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IDENTIFICATION AND PID CONTROLLER TUNING

OF HIGHER ORDER SYSTEMS


Roll no:CH11B081

Name: Neeraj Kumar

Identification of transfer function models is essential for design of controllers. Identification is carried out in an
open loop or a closed loop in this study. Open loop identification of a higher order model is done and controller
tuning of the identified model is done by IMC method of Skogestad (2003).
Objective:

Identification of FOPTD (first order plus time delay) model


PID controller tuning for the identified FOPTD model.

Step response identification


Identification of a first order plus time delay model is obtained by process reaction curve method. FOPTD
model parameters are obtained from the transient step response curve using Sundaresan [1978] method which
utilizes two points in the curve. In this method from the transient step response curve, the time t1 and t2 are
obtained when the fractional responses are y1= 0.353 and y2= 0.853 respectively. Using the following formula
the time constant and the dead time are obtained for FOPTD model.
= 1.31 0.292
= 0.67 (2 1 )
=

(1)

.
Controller design for FOPTD model.
For controller design, the following formulae of SOPTD systems of Skogestad [2003] is used with 2 = 0 for
FOPTD model.
Ideal PID settings (Skogestad[2003])
c = ; for 8
=

0.5 (1 + 2 )

= 1 + 2
d = 0

(2)

Calculations and results:

Figure 1: Step response of 4th order system

The transfer function:


4

() = (10+1)(25+1)(+1)2
From figure 1, we get
1 = 27.75
2 = 67.5
Equation (1) can be applied to get the following relations
= 16.28
1 = 26.6325s
kp= 1
So now the 4th order system is approximated to:

16.28
() =
(26.6325 + 1)
Designed controller settings are Kc = 0.818, I = 26.6325and D = 0

Figure 2: FOPTD system with PID control


2) For the second problem, the control loop is as shown below:

Figure 3: Servo Control Loop For 2nd Transfer Function


The PID Parameters were recalculated to suit the new transfer function:
Kc=0.5
1 = 10s

Servo and regulatory responses are shown in the below figures.

Figure 4: Servo response of the given problem.


For Regulatory Response,

Figure 5: Control Loop for Regulatory Response

Figure 6: Response for regulatory problem using PID control


Robustness analysis
For Servo Control,

Figure 7: Robustness response for Servo Control

For Regulatory Control,

Figure 8: Robustness response for Regulatory Control

Bio Reactor Coupled model.


1
= ( 1 )1

2
1
= (2 2 )1

2
+ 2

Where
max = 0.4
D1 = 0.36
X2f = 1.0

= 0.4
km = 0.05
FOPTD function corresponding to above model is obtained by following the same method as earlier.
To summarize the work done:

Find the time corresponding to response 0.353 and 0.853.


Find PID parameters using IMC method of Skogestad (2003).

Figure 7: Simulink diagram of open loop bioreactor system.

Figure 8: Simulink diagram of sub-system (open loop system).

After giving step input:


Steady state points are: 0.22 and 0.45
X2f= 1 to 1.02
t1 = 16.95, t2 = 50.61
= 7.3581, = 22.5522, kp = 0.4
The transfer function is:

() =

0.4 7.3581
(22.5522+1)

The PI controller has


Kc = 3.8312

= 22.55
Final model

Figure 9: Simulink diagram of closed loop bioreactor system.

Figure 10: Simulink diagram of a sub system (closed loop system)

Figure 11: Open loop response of the bio reactor system.

Figure 12: Controlled response for bio reactor model with PID control.