nucleolus disappears
and the
nuclear membrane disintegrates.

The centromere of all the chromosomes line up


at equator/ on
the metaphase plate.

Each centromere attaches itself to the spindle


fibre. Spindle
.

fibres are fully form


At the end of metaphase, the centromers divide

ANAPHASE

The two sister chromatids of each chromosome


separate at the

centromere.
.
The sister chromatids are pulled apart to the
opposite poles by
the shortening of the spindle fibres that connect
the
chromosomes to the poles.
.
Once separated, the chromatids are referred to
as daughter
chromosomes.
.
have
TELOPHASE

CYTOKINESIS

By the end of anaphase, the two poles of the cell

complete and equivalent sets of chromosomes .


.
Telophase begins when the two sets of
chromosomes reach the
opposite poles of the cell.
.
The chromosomes start to uncoil and revert to
their extended
state (chromatin).
.
The chromosomes become less visible under the
microscope.
.
The spindle fibres disappear and a new nuclear
membrane
forms around each set of chromosomes.
.
The nucleolus also re-forms in each nucleus. The
process of
mitosis is now completed.
Cytokinesis, the division of the cytoplasm, occurs
towards the end of telophase, Although plant cells
undergo the same stages of mitosis as in animal cells,
After cytokinesis, the new cells enter the Gi stage of
interphase, thus completing the cell cycle.
In animal cell:
.
Actin filaments in the cytoplasm contracts to pull
a ring of the
plasma membrane inwards, forming a groove
called a cleavage
furrow .
.
The cleavage furrow pinches at the equator of the
cell and
deepens progressively until the cell is separated
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into two
daughter cells.
In plant cell:
.
cytokinesis in plant cells is markedly different A
cleavage furrow
does not form. Instead, membrane-encJosed
vesicles gather at
a plant cell's equator between the two nucle
.
The vesicles fuse to form a cell plate (Figure
5.3(a).
.
The cell plate grows outwards until its edges fuse
with the
plasma membrane of the parent cell (Figure
5.3(b)).
.
New cell walls and plasma membranes are
formed from the
contents of the cell plate, which eventually
divide the cell into
two daughter cells (Figure 5.3(c)).
.
At the end of cytokinesis, cellulose fibres are
produced by the
cells to strengthen the new cell walls.

SIMILARITIES
.Cytoplasm and cell membranes are necessary for cytokinesis in both
plants and animals
. Two daughter cells produced after cytokinesis
DIFFERENCES
Aspects
Animal cells
Plant cells
Presence
Animal cells have centriole
Plant cells do not have
of
centrioles
Centriole
Forming of
cell plate

5.1.1
cell:

5.1.1

No

Yes

Forming of Animal cells divide by a


Plant cells divide by a cell
cleavage
cleavage furrow
plate that eventually
furrow
becomes the cell wall.
Compare and contrast Mitosis and Cytokinesis in animal cell and plant

The important of controlled Mitosis

The cells must divide in a controlled and orderly manner because:


(i)
The genetic information carried by the chromosomes is necessary for the
proper functioning of
an organism
(ii) Mitosis ensures that the genetic content and the number of chromosomes
in the parent cells
are maintained in the daughter cells from one generation to the next.
(iii) The rate and timing of cell division in animals and plants are important for
normal growth,
development and maintenance.
5.1.2

The effect of uncontrolled Mitosis

When a cell divides through mitosis repeatedly, without control and


regulation, it can produce
cancerous cell because the genes that regulate the cell cycle are
mutated or damaged
Cancer is a disease caused by uncontrolled mitosis due to severe
disruption to the mechanism
that controls the cell cycle.
Cancer cells divide freely and uncontrollably without heeding the cell cycle
control system.
Cancer cells compete with the surrounding normal cells to obtain sufficient
nutrients and
energy for their own growth.
A cancer cell that is not destroyed will divide uncontrollably to form a
tumour, an abnormal
mass of cells

Cancer cells can intrude on and spread to other tissues which then lead to
the malfunctionof
the tissues and ultimately death.
- Cancer can be caused by many factor.
(a) damage to the DNA
(b) changes in genes (mutation) that control cell division
(c) ionising radiation, for example ultraviolet rays and gamma rays
(d) certain chemical compounds like tar in tobacco smoke
(e) carcinogenic (canser-causing) compound such as formaldehyde
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5.1.3
The application of knowledge on mitosis in cloning and the
tissue culture technique.
1. Animal Cloning:
(i) What is cloning?
Cloning is a process of producing clones or genetically identical organisms
through asexual production.
(ii) What is animal cloning?
Animal cloning involves transfer of the nucleus from a somatic cell to an ovum
with nucleus removed.
(iii) The outline of animal cloning by using the example of the cloned sheep
Dolly. (How is animal cloning carried out?)
An animal is doned using a nucleus obtained torn an adult tissue Dolly, the
sheep, is genetically identical to the somatic cell donor.

2. The Tissue Culture Technique in Plants


(i)
What is tissue culture technique?

Tissue culture technique is a method to culture the plants asexually from


small pieces of
tissues taken from the parent plant.


Tissue culture is the growth of tissues of living organisms in a suitable and
sterile culture
medium, containing nutrients and growth hormones.
(ii)
Write down the outline of the tissue culture technique. (How is the tissue
culture technique
carried out?)
1
Small pieces of a plant's leaf, shoot,
bud. stem or root tissues are cut out.
These cut out plant tissues are called
explants.
2
Alternatively, enzymes are used to
digest the cell walls of tissues, for
example, the mesophyll tissue from a
leaf.
This results in naked cells without cell
walls called protoplasts
3
The explants or protoplasts are
sterilised and then placed in a glass
container which contains a nutrient
solution
with
a
fixed
chemical
composition. A culture medium or
growth medium normally consists of a
complex mixture of glucose, amino
acids, minerals and other substances
required for the growth of the tissues.
The culture medium and the
apparatus used must be in sterile
conditions
and
free
from
microorganisms which can contaminate
the tissue culture.
The pH and temperature of the
culture medium also need to be
maintained at optimum levels.
4
The explants or protoplasts begin to
divide by mitosis.
Cell division produces aggregates
of cells.
The aggregate of cells develop into a
callus; an undifferentiated mass of
tissue.
5
The callus develops into a somatic
embryo.
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The embryo develops into a plantlet


which can later be transferred to the
soil for growth into an adult plant.
All the plantlets produced this way
are genetically identical. Therefore, all
the adult plants that develop from
them share the same traits.
(i)
The advantages and disadvantages of cloning, including examples if
possible
Advantages
Disadvantages
1. The long-term side effects of
1. Cloning allows biotechnologists to using genetically modified viruses
and bacterial clones in various
multiply
fields such as medicine and
industries are not yet known.
copies of useful genes or clones.
For example, many vaccines,
antibodies and hormones are
(a) For example, the bacterium Escherichia produced by genetically modified
coli has been genetically manipulated to bacteria. The period of use and
their side effects on humans have
produce the bovine growth hormone.
not been established.
(b) The clones of these bacteria can
synthesise a large amount of the hormone.
(c) The hormone can then be injected into
cows to increase the quality of their milk.

2. The long-term effects and safety


2. Clones can be produced in a shorter
time and
in larger numbers.
(a) In medicine, for example, the
Escherichia coli strain can be cloned to
produce insulin.

aspects of releasing bacterial


clones to the environment to solve
problems
related
to
the
environment such as pollution are
not yet known. These organisms
may
mutate
and
become
dangerous to the environment and
other living organisms.

(b) Insulin is a hormone that lowers the


level of blood sugar by converting excess
glucose into glycogen in the liver.
(c) Insulin is produced by the pancreas. A
lack of insulin can cause diabetes niellitus.
(d) People with diabetes mellitus require a
constant supply of insulin.
(e) In the past, insulin was obtained by
extracting it from the pancreas of animals
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3. All clones have the same level


of resistance towards certain
diseased. If a new diseases or pest
emerges, then all the clones may
be eliminated, as they are not
resistant to the new diseases or

pests.
such as cows
slaughtered.

after

they

had

been

(f) The insulin is then purified and used in


the treatment of diabetes niellitus.
(g) The problem with this method is that it
is costly and the amount produced cannot
meet the demand for insulin.
(h) Today, through genetic engineering, the
gene that codes the synthesis of human
insulin is inserted into the bacteria's
genome.
(i) The genetically modified bacteria are
then grown on a large scale.
(j) The bacteria multiply rapidly by binary
fission, and the human gene replicates
together with the bacteria's own genes.
(k) The bacterial clones or transgenic
bacteria that are being produced are
identical because each clone contains the
gene to synthesise insulin.
(I) The bacterial cells are then lysed so that
insulin can be extracted. Because bacteria
multiply rapidly and can be grown in large
numbers, insulin can be produced on a
large scale for commercial purposes.
(m) Insulin produced in this way can be
made in large quantities, is less expensive
and more readily available.
3(a) Plants that reproduce from seeds take
a long time to grow and produce fruits.
Cloned plants, however, can produce
flowers and fruits within a shorter period,
(b) Furthermore, as clones reach maturity
in a shorter period of time, less time and
effort are needed to properly supervise
them in the earlier stages.

4. Clones do not show any genetic


variation For example, certain plant
clones have adapted to the current
environment. However, if a drastic
change to environment should
occur in the future, clones may be
wiped out entirely, as they would
be unable to adapt to the chances.

4Many transgenic crops like wheat, soya


bean and cotton which are resistant to
herbicides, pests and diseases have
been created.

5. For reasons still unknown, cloned


animals have a shorter lifespan.
Research is currently underway to
find a solution to prolong the lives
of cloned animals.

(a) Plants are also engineered to produce


high and better quality yields. For
example, a gene from the bacterium
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Bacillus thurin-giensis (Bt) is transferred to


the cotton plant to create a new transgenic
cotton plant which is resistant to the Bt
larvae. This gene codes the synthesis of
the Bi protein which kills the larvae that
feed on cotton plants.
(b) Delayed ripening in tomatoes is another
example of the beneficial traits possessed
by transgenic plants. This type of tomato
appears fresh and firm and has a longer
shelf life (Photograph 5.4).
(c) Transgenic plants can be cloned using
the tissue culture technique to produce
thousands of plantlets (clones) with similar
resistance to pests and diseases. Farmers
are
now
planting
many
of
these
genetically modified (GM) crops.

5 (a) Cloning and tissue culture techniques 6. New clones may undergo natural

involve vegetative reproduction which mutations which can endanger


mankind,
as
well
as
the
does not need pollinating agents.
environment.
They
may
also
disrupt the natural equilibrium of
(b) Thus, propagation can take place at any an ecosystem.
time without the need for pollination.

7. Certain transgenic crops contain


6 Certain transgenic bacteria can be used
to control environmental pollution.
(a) For example, the gene for the synthesis
of lipase is isolated from animals and
inserted into the bacterial genome to
create a new strain of bacteria that can
clean up oil spills in the ocean.
(b) There are also some bacterial clones
which are able to break down toxic waste
materials and help clean up toxic waste
dumps.
(c) For example, one such bacterium is
able to remove sulphur from coal before it
is burnt
(d) Therefore, transgenic bacteria are able
to help humans overcome pollution by able
to help human by cutting down the time
and cost of cleaning required for the
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genes that are resistant to


herbicides. These genes may be
transferred to weeds through
viruses. These weeds could then
become resistant to herbicides.

removal of oil spills and toxic wastes.

5.2

MEIOSIS

5.2.1

What is Meiosis?

Meiosis is the process of nuclear division that reduces the number of


chromosomes in new cells to half the number of chromosomes in the parent cell.
Meiosis occurs in the reproductive organs: testes in males and ovaries in females
in human; in plants, meiosis occurs in the anthers and ovaries of the flowers.
5.1.2

Significant of Meiosis.

1.
Sexual reproduction:

Meiosis produces haploid reproductive cells or gametes.

Each gamete receives one chromosome from every pair of homologous


chromosomes.

Sexual reproduction involves the fusion of two haploid (n) gametes during
fertilization.

This results in the formation of a diploid zygote (2n).

Thus, meiosis ensures that the diploid number of chromosomes is


maintained from generation
to the next.
2. Genetic variation:

Meiosis produces genetic variation in the offspring so that they can


survive in a constant
changing environment, through:
(i)
Crossing over
during prophase I, equivalent portion of homologous chromosomes may
be exchanged,
leading to the formation of new combinations of genes on the
chromosomes of the gametes.
(ii)
Independent assortment of chromosomes
during metaphase I, the pair of homologous chromosomes arrange
themselves randomly on
the equator of the spindle. The independent assortment of chromosomes
produces new
genetic combinations.
(iii)
-

Random fusion of gametes


any male gamete is potentially capable fusing with any female gamete.

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5.2

The stages of Meiosis

1.
Meiosis consists of two separate nuclear divisions:
(a) Meiosis I (propahse I, metaphase I, anaphase I and telophase I)
(b) Meiosis II (propahse II, metaphase II, anaphase II and telophase II)
2.
Meiosis I begins with a single diploid parent cell. At the end of meiosis II,
four haploid daughter
cells are produced, each genetically different from the others and from the
parent cell.
Phases

Events
Chromosomes are not clearly
visible.
Replication of DNA and
Duplication
of chromosomes occur.
Chromosomes condense and
become
shorter, thicker and visible
under light
microscope.
Chromosomes duplicate into
two
chromatids.
Homologous chromosomes
come
together to form pairs of
bivalents
through synapsis.
Non-sister chromatids
exchange
segment of DNA (Crossing-over
occurs).
The point where crosing-over
occurs is
chiasmata.
Crosing over result in new
combination
of genes on chromosomes.
At the end of prophase 1, the
nucleolus
and nuclear membrane
disappear.
The centrioles move to the
opposite
poles of the cells.

INTERPHASE

PROPHASE I

15

. Spindle fibres form.


METAPHASE I

The homologous chromosomes


line up
at the equator of the cell.
Homologous chromosomes
separate.
Chromosome with two sister
chromatids move to the
opposite poles.

ANAPHASE I

TELOPHASE 1

Chromosomes reach the


opposite poles
of the cell.
Spindle fibres disappear.
Nucleus membrane reforms.
Nucleolus reappears in each
nucleus.

CYTOKINESIS

Cytokinesis occurs
simultaneously with
telophase 1, resulting in two
haploid
daughter cells.

PROPHASE II

Chromosomes thicken and


shorten.
Each chromosome appear as
two
chromatids, connected at the
centromere.
The nucleoli and the nuclear
membrane of the daughter cell
disappear.
The centrioles replicate and
move to
the opposite poles.
Spindle fibres reform.
Chromosomes with two sister
chromatids line up at the
equator of
the cell.

METAPHSE II

ANAPHASE II

Centromeres divide.
Sister chromatids separate
16

into
individual chromosmes.
Each individual chromosome
moves to
the opposite poles of the cells.
TELOPHASE II and CYTOKINESIS

Chromosomes reach the poles.


The nucleoli and nuclear
membrane
reform.
The spindle fibres disappear.
Cytokinesis follows.
Four haploid cells are formed.
Each haploid cell contains half a
number of chromosomes and is
genetically different from the
parent
diploid cell.

5.3
Comparing and contrasting
(a) Meiosis I and Meiosis II
SIMILARITIES

Phase
Prophase

DIFFERENCES
Meiosis I

17

Meiosis II

Metaphase

Anaphase

Telophase

(b) Mitosis and Meiosis


SIMILARITIES

Feature
Type of cell that undergo
the process

DIFFERENCES
Mitosis

Behavior of homologous
chromosomes during
prophase
Chiasmata

18

Meiosis

Crossing over

Behavior of homologous
chromosomes during
metaphase
Number of nuclear divisions
per DNA replication
Number of daughter cells
produced at the end of the
process
Chromosomal number the
daughter cells
Genetic content

Genetic variation
Purpose
Significant

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