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Animal Farm Notes




Terms you should already know

a. Plot
i. Exposition
ii. Conflict
1. Character vs ___.
iii. Rising Action
iv. Complications
v. Suspense
vi. Climax
vii. Falling Action
viii. Resolution
b. Character Types
i. Protagonist
ii. Antagonist
iii. Major
iv. Minor
v. Round
vi. Flat
vii. Static
viii. Dynamic
c. Miscellaneous other Literary Terms
i. Connotation
ii. Denotation
iii. Tone
iv. Mood
v. Theme
New Terms From literature
a. Satire
i. A satire is the use of humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize
people's stupidity or vices, particularly in the context of contemporary politics and other
topical issues
b. Symbolism
i. Symbolism is the use of symbols to represent ideas or qualities Representation of a
concept through symbols or underlying meanings of objects or qualities
c. Allegory
i. Satire is a story, poem, or picture that can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning,
typically a moral or political one
ii. Animal Farm is an a
llegory for the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia and aftermath when
new leaders came into power.
Historical information
a. Class
i. Tsar
1. King of Russia out of touch with the people and their struggles
ii. Bourgeoisie
1. Middle class living large while the working class is slaving away
2. Usually only interested in trivialities and materialism
3. This class and above owned the means of production
iii. Proletariat
1. Working class
b. Russia 1914
i. In 1914, he got Russia entangled in World War I, and then mismanaged it. As a result of
various blockages as a result of the war, a famine was beginning to creep across Russia


c. Communism
i. The basic was that the capitalist economic system was seriously flawed.
1. The workers never saw the products of their labor because the capitalists the

who owned the means of production (factories, land, etc.) claimed

the profit for themselves.
ii. Marx suggested that if common workers could overthrow the capitalists and claim
the means of production for themselves, then all the workers of the world
could live in peace with one another.
d. Propaganda
i. Information, esp. of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote or publicize a
particular political cause or point of view.
e. Bolshevik Revolution
i. Eventually Tsar Nicholas is overthrown by a combination of striking, hungry workers,
communists, and military member who sympathies with the workers.
f. Key People
i. Joseph Stalin
1. Played a tiny part in the revolution
2. Just an editor at a propaganda newspaper
3. Eventually started usurping power from the workers and communists
4. More interested in acquiring and keeping privilege and comfort
5. Eventually Stalin pushes his way to leader status and beings negotiating with the
allies to gain power and influence in the west.
ii. Leon Trotsky
1. quick mind and intelligent speeches.
2. military skill during the civil war had gained him a lot of support as well
3. Actually played a big part in the revolution
4. Eventually became isolated after Lenins death and his own illness
5. Is eventually ordered to be exiled and killed by Stalin
Some Topics and Questions to consider for writing Theme statements
a. Ignorance and Intelligence
i. What is the danger of being ignorant?
ii. What are the benefits of being intelligent?
iii. Why might it be important for some people to always remain ignorant?
iv. How do the ignorant en masse have power?
v. Character to watch
1. Sheep
b. Power and Corruption
i. What is power?
ii. How does one acquire power? And over who/what?
iii. What is the inherent, although sometimes ignored, responsibility of the powerful?
iv. Characters to watch
1. Snowball
2. Napoleon
3. Squealer
c. Truth and Deception
i. What are the tools and steps in any good deception?
ii. What qualities make an individual easy to device?
iii. Character to watch
1. Squealer
2. Napoleon
3. Snowball
d. Tradition and Revolution
i. What is the purpose of establishing tradition?

ii. In a rebellion what is the importance of the destruction of tradition and the
establishment of new traditions.
iii. How can rebellion be a form of corruption
iv. Characters to watch
1. Snowball
2. Squealer
3. Napoleon
Animal Farm Comprehension Test Preview
(Compete worth 1 Extra Credit Class Grade Completed by Oct 10th. We will be using these notes over several days to have
discussion Collection on Oct 13th)

Chapter 1
1. Make a list of characters. (Hint: 3. Identify the following: 3 dogs, 2 cart-horses, goat, donkey, mare,
2. Who do you think will be the most important characters? Why?
3. Who first introduces the idea of the revolution to the animals?
4. What does Major say about the relationship between animals and humans?
5. Describe the animals lives according to Old major (3 things)
6. What is the importance of Major's dream?
7. Why do you think the song is significant?
8. Why does Major sing Beasts of England to the animals? What purpose does he want it to serve?
9. In one word, what is Old Major's message to the animals?
Chapter 2
1. Who was the cleverest of the animals?
2. What two pigs were emerging as leaders? Describe each of them.
3. Describe Snowball, Napoleon, and Squealer. Why are they important?
4. How and why does the revolution happen? What do the animals do after they take over the farm?
5. What mysterious place did Moses talk of?
6. What had the pigs taught themselves to do?
7. List the 7 Commandments.
8. What things capture Mollies attention?
9. Why do you think the pigs teach themselves to read and write?
10. What disappears at the end of the chapter?
11. Why do you think Orwell includes this detail, particularly at the end of a chapter?
Chapter 3
1. Why is the animals harvest better than the previous harvest with the humans?
2. What animals does Napoleon take to rear separately from the others?
3. Why do you think Napoleon isolates these animals?
4. Did the pigs actually work? Discuss.
5. What was Boxer's personal motto?
6. Describe Animal Farm's flag. What did it represent?
7. Describe the ceremonies that took place on Sundays.
8. To what extent did Boxer learn the alphabet?
9. What single sentence did Snowball reduce the 7 Commandments to?
10. Who repeatedly talked to the animals on behalf of the pigs
11. What were the animals completely certain of?
Chapter 4 and 5
1. What kinds of propaganda can you see in these chapters?
2. What are the names of the two neighboring farmers?


What animal was wounded in the battle?

Which one of the humans was injured?
What was set up at the foot of the flagstaff?
Who is accused of having contact with a human?
Who disappeared? Where was she later seen?
What happened at crucial moments in Snowball's speech?
How does Napoleon use the sheep to achieve his goals?
What did Snowball want to build?
What did Napoleon do to Snowball's plans?
What happened to Jessie and Bluebell's puppies?
What happened to Snowball?
What benefit does Snowball propose the windmill will provide?
What are the arguments against building the windmill? Why does it prompt such a heated discussion?
Why does Napoleon resort to running Snowball off in a violent manner? In what other ways might
Napoleon have handled the situation?
17. What does Napoleons use of the dogs suggest about the direction in which the operation of Animal
Farm is moving?
18. What does Squealer mean when he explains that the reason Napoleon opposed the windmill at first was
Tactics, comrades, tactics!?
Chapter 6 and 7
1. What does Napoleon say must be done for the farm to survive?
2. Why does Napoleon decide that trade with humans is a necessary evil? How does he explain that to the
animals? What is their reaction? How does he ultimately win them over?
3. What does Orwell imply when he writes that people finally began referring to the farm as Animal Farm
instead of continuing to call it Manor Farm?
4. What happens to the windmill?
5. Whom does Napoleon accuse of destroying the windmill?
6. What is the benefit of making Snowball a scapegoat? How does it advance Napoleons purposes? How
does it appease the other animals?
7. What do the chickens have to surrender? Why?
8. List two specific accusations made in this chapter against Snowball.
9. What happens when various animals confess to crimes?
10. Why is Beasts of England banned?
11. What is the significance of the pigs moving into the farmhouse? What reasons do the pigs tell the other
animals? Why do you think they really wanted to live there?
12. Why do you think some of the animals confess to crimes? Do you believe they committed these crimes?
What effect do the executions have on the other animals?
13. What reasons does Squealer give for forbidding Beasts of England? Why do you think Beasts of England
is really forbidden?
14. What did Napoleon announce? What was the penalty for not volunteering?
15. How did the animals deal with the huge boulders?
16. What commandment did the pigs break? How did they cover it up?
17. Which animal refused to grow enthusiastic about the windmill?
18. What happened to the windmill?
19. What did Napoleon offer for the capture of Snowball?
20. How was the building of the windmill going to be different?
21. Who had difficulty believing Snowball was a threat?
22. Which animals were the first killed by Napoleon?

Chapter 8
1. Describe the new ways Napoleon sets himself apart from the other animals. What does this remind you
2. What happens when Napoleon tries to sell the woodpile?
3. How do the pigs feel about the Battle of the Windmill? How do the other animals feel?
4. What do you think is the significance of the last "human behavior" commandment being changed?
5. What words are added (without the animals knowledge) to the commandment No animal shall kill any
other animal?Why is this important?
6. What is the purpose of Napoleons self-imposed sequestering and ceremonial appearances?
7. What is Napoleons purpose for inscribing the poem and the portrait of himself on the wall? Is it
possible that his purpose might backfire?
8. What turnaround occurs regarding Pilkington and Frederick, and what do the animals think of each of
9. How does Frederick trick the animals?
10. What is the irony in the scene where the animals celebrate after the windmill has been blown up? What
purpose does this use of irony serve?
11. What words are added (without the animals knowledge) to the commandment No animal shall drink
12. What does the unexplainable incident that occurs at the very end of Chapter 8 confirm for readers? Do
any of the animals get it?
13. Throughout the novel, the animals believe or are led to believe one thing and then are later convinced of
another. Why is that and how is that achieved? What does it say about the animals? About Animal
Farm? About society? About Orwells beliefs about Soviet Communism?
14. Have your attitudes as a reader changed throughout your reading of the novel? About the pigs? About
various other animals? About Communism? Society?
Chapter 9

What injury does Boxer sustain?

Why are the young pigs born piebald?
What message is sent when bricks are bought and a schoolhouse is built for Napoleons offspring?
What is producing the wonderful smell coming from the farmhouse?
How is Napoleon served his half gallon of beer every day?
Orwell says that life nowadays had a greater dignity than it had had before. In what ways does that
appear to be true? In what ways is that, in actuality, false?
What does Napoleons treatment of Boxer reveal? Why do the animals believe Squealer when he
explains that Boxer was not sent to the knacker?
What do the pigs buy with the money that they receive from the knacker?
How do you think Orwell wants readers to react to the line, From somewhere or other the pigs had
acquired the money to buy themselves another case of whisky?
According to Moses, what was Sugar candy mountain like?
What did Sqeualor announce to the animals concerning Boxer's death?

Chapter 10
1. Where is Jones when he dies?
2. When the first windmill is finally completed, how is it used?
3. What is the irony of Napoleons statement, The truest happinesslay in working hard and living
4. What mysterious things do the pigs supposedly spend their time working on?
5. What human behavior do the pigs take on in the last chapter of the novel that goes against the first and
most sacred commandment of Animalism?

6. Why dont the animals organize a rebellion of their own to overthrow the pigs? What do you think
would be the short term and the long term results if such a rebellion were to succeed?
7. What causes the fight between the humans and the pigs at the conclusion of the novel?
8. What did Napoleon announce would be the new name of Animal Farm? Is this surprising? Why or Why
9. What makes the final scene in the farmhouse so powerful?
10. In Chapters 9 and 10, the farmhouse becomes as much a part of the setting as the rest of the farm itself.
Why? What purpose does that serve?
11. What does it mean that the pigs have now learned to walk on two legs?
12. What is the new commandment? What does it mean?
13. What are the differences between man and pig at the end of Chapter 10?
14. What do you think the moral of this fable is?
Animal Farm Character Test Preview
9RL3:Character Analysis: Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting
motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop
the theme
Directions: Complete the questions below in order to practice for your test. Use the notes provided and you
study guide to come up with specific reasons for each question.
Character Types Notes
1. Dynamic is a character that undergoes some kind of change because of the action in the plot.
2. Round have similar emotions and reactions as most real people, are more fully developed, and
therefore are harder to summarize
3. Flat embodies one or two qualities, ideas, or traits that can be easily described in a brief summary.
4. Static does not change throughout the work, and the readers knowledge of that character does not
5. Protagonist is the central character who engages the readers interest and empathy. This character
also leads the action of the story
6. Antagonist is the character, force, or collection of forces that stands directly opposed to the
protagonist and gives rise to the conflict of the story.
7. Major characters are usually the characters the story focuses on.
8. Minor character is usually a character you dont learn very much about, but is important to the
progress of the story
Characters of Animal Farm Bank

Lesser point Questions

1. Which character would you describe as a dynamic character? Explain.
2. Which character would you describe as a round character? Explain.
3. Which character would you describe as a flat character? Explain.
4. Which character would you describe as a static character? Explain.
5. Which character would you describe as a major character? Explain.
6. Which character would you describe as a minor character? Explain.
7. Which character would you describe as a protagonist character? Explain.
8. Which character would you describe as an antagonist character? Explain.
Most point Questions
9. Choose and character and discuss a theme statement that character represents. Tell the theme
statement you have chosen and explain how that character helps the reader find that claim.

10. A. Choose one character and analyze how the characters motivations change from the beginning of the
text to the end. B. How does the characters interactions with other characters change? C. How doe these
conflicts and changes add to the theme?
Animal Farm Plot and Structure Test Preview
(Compete worth 1 Extra Credit Class Grade Completed by Oct 10th. We will be using these notes over several days to have
discussion Collection on Oct 13th)

9RL5: Structure and Mood Analyze how an authors choices concerning how to structure a text, order
events within it (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing, flashbacks) create such effects as
mystery, tension, or surprise.
Directions: Complete the questions below in order to practice for your test. Use the notes provided and you
study guide to come up with specific reasons for each question.
Character Types Notes
1. Fiction are stories about fictional events. An easy way to remember fiction is that it's fake.
2. Mood-- is the feel of a story
3. The events that happen in a story is called p
4. Exposition is the background information of the story. Beginning in fiction terminology is called,
the Exposition
a. Setting is the place where the action of a story occurs.
b. Characters is a person presented in a dramatic or narrative work
5. Conflict is the problem in the story that hinders the character from reaching his/her goal.
6. Rising action is everything from the initiation of conflict to the climax.
The rising action has two parts
a. Complications-- all minor conflicts and inconveniences that make the conflict harder to solve
b. Suspense--when the reader worries about the characters
7. Climax the moment of greatest emotional tension in a story. This is usually where the protagonist
must make a key decision to resolve the overall conflict. The turning point in the story.
8. Falling action where most conflicts are usually resolved at this time, and tying up lose ends in the
9. Resolution is the final outcome of the story.
Key Events of Animal Farm Bank (In no particular order)

1. Assign letters from the event bank to each piece of plot and explain why it goes with that part of plot.
2. How does the order that the author chooses to reveal things impact the mood of the text?
Animal Farm Plot and Structure Test Preview
Animal Farm Comprehension Test Preview
(Compete worth 1 Extra Credit Class Grade Completed by Oct 13th. We will be using these notes over several days to have
discussion Collection on Oct 14th)

9RL9: Effect Allusions and Retellings Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in
a specific work
Historical Figure and Idea Bank

Karl Marx
Tsar Nicholas II

Animal Farm
1. Farmer Jones


The blind masses

Historical Figure or

10. Allies at the Tehran

11. Hitlers broken
non-aggression pact

Quotes that helped you

figure that out


2.Old Major

3.Clover and Boxer




8. Moses
9. Sheep

10. Mr. Frederick

11.Mr. Pilkington

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