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EXPERIMENT # 4

The Animal Tissues


I.

ANSWER TO QUESTIONS

EPITHELIAL TISSUE
I.

Simple Epithelial Tissue


A. Simple squamous epithelium
1. How do the cells look like?
The cells appear as thin, flat plates having a horizontal and
elliptical nuclei because of the thin flattened form of the cell.
2. Are these nucleated?
Yes, the cells are nucleated because there is a presence of a
nucleus.
B. Simple columnar epithelium
1. Where is the nucleus of the cell located?
The nucleus of the cell is located near the base of the cells.
2. Why are these called goblet cells?
These are called goblet cells because they are specialized cells that
provide mucus for lubrication.
3. What is mucus for?
Mucus is for lubricating and protecting the lining of the intestine.

II.

Stratified Epithelium
A. Stratified squamous epithelium
1. How would you compare the inner and the outer surfaces of
the human skin? Do they have the same number of layers?
The inner surface of the human skin is unkeratinized while the
outer surface is keratinized, meaning it becomes hardened with
keratin and makes a tough, dry, protective covering; No, they dont
have the same number of layers.
B. Transitional epithelium
1. How many layers of cell are visible?
Two layers of cell are visible; it resembles both stratified
cuboidal and stratified squamous.
2. Are the cells in each layer similar?
No, the cells in each layer are not similar because it can appear
to be stratified cuboidal when the tissue is not stretched or
stratified squamous when the organ is distended.
3. What could be the reason for this?

Its stretchable nature could be the reason for this; it forms a


barrier that prevents the contents of the urinary tract from diffusing
back into the body fluids.

4. Why is this epithelial tissue called transitional?


This epithelial tissue is called transitional because the cells
are rounded and can slide across one another to allow
stretching; it stretches readily and permits distension of
urinary organ by contained urine.
III.

Specialized Epithelia
A. Exocrine gland
1. What do secretory cells of the islets of Langerhans secrete?
The secretory cells of the islets of Langerhans secrete hormones;
beta cells secrete insulin and amylin, alpha cells secrete glucagon,
delta cells secrete somatostatin, and gamma cells secrete
pancreatic polypeptide.
2. What are other examples of epithelial tissues that are
secretory in function?
Other examples of epithelial tissues that are secretory in
function are thyroid gland, salivary gland and pancreas.
3. Give examples of endocrine and exocrine glands in the
human body.
Endocrine glands- pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid gland,
adrenal gland, testes gland and ovary gland
Exocrine glands- salivary gland, stomach gland, mammary gland,
anal gland, sweat gland and tear gland

CONNECTIVE TISSUE
1. Where are deposits of adipose tissues usually found?
The deposits of adipose tissues are usually found beneath the skin
(subcutaneous fat), around internal organs (visceral fat), bone marrow, and
intermuscular (muscular system and breast tissue).
2. Why are the cells of connective tissues arranged far apart from each
other?
The cells of connective tissues are arranged far apart from each other
because they are separated by an abundant amount of extracellular material,
also called extracellular matrix composed of collagenous, elastic and reticular
fibers.
3. How do frog and human blood smears differ?
Frog erythrocytes are oval-shaped and have a nucleus but do not have
platelets while human erythrocytes are biconcave discs, have platelets but
does not have a nucleus.

MUSCULAR TISSUE
1. How do the three types of muscles differ based on their structures?
Skeletal muscle is striated (has light-colored bands crossing it), and
multiple nuclei. The muscle looks very highly organized when comparing it to
smooth or cardiac muscle.
Cardiac muscle also may appear striated, but with only a single band
crossing each bundle, the intercalated disc. Each cell possesses only one or
two, large, round nuclei, which typically stain fairly dark.
Smooth muscle is not striated and each cell has only a single nucleus.
The nuclei are typically very elongated and dark-staining and the cells are
less organized than other forms of muscle.
2. Why do muscle cells have more mitochondria than other cells like
the skin cells?
Muscle cells have more mitochondria because mitochondria are the
powerhouses of the cell, and muscle cells need more energy than skin cells.
Mitochondria is the part of cells that generate energy by turning nutrients
and oxygen into fuel for the body. Since Mitochondria manufacture ATP
(adenosine triphosphate) which is the main source of quick energy and
provide the energy a cell needs in order to function for the muscles, thus
muscles have far more of these.

NERVOUS TISSUE
1. What are the characteristics and functions of the four kinds of
tissues found in animal systems?
There four kinds of tissues found in animal systems:
Epithelium - Tissues composed of layers of cells that cover organ
surfaces such as surface of the skin and inner lining of digestive tract:
the tissues that serve for protection, secretion, and absorption.
Connective tissue - connective tissue holds everything together.
Connective tissue is characterized by the separation of the cells by
non-living material, which is called extracellular matrix. Bone and
blood are connective tissues.
Muscle tissue - Muscle cells are the contractile tissue of the body. Its
function is to produce force and cause motion, either locomotion or
movement within internal organs. Muscle tissue is separated into three
distinct categories: visceral or smooth muscle, which is found in the
inner linings of organs; skeletal muscle, which is found attached to
bone in order for mobility to take place; and cardiac muscle which is
found in the heart.
Nervous tissue - Cells forming the brain, spinal cord and peripheral
nervous system. Its function is to react to stimuli and to conduct

impulses to various organs in the body which bring about a response to


the stimulus.
2. How do nerve cells look like?
Nerve cells look like branches or spikes extending out from the cell
body. The cell body has a nucleus within it, the nerves have several points
where it branches into dendrites, the head then extends into a narrow
extension which is coated with Myelin sheath, and the narrow extension then
branches out into dendrites which is a mode of contact to another neuron.
3. How are nerve fibers similar to electric cables?
Nerve fibers are similar to electric cables both conduct power through
impulses or burst of ions/charges and have insulation (the cable has plastic
coating, the muscle has myelin sheath), work in bundle format. The axons in
a nerve are similar to the individual wires bundled together in a large
electrical cable. They come from different sources, get bound together in one
package for most of their journey, then branch apart at the end to reach their
individual targets.
4. What are the features of a nerve cell that could hardly be found in
other cells or tissues?
Nerve cells have a distinctive appearance. Extending out from each
nerve cell body are long cytoplasmic processes, one axon and several
dendrites. A typical nerve cell body contains only a small fraction of the total
cell volume; the rest is contained in the axon and dendrites. The spaces
between nerve cell bodies with a felt work of these axonal and dendritic
processes, called neuropil.
The cell body of a nerve cell (also called a soma, plural somata) is basically a
cell nucleus surrounded by cytoplasm.
Nuclei of nerve cells are large, round and euchromatic with a single
prominent nucleolus.
Cytoplasm of nerve cell bodies is abundantly supplied with masses of rough
endoplasmic reticulum (traditionally called Nissl bodies), numerous Golgi
bodies, lots of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, many mitochondria, and
extensive cytoskeletal elements (microtubules and various filaments).
The axon is a process which is specialized for conducting signals from one
nerve cell to another.
Dendrites are processes which are specialized for receiving and integrating
signals from other nerve cells.
Synapses are points of contact between nerve cells (usually between axon
terminals and dendrites), where signals are transmitted from one cell to
another.