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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Contents
Welcome
Invitation from the Conference Chair......................................................................................................

Welcome Message
FAO....................................................................................................................................................
TEAKNET.............................................................................................................................................
IUFRO.................................................................................................................................................
ITTO...................................................................................................................................................

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5
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Overall Programme
Conference themes...............................................................................................................................
List of Keynote Speaker.........................................................................................................................
Programme at a glance.........................................................................................................................
Organising Committee...........................................................................................................................
Scientific Committee.............................................................................................................................
Oral Presentation Programme.................................................................................................................
Poster Presentation Programme..............................................................................................................

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Abstarcts
Oral- Abstracts.....................................................................................................................................
Poster- Abstracts..................................................................................................................................
List of Participants................................................................................................................................

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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Invitation from Conference Chair

On behalf of the Organizing Committee of the World Teak Conference 2015, it is my pleasure to invite you to join us in this
international event that will take place at the Hilton Colon Hotel, Guayaquil, Ecuador from the 11th to the 15th May, 2015.
The World Teak Conference 2015 is being jointly organized by Asociacin Ecuatoriana de Productores y Comercializadores de Teca
y Maderas Tropicales (ASOTECA), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), TEAKNET, an international
teak information network, the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) and Soluciones Ambientales Totales
(SAMBITO), the event organizer.
The Conferences theme Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development will focus on economic,
social, technical and environmental issues that have an impact on the production, marketing and trade of teakwood. It will also
facilitate the transfer of knowledge and technology among teak growing countries.
I take this opportunity to express our special gratitude to all of our sponsors, allies and strategic partners who entrusted us to
make this Conference possible, as well as our honorable speakers, organizers and committee members for their unparalleled
dedication and commitment to deliver an event of upmost quality. Once again, thank you for your interest to attend the World
Teak Conference 2015 and I look forward to meeting you in beautiful Guayaquil this coming May.
Sincerely,

Antonio Pino Gmez-Lince


President, ASOTECA
Chairman
World Teak Conference 2015

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Welcome Message from FAO


Dear delegates from Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America and Oceania, distinguished ladies and gentlemen, dear colleagues,
I am deeply honoured by the opportunity to welcome you at the World Teak Conference 2015 in Guayaquil, Ecuador. This event has
been organized for the 3rd time after previous conferences have been held in Costa Rica (2011) and Thailand (2013) that have
attracted worldwide attention of plantation managers, growers, investors, traders, scientists and researchers.
As a member of the Scientific and Organizing Committee I would like to express my sincere appreciation for the Asociacin
Ecuatoriana de Productores y Comercializadores de Teca y Maderas Tropicales (ASOTECA) for having taken the initiative to organize
this event in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Teak
Information Network (TEAKNET), the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) and the event organizer
Soluciones Ambientales Totales (SAMBITO).
Teak (Tectona grandis) has gained worldwide recognition as the most preferred tropical hardwood reputed for its exceptionally
superior physical, mechanical and aesthetic qualities. Teak is one of the tropical hardwoods in high demand for the luxury market
and for heavy duty applications. Since the 1980s, this species has attracted large-scale investments from the private sector in
approx. 70 countries throughout tropical Asia, Africa, Latin America and Oceania. Growing private investment in teak plantations is a
clear indication of the perceived potential of the species. Ecuador is an important teak growing country and has emerged as one of
the largest teak exporters in Latin America. The government of Ecuador has launched a national support program that provides
financial incentives for reforestation with commercial species, among them teak. It is estimated that today, more than 1200 teak
plantations cover an area of approx. 50,000 hectares in Ecuador. The annual export of round logs and sawn timber to mainly Asian
countries is estimated at approx. 150,000 cubic meters.
In this context I am convinced that we are looking forward to an interesting and stimulating convention that will provide ample
opportunities to learn about teak resources and markets in different country contexts and to discuss their contributions to
sustainable livelihoods and rural development. I encourage you to fully embrace this event and to take the opportunity to mobilize
your networks and meet familiar colleagues from the international teak community and, equally important, to make new friends and
to share with them your views on old and innovative ideas. I am also looking forward to enjoying Ecuadors rich culture and
hospitality, which will make this event a significant milestone in the history of the international teak community.
Sincerely,

Walter Kollert
Planted Forests Officer, FAO, Rome
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Welcome Message from TEAKNET


Let me extend a most sincere welcome to all of you to the 3rd World Teak Conference here in the beautiful city of Guayaquil.
On behalf of the Conference Scientific Committee and TEAKNET, the Co-organiser of the event, it is my pleasure to welcome you to
the 3rd World Teak Conference with the theme: Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development
with major focus on economic, social, technical and environmental issues that have an impact on the production, marketing and
trade of teakwood. This is in fact the second time that the World Teak Conference is being held in Latin America which is home to
about 6% of the worlds planted teak resources. Ecuador is the largest teak exporting country in Latin America. The government of
Ecuador has launched massive reforestation programme and provide financial incentives for commercial species, including teak. It is
estimated that today, more than 1200 teak plantations covering an area of approx. 46,000 ha in Ecuador. .
The local organizers, ASOTECA has taken lot of efforts and pains to make elaborate arrangements for the successful organisation of
this conference. The scientific programme was developed in 4 major sessions that include 30 Oral presentations and an equal
number of Posters encompass all aspects of teak plantation management, production, marketing and trade, highlighting the
problems faced by the teak sector, globally. TEAKNET which is an international R & D network established by FAO of the United
Nations is one of the technical sponsors of this conference. TEAKNET is more than delighted and committed to work for the
sustainable development of the world teak community, this time at the largest gathering of growers, traders and researchers
assembled here for the face to face dialogue and continued interaction between the stakeholders.
We, from TEAKNET are extremely happy to wish you very successful and memorable days in Guayaquil.
Sincerely,

Lars Graudal
Chairman, TEAKNET
Copenhagen, Denmark
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Welcome Message from IUFRO


On behalf of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) I am honoured to be able to welcome you to the 3rd World
Teak Conference. An important meeting underpinned by the theme Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable
Development and held in Guayaquil, Ecuador from 11 to 15 May 2015. It makes me particularly proud to be able to highlight the fact that
IUFRO, via its Working Party on Utilization of Planted Teak is co-sponsoring this international event. More than 300 participants from
across the globe will meet in Guayaquil to discuss important aspects of teak conservation and management including silviculture, genetics,
plantation management, marketing and trade. These discussions will play an important role in promoting teak as a quality product from
sustainable forest resources management.
IUFRO is a non-profit, non-governmental international network of forest science institutions that advances research excellence and
knowledge sharing. Importantly, it fosters development of science-based solutions to forest-related challenges for the benefit of forests
and people worldwide. With its 650 member institutions in more than 120 countries, IUFRO is able to generate and disseminate scientific
information on key economic, social, technical and environmental issues impacting on the production, marketing and trade of many
different products including teak products.Therefore, the World Teak Conference provides an excellent opportunity for researchers,
practitioners, policy makers and the private sector to interact, to learn from each other and in this way to strengthen partnership and
cooperation.
One of the outcomes of the World Teak Conference held in Bangkok in 2013 was the recognition that the genetic resource base of natural
teak forests is under constant threat and that urgent conservation measures were needed. IUFRO together with TEAKNET and FAO has
been at the forefront of initiating a global project on the genetic conservation and management of teak resources. To this end, a Project
Formulation Workshop for Asian partners coordinated by IUFROs Special Programme for Development of Capacities (SPDC) was organised
in Bangkok in May 2014. As a follow-up and aiming at further developing the project, a similar 2-day workshop for African and Latin
American countries will be held prior to the 2015 Ecuador Conference.
ASOTECA, the local organizers of the World Teak Conference, together with, FAO, IUFRO, TEAKNET and other sponsoring agencies are
commended for their hard work in organising this important event. I am confident that this conference spanning 3 days with an additional
day of field visits will provide a platform to discuss and deliberate all aspects of teak production. And importantly that the outcomes will
include measures to overcome the challenges faced in the sustainable development of the global teak sector.
IUFRO is all the more happy to join you in this conference in Guayaquil.

Sincerely,

Mike Wingfield
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

President, IUFRO, Vienna

Welcome Message from ITTO


I am extremely glad to learn that the 3rd World Teak Conference is going to be held in Guayaquil, Ecuador during 11-15 May 2015
with the theme: Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development. This will be a historical event of
global significance in developing international strategic plans for sustainable utilization of naturally renewable resources, especially
teak.
The International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) is an intergovernmental organization promoting the conservation and
sustainable management, use and trade of tropical forest resources. With these mandates, ITTO joins hands with international
organizations like FAO, TEAKNET, IUFRO and other stakeholders to promote sustainable development in the forests products sector
thereby increasing their capacity to export legally harvested timber and other forest products from those forests. ITTO serves the
international teak community by providing the trade policies and market information of teak logs and squares through its Market
Information Service published bi-monthly.
I congratulate the organizers, ASOTECA, the consortium of private owned teak enterprises in Ecuador who have come forward to
conduct this international conference in the land of the largest teak exporting country in Latin America, in association with FAO,
TEAKNET and other organizations.
I hope you enjoy your time in Guayaquil and I encourage you to take advantage of the wider opportunities to develop your new
networks.

Sincerely,

Emmanuel Ze Meka
Executive Director, ITTO, Japan
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

The Conference Scientific Themes


The 3rd World Teak Conference with the theme - Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development will address the
most crucial issues of the global teak sector and it is planned to centre around the following major themes:

Session 1: Economics, investments and trade


Session 2: Genetics, tree improvement, silviculture and wood quality
Session 3: Management models for different value chains, including smallholder forestry
Session 4: Teak plantation management and environmental protection

Keynote speakers
General Keynote

: Mr. Darshan Raiyani, OLAM International, Singapore

Keynote in Session I

: Dr. Walter Kollert, FAO, Rome

Keynote in Session II

: Dr. Oliver Monteuuis, CIRAD, France

Keynote in Session III : Dr. Henri Bailleres, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Australia
Keynote in Session IV

: Mr. Hans Lemm, Kilombero Valley Teak Company, Tanzania

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Program at a Glance
Tuesday, 12 May 2015

Wednesday, 13 May 2015

08:00-09:00

09:00-09:30

Registration

Session II: Thematic Keynote

09:00-09:20

Presentation 20

09:30-09:50

Presentation 9

09:20-09:40

Presentation 21

Opening ceremony

09:50-10:10

Presentation 10

09:40-10:00

Presentation 22

Government of Ecuador & ASOTECA

10:10-10:30

Presentation 11

10:00-10:15

Discussion

10:00-10:45
General Keynote

10:30-10:45

Discussion

09:00-10:00

10:45-11:15
11:15-11:45
Session I: Thematic Keynote
11:45-12:05
Presentation 1

10:15-10:45
Session IV: Thematic Keynote

Morning Break

11:15-11:35

Presentation 12

11:15-11:35

Presentation 23

11:35-11:55

Presentation 13

11:35-11:55

Presentation 24

12:05-12:25

Presentation 2

11:55-12:15

Presentation 14

11:55-12:15

Presentation 25

12:25-12:45
12:45-13:00

Presentation 3
Discussion

12:15-12:35
12:35-13:00

Presentation 15
Discussion

12:15-12:35
12:35-13:00

Presentation 26
Discussion

Presentation 16

14:15-14:35

Presentation 27

14:35-14:55
14:55-15:15

Presentation 28
Presentation 29

13:00 -14:15

Lunch

14:15-14:35

Presentation 4

14:15-14:35

14:35-14:55
14:55-15:15

Presentation 5
Presentation 6

14:35-14:55

Presentation 17

14:55-15:00

15:15-15:30

Discussion

Discussion
15:00-15:30

16:00-16:20
16:20-16:40
16:40-17:00

Presentation 7
Presentation 8
Discussion

19.00

Welcome Dinner

Session III: Thematic Keynote


15:30-16:00 Afternoon Break
16:00-16:20
16:20-16:40
16:40-17:00
17:30-19:00

Presentation 18
Presentation 19
Discussion

15:15-15:30

Friday, 15 May 2015


Field Trip

Monday, 11 May 2015


15:00-17:00
Registration

Thursday, 14 May 2015

Discussion

16:00- 17:00
Closing Ceremony
FAO, ITTO & TEAKNET

TEAKNET Steering
Committee Meeting

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Organizing Committee
Chairman

: Antonio Pino Gmez-Lince, President ASOTECA, President FORESCAN

Co-Chairman : Xavier Elizalde, Executive Director ASOTECA

1.

Walter Kollert, Planted Forests Officer, FAO, Rome

2.

PK. Thulasidas, TEAKNET Coordinator, India

3.

M.P. Sreelakshmy, TEAKNET Secretariat, India

4.

Adolfo Rodrguez, Director ASOTECA, President AGRONACUI, Ecuador

5.

Jorge Romn, Director ASOTECA, Grupo ENDESA-BOTROSA, Ecuador

6.

Fernando Muirragui, Director ASOTECA, President EPACEM, Ecuador

7.

Teodoro Malo, Vice-President ASOTECA, Teak Grower, Ecuador

8.

Enrique Garca, Director ASOTECA, General Manager ALLTEAK, Ecuador

9.

Fernando Montenegro, General Manager NEOFORESTS, Ecuador

10. Diego Maruri, Director Asoteca, AGROTROPICAL Representative, Ecuador


11. Nstor Medrano, General Manager MENPROE, Ecuador
12. Luis Fernando Jara, General Manager, Ecuador
13. Juan Carlos Palacios, Executive Director, COMAFORS, , Ecuador
14. Bianca Dager, Corporate Director, SAMBITO, , Ecuador

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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Scientific Committee
Chairman
Co Chairman

: Lars Graudal, University of Copenhagen, Denmark


: P.K. Thulasidas, TEAKNET, India

Session I: Economics, investments and trade

Walter Kollert, FAO, Rome


Mammen Chundamannil, Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi, India
Dominique Y. Leuba, Novelteak Costa Rica S.A., Costa Rica

Session II: Genetics, tree improvement, silviculture, Wood quality

Lars Graudal, University of Copenhagen, Denmark


P.K. Thulasidas, TEAKNET, India
Jurgen Stock-Omar Carrero, PROTEAK, Mxico

Session III: Management models for different value chains, including smallholder forestry

Henri BAILLERES, ACIAR, Australia


James Roshetko, ICRAF, Indonesia
Edwin Jimnez Ruiz M.Sc., ESPOL, Ecuador

Session IV: Teak plantation management and environmental protection

Markku Kanninen, University of Helsinki, Finland


Stephen Midgley, Salwood Asia Pacific Pty Ltd, Australia

Folkert Kottman, PANAMERICAN WOODS, Costa Rica

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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Oral Presentation Programme

12

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

11 May 2015, Monday


15:00-17:00

Registration
12 May 2015, Tuesday

08.00-09.00

Registration

09.00-10.00

Opening Ceremony
Government of Ecuador & ASOTECA

10.00-10.45

General Keynote
Mr. Darshan Raiyani
OLAM International, Singapore

10.45-11.15

Morning Break

Session I (a): Economics, Investments, Markets and Trade


Chairperson: Dr. Michael Kleine, IUFRO HQ,Vienna, Austria

11:15-11:45

11:45-12:05

12:05-12:25
12:25-12:45

12:45-13:00
13:00-14:15

Thematic Keynote : Dr. Walter Kollert, FAO, Rome


Global Teak Trade in the Aftermath of Myanmars Log Export Ban
OI01:

Prof. Ohn Lwin, University of Forestry, Myanmar


Current Status of the Legal Framework and Administrative Procedures in the Forestry Sector Shaping Teak Management in Myanmar

OI-02: Dr. Rafael de la Torre, ArborGen Inc, USA


What are the Key Teakwood Market Drivers in the Western Hemisphere?
OI-03: Mr. Rahul Ahuja, ARON Global, Singapore
Insights into the Teak Market from a Latin American Perspective
Discussion
Lunch Break

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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Session I (b): Economics, Investments, Markets and Trade


Chairperson: Mr. Hans Lemm, Kilombero Valley Teak Company, Tanzania

14:15-14:35

OI-04: Mr. Vikram Aditya Watal, OLAM International, India


Teak Supply from LATAM in the Next 3 Years: Quarterly Peaks, Valleys and Age Classes

14:35-14:55

OI-05: Mr. Carlos Rojas-Guzman, AGSA, Mexico


The Global Teak Alliance: A Proposal to Develop an Association that can Represent the Global Plantation Teak Industry

14:55-15:15

OI-06: Mr. Juan Lopez, Camcore at North Carolina State University, USA
Profitability Model for a Teak Tree Breeding Program

15:15-15:30

Discussion

15:30-16:00

Afternoon Break

16:00-16:20

OI-07: Mr. Gaston Mauvezin, PROTEAK, Mexico


Maximizing Returns on Teak Investments through Logistics Optimization

16:20-16:40

OI-08: Mr. Sid Bhargava, APP Tiimber, India


Teak - Perception & Usage in India

16:40-17:00

Discussion

19.00

Welcome Dinner

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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

13 May 2015, Wednesday

Session II (a): Genetics, Tree Improvement, Silviculture and Wood Quality


Chairperson: Mr. Lars Graudal, Forest and Landscape, University of Copenhagen, Denmark

09:00-09:30

Thematic Keynote : Dr. Oliver Monteuuis, CIRAD, France


Teak Clonal Forestry: Rationale, First Accomplishments and Suggestions

09:30-09:50

OI-09: Dr. Ashwani Kumar, Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, India
Genetic Improvement of Teak in India for Growth and Timber Quality

09:50-10:10

OI-10: Dr. Yazar Minn, Forest Research Institute, Myanmar


Genetic Diversity and Breeding of Teak (Tectona grandis Linn f.) in Myanmar

10:10-10:30

OI- 11: Mr. Ricardo Lujan, BARCA S.A., Costa Rica


Experiencias y Tendencias al Analizar el Manejo Aplicado a Diferentes Rodales de Teca (Tectona grandis) Despus de 19 aos de
su Establecimiento en el Pacfico Central de Costa Rica. BARCA S.A.

10:30-10:45

Discussion

10.45-11.15

Morning Break

Session II (b): Genetics, Tree Improvement, Silviculture and Wood Quality


Chairperson: Dr. Olivier Monteuuis, CIRAD, France
11:15-11:35

OI-12: Mr. Lars Graudal, University of Copenhagen, Denmark


Worldwide Teak Resources: Genetic Map of Natural Populations

11:35-11:55

OI-13: Mr. Mario Espinoza, Novelteak, Costa Rica


Mejoramiento Gentico de Teca (Tectona Grandis Linn. f.) Asistido Por Marcadores Moleculares

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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

11:55-12:15

OI-14:. Prof. Liang Kunnan, Research Institute of Tropical Forestry, China


Heartwood Colour Variation in Different Geographical Provenances of Teak at 27 Year-Old

12:15-12:35

OI-15: Dr. Helaine Carrer, Universidade de So Paulo, Brazil


The Functional Genome of Teak

12:35-13:00

Discussion

13:00-14:15

Lunch Break

14:15-14:35

OI-16: Dr. Doreen K.S Goh, YSG Biotech Sdn Bhd, Malaysia
Top Teak From Test Tube to Worldwide Exportation

14:35-14:55

OI-17: Dr. Anoop E.V, College of Forestry, Kerala Agriculture University, India
Towards Securing Geographical Indicator Status for Nilambur Teak The Wood Quality Perspective

14:55-15:00

Discussion

Session III (a): Management Models for Different Value Chains, including Smallholder Forestry
Chairperson: Dr. P.K. Thulasidas, TEAKNET, India

15:15-15:30

Thematic Keynote : Dr. Henri Bailleres, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Australia
Enhancing Key Elements of The Value Chains for Plantation-Grown Teak Wood in Lao PDR

15:30-16:00

Afternoon Break

16:00-16:20

OI-18: Dr. James Roshetko, World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Indonesia


Models of Smallholder Teak Production in Indonesia: The Emerging Dominant Value Chain

16:20-16:40

OI-19:

16:40-17:00

Discussion

17:30-19:00

TEAKNET Steering Committee Meeting

Prof. Mauricio Jerez, Universidad de Los Andes,Venezuela


Modeling a Planning and Management System for Industrial Forest Plantations

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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

14 May 2015, Thursday


Session III (b): Management Models for Different Value Chains, including Smallholder Forestry
Chairperson: Mr.Henri Bailleres, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Australia
09:00-09:20

OI-20: Ms. Nelly Grace Bedijo, Sawlog Production Grant Scheme, Uganda
Promoting Teak Plantation Development in Uganda: Analysis of the Sawlog Production Grant Scheme (SPGS) Model for
Community- Based Management of Planted Teak Forests

09:20-09:40

OI-21:

Prof. Ana Mercedes Quevedo, Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela


Simulador de crecimiento y secuestro de carbono para plantaciones de teca

09:40-10:00

OI-22:

Ms. Sreelakshmy. MP, TEAKNET, India


Future Perspectives of TEAKNET

10:00-10:15

Discussion

Session IV (a): Teak Plantation Management and Environmental Protection


Chairperson: Mr. Walter Kollert, FAO, Italy

10:15-10:45
10.45-11.15

Thematic Keynote : Mr. Hans Lemm, Kilombero Valley Teak Company, Tanzania
Teak Plantations Embedded in the Natural Landscape
Morning Break

11:15-11:35

OI-23: Mr.Luit Smith, Tectona Agroflorestal, Brazil


Key Factors for Optimizing Teak Growth - a Case Study in Tangara da Serra, Brazil

11:35-11:55

OI-24: Ms. Marcela Arguedas, Instituto tecnolgico de Costa Rica, Costa Rica
Plagas y Enfermedades en Plantaciones de Teca (Tectona Grandis L.f.) en Centroamrica Nuevos Reportes

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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

11:55-12:15

OI-25: Dr. Mario Guevara, Instituto Tecnolgico de Costa Rica, Costa Rica
Aumento de la productividad de plantaciones establecidas de Tectonagrandis en sitios marginales mediante el mejoramiento de
las condiciones fsicas y qumicas del suelo

12:15-12:35

OI-26: Mr. William Andrew Whittier, Camcore at North Carolina State University, USA
Teak Seedlings Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms in a Hydroponic System Correlated with Near-infrared Spectroscopy (NIR) Models

12:35-13:00

Discussion

13:00-14:15

Lunch Break

Session IVb: Teak Plantation Management and Environmental protection


Chairperson: Mr. Xavier Elizalde, ASOTECA, Ecuador
14:15-14:35

OI-27: Dr. Ahmad Zuhaidi Yahya, Forest Research Institute Malaysia


Long-Term Assessment on the Growth and Yield of 15-year-old Plantation-Grown Teak (Tectona grandis) in Tawau, Malaysia

14:35-14:55

OI-28: Mr. Leon Viljoen, Kilombero Valley Teak Company, Tanzania


Fire Management at Kilombero Valey Teak Company in Tanzania

14:55-15:15

OI-29: Mr. Geoff Smith, University of New England, Australia


Wind damage was related to thinning intensity in a 10 year old teak plantation

15:15-15:30

Discussion

15:30-16:00

16:00- 17:00

Afternoon Break
Closing Ceremony
Summary Report: Dr. Walter Kollert, FAO & Dr. P.K. Thulasidas, TEAKNET
Closing Remarks: Dr. Tetra Yanuariadi, ITTO, Japan
Cultural Dance programme
Official Closing of Conference: Mr. Lars Graudal, Chairman, TEAKNET
Friday, 15 May 2015
Field Trip

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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Poster Presention Programme

19

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

12 May 2015, Tuesday

Session II: Genetics, Tree Improvement, Silviculture and Wood Quality


P II - 01

Mr. Fernando Montenegro, Neoforests, Ecuador


El programa clonal de Teca en Ecuador

P II - 02

Prof. Guihua Huang, Research Institute of Tropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, China
Study on Seedling Growth Traits, Photosynthetic Characteristics and Influencing Factors in Teak (Tectona grandis Linn.) Clones

P II - 03

Mr. Petr Madera, Mendel University in Brno, Czech Republic


Growth of Teak (Tectona grandis L. f) in the Dry Tropics of Nicaragua

P II - 04

Mr. Joo Vicente de Figueiredo Latorraca, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Effect of tree spacing on swelling properties of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) wood from central-west region of Brazil

P II - 05

Mr. Sinan Hagenah, University of Goettingen, Germany


The reproduction system of Teak (Tectona grandis): Flowering phenology in a Clonal Seed Orchard population in Java, Indonesia

P II - 06

Mr. Roberto Bacilieri, UMR AGAP, INRA-CIRAD-SupAgro, France


Genetics of growth in teak CSO families and provenances in two contrasted tropical sites

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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

P II - 07

Dr. Ashwani Kumar, Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, India
Genetic Improvement of Teak in India for Growth and Timber Quality

P II - 08

Dr. P.K. Thulasidas, Kerala Forest Research Institute, India


Ring-width variability and growth rate of natural teak provenances from India

P II - 09

Mr. Fernando Velez, Refocosta S.A., Colombia


Teak (Tectona grandis) plantation management based upon stand density index concept

P II - 10

Ms. Isabel Schargel, Unellez, Venezuela


Influencia de la posicin fisiogrfica sobre el crecimiento de una plantacin de teca (Tectona grandis L.F.) de siete aos de edad, en
Guanarito, estado Portuguesa, Venezuela

P II - 11

Dr. Mario Guevara, Instituto Tecnolgico de Costa Rica, Costa Rica


Tiempos y rendimientos de aserro de madera escuadrada (rough squares) en plantaciones de teca en la zona norte de Costa Rica

P II - 12

Dr. Luis Ugalde, International Forestry & Agroforestry - INFOA, Costa Rica
Superior Yield and Growth of Teak Clones on a Wide Variety of Sites Can Increase Land Value

P II - 13

Ms. Novinci Muharyani, Research and development center-Perum Perhutani, Indonesia


Genetic Parameter Estimation of 10 years old Half-sib Teak Stands

P II - 14

Dr. Mohd Zaki Abdullah, Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia
Evaluation of The Performance Of Tectona Grandis Progenies From Plus Trees In Peninsular Malaysia

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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Session III: Management Models for Different Value Chains, including Smallholder Forestry
P III - 01

Mr. Ana Milena Lpez Aguirre, Universidad del Tolima, Colombia


Stand-level simulation system applied to Teak (Tectona grandis) plantations in Colombia

P III - 02

Prof. Ana Y. Moret, Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela


Variacin de la relacion area basal-volumen en funcin de la calidad de sitio y la edad para plantaciones de Tectona grandis L.f.en los
Llanos Occidentales de Venezuela

P III - 03

Dr. Luis Ugalde, International Forestry & Agroforestry - INFOA, Costa Rica
Software to Predict Bucking of Standing Teak Trees for Maximum Commercial Volume and Value

Session IV: Teak Plantation Management and Environmental protection


P IV - 01

Mr. Hensy Froilan Caal, Universidad Rafael Landivar, Guatemala


Evaluacin del primer raleo comercial en plantaciones de Teca (Tectona grandis Linn f.) en El Petn, Guatemala

P IV - 02

Mr. Elemer Briceo, Instituto Tecnolgico de Costa Rica, Costa Rica


Mejoramiento tecnolgico de suelos para el incremento de la productividad en plantaciones de Tectona grandis: incremento en biomasa de
races finas

P IV - 03

Ms. Nohelia Bedoya Velsquez, Departamento de Ciencias Forestales, Colombia


Modelacin Calidad de Sitio en Plantacin Juvenil de Teca

P IV - 04

Mr. Juan Camilo Patio Zabala, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Medelln, Colombia
Manejo de plantaciones de Teca aplicando modelos de distribucin diamtrica

P IV - 05

Prof. Mauricio Jerez, Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela


Historia y Manejo Actual de Plantaciones de Teca en Venezuela

22

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Abstracts
Oral Presentations

23

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

SESSION I
ECONOMICS, INVESTMENTS, MARKETS AND TRADE

24

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

General Keynote
World Teak Market Whats next?
Darshan Raiyani
The Teak market has gone through a dramatic change with the Myanmar government imposing a ban on export of round logs of teak and other hardwoods
from March 31st 2014. Myanmar was the worlds largest supplier of high quality teak logs with an annual exports of 300,000 Ht (Hoppus tons) or about
425,000 cbm of teak. This huge deficit is expected to bring about significant changes in the international Supply & Demand of teak and will most likely have a
lasting impact on both the exporting and importing countries. The worlds largest importer and consumer of teak, India, will be the most affected. There are
signs of some changes in preferences in India due to the very high prices of the Myanmar teak. Other Asian countries like Thailand, Pakistan, China, Vietnam
and Middle East, which relied on Myanmar teak would also have to reconcile with this change and alter consumption patterns. The high end consumers in
Europe and America would also feel the pinch due to the reduced volume and increased competition for the available quantities of Myanmar lumber. What
would be the impact of these changes in India and the other markets? Will there be a drop in consumption or will there be an increased demand for
plantation teak from Latin America and Africa? Can the gap left by Myanmar be filled by other countries, albeit in plantation Teak? Can the suppliers look
forward to better prices from the consuming markets? Can the destination markets pay higher prices? What are the risks of substitution by other timber
species and other materials like iron, aluminium, synthetic materials? Will Myanmar restart the export of logs? Once Myanmar has the necessary processing
capacity, what would be the expected volumes of teak lumber and how will it impact the other teak exporting nations? How will Myanmar Teak lumber be
received by high-end consumers? What are the ramifications of these changes on the world Teak market?

Darshan Raiyani
Senior Vice President and Head Wood Products
Olam International Limited
Singapore
Email: darshan@olamnet.com

25

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Thematic Keynote
Global Teak Trade in the Aftermath of Myanmars Log Export Ban
Walter Kollert and Przemyslaw Jan Walotek
Myanmar and its major trading partners, in particular India and China, traditionally take a significant role in the global teak trade. However, uncontrolled and
illegal exports of teak and other hardwoods (Dalbergia spp., Pterocarpus spp.) from Myanmar have led to increased deforestation and forest degradation
which have increased the risk of natural disasters. As a consequence, the government of Myanmar has halted log exports as of March 31st, 2014 in order to
promote the export of more finished products. This log export ban has had significant impacts on the forestry sector and local timber market. Immediately
before the log export ban entered into force Myanmar forestry authorities observed a considerable rise of illegal harvests, log smuggling and illegal exports.
As logs can no longer be legally exported, but have to be processed locally the tenders conducted by the Myanmar Timber Enterprise (MTE) are hardly
frequented by private international buyers, and, as a result, the prices for locally produced teak are reported to have collapsed by up to 40% (IHB Timber
network). On the other hand the log export ban in Myanmar is said to have created a market opportunity for international suppliers of plantation teak from
Africa and Latin America to expand sales to India and other countries. In this context Indian importers are urging plantation teak suppliers to improve
plantation tending and management techniques in order to produce higher quality logs that come near to the quality of teak logs from natural forests. In view
of the rising scarcity of high quality teak logs international teak prices, e.g. in the US, are reported to have risen by approximately 10% -20% for average
quality, while prime quality timber for yacht building have jumped by up to 30% and are expected to go even higher as the stock of available raw material
continues to dwindle.
The paper aims to assess and evaluate the available data and information on global teak trade based on official timber trade and price statistics, and analyse
and evaluate the impact of the Myanmar log export ban on global teak trade, the international timber market, and the future management of teak
plantations.

Walter Kollert
Forestry Officer
FAO, Rome, Italy
Email: walter.kollert@fao.org

Przemyslaw Jan Walotek


Director,WaKa Servios de Investimentos Florestais Ltda.
Garopaba, Brazil
Email: p.walotek@waka-fis.ch
26

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Current status of legal framework and administrative procedures in the forestry sector shaping teak management in
Myanmar
Ohn Lwin
Teak (Tectona grandis Linn.f) has substantially contributed to the country's economy and pride for its premium quality. However, due to unavoidable longterm harvesting to earn foreign currency and other human interventions such as illegal logging, encroachment, shifting cultivation, land-use changes etc.,
deforestation and forest degradation have emerged resulting in decreased production and distorted sustainable forest management. This article gives an
overview on the current teak management and on investment opportunities that will be improved by way of amending legal frameworks and regulatory
administrative procedures in the forestry sector along with changing government policies in Myanmar. The growing, harvesting, manufacturing and marketing
of teak has been previously a major government concern, however administrative reforms have opened opportunities to shift the responsibility of forest
management to private companies and small holder communities, and to facilitate foreign investment in the forestry sector. These reforms comprise: (i)
amending the legal framework for the possession of teak resources, (ii) implementing the drafted land use policy, (iii) formulating guidelines for foreign
investment, (iv) introducing a log export ban, (v) planning to regulate the volume of the timber harvest within the limit of the annual allowable cut (AAC), (vi)
restructuring the Myanmar Timber Enterprise to be a state-owned economic organization in the future and (vii) scaling up the regional and international
cooperation in trade, environment and climate change issues. The author will draw attention to a number of challenges and recommendations to overcome
them by implementing realistic achievements in the forestry sector of Myanmar.

Ohn Lwin
Professor, Forest Products Department
University of Forestry, Forestry Department
Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry
Yezin, P.O Box 05282, Nay Pyi Taw
Myanmar
Email: ohnpyone@gmail.com
27

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

What are the Primary Investment Returns and Market Opportunities of Teakwood?
Rafael De La Torre
A forestry company, like any other organization oriented towards profitability and economic sustainability with social responsibility, seeks to maximize
financial returns adjusted for their asset category risk. Investments in forest resources are attractive because they preserve capital, biological inventories
increase in value faster than in volume, land appreciates, and they are an instrument for mitigating risk in investment portfolios. The management of these
real assets has its own attributes and financial assumptions, which are examined specifically and quantitatively in industrial teak forests.
Study Objectives:
Assess the contribution of primary drivers of timberland investment returns in teak plantations, analyze their implications, and define actions to
follow
Describe case studies of the impact of government regulations, preferences and consumer trends of hardwoods
Identify commercial teak opportunities in major markets of the Western Hemisphere
Envision trading platform that teak producers might consider to minimize risks of their investment (market survey, promotional teak marketing
campaign/ check off programs, consumer market preferences, and recommendations of experts)
This study also investigates the minimum requirements for marketing forest products, certification requirements, procurement policies, price ranges, variable
volumes, preferences and substitutes in the acquisition of wood products, customer perception of the value / quality of special products, etc. Based on the
analytical results, collection and analysis of information on potential markets, the implications of the regulations on teak marketing in the European Union
and North America, we will be able to determine the path to follow that benefits teak growers, particularly when forests are fragmented and small.
Keywords: Profitability, teak plantations, marketing, regulations

Rafael De La Torre
Manager of Planning and Analysis
ArborGen Inc., 247 Davis Street, Athens, GA 30606
USA
Email: rdelat@hotmail.com
28

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Insights into the Teak Market from a Latin American Perspective


Rahul Ahuja
The teak business has traditionally seen supplies being controlled by Government entities in Asia and at a later point of time in Africa as well. These entities
have dominated the teak business from a supply side over the last 150 years. Over and above this, the teak business has largely seen supply being lesser than
demand, lending itself to a market space where the seller has always wielded disproportionate power. This overall market situation has, till now, obviated the
need for greater insights into the workings of the teak market.
The last three decades have seen the entry of commercially driven supply entities in the teak market space, primarily in Latin America. There are, today,
several hundred thousand hectares of commercially planted teak in the region. It is in the last few years, when supplies from these commercial teak
plantations have started finding their way into the market, that we are seeing the balance of power getting more and more balanced between the sellers and
the buyers. This trend, which has yet to run its full course, is coupled with the fact that these supply entities have a greater interest in the inner workings of
the teak market to protect their commercial interests.
The teak supplying entities and the teak market literally lies on the opposite sides of the world. This paper attempts to shed light on the workings of the teak
market space in Asia, with a primary focus on India, through the commercial expertise of a trading entity with several hundred man hours of marketing
experience gained over the last two decades

Rahul Ahuja
CEO, Aron Global Pte Ltd.
Singapore
Email: rahul@aronglobal.com
29

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Teak Supply from Latin America in the Next 3 Years: Quarterly Peaks, Valleys and Age Classes
Vikram Aditya Watal
In the last few years teak originating from Latin America is being seen as a significant and reliable source of timber. Impressive year-on-year growth in
supplies from this region, aided by change in international teakwood-supply-demand dynamics have resulted in the emergence of a whole new dimension of
Latin American Teak. With more than 300,000 ha of planted teak and annual exports of around 400,000 cbm, the region is significantly contributing to the
international supply of teak wood. The presentation aims to quantify supply potential from the various regions in Latin America and arrive at a supply
segmentation based on the age, quality & seasonality in the delivery of wood. Some clear visible trends in supplies from established countries like Costa Rica
& Ecuador or developing origins like Panama, Colombia or Brazil are visible. The presentation intends to quantify and link the crop availability in these
countries to possible supply scenarios. At the same time the interplay with upcoming origins like Guatemala & Nicaragua will be analyzed as well as questions
regarding the situation in Mexico or Honduras in next 3 years. Will Latin America continue to see a 20% year on year growth and end up exporting close to
600,000 cbm of teak logs in the next 3 years? The presentation will attempt to answer questions, which may affect individual countries or Latin America as a
region. What is the total potential of the region for next three years? Can the potential be met or will there be delivery challenges? How is the total potential
and supply divided between various age groups? Can we expect a high volume of wood from thinnings in the next 3 years? How is the supply from each of the
originating countries following certain patterns (peaks or bottom)? Is the six month supply period from each origin a desired supply situation? Do similar
quality teak logs from Panama or Colombia or Ecuador compete with each other? Will the uniqueness of the product portfolio from each origin count e.g.
Costa Rica as consistent supplier of long lengths versus rough squares from Ecuador?
The presenter will share the data and analysis on supply scenarios from Latin America for the next three years. Meaningful conclusions will be drawn from the
data in order to present a clear view on the supply potential emerging in the short term.

Vikram Aditya Watal


General Manager
Olam International
India
Email: vikramaditya@olamnet.com
30

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

The Global Teak Alliance: A proposal to develop an association that can represent the global plantation teak industry
S. Coutinho, H. Lemm, D. Leuba, A. Pino and C. Rojas-Guzmn
During the last two decades the teak market has witnessed significant growth following the development of multiple commercial teak plantations throughout
the world. Plantation teak has filled the gap that has been developing as a result of dwindling supply from natural teak forests and in addition offers a
sustainable substitute for other hardwoods from natural forests.
As (volume) supply from plantation teak is increasing and with several older plantations reaching its full potential, buyers and producers have expressed a
desire to better understand the market drivers and potential for their products.
Many industry players have identified three areas where market information is lacking: (1) pricing, volume flows and trade statistics; (2) grading and quality
standards; and (3) knowledge and acceptance of plantation teak in the non-traditional markets (i.e. outside India).
This paper will present the need for an international and coordinated effort to promote plantation teak in existing and new markets by enhancing demand
growth without intensifying competition, for the benefit of all players in the value chain.

Silvio Coutinho
Floresteca,
Caixa Postal 257/ CEP 13330-970
Indaiatuba, So Paulo
Brazil
Email: sylvio.coutinho@floresteca.com

Hans Lemm
Kilombero Valley Teak Company
PO Box 12452
Dar es Salaam
Tanzania

Dominique Leuba
Novelteak
P.O. Box 63-5000
Liberia, Guanacaste
Costa Rica

Antonio Pino
Fore Scan Cia. Ltda
Samborondn SBC
Office Center
Ecuador

Carlos Rojas-Guzmn
Agropecuaria Santa
Genoveva S.A.P.I. de CV
Niebla 8, Campeche
Mxico
31

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Profitability Model for a Teak Tree Breeding Program


Juan Luis Lopez
Better adaptation and increased productivity may be achieved in commercial plantations of Teak (Tectona grandis) through the implementation of a tree
breeding program (TBP). A financial model to the forest level was built to measure the profitability of a TBP that includes the costs of establishment,
management, and measurement of provenance/progeny trials, clonal trials and seed orchards, and estimate genetic gains derived from them. As part of the
genetic improvement costs, the annual membership dues to a cooperative program like Camcore at NC State University were included. Within the model,
strategic direction, analyses of data, and results for genetic selections are provided by Camcore as part of the membership services. Costs of intensive land
preparation, silvicultural practices, and timber harvesting of commercial plantations as well as wood market prices are inputs to the model. Results are
presented for a time horizon of 40 years, equivalent to two 20-year rotations. The minimal operational land area that has to be planted by a tree grower every
year to justify the investment in the TBP with Teak and the net present value at different discount rates are outputs of the model. Sensitivity analyses of
profitability to wood prices, mean annual increment, discount rates and genetic gains are also illustrated.

Juan Luis Lopez


Associate Director
Camcore NC State University
Raleigh
USA
Email: jllopez@ncsu.edu
32

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Maximizing Returns on Teak Investments through Logistics Optimization


Gaston Mauvezin and Enrique Espinosa
The production decline of natural forests worldwide as a result of deforestation, coupled with a growing population with higher purchasing power,
particularly in Asia, pose a unique opportunity for commercial plantations as the only sustainable alternative to satisfy the increasing demand for wood.
Tropical wood plantations are expected to increase their supply 13 times in the next 20 years; by 2035, over 60% of demand for tropical wood will be supplied
by plantations.
Thus, how can international suppliers of plantation tropical wood, particularly teak, leverage this unique market opportunity?
Traditionally, plantation suppliers have focused mainly on improving forestry management techniques to produce higher quality logs by optimizing key factors
such as genetic material, tree spacing, irrigation and drainage, fertilization, thinning and harvesting schedules, etc.
All these factors, while undoubtedly important, are, however, not enough to guarantee a high return on a plantation investment; they have to be coupled
with an efficient logistics strategy. Logistics costs represent up to 40% of the final value of the wood and their adequate management can add (or deduct)
several percentage points to the return on any plantation investment.
Based on PROTEAKs own experience of over 14 years in three different countries, the paper will analyze the impact of the different components of an
efficient logistics strategy in a teak plantation.

Gaston Mauvezin and Enrique Espinosa


PROTEAK Uno
S.A.B. de C.V.
Mexico
Email: gmauvezin@proteak.com
33

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Teak - Perception and Usage in India


Sid Bhargava
India is one of the biggest markets for teak. Different teak origins have different perception and corresponding pricing. Pricing is dependent on colour, sap
content, formation of logs, (straight, bend), defects like knots, channels, hole etc. There is a marked preference of logs over sawn timber and finished
products due to a progressive duty structure for logs, rough squares, clean squares and finished products like panels and floorings.
Logs are also preferred in India due to a high efficiency of labour intensive sawing techniques. The Indian saw mills are used to optimize on logs required for
veneers, flooring and other uses which vary from region to region. There is also a fairly large market for mouldings.
Timber from fast-growth plantations suffers from softer core which tends to split in India due to extreme temperatures, especially in Northern India. There is
a marked difference in preference with respect to sizes and quality between North and South India.
Consumption and usage of teak is facing competition from other products that are competing like stone, plastic, composites, panels etc. Moreover, the public
perception is being created that wood is not good as it leads to deforestation, and using non-wood products would be better.

Sid Bhargava
Country Manager
APP Timber Ltd.
India
Email: siddhartha@apptimber.com
34

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

SESSION II
GENETICS, TREE IMPROVEMENT, SILVICULTURE AND
WOOD QUALITY

35

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Thematic Keynote
Teak Clonal Forestry: Rationale, First Accomplishments and Suggestions
Olivier Monteuuis
The rationale of opting for teak clonal forestry is to overcome the serious hindrances associated with the use of seed-derived planting stock. These encompass
insufficient fruit production, too low germination rates, a positive correlation between flowering age and forking height and substantial variability for
economically important traits. In contrast, soundly selected and wisely deployed teak clones are theoretically expected to produce in much shorter time
superior yield of premium and uniform quality timber. Practically, due to the inhibitory effect of ageing on adventitious rooting, clonal propagation of mature
selected teak trees has been restricted for decades to the use of grafting/budding mainly for establishing clonal seed orchards. Thanks to the development in
the early 1990s of efficient nursery and in vitro techniques for mass clonally propagating true-to-type any selected tree regardless of its age, teak clonal
forestry has lately become a reality. Millions of clonal offspring have been produced and planted under the tropics in Asia, Oceania, Latin America and Africa.
Judiciously selected clones have been proven to outperform local seed-issued teak planted material in every place they have been introduced so far, and to
thrive in site conditions assumed formerly to be unsuitable for teak. Teak clonal plantations are still in their infancy. More and longer time assessments
supported by efficient and application-oriented R and D programs are needed before drawing any conclusive statement. Enriching the genetic diversity of the
current clonal populations by the infusion of new genotypes derived from multi-criteria selection taking into account also site adaptability remain priority
concerns. Notwithstanding these aspects, it can already be assumed that teak clonal forestry will have a noticeable impact on teak plantations considering the
urgent need to meet the increasing demand for high grade teak timber in the wake of declining supplies from natural stands.

Olivier Monteuuis
CIRAD - BIOS Department - UMR AGAP
TA A-108/03- Avenue Agropolis, F-34398
Montpellier, Cedex 5
France
Email: olivier.monteuuis@cirad.fr
36

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Genetic Improvement of Teak in India for Growth and Timber Quality


Ashwani Kumar
India has around 6.8 million hectares of natural teak-bearing forests and about 1.7 million hectares of plantations. It has a wide but discontinuous
distribution from about 8 to 24 oN latitudes covering a range of climatic and soil conditions. It occurs in areas receiving rainfall as low as 700 mm to more
than 3000 mm. Expectedly teak in India shows a large amount of variation in terms of growth, stem form, wood quality and vegetative and reproductive
phenology. Teak populations are recognized as dry, semi-moist and moist subtypes based on the environmental conditions and tree characteristics. Several
studies have shown a genetic basis for this observed variation and India is generally regarded as the centre of diversity for teak. Most of the introductions of
teak outside its natural distribution range were made with Indian provenances and they showed the best growth in many international provenance trials
particularly in central and South America. Despite the large area under teak forests and plantations, India is one of the largest importers of tropical timber
particularly teak. The forest policy adopted during the last three decades gave more emphasis to conservation of natural forests than timber extraction. The
steady economic growth during the same period resulted in increased timber demand and heavy imports to meet the demand. Research on increasing
plantation productivity started with the launching of teak improvement progamme in 1962 with selection of plus trees, establishment of seed orchards and
seed production areas. Significant achievements have been made in developing fast-growing clones with high timber quality and cost-effective clonal
technology, tissue culture, improving seed production in orchards and understanding the genetic structure of Indian teak populations and the patterns of
inheritance for growth and wood traits. Alongside silvicultural improvements like clonal plantation establishment, agroforestry models, managing soil fertility
after successive rotations and reduction in harvest age have also been attempted. This paper reviews the progress made in these recent initiatives and
presents a strategy for sustaining them in the future.

Ashwani Kumar
Director General
Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education
Dehradun-248006
India
E-mail: ashwanikumar@icfre.org
37

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Genetic Diversity and Breeding of Teak (Tectona grandis Linn f.) in Myanmar
Yazar Minn
Genetic diversity is indispensable for stability and productivity of forest ecosystems; thus conservation of genetic diversity is a key element of sustainable
forest management. Genetic diversity of teak (Tectona grandis) in Myanmar has been analyzed using microsatellite and Amplified Fragment Length
Polymorphism (AFLP) markers. The study revealed high level of genetic variation within populations and strong genetic differentiation among populations.
The study also reported that the northern and southern teak populations are genetically highly significant, suggesting two major conservation and breeding
zones of teak genetic resources.
Genetic diversity plays a fundamental role for breeding of forest tree species. Due to the high genetic diversity of teak, Myanmar still possesses strong genetic
basis for tree breeding programs. The selection of plus trees has been the foundation for tree improvement programs in Myanmar. The number of selected
plus trees are currently 155. The number of seed production areas are currently 191 in different regions covering 3256 ha while that of clonal seed orchards
are still quite limited in the country. Meanwhile, in-vitro culture of teak offers one of the possible solutions for sufficient supply of quality genetic materials for
reforestation programs. However, it is still in the experimental stage. Hedge gardens serve as sources for production of vegetatively propagated materials like
shoot cuttings, though the production is not sufficient for operational level at present. Some provenance trials were also initiated in some regions but more
genetic testing like progeny and clonal tests are still needed. While strengthening current breeding activities, further breeding strategies should be developed
to maximize genetic gains by utilizing broad genetic basis of teak. In this paper, genetic diversity of teak for in situ and ex situ conservation and potential
breeding strategies are discussed.
Keywords: Teak, Genetic diversity, Breeding, Conservation

Yazar Minn
Forest Botany and Tree Improvement Section
Forest Research Institute
Forest Department, Nay Pyi Taw
Myanmar
Email: yazarminn@gmail.com
38

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Experiencias y tendencias al analizar el manejo aplicado a diferentes rodales de teca (Tectona grandis) despus de 19
aos de su establecimiento en el Pacfico Central de Costa Rica. BARCA S.A.
Ricardo Lujn, Jose Corrales and Fred Schutter
En este estudio se analizan las respuestas (variables dasomtricas) de la teca, a nivel de pequeos rodales, en relacin a su manejo y correlacionado con los
diversos micro-sitios, eventos especficos atmosfricos y de mortalidad (enfermedades), despus de 19 aos de su establecimiento en la zona de Parrita,
Costa Rica. Las tendencias identificadas al analizar el crecimiento de stos, en relacin al manejo efectuado como a los efectos de micro-sitio, brindan
recomendaciones claves para lograr mejorar la calidad de las plantaciones de teca.
Se llev a cabo un censo de los rboles de teca existentes en 16.6 hectreas divididas en 19 rodales de diversos tamaos (entre 0.2-4.2 ha.). Se hicieron
anlisis de suelos, y recopilacin del manejo silvicultural como tambin de los eventos adversos del clima (fuertes vientos) y enfermedades que afectaron
rboles y rodales en la plantacin.
Los promedios generales del censo de los rodales de teca a sus 19 aos de edad resultaron en una densidad de 174 rboles/ha, un rea basal de 16.9 m2/ha,
una dap promedio de 34.6 cm, una altura comercial de 8.6 m y un volumen comercial de 108 m3/ha.
Las variaciones de promedios entre los diferentes rodales resultaron en: 86-340 rboles/ha, entre 8-27 m2/ha de rea basal, el dap oscil entre 32-43 cm, y el
volumen entre 47-200 m3/ha. Un 3% de la poblacin total result con dimetros (dap) arriba de los 50 cm y un 20% con dimetros mayores a los 40 cm.
El manejo de la densidad y efecto del micro sitio, (fertilidad y drenaje) son los principales factores en la variabilidad de los rodales.

Ricardo Lujn, Jose Corrales and Fred Schutter


BARCA S.A.
San Jos
Costa Rica
Email: ricardo_lujan@brinkman.ca
39

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Worldwide Teak Resources: Genetic Map of Natural Populations


Ole K. Hansen, Suchitra Changtragoon, Bundit Ponoy, Yazar Minn, Reiner Finkeldey, Lars Graudal and Erik D. Kjr
For the first time a comprehensive population genetic analysis of teak from the entire natural distribution range of the species has been conducted with DNA
markers. This analysis, based on twenty nine provenances of teak, showed large differences in genetic diversity, strong genetic structure among populations
and a clear geographic pattern. Provenances originating from the semi-moist east coast of India had the highest genetic diversity, while provenances from
Laos showed the lowest. In the eastern part of the natural distribution area, comprising Myanmar, Thailand and Laos, there was a strong clinal decrease in
genetic diversity the further east the provenance was located. Overall the pattern of genetic diversity supports the hypothesis that teak has its centre of origin
in India, from where it spread eastwards. The analysis of the population genetic structure of Teak was made through Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA)
and gave an overall highly significant Fst value of 0.227. Population pairwise Fst values were in the range 0.01-0.48. A neighbour-joining (NJ) tree, using the
pairwise population matrix of distance values as input, as well as Bayesian cluster analyses using both the STRUCTURE and the GENELAND software gave
results which clearly reflected the geographical distribution of the 29 provenances. The strong genetic differences and structure gives hope of being able to
identify the origin of the different land races of teak found outside Asia; an issue which have been speculated about for more than forty years.

Ole K. Hansen, Erik D. Kjr and


Lars Graudal
University of Copenhagen
Rolighedsvej 23, 1958
Frederiksberg C
Denmark
E-mail: lgr@ign.ku.dk

Suchitra Changtragoon
Forest and Plant Conservation
Research Office,
Department of National Parks,
Wildlife and Plant Conservation,
Thailand

Yazar Minn and Reiner Finkeldey


Forest Genetics and Forest Tree
Breeding, Georg-AugustUniversittGttingen, Germany

Bundit Ponoy
Forest Research and
Development Bureau,
Royal Forest Department,
Thailand

40

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Mejoramiento gentico de teca (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) asistido por marcadores moleculares
Mario Espinoza Pizarro
Novelteak, empresa de Capital Suizo, con ms de 23 aos de experiencia como productor de teca y manejando ms de 6679 Ha de plantaciones entre Costa
Rica y Nicaragua; siendo lder en innovacin, estable desde el ao 1995 unos de los mejores programas de mejoramiento gentico y silvicultura clonal de toda
la regin, plantando hasta el ao 2014 un total 2315 hectreas clonales, con una ganancia en volumen comercial de 40% con respecto a plantaciones no
mejoradas.
No obstante este resultado, la empresa, consciente de que su base gentica es estrecha, decide a partir del ao 2012 invertir en una nueva estrategia de
mejoramiento gentico, con el objetivo de establecer la base con la cual se desarrollarn todas sus poblaciones comerciales en el futuro. Esta nueva
estrategia tiene un primer componente de ampliacin de la base gentica, un segundo componente de seleccin recurrente de material mejorado por medio
de sublneas y como tercer componente la optimizacin de la interaccin genotipo-ambiente.
Paralelamente se han desarrollado dos importantes herramientas: las tcnicas de propagacin vegetativa y los marcadores moleculares, siendo estos ltimos
fundamentales la consecucin de los objetivos.
Se desarroll un protocolo de genotipeo de individuos por medio de marcadores microsatlites (VNTRs) que se aplica actualmente en la identificacin de
clones, relaciones de parentesco y determinacin de relaciones filogenticas en poblaciones. Adems se est trabajando en genmica de teca a travs de la
secuenciacin de marcadores especficos con el objetivo de establecer relaciones filogenticas y tambin correlacionar marcadores moleculares con el
fenotipo de los individuos, por medio de SNTs.
Los resultados obtenidos permiten determinar la probabilidad del origen gentico de un individuo as como la factibilidad de usar dicho individuo como
progenitor en alguna lnea de mejoramiento, garantizando mejores resultados a largo plazo.

Mario Espinoza Pizarro


Gerente I & D
Gerente de Investigacin y Desarrollo en Novelteak
Costa Rica
Email: mario.espinoza@novelteak.com
41

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Heartwood colour variation in different geographical provenances of teak at 27 years-old


Pengxiang Peng, Kunnan Liang, Guihua Huang and Kaifu Li
Heartwood colour of eight different geographical provenances of teak (Tectona grandis L.f) at 27 years-old from a provenance trial established at Hainan
Island in China was characterized by using CIE 1976 (L* a* b*) system and Munsell system in order to study the colour variations among different geographical
provenances. Two defect-free trees for each provenance were selected to fell and Colour measurements were made on 10 standard flat-sawn boards with a
size of 1005020 mm. The results measured by the two systems showed that there were significant or highly significant differences on each parameter
among eight provenances; therefore, wood decorating property could be improved by provenance selection. The range of the degree of luminosities for eight
different provenances by using CIE 1976 (L* a* b*) system were from 46.94 to 64.65 with a mean value of 55.33, belong to medium brightness wood.
Although provenance 3071 had the lowest brightness, it had the greatest the greenred relative position, the blueyellow relative position and chroma.
Similarly, provenance 3071 with the lowest value by Munsell Color System had the highest chroma. Therefore, provenance 3071 was selected as superior
provenance with good decorating property by using CIE 1976 (L* a* b*) system and Munsell system. The results of correlation analysis also showed that wood
brightness had significant positive correlation with the latitude of origin.
Keywords: Tectona grandis, Provenance variation, CIE Lab color system, Munsell color system

Pengxiang Peng
Yueyang Changde Chemical Industry Co., Ltd.
Yueyang, 414007
China

Kunnan Liang and Guihua Huang


The Research Institute of Tropical Forestry
CAF, Guangzhou, 510520
China
Email: Chinateak@163.net

Kaifu Li
College of Forestry
South China Agricultural University
Guangzhou, 510642
China
42

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

The Functional Genome of Teak


Esteban Galeano, Tarcsio Sales Vasconcelos and Helaine Carrer
Teak (Tectona grandisL.f.) is one of the most valuable trees in the world and there is no large gene dataset available. In order to obtain the functional genome
of teak, we have sequenced the genetic material (RNA) from plantlets after two weeks from seed germination, leaves and roots from two month-old in vitro
plants, flowers and secondary xylem from branches and stems from 12- and 60-year-old trees from Brazilian plantations. A widely catalog of 462,260
functional genes from all the tissue/organs was produced using Illumina technology for sequencing and the de novo assembly with Trinity program. Deep
bioinformatic analyzes allowed us to discover more than two thousand genes from secondary xylem related with lignin deposition such as phenylpropanoid
members along with analogous binding proteins, carbohydrate enzymes and response-to-stress genes which seemed to be essential for teak. Interestingly,
secondary xylem exhibited substantial differences when comparing with non-lignified tissues (roots, plantlets, leaves and flowers) with highly expressed genes
such as transcription factors and heat-shock proteins, and in roots, several drought stress genes were found such as aquaporines, AREB and DREB members. A
detail analysis of the MYB transcription factor family from secondary xylem was done. The MYBs are one of the most important gene regulators in plants, and
they grouped phylogenetically with several gymnosperms and angiosperms, which explain that wood formation is conserved among vascular plants.
Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR showed that Tectona grandis MYB2 and CAD3 (Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase) genes are highly expressed in young
secondary xylem (12-year-old trees) and Tectona grandis MYB1, MYB4 and CAD4 genes are highly expressed in mature secondary xylem of sapwood (60-yearold trees) and seem to have a crucial role in wood formation, maturation and lignin deposition in teak. The functional genome of teak will open new
perspectives for plant transformation, gene characterization, biological, ecological and evolutionary understanding of this species, improving the knowledge
of this tropical tree. Finally, our results will allow the generation of molecular markers to select genotypes for breeding programs aiming for growth rate and
adaptability improvement.

Esteban Galeano, Tarcsio Sales Vasconcelos and Helaine Carrer


Laboratrio de Genmica e Biologia Molecular, Centro de Biotecnologia Agrcola (CEBTEC),
Departamento de Cincias Biolgicas, Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz",
Universidade de So Paulo
Brazil
Email: hecarrer@usp.br
43

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Top Teak From Test-tube to Worldwide Exportation


Doreen K. S. Goh
Yayasan Sabah Group Biotech (YSG Biotech), a commercial subsidiary of the Sabah Foundation Group is involved in the mass propagation of superior clonal
teak using a tissue culture technique developed jointly with the forestry division of CIRAD in the early 1990s. This presentation describes the evolution of the
company from a pilot research and development project into a commercial entity over a span of 15 years. The challenges and accomplishments of the
company are highlighted starting with the development of the technologies for in-vitro culture of any selected teak genotype regardless of ortet age, to the
ex-vitro acclimatization of plants to the field-ready stage, leading finally to the exportation of teak plants to many tropical and sub-tropical countries across
the globe. YSG Biotech is a pioneer in many aspects of the mass production and exportation of teak planting materials, making it one of a very few existing
companies that has managed to sustain its core activity against numerous odds. With a collection of one of the broadest known teak genetics in the world,
the company today stands as one of the most reputable supplier of quality clonal teak. In turn, this has allowed the establishment of clonal teak plantations
on a large scale in buyer countries, thus bringing the potential of overcoming teak timber shortage in the world market much closer to reality.

Keywords: Teak clones, tissue culture plants, exportation, clonal teak plantations

Doreen K. S. Goh
YSG Biotech Sdn Bhd., Yayasan Sabah Group
Voluntary Association Complex
Kota Kinabalu, Sabah
Malaysia
Email: dorngoh@hotmail.com
44

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Towards Securing Geographical Indicator Status for Nilambur Teak the Wood Quality Perspective
E.V. Anoop, C.R. Elsy, M.C. Anish and R. Vishnu
Geographical indications are names used to identify the place of origin and quality, reputation or other characteristics of products that are unique to the
place. The GI tag is a mechanism instituted by the World Trade Organization (WTO) of the UN to prevent unfair competition in trade where the public can be
mislead about the real origin of goods. Nilambur Teak, which is a name instantly recognized by connoisseurs of teak around the world will soon be protected
against unauthorized labeling. Efforts are on to get the name registered as a Geographical Indication (GI). The Kerala Agricultural University (KAU) along with
the local self-government at Nilambur, the Kerala Forest Department, Kerala Forest Research Institute and the GI Registry, Chennai recently took an initiative
for the registration of the Nilambur variety of Teak or Malabar Teak, which enjoys a world-wide reputation for the log dimensions and desired wood figure.
Nilambur holds a special status as the home of the worlds first commercial teak plantation established in 1840s. The Conollys plot and the Chathu Menon
plot remain preserved to this day and attract tourists from far and wide. In this connection, a study was undertaken at the department of Wood Science,
College of Forestry to compare wood quality of Nilambur teak with that of important provenances from within the country as well as abroad. Wood quality
parameters like specific gravity, resistance to deformation, heartwood color and total extractive content were found to be superior for Nilambur teak, apart
from qualitative characters such as the golden brown heart wood, attractive figure and straight grain. Findings from previous studies using AFLP markers had
indicated that natural teak population of Nilambur population had a separate genetic identity among southern western ghats populations matching with its
popularly known phenotypic identity and wood quality. The GI tag ensures that the product name can be used only by those who are authorized as the
beneficiaries. Developing technologies to trace timbers to its geographical region of origin assumes importance in this context. The GI registration will give
growers and users of Nilambur teak the legal right to exclusive use. It is expected to encourage more people to take up teak planting and improve the
prosperity of the region through export of teak timber.
Keywords: Geographical Indicator, Nilambur teak, wood quality, GI registry

E.V. Anoop, M.C. Anish and R. Vishnu


Department of Wood Science
College of Forestry, Kerala Agricultural University
Kerala, India
Email: anoop.ev@kau.in

C.R. Elsy
Intellectual Property Rights Cell
College of Horticulture
Kerala Agricultural University
Kerala, India
45

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

SESSION III
Management Models for Different Value Chains
Including Small Holder Forestry

46

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Thematic Keynote
Enhancing Key Elements of the Value Chains for Plantation-Grown Teak Wood in Lao PDR
Henri Bailleres, Barbara Ozarska and Lathsamy Boupha
Laos has an emerging forest plantation industry, based on both smallholder and corporate growers. The Lao PDR Forestry Strategy to 2020 envisages a
substantial forest plantation estate, with a target of a total of 500,000 hectares of tree plantations. Plantations and planted trees have the capacity to provide
significant financial benefits to Lao PDR, and to smallholder growers. The plantation resource could have an annual farm gate value of $197 million at full
production and will offer further value through primary and secondary wood processing. However, there are many challenges, constraints and opportunities
which need to be addressed in order to maximise returns to smallholders and support the development of competitive value-added wood industries.
Although the Lao timber industry has grown rapidly over the past three decades, the export value of finished wood products has been very low compared to
that of squared logs or basic sawnwood. Research and development is needed in the value-adding wood processing and manufacturing sector to assist in the
production of high value wood products such as furniture and flooring. To meet these research needs the Australian Centre for International Agricultural
Research (ACIAR) in conjunction with 14 partner organisations from Lao PDR and Australia are funding a project titled Enhancing key elements of the value
chains for plantation-grown wood in Lao PDR. It is a four-year project spanning years 2012 to 2016.
The overall aim is to improve livelihoods for farmers and processing workers and the international competitiveness of Lao PDR wood industries through
improved efficiency of key elements of the planted wood value chain. Specific objectives are to (1) Address constraints and inefficiencies in the value chain,
from harvest to processor stages, that limit returns to smallholder growers; (2) Increase returns to processors and smallholders through improved efficiencies
of the primary wood processing sector; (3) Improve the value and quality of wood products for domestic and export markets; (4) Enhance the
competitiveness and capacity of wood processing industries. The current primary wood processing practices and efficiencies in Lao companies have been
identified and characterised through a series of onsite surveys. Further studies provides a broad assessment of opportunities to improve current primary
wood processing practices and efficiencies in order to optimise the research direction required for subsequent activities.

Henri Bailleres
Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
Horticulture & Forestry Science, Agri-Science
Queensland, Australia
Email: henri.bailleres@bigpond.com

Barbara Ozarska
Department of Forest and Ecosystem Science
The University of Melbourne
Australia

Lathsamy Boupha
Faculty of Forestry,
National University of Laos
Vientiane Capital
Lao PDR
47

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Models of Smallholder Teak Production in Indonesia: the Emerging Dominant Value Chain
James M Roshetko, Gerhard Sabastian, Aulia Perdana, Dede Rohadi and Philip Manalu
Teak (Tectona grandis) was introduced to the Indonesian archipelago from India in as early as the second century. The species has become widely
naturalized, with most people believing it to be indigenous. Indonesia is the second largest producer of teak in the world. Originally teak and other forest
resources were controlled by Javanese sultans. During its period of dominance, the Dutch East India Company (1619-1796) gained control over the teak
resource as a means to maintain the global dominance of its navy. In the early 1800s, the Dutch government assumed direct control over the colony. While
control of teak was initially weak, between 1870 and 1934 central authority over all teak resources was firmly re-established. Following independence, the
government of Indonesia established a state-owned forest enterprise to control and manage the nations teak resources. While restrictions remain,
individuals and other parties own the teak grown on their land. Managing plots of less than a hectare, farmers have become a major supplier of teak timber
to Indonesias furniture industry. On Java alone, approximately 1.5 million farm families manage 444,000 ha of teak-based farming systems. Farmers cultivate
teak in four models of systems Tegalan (mixed tree annual crop systems), Pekarangan (homegardens), Kitren (teak-dominated woodlots), and line plantings
(on agriculture land). Species composition, tree density, management intensity and location differ between the systems. Household and farm characteristics
also affect the type of system that developed. Marketing strategies and economic and financial return vary by system. This paper details the difference
between the models of smallholder teak production systems, as well as, a historical evolution between the models. Recommendations are provided regarding
how to move from the current low input timber production systems towards more intensive, market oriented systems.
Keywords: smallholder farmers, timber production and marketing, intercropping, alternative livelihood strategies

James M Roshetko, Gerhard Sabastian and Aulia Perdana


World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF)
PO Box 161, Bogor 16001, Jawa Barat
Indonesia
Email: j.roshetko@cgiar.org

Dede Rohadi and Philip Manalu


Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)
Jl CIFOR, Situ Gede, Sindang Barang
Bogor 16115, Jawa Barat
Indonesia

48

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Modelling a Planning and Management System for Industrial Forest Plantations


Mara A. Quintero and Mauricio Jerez
A multi-objective forest planning model was developed for optimizing timber production and carbon sequestration on industrial scale forest plantations in
Venezuela. The model integrates two operational scales: the stand level and the forest level (multiple stands). At stand level, a growth and yield simulator
with a heuristic thinning optimizer finds a set of near optimal thinning regimes and rotation ages for individual stands differing on initial spacing and site
quality, given a set of biological, silvicultural, and financial constraints. Then, a forest-level model assigns and integrates the best regimes. The output is a
harvest plan indicating which and how stands should be thinned or cut in each year of a planning period. Because of the system complexity, classical
mathematical programming approaches were not feasible; therefore, Genetic Algorithms and Simulated Annealing heuristics were used to find solutions at
both levels. Experimentation for obtaining optimal harvest plans was done on hypothetical teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) plantations with up to 10.000 ha and
200 stands. The potential for CO2 sequestration and the average time carbon remains stored on the various biomass components before returning to the
atmosphere were estimated based on data from existing literature. Spatial constraints were indirectly considered. The heuristic approach allowed a quick
analysis of interactions among management regimes, timber yield, and carbon sequestration, as solutions were obtained in very short time, independently of
problem size. The results indicate that the objectives of timber production and carbon sequestration are in conflict, and that regimes that increase carbon
sequestration, reduce the benefits of timber production. A sensitivity analysis showed that the system is very sensitive to variables related to stand growth
rates; moderately sensible to interest rates and production quotas; and barely sensible to harvest and transport costs. The generic nature of the model allows
easy modification and calibration.

Mara A. Quintero and Mauricio Jerez


Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales Universidad de Los Andes,
Mrida, 5101
Venezuela
Email: jerezorama@gmail.com

49

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Promoting Teak Plantation Development in Uganda: Analysis of the Sawlog Production Grant Scheme (SPGS) Model for
Community-based Management of Planted Teak Forests
Bedijo Nelly Grace and Walter Mapanda
Different models of community forestry management have been implemented in various parts of the world including Uganda. A unique approach to
community forestry development which involves payment of retrospective and conditional plantation establishment and maintenance grant was developed in
Uganda in 2004 under the management of Sawlog Production Grant Scheme (SPGS). Since inception, 47,000 hectares have been planted by 400 private
growers spread throughout the country. SPGS is a government institution, funded by the European Union, and the Governments of Norway and Uganda.
Major hindrances to community forestry development identified are: Limited capital, lack of knowledge and skills, lack of improved planting material, land
and limited access to information. The Government of Uganda together with SPGS have been successful in addressing some of these challenges. The model
incorporates most categories of tree growers in a community setting each playing a unique role in the forestry sector. SPGS contracted clients receive a
retrospective subsidy, which covers 50% of the establishment cost. Practical field based training courses for forest supervisors, managers, contractors and
investors to impart skills and knowledge and acquire positive attitudes in forestry have been institutionalised. Guidelines, standards and a quarterly
newsletter have been developed. In addition, the contracted clients are visited regularly for technical guidance onsite.
Success of the SPGS model is attributed to its commercial and result oriented approach, a high level of autonomy, where the government has less
intervention on the operations, a team of young, motivated, commercially focused staff. 90% of the funds are allocated to the actual tree planting ventures
with only 10% to administrative costs, making it a very cost-effective model. This paper calls for urgent need for supportive policies among donors and a
sustained promotion of the model, which might be the best incentive option to ensure profitable community forestry investments.

Bedijo Nelly Grace and Walter Mapanda


Sawlog Production Grant Scheme
P.O. Box 5244, Kampala
Uganda
Email: nbedijo@hotmail.com,nellyb@sawlog.ug
50

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Simulador de crecimiento y secuestro de carbono para plantaciones de teca


Ana Quevedo, Mauricio Jerez , Mara Quintero and Ana Moret
La simulacin es una herramienta de gran valor en la investigacin ambiental, ecolgica y forestal; y en los procesos de toma de decisiones para el manejo de
recursos ambientales. Los modelos de simulacin permiten representar la complejidad de diversos procesos e integrar la informacin de numerosas
investigaciones en un nico sistema que puede utilizarse para predecir su estado futuro y evaluar el efecto de alternativas de decisin. Se cre un prototipo
de simulador del crecimiento y rendimiento para plantaciones de teca (Tectona grandis) basado en un sistema de ecuaciones diferenciales bajo el enfoque de
espacio de estados. El simulador se implement en SIMILE v. 6.0, un lenguaje de simulacin visual, ye fue utilizado para analizar el crecimiento de las
plantaciones, su volumen aprovechable, y la capacidad de secuestro de carbono en respuesta a escenarios de manejo silvicultural: calidad de sitio,
espaciamiento inicial y rgimen de aclareo. El simulador desarrollado mediante el lenguaje visual es til particularmente para propsitos educativos, al
facilitar la experimentacin de alternativas que incluyen la produccin de madera y el secuestro de carbono permitiendo analizar muchos escenarios
simultneamente y representarlos espacialmente, examinar el efecto de cambios en los parmetros del modelo, el examen de los supuestos, la calidad de los
datos, el enfoque de construccin, la eficiencia de los algoritmos de computacin y la calidad de las predicciones.

Ana Quevedo, Mauricio Jerez, Mara Quintero and Ana Moret


Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales,
Universidad de Los Andes,
Mrida, 5101
Venezuela
Email:anamer2@gmail.com
51

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Future perspectives of TEAKNET


Sreelakshmy. M. P and Thulasidas. P.K
TEAKNET, established in 1995, is an international network of institutions and individuals interested in teak. Its members are mostly growers, traders and
researchers apart from policy makers and others who have a profound interest in teak. TEAKNET was established to address the issues of the global teak
sector. The goal of TEAKNET is to transform the global teak sector from its current suboptimal state to that of a dynamic entity for the benefit of all
stakeholders of the sector. Its mode of operation is through collective discussions and persistent follow up actions. Issues are identified through periodical
workshops and meetings of the stakeholders. The most basic activity of TEAKNET is information exchange which is achieved through its website
www.teaknet.org and the TEAKNET Bulletin. The members have certain additional privileges with respect to access to information supplied by the
organization. Apart from the networking, TEAKNET also undertakes much promotional activities on teak and its products. By linking the various institutions
across the world, the network really acts like a virtual research and development organization for the species. This approach is designed to develop
appropriate future perspectives and plans for the organization based on the expectations of the stakeholders.

Sreelakshmy. M.P and Thulasidas. P.K


TEAKNET (International Teak Information Network)
Kerala Forest Research Institute
Peechi - 680653
India
Email: secretariat@teaknet.org
52

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

SESSION IV
Teak Plantation Management and Environmental Protection

53

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Thematic Keynote
Teak Plantations Embedded in the Natural Landscape
Hans Lemm
Globally, natural forests are under pressure whilst demand for fibre is set to continue to grow in the near and long term. Ultimately, this will result in an ever
increasing imbalance in supply and demand that can only be curbed by expanding, high-productivity forest plantations.Softwoods, acacia, eucalyptus and
other forest plantations have taken on an increasingly dominant role in the global supply of industrial lumber and fibre; there has been relatively little
progress made in the replacement of natural hardwoods for decorative use.
Teak is widely recognized as a premier hardwood and one of the few species that can be commercially grown in plantations. As a result of its relatively high
value compared to other plantation species, teak plantations can be viable on a much smaller scale than, for instance, pine or eucalyptus plantations and thus
avoiding some of the social and environmental conflicts associated with large-scale, greenfield forest plantations.
The Kilombero Valley Teak Company has developed a landscape approach where, a relatively small area of land has been set aside for commercial plantation
development whilst the balance of its landholding has been dedicated to conservation management. Although for many years, this approach has been seen as
controversial by the environmental community it is now gaining recognition as a model for integrated plantation and conservation projects. The landscape
approach adopted by KVTC is now seen as a new plantation model for Africa.
Keywords: Plantation Teak, Environment, Landscape, Deforestation

Hans Lemm
Kilombero Valley Teak Company
PO Box 12452, Dar es Salaam,
Tanzania
Email: kvtc@kvtc-tz.com
54

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Key Factors for Optimizing Teak Growth -a Case Study in Tangara da Serra, Brazil
Luit Smit and Evaldo Oestrich Filho
This paper presents a case study of commercial teak plantations located in Tangara da Serra, in the cental-western part of the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso.
The latitude is 14 South, altitude varies from 200-350 m.a.s.l, and the annual rainfall is around 2000 mm, with 4 months of dry season. The excellent growth
figures of this specific teak project with a mean annual increment of 25-30 m3/ha/year are highlighted, and the key factors for such growth optimization are
discussed.
Graphs of growth are presented based on the performance of conventional planting material after 16 years of inventory as well as the performance of clonal
material compared to conventional planting material after 8 years, on 4 different soil types. The influences of soil characteristics and corrective fertilizer
applications are explained, as well as the importance of soil moisture retention capacity. The phenological differences between traditional seedling planting
stock and clonal materials are highlighted.
The role of key factors for plantation forest management such as good initial establishment, weed control, proper pruning, and timely thinning is also
discussed. The conclusion is that optimal growth of teak depends upon a conjunction of favourable factors. When one of these factors is not optimal, growth
can be seriously affected.

Luit Smit and Evaldo Oestrich Filho


Tectona Agroflorestal Ltda
Brazil
Email: luitsmit@terra.com.br
55

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Plagas y enfermedades en plantaciones de teca (Tectona grandis L.f.) en Centroamrica Nuevos reportes
Marcela Arguedas, Mara Rodrguez and Mario Guevara
La teca (Tectona grandis L.f.) es una de las especies mayormente usadas en reforestacin en las regiones tropicales. Durante los ltimos diez aos,
plantaciones comerciales de T. grandis en la regin centroamericana han sido inspeccionadas para la determinacin de herbvoros y fitopatgenos asociados
a la especie. Se han identificado 57 especies de insectos, 34 de patgenos, cinco de vertebrados (Campephilus principales, Odocoileus virginianus,
Orthogeomys underwoodii, Sciurus spp. y Sigmodon hispidus), el caro Tetranychus sp. (Tetranychydae, Acari) y el murdago (Struthanthus cf leptostachyus).
Durante los aos 2013-2014, en el departamento del Petn, Guatemala se presentaron defoliaciones muy severas causadas por Schitocerca peceifrons
(Acridae, Orthoptera). Es una especie con comportamientos solitarios o gregarios. Los daos en el follaje de T. grandis lo producen en su forma gregaria, en la
cual las mangas alcanzaron hasta 500 m de ancho y se alimentan tanto de esta especie forestal como cultivos agrcolas, especialmente el maz.
Aparentemente presentan dos generaciones por ao. La hembra oviposita en el suelo en grupos de hasta 100 individuos dentro de una vaina, las ninfas
requieren de 45 das para alcanzar la fase adulta; los adultos alcanzan los 6 cm de largo, de colores brillantes, principalmente amarillo o pardo rosceo con
manchas negras. Tambin en el follaje se reporta por primera vez una larva de una especie no identificada del gnero Acharia y manchas producidas por las
cenicillas polvorientas (Oidium sp.).
En las inspecciones de los ltimos tres aos, se observa un incremento en la severidad del ataque de las bacterias Erwinia en plntulas y Ralstonia en rboles
recin establecidos. En follaje defoliaciones por los lepidpteros Hyblaea puera (Hyblaeidae) y Oxidia spp. (Geometridae) y el coleptero Walteraniella sp.
(Chrysomelidae) y la roya de la teca (Olivea tectonae); en el fuste de rboles jvenes el cancro rosado (Erythricium salmonicolor) y a nivel de raz la
pudricin producida por Dematophora sp.

Marcela Arguedas, Mara Rodrguez and Mario Guevara


Escuela de Ingeniera Forestal
Instituto Tecnolgico de Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Email: marguedas@itcr.ac.cr
56

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Aumento de la productividad de plantaciones establecidas de Tectona grandis en sitios marginales mediante el


mejoramiento de las condiciones fsicas y qumicas del suelo
Mario Guevara, Elemer Briceo, Dagoberto Arias, Edwin Esquivel y Adrin Chavarra
La disponibilidad de tierras para el cultivo de teca (Tectona grandis) en la zona norte de Costa Rica, por lo general tienen limitaciones fsicas y qumicas que en
muchas ocasiones impiden el buen crecimiento de los rboles. Ante esta problemtica surge la necesidad de realizar estudios que proporcionen posibles
soluciones y que permitan recuperar la productividad de plantaciones en sitios marginales. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo mejorar la productividad
de plantaciones ya establecidas, mediantes el mejoramiento de las propiedades del suelo. Se estableci un diseo experimental de tres bloques completos al
azar con arreglo factorial y ocho tratamientos que combina el efecto de tres niveles de labranza (sin labranza, labranza a 25 y 50 cm de profundidad) y tres
"intensidades" de implementos de labranza, usando un arado de cincel con 1, 3 y 5 pas. Los primeros resultados indican que los tratamientos no se han
diferenciado entre s con respecto al incremento en dimetro y altura.Esto posiblemente a que debe darse ms tiempo para que las diferencias puedan
apreciarse. Sin embargo, se observa un crecimiento radical debido al efecto de la aplicacin de los tratamientos. Adems no se evidenci la presencia de
plagas o enfermedades producto de la poda radical realizada.
Palabras clave: Plantaciones forestales, productividad, Propiedades fsico-qumicas, Tectona grandis

Mario Guevara, Elemer Briceo, Dagoberto Arias, Edwin Esquivel y Adrin Chavarra
Instituto Tecnolgico de Costa Rica Escuela Ingeniera Forestal
Costa Rica
E-mail: maguevara@itcr.ac.cr
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Teak Seedlings Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms in a Hydroponic System Correlated with Near-infrared Spectroscopy (NIR)
Models
Andrew Whittier
Growers working with teak seedlings in nursery settings often encounter issues related to incorrect nutrition. In order to monitor the growth of individual
seedlings with respect to nutrition issues, a study was initiated looking at the symptoms of twelve macro and micro nutrient deficiencies and toxicities on
hydroponically grown teak seedlings. Preliminary studies were conducted to determine ideal hydroponic solution strength, pH level, and buffer solution for
hydroponically growing teak seedlings. This research was done in preparation for the nutrition study.
In the larger symptomology experiment, seedlings were grown in greenhouses in both a conventional liquid hydroponic setup and in sand culture hydroponics
in order to investigate the efficacy of each system. In the sand culture hydroponic experiment, significant differences in height were observed at eight weeks.
The most dramatic differences in height occurred between control seedlings and those grown without one of the macronutrients. Additional teak seedlings
were also grown in sand under varying levels of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium in order to investigate whether Near Infrared Spectroscopy models
could be developed that accurately determine levels of these nutrients in seedling foliage. Near Infrared models were developed using both a handheld
Microphazir NIR scanner on fresh leaves and with dried ground leaves in the laboratory with Foss NIR 6500 machine. Both systems were investigated in order
to compare the accuracy of the less expensive and more efficient handheld machine withthat of the more intensive wet-laboratory module. Results from all
sections of this study will be incorporated into a guide that provides growers with a suite of tools to accurately diagnose issues with their seedlings.

Andrew Whittier
Camcore
College of Natural Resources,
North Carolina State University
USA
Email: wawhitti@ncsu.edu
58

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Long-Term Assessment on the Growth and Yield of 15-year-old Plantation-Grown Teak (Tectona grandis) in Tawau,
Malaysia
Ahmad Zuhaidi Y
The paper highlights the achieved stand growth and yield, and comparison on the field performance of plantation-grown teak (Tectona grandis) in two
different sites in Tawau, Sabah, Malaysia. Both sites were generally of volcanic soil origin, and at 15 years after planting, site A with sandy loam and high sand
content has lower growth and yield as compared tosite B comprising loamy soil with a fair amount of silt. During this period, a low thinning was conducted in
the 8th year by removing 2025% of the remaining standing trees. At age 15, the achieved volume ha-1 in both sites was 144.51 and 206.06 m3ha-1equivalents
to an average annual volume increment of 9.63 and 13.74 m3ha-1year-1. Subsequent assessment on the measured growth, the average diameter of dominant
trees (100 biggest trees ha-1) in both sites was 24.4 and 28.0 cm while the average stand diameter at breast height was 17.2 and 18.8 cm, respectively. As the
stands were managed for sawlogs in 15 year rotation, the average merchantable and total height varies from 18.7 to 24.2 m in site A, while 20.0 to 30.6 m in
site B. Despite having the information obtained from two localized sites, the results show the effects of ecological and sites requirement of the species for
higher growth and yield as compared with some planted stands in different soils types in the country. The observation from this long-term assessment
demonstratesthe potential growth and yield of teak and the need to evaluate the proposed rotation length andsite suitability for commercial production of
logs.

Ahmad Zuhaidi Y
Forest Research Institute Malaysia, 52109 Kepong, Selangor,
Malaysia
Email: zuhaidi@frim.gov.my
59

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Fire Management at Kilombero Valley Teak Company in Tanzania


L. Viljoen, A. Callister and H. Lemm
The Kilombero Valley Teak Company (KVTC) is an integrated forestry operation consistingof 8,000ha of teak plantation, 20,000ha of natural woodland, a
sawmill and remanufacturing plant.Due to the geographic and social settings, the company has had a history of fires originating in surrounding (farming)
communities as well as on its own land as a result of poorly managed fires by communities, pastoralists using fire to stimulate grass growth as well as hunters
using fire as a tool for hunting. Little information is available on the effects of fire on wood properties, apart from reports that examined wood quality from
old-age teak plantations that experienced many uncontrolled conditions such as fire and found wood quality to be acceptable. . The authors are not aware of
any reports that draws a direct linkage between fire and degrade of wood properties.
Observations in KVTCs plantations do not show any direct correlation between reduced growth, decreased wood quality and other quality parameters. The
only observation that was made is a slightly higher occurrence of heart rot in areas that have been frequently hit by fires. Despite the lack of scientific
evidence, company management believes that fires are detrimental for growth of teak plantations and can result in increased pests and diseases. KVTC has
taken the approach that fire should be avoided in its plantations. In 2011, a complete review of the fire management practices at KVTC was undertaken which
results in several measures that range from social interventions and revised silviculture measures to better equipped, fire-fighting teams in the plantations. By
2014, fires hadbeen brought back to an acceptable levels showing the success of managements interventions. This paper provides an overview of the various
interventions and can serve as a tool for companies and tree farmers on how to manage fires in and around their plantations.
Keywords:Fire, Plantation Teak, Damage, Final Crop, Economics

L. Viljoen, A. Callister and H. Lemm


Kilombero Valley Teak Company
PO Box 12452, Dar es Salaam
Tanzania
Email: kvtc@kvtc-tz.com
60

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Wind Damage was related to Thinning Intensity in a 10 year-old Teak Plantation


Geoff Smith
Wind damage is common in plantations and Northern Australia is subject to strong winds even many kilometres inland. Scotts tree plantation is 80km from
the coast at Kunnunurra in the East Kimberley, NW Western Australia where wind gusts can be over 100km/hr during summer months. A 10 year old teak
plantation was thinned to three residual stockings: 125, 250 and 650 trees per hectare in a randomised complete block design. One year after thinning, there
were clear growth differences related to thinning, however, these were confounded by wind damage that was also related to thinning intensity. Greatest
damage was in the 125 trees per hectare treatment where 50 trees per hectare had broken trunks. The 250 trees per hectare had only 30 trees per hectare
broken, while the unthinned 650 trees per hectare treatment had only 15 trees per hectare damaged. Damage was due to broken trunks rather than
uprooting. The damage was unrelated to height diameter ratio as the largest diameter trees were those retained after thinning. Thinning to stockings below
300 trees per hectare can result in significant stand damage.

Geoff Smith
University of New England
Armidale 2351 NSW
Australia
Email: geoff.smith@une.edu.au
61

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Abstracts
Poster Presentations

62

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

SESSION II
GENETICS, TREE IMPROVEMENT, SILVICULTURE AND
WOOD QUALITY

63

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

El programa clonal de Teca en Ecuador


Fernando Montenegro
NeoFORESTS desarrolla un programa de reproduccin clonal en Ecuador desde fines 2007. Se han identificado sobre 210 Ortetos entre 9 y 31 aos en 16
fincas con plantaciones de Teca distribuidas en las provincias de Pichincha, Santo Domingo de los Colorados, Esmeraldas, Manabi, Los Rios, y Guayas que han
sido preparados para obtener explantes y reproducirlos mediante la tcnica de cultivo de tejidos in vitro.
A la fecha se han reproducidos comercialmente 9 clones, terminando los protocolos otros 14 clones, otros 17 estan en distintas etapas, en total se han
introducido al laboratorio 40 clones. Ensayos y pequeas plantaciones se iniciaron en 2012, en el 2013 se plantaron 19000 rametos y 40000 en 2014. Los
rametos en campo presentan un crecimiento precoz y buena salubridad con un fenotipo peculiar.
Palabras claves: Clones, Cultivo de tejidos, Teca, clones, plantaciones, Ecuador

Fernando Montenegro
Neoforests
Ecuador
E-mail: fdomontenegro@hotmail.com
64

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Study on Seedling Growth Traits, Photosynthetic Characteristics and Influencing Factors in Teak (Tectona grandis Linn.)
Clones
Guihua HuangKunnan LiangZaizhi ZhouHuaming Ma
The growth traits, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of teak clones and CK seedlings (clone from seed orchard) were measured and
evaluated. The influencing ecological factors of net photosynthetic rate were also analysed. The results showed that there were abundant genetic variation in
gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and growth traits in teak clones. The genotypes 7029, 71-5, 7219, 7412 and 7122 had relatively higher photosynthetic
efficiency, and provenances 3070, 3074 and 3071 could be considered with higher photosynthetic efficiency. Germplasm resources from India and low
longitude and latitude had higher photosynthesticefficiency and should be paid more attention in future teak breeding. Photosynthesis rate had significant
positive correlation with seedling height. Photosynthesis rate (Pn), actual quantum yield of photosystem II centers (Yield), quantum efficiency of photosystem
II centers (Fv/Fm) and stomatal conductance (Gs) were expected to be applicable for the evaluation of photosynthetic efficiency in teak resources.
The results also indicated that the curves of diurnal variations of net photosynthetic rate for teak clones had one single peak curve in June at Guangzhou
China, while it showed two-peak curves with photosynthetic midday depression in August and October. The average net photosynthetic rate of teak was
OctoberJuneAugust. Photosynthetic available radiation (PAR) had great significant positive correlation with net photosynthetic rate, high temperature in
June and August had great significant depressing effect to net photosynthetic rate.

Guihua Huang, Kunnan Liang, Zaizhi Zhou and Huaming Ma


Research Institute of Tropical Forestry
Chinese Academy of Forestry
Guangdong
China
Email: chinateak@163.net
65

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Growth of Teak (Tectona grandis L. f) in the Dry Tropics of Nicaragua


Haninec P, Madra P, Smola M, Cafourek J, Stteck J, Habrov H, enfeldr M, radnek L, Rajnoch M, Pavli J, mudla R, Trojan V, Jelnek P,
Jelnek B, radnek L and Gryc V.
The present study provides an overview of production characteristics of a teak plantation established near Diriamba in Nicaragua in an area with precipitation
1400 mm and the length of dry season (six months) at the bottom limit of the species tolerance. The production characteristics of one to nine years old stands
are based on four-year repeated measurements on permanent research plots. There were 143 research plots; each of them contained 100 trees. The GBH,
tree height, stem height, radial and height increment was evaluated, as well as the basal area and stem volume were calculated. The results allowed us to
define the 4th site class of teak. These natural conditions can simulate the influence of global ecological changes on future growth of teak in recently better
conditions.

Haninec P, Madra P, Smola M, Cafourek J, Stteck J, Habrov H, enfeldr M, radnek L, Rajnoch M, Pavli J, mudla R, Trojan V, Jelnek P, Jelnek B,
radnek L and Gryc V.
Mendel University
Brno Zemdlsk 1
Czech Republic
Email: petrmad@mendelu.cz
66

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Effect of Tree Spacing on Swelling Properties of Teak wood (Tectona grandis L.f.) from central-west region of Brazil
Joo Vicente de Figueiredo Latorraca, Roger E. Hernndez and Bruna Ugulino
Knowledge of wood properties like its swelling behaviour, as a result of changes in its moisture content, helps to ensure a successful use of wood for a given
purpose. Also, it is known that the variation in wood properties within and between trees is affected by silvicultural management like tree spacing. This study,
therefore, deals with the swelling behaviour of both sapwood and heartwood in the longitudinal, tangential and radial directions of teak trees grew under
three different spacing treatments (6x2, 5x2 and 4x2m) in the central-west region of Brazil. For this purpose, three disks (dbh) for each treatment were cut in
forty-two samples (twenty one for heartwood and sapwood, respectively) of 20 x 20 x 60 mm (R x T x L) and stored in a conditioning room at 20C; 60% RH.
Dimensional changes and swelling coefficients were measured on each sample under five moisture conditions (0% RH, 30% RH, 60% RH, 85% RH and
saturated). The swelling was different among the two types of wood, being nearly twice as greater in sapwood than in heartwood under all sorption
conditions. The results indicated that planting density influenced the variability of wood in radial, tangential and volumetric shrinkage. The closer spacing
showed the lowest swelling values than the other treatments. However, tree spacing had no significant effect on longitudinal shrinkage for sapwood and
heartwood.
Keywords: tree spacing, teak, wood swelling

Joo Vicente de Figueiredo Latorraca


Department of Forest Products
Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro
Seropdica (RJ)
Brazil
Email: latorraca@hotmail.com

Roger E. Hernndez
Dpartement des Sciences du Bois et de la Fort
Pavillon Gene-H.-Kruger
Universit Laval. Qubec (QC)
Canada

Bruna Ugulino
Dpartement des Sciences du Bois et de la Fort
Pavillon Gene-H.-Kruger
Universit Laval. Qubec (QC)
Canada
67

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

The Reproduction System of Teak (Tectona grandis): Flowering Phenology in a Clonal Seed Orchard Population in Java,
Indonesia
Sinan Hagenah
Teak (Tectona grandis) production forest in Indonesia covers an area of approximately 1.6 million ha and commonly occurs in monospecific, even-aged
stands. The main part of these planted forests (1.1 million ha) is managed by the state-owned forestry company Perum Perhutani on the islands of Java and
Madura. The management system of Perum Perhutani prescribes that harvested compartments are replanted with seedlings from tree nurseries, with about
70% of the reproductive material originating from three Clonal Seed Orchards (CSO) of mostly identical clonal composition. The extend of standing genetic
variation in these CSO populations and the share of genetic variation that is inherited to their progeny during reproduction, thus decide to a considerable
degree on the genetic constitution of teak plantations of Perum Perhutani. The flowering phenology is an important aspect of the reproduction system of
teak, since the timing and intensity of flowering of tree individuals affects mating likelihoods and in this way the formation of genetic structures in the
progeny generation.
We studied the flowering phenology in a population of 420 trees in one of the three CSOs mentioned above. The beginning and end of flowering per tree as
well as individual flowering intensity was measured throughout the flowering phase from January until April of 2014 by counting the number of inflorescence
per tree repetitively. A characterization of flowering patterns in the CSO population shall show whether positive assortative mating can be expected from a
phenological point of view, with possible implications for the design and management of propagation populations, in particular CSOs.

Sinan Hagenah
Section Forest Genetics and Forest Tree Breeding, Gttingen University
Bsgenweg 2 D-37077
Gttingen Germany
Email: sinan.hagenah@forst.uni-goettingen.de
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Genetics of Growth in Teak CSO Families and Provenances in Two Contrasted Tropical Sites
Roberto Bacilieri, Doreen K S Goh, Gilles Chaix and Olivier Monteuuis
Teak is diploid (2n=36), has a small genome (480Mpb), and display a high level of heterozygosity (more than 70% in the less depleted forests), all favorable
traits for improvement through selection and breeding. In spite of the interest of teak for the world market, R&D efforts in teak genetic improvement are still
rare. As a result, forest companies still have little choice for their investment in genetically superior materials.
As a first step towards a better exploitation of teak genetic potential, we tested 16 families derived from a clonal seed orchard (CSO) and 10 common
provenances (Prov) of teak in two different tropical sites, a) to compare, in a statistically sound experiment, the provenances among them and with the CSO
families and, b) to estimate the heritability of growth traits and the genetic gains that can be expected via breeding.
Both sites are located in Sabah, East Malaysia. For the statistical analysis we used a mixed model accounting for spatial variation. Nine years after planting,
the two genetic entries, CSO and Prov, showed highly significant differences for height, DBH and volume in both sites. The superiority of the CSO families
compared with the Prov class was large for volume production, resulting in an advantage of +67.9% and +40.3% in Luasong and Taliwas, respectively.
Narrowsense heritabilities for the 16 CSO families were larger for height (0.38) and volume (0.23). These promising results will translate in even better
outcomes in the field, once geneticists will be able to concomitantly deal with the improvement of stem form, wood quality and tolerance to biotic and
abiotic stresses.
In combination with the deployment of new modern DNA technologies, these favourable traits should make teak genetic improvement through selection and
breeding attainable and effective with a reasonable R&D investment.

Roberto Bacilieri
INRA-CIRAD-SUPAGRO
Genetic Improvement and Adaptation of
Mediterranean and Tropical Plants
Montpellier, France
Email: bacilieri@supagro.inra.fr

Doreen K S Goh
YSG Biotech Sdn Bhd
Yayasan Sabah Group
Kota Kinabalu, Sabah
Malaysia

Gilles Chaix and Olivier Monteuuis


CIRAD - BIOS Department
UMR AGAP, ESALQ USP
Piracicaba-SP
Brazil
69

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Genetic Improvement of Teak in India for Growth and Timber Quality


Ashwani Kumar
India has around 6.8 million hectares of natural teak-bearing forests and about 1.7 million hectares of plantations. It has a wide but discontinuous
distribution from about 8 to 24 oN latitudes covering a range of climatic and soil conditions. It occurs in areas receiving rainfall as low as 700 mm to more
than 3000 mm. Expectedly teak in India shows a large amount of variation in terms of growth, stem form, wood quality and vegetative and reproductive
phenology. Teak populations are recognized as dry, semi-moist and moist subtypes based on the environmental conditions and tree characteristics. Several
studies have shown a genetic basis for this observed variation and India is generally regarded as the centre of diversity for teak. Most of the introductions of
teak outside its natural distribution range were made with Indian provenances and they showed the best growth in many international provenance trials
particularly in central and South America. Despite the large area under teak forests and plantations, India is one of the largest importers of tropical timber
particularly teak. The forest policy adopted during the last three decades gave more emphasis to conservation of natural forests than timber extraction. The
steady economic growth during the same period resulted in increased timber demand and heavy imports to meet the demand. Research on increasing
plantation productivity started with the launching of teak improvement progamme in 1962 with selection of plus trees, establishment of seed orchards and
seed production areas. Significant achievements have been made in developing fast-growing clones with high timber quality and cost-effective clonal
technology, tissue culture, improving seed production in orchards and understanding the genetic structure of Indian teak populations and the patterns of
inheritance for growth and wood traits. Alongside silvicultural improvements like clonal plantation establishment, agroforestry models, managing soil fertility
after successive rotations and reduction in harvest age have also been attempted. This paper reviews the progress made in these recent initiatives and
presents a strategy for sustaining them in the future.

Ashwani Kumar
Director General
Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education
Dehradun-248006 , India
E-mail: ashwanikumar@icfre.org
70

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Ring-width Variability and Growth Rate of Natural Teak Provenances from India
P.K. Thulasidas and E.P. Indira
In India, teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) is distributed naturally in the peninsular region below 24o latitude over a wide range of climatic and geographic conditions.
This paper evaluates growth-ring variability of natural teak provenances from 23 geographic locations of India covering the dry and moist deciduous forests of
10 Indian States. A total of 150 samples from 82 trees of various ages were collected from dbh level and analysed. The collected samples were grouped into
five age groups viz; G I (upto 24 yrs); II (25-34 yrs); III (35-44 yrs); IV (45-54 yrs) and V (>55 yrs). The ANOVA revealed that ring-width differed significantly
between the 23 provenances and it varied within the age groups ((P0.01). The dbh increased with age and the mean ring width (growth rate) decreased after
initial increase up to age class II, showing its consistent relationship with age of the tree rather than the growth rate, in later years. For a given age class,
Nilambur provenance from Kerala shows higher dbh (72.5 cm) with wider growth rings (7.6 mm) followed by other provenance from south Indian States. The
study proved that the South Indian teak provenances showed superior wood quality attributes as well as growth characteristics suitable for future genetic
conservation programmes.
Keywords: Teak provenance, ring width, growth rate, Tectona grandis

P.K. Thulasidas and E.P.Indira


Kerala Forest Research Institute
Peechi - 680653, India
Email: thulasidas@kfri.org
71

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Teak (Tectona grandis) Plantation Management based upon Stand Density Index Concept
Fernando Vlez-Escobar
This paper forms part of the development of a consultancy work to Refocosta S.A. company, during the years 2004-2011, at La Gloria project, for a 1.513 ha
teak plantation area, located at Monterrubio county, Magdalena province, Colombia, 10 23 N 74 23 O, at 55 m.a.s.l., classified within Holdridges life zones
as Tropical dry zone.
The whole work includes development of volume and tape single tree equations, yield and growth studies up to 28 year-old stands, including potential
intermediate thinning and remnant stand density variables after management, as well as crop volume classification by five log size ranges. The net of
permanent plots has at age 25 years the following average variables: height 23 m, diameter 27 cm with 0,4 cm/year growth, basal area 27 m2/ha, volume
under bark 173 m3/ha with 6,5 m3/ha-a for current and mean growth.
To estimate productivity under forest management, defined stand density index to a minimum desirable level of 475 stems of 25 cm per hectare, thinning
crops over 25 m3/ha, and a rotation age up to 40 years, a simulation model software developed by the author has been used, which uses the four study levels
mentioned above: the project could therefore expect since year 2010 an annual growth of 10.000 m 3 (6,87 m3/ha/year), an average annual harvest volume of
3.278 m3 by thinning plus 5.225 m3 by final cut, 19% over 25 cm log diameter and 72% over 15 cm.
An updated financial calculation is presented for this paper: an average site quality stand, applying the recommended forest management and rotation,
expected production costs USD 66 m3 for logs over 15 cm, and internal rate of return (IRR) about 6%, with maximum sensitivity to wood price.

Fernando Vlez-Escobar
Consultant
Reforestadora de la Costa S.A.
Colombia
Email: fernando.velez52@gmail.com
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Influencia de la posicin fisiogrfica sobre el crecimiento de una plantacin de teca (Tectona grandis L.F.) de siete aos
de edad, en Guanarito, estado Portuguesa, Venezuela
Isabel Scharge and Gregorio Hernando
Se evalu el crecimiento de una plantacin de teca hasta los siete aos de edad ubicada sobre suelos de origen aluvial en dos posiciones fisiogrficas: napa de
desborde con un suelo Fluventic Haplustept de textura franco arcillo limoso y cubeta de desborde con un suelo Fluvaquentic Epiaquepts arcillo limoso. La
plantacin se encuentra ubicada en el municipio Guanarito, estado Portuguesa, Venezuela. La poblacin fue definida por una plantacin de teca de 60
hectreas, sobre suelos del orden de los Inceptisoles, la muestra se obtuvo al seleccionar al azar 10 hileras, en las cuales se seleccionaron al azar 10 plantas,
para un total de 100 plantas seleccionadas en cada posicin fisiogrfica. Las variables evaluadas fueron: dimetro de tallo a la altura del pecho (1,30 m) y
altura total. Se realizaron seis mediciones entre marzo de 2005, a los nueve meses de establecida la plantacin y julio de 2011 cuando la plantacin tena siete
aos de edad. Los datos se procesaron mediante el anlisis de la varianza (ANDEVA) y la prueba de comparacin de medias t de Student. Se encontraron
diferencias en el dimetro a la altura del pecho y altura total, que indican que el crecimiento es mayor sobre la napa de desborde, que corresponde a la
posicin ms elevada y con suelos mejor drenados, diferencias que son ms marcadas en los primeros aos de la plantacin. El promedio de altura total y
dimetro a la altura del pecho sobre la napa de desborde a los siete aos de edad fue 14,35 m y 19,43 cm respectivamente; mientras que sobre la cubeta de
desborde la altura total fue 14,05 m y el dimetro a la altura del pecho 18,95 cm. El crecimiento obtenido en ambas posiciones fisiogrficas, tanto en
dimetro como altura total se consideran elevados para la especie en Venezuela.
Palabras Clave: crecimiento, plantacin, Tectona grandis, suelos, posicin fisiogrfica.

Isabel Scharge
Universidad Ezequiel Zamora UNELLEZ, Programa Ciencias del Agro y
del Mar,
Guanare, 3350 Po.
Venezuela
Email: ischargel@gmail.com

Gregorio Hernando
Agropecuaria La Filera,
C.A. Carretera Guanare
Guanarito, Km 13
Venezuela
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Tiempos y rendimientos de aserro de madera escuadrada (rough squares) en plantaciones de teca en la zona norte de
Costa Rica
Mario Guevara-Bonilla, Jason Rojas
Determinar la eficiencia y el rendimiento fsico en el procesamiento de la madera es una de las mejores maneras de conocer las debilidades del proceso y
realizar los ajustes necesarios que conduzcan a una mayor eficiencia. En Costa Rica, los productores de teca venden su madera procedentes de raleos en pie o
escuadrada siendo esta ltima opcin una de las ms utilizadas y la que mejores precios presenta. Sin embargo, no hay informacin relacionada a la cantidad
de tiempo ni los rendimientos que esta actividad posee. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar los tiempos y rendimientos de la operacin de aserro
de bloques producto de un raleo forestal en plantaciones de teca de la zona norte de Costa Rica. Se realiz un estudio de tiempos y movimientos mediante el
mtodo de muestreo para determinar el porcentaje de eficiencia de la operacin. El rendimiento de aserro se determin como el cociente entre el volumen
aserrado y el correspondiente volumen de madera rolliza. Se encontr que el porcentaje de eficiencia fue mayor al 60% y el tiempo promedio de aserro fue
de 93 segundos. El rendimiento promedio de aserro fue de 54%. Los valores de tiempo y rendimiento varan de acuerdo a la clase diamtrica de las trozas.
Palabras clave: tiempos y movimientos, rendimiento de aserro, plantaciones forestales, Tectona grandis.

Mario Guevara-Bonilla
Profesor e investigador
Instituto Tecnolgico de Costa Rica
Costa Rica
E-mail: maguevara@itcr.ac.cr

Jason Rojas
Reforestacin Grupo Internacional
Costa Rica

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Superioridad en Crecimiento y Rendimiento de Clones de Teca en una Variedad de Sitios puede Aumentar el Valor de los
Terrenos
Luis Ugalde Arias
Se presenta una revisin del estado de la reproduccin de clones de teca utilizados en plantaciones comerciales en diferentes pases y bajo diferentes
condiciones de clima y suelo. Los resultados obtenidos con los clones con procedencia de las Islas Solomon en crecimiento y productividad bajo diferentes
condiciones de sitio, en comparacin con plantaciones comerciales de semilla certificada, muestran diferencias altamente significativas a favor de los clones.
Se discuten las caractersticas fenotpicas y el desarrollo del sistema radical que proporcionan y explican en gran parte, las ventajas en crecimiento y en una
disminucin en costos en las actividades silviculturales. Esto significa que, aunque el costo inicial por planta sea mayor, implican una menor inversin durante
el turno de rotacin (costo-beneficio menor). Experiencias de estos clones en plantaciones comerciales jvenes en varios pases de Amrica Tropical como
Brasil, Mxico, Panam, Nicaragua y Guatemala; en Australia y en el Sureste asitico (Malasia) arrojan una superioridad en volumen total (m3/ha) en los
primeros aos, de dos a cuatro veces ms a favor de los clones en comparacin con plantaciones de semilla certificada. Estos clones, en plantaciones
comerciales, en varios pases, han mostrado la capacidad de adaptarse a condiciones de suelos donde las plantaciones de semilla no crecen favorablemente.
Las investigaciones recientes (Ugalde, 2013) y el monitoreo del crecimiento durante los primeros 10 aos en plantaciones comerciales comprueban la
capacidad de estos clones de poder crecer en suelos muy arcillosos, en suelos arenosos con poca fertilidad y en suelos cidos. Estos clones abren nuevas
oportunidades para reforestadores e inversionistas porque permiten utilizar y dar valor a suelos que tradicionalmente no eran aptos para plantaciones de
teca. Caractersticas fenotpicas de los rboles de algunos de estos clones, hacen posible la produccin de una mayor cantidad de trozas vendibles, de mejor
forma y calidad, lo que permite mejorar la rentabilidad del negocio en plantaciones puras, agroforestera y sistemas
silvopastoriles.

Luis Ugalde Arias


Asesor Forestal Internacional (International Forestry Advisor)
International Forestry & Agroforestry INFOA
Costa Rica
E-mail: laugalde@gmail.com
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Genetic Parameter Estimation of 10 year-old Half-sib Teak Stands


Erlangga Abdillah, Eko Sudaryanto, Novinci Muharyani
Teak is a beautiful, luxury wood species that attracted people for centuries. Perum Perhutani, state owned forestry enterprise in Java, Indonesia, as one of
the teak wood supplier, have engaged Teak (Tectona grandis) breeding programe since 1981, to obtain genetically superior planting teak. This study was
conducted to determine the growth variation and some growth characteristic by estimating the genetic parameter of heights and diameter characteristics.
The estimation was carried out on a 10 year- old half-sib teak stand, located in Ngawi, East Java, Indonesia. The trial was arranged in a randomized complete
block design (RCBD) which comprised of 20 families as treatment, 10 replication and each replication comprised of 4 tree plot with 3 x 3 meter planting space.
The result of analysis of variance (ANONA) showed that height and diameter were significantly different between families. The individual heritabilities value
for height characteristic was 0.45 and for diameter characteristic was 0.17. The family heritabilities value for height characteristic was 0.6 and diameter
characteristic was 0.3 and the genetic correlation between the two characteristic were 0.704. The above values needed in the breeding activities are further
discussed in the paper.
Keywords: Half-sib teak, genetic parameter

Erlangga Abdillah, Eko Sudaryanto and Novinci Muharyani


Research and Development Center - Perum Perhutani
Jalan Wonosari-Batokan Tromol Pos 6 Cepu
Central Java Indonesia
Email: novincimuharyani@yahoo.co.id
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Evaluation of the Performance of Tectona Grandis Progenies from Plus Trees In Peninsular Malaysia
Mohd. Zaki. A, Nor Fadilah. W and Mohamad Lokmal. N
In Malaysia, teak cultivation is relatively new compared to neighbouring countries like India, Myanmar, Thailand and Indonesia. Planting of the species is
preferred to ensure sustainable supply of the wood raw materials. A number of research projects have been formulated to strengthen the gaps in the
technical knowledge of this species amongst which include the production of genetically improved planting material. Therefore, the objective of this study
was to identify the best genotypes or phenotypes to use as the criteria for the selection of parent trees for the production of improved planting stock for
future breeding programmes. Teak fruits were collected from 34 teak plus trees growing at the plantation in Mata Ayer Forest Reserve, Perlis. The plus trees
were evaluated based on their overall superiority in several important characters. The seeds were collected, germinated and raised at FRIMs nursery. The
progenies (seedlings) were then transplanted at four sites namely, Merchang Forest Reserve (FR), Papulut FR, Kemasul FR and Labis FR. The experimental
design used in this study is a row and column design with 4 replications. Each plot was planted with 4 progenies from one family (plus tree). The trial was
designed in a manner intended for future conversion into seedling seed orchard. The trial was evaluated and analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) to
determine the diameter and height increment variation among the plus trees and by Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) to detect significant differences of
means among the progenies. The result showed high variations on survival and diameter and height increments observed within and between the families.
The environmental effects such as soil and micro climatic conditions have contributed to the high variations. This was shown by the differences in overall
performance of the teak seedlings in different sites. Although there is strong indication of genetic x environment interactions, both in term of survival and
growth rates among the families. The result from this trial can be used as the basis for the establishment of seed orchard.

Mohd. Zaki. A, Nor Fadilah. W and Mohamad Lokmal. N


Plant Improvement Programme
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
Kepong
Malaysia
Email: zaky@frim.gov.my
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

SESSION III
Management Models for Different Value Chains
Including Small Holder Forestry

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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Stand-level Simulation System Applied to Teak (Tectona grandis) Plantations in Colombia


Ana M. Lpez, Alonso Barrios and Vctor M. Nieto
An increasing interest has been generated around the establishment of forest plantations in Colombia, with public and private investments leading to increase
of the planted forestry sector in the country. Teak (Tectona grandis) is one of the most important species used in the forestation programs, currently around
25.000 ha are planted mainly in the northern region of the country. To facilitate forest management and decision-making process of these forest plantations
computational tools are required.
The aim of this research is to develop growth models to be integrated into the forest growth and yield simulation system. SimFor v1.2 software, conceived as
an easy to use tool to be applied as support for decision-making of forest plantations management. The data used for fitting and validating the growth models
proceed from the measurement of more than 80 permanent sample plots during five consecutive years, installed in forest plantations covering 1-17 years-old
and site indices ranging 17-24.
The modelling strategy applied, considered the development of a stand-level model with disaggregation in diameter classes. The forest growth simulator use
three transition functions (mortality, basal area, and dominant height) expressed as algebraic differences equations. Once the stand variables are known to a
determined age, the number of trees per hectare in each diameter class is estimated by means of a parameter recovery algorithm of the Weibull function.
The tree height of the mean diameter class is predicted using a generalized height-diameter model and the total and merchantable volumes are predicted
through a taper model.
Keywords: forest management, growth and yield, dynamic models, simulation.

Ana M. Lpez and Alonso Barrios


Facultad de Ingenieria Forestal
Universidad del Tolima, Ibagu
Colombia
E-mail: amlopeza@ut.edu.co.

Vctor M. Nieto
Corporacin Nacional de Investigacin y Fomento Forestal CONIF
Bogot
Colombia
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Variacin de la relacion area basal-volumen en funcin de la calidad de sitio y la edad para plantaciones de Tectona
grandis L.f.en los Llanos Occidentales de Venezuela
Ana Y. Moret, Mauricio Jerez, Ana Quevedo y Lawrence Vincent
La relacin rea basal-volumen es muy importante en ciertos mtodos modernos de inventario forestal, debido a que permite obtener predicciones del
volumen partiendo solo de la estimacin del rea basal la cual puede obtenerse rpidamente utilizando el mtodo de parcelas variables. Sin embargo, esta
relacin parece ser afectada por la calidad de sitio, y la edad, por lo cual es importante tomar en cuenta el efecto de estas variables antes de emplearla
operacionalmente. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la relacin rea basal:volumen en funcin de la calidad de sitio y la edad, en plantaciones de teca
establecidas en varias localidades de los Llanos Occidentales y Centrales de Venezuela. Los datos utilizados provienen de parcelas permanentes de aclareo y
rendimiento, con diferentes espaciamientos (2 2 m hasta 4 4 m) y regmenes de aclareo (0 a 4), y de 800 parcelas temporales. Las parcelas permanentes
fueron establecidas opinticamente, mientras que las parcelas temporales obedecen a muestras sistemticas con arranque aleatorio. Se plante como
hiptesis que la relacin entre rea basal y volumen es poco afectada por la edad, la densidad, el rgimen de aclareos y el ndice de sitio. El volumen en pie se
calcul segn la ecuacin de Moret et al. 1998 que estima volumen en pie hasta 8 cm de dimetro en punta, utilizando el dap y la altura total de los rboles; y
la clasificacin de sitio se basa en curvas de ndice de sitio generadas a partir de una curva gua tipo Chapman-Richards ajustada con modelos mixtos.
Resultados preliminares indican que la relacin rea basal y volumen no es afectada por la densidad o tratamientos silviculturales, mientras que la calidad de
sitio y la edad tienen un efecto importante en la misma. Para un rango ms o menos amplio de edades y calidades de sitio, la relacin rea basal: volumen es
de alrededor de 1:10,5

Ana Y. Moret, Mauricio Jerez, Ana Quevedo y Lawrence Vincent


Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales
Universidad de Los Andes
Mrida, 5101
Venezuela
Email:anamer2@gmail.com
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Software para Predecir el Troceo de rboles de Teca en Pie para Maximizar el Volumen Comercial y su Valor
Luis Ugalde Arias
Se presenta una descripcin del desarrollo y las bondades que ofrece el troceador con el fin de facilitar las proyecciones del nmero de trozas y volumen
comercial en trozas de diferentes largos y su respectiva valoracin. Las decisiones se basan en los catlogos de precios de compradores de teca, incluyendo la
valoracin de la madera en trozas por clase diamtrica. Se incluyen ejemplos para verificar y comparar las proyecciones realizadas por el troceador con
resultados obtenidos, a travs de la metodologa de cadena de custodia desarrollada para cuantificar la produccin real en el campo, de trozas de rboles
individuales de un raleo o de una corta total de los rboles en las parcelas de medicin (Ugalde, 2008).
El troceador permite hacer las estimaciones del dimetro de las trozas a diferentes alturas del rbol utilizando ecuaciones de ahusamiento o factores de
ahusamiento generados a partir de las cadenas de custodia de rboles individuales. Esta aplicacin est integrada dentro del software MiraSilv (Ugalde, 2014)
y permite la proyeccin de trozas y volumen por rbol individual en pie de acuerdo a la simulacin de un raleo o de una corta total de los rboles en las
parcelas de medicin o del inventario forestal. Incluye reportes de trozas y volmenes de rboles individuales, promedios por parcela, promedios por
hectrea, y promedios por lote de plantacin y su correspondiente valoracin de trozas con o sin corteza y hasta un dimetro mnimo superior del tronco.

Luis Ugalde Arias


Asesor Forestal Internacional (International Forestry Advisor)
International Forestry & Agroforestry INFOA
Costa Rica
E-mail: laugalde@gmail.com
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

SESSION IV
Teak Plantation Management and Environmental Protection

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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Evaluacin del primer raleo comercial en plantaciones de Teca (Tectona grandis Linn f.) en El Petn, Guatemala
Hensy Froilan Caal Chamm, Edwin Estuardo Vaides and Manuel Mollinedo
La evaluacin se realiz con la finalidad de documentar el primer raleo comercial efectuado en plantaciones de Teca al ao 2,014, localizadas en los
municipios de La Libertad y Las Cruces, del departamento de Peten, Guatemala. Dichas plantaciones fueron intervenidas a una edad de 7 aos, siendo
evaluadas las actividades de raleo con tres escenarios propuestos a densidades iniciales post-raleo de 550, 450 y 400 rboles por hectrea, quedando al final
una densidad remanente de 527, 465 y 400 rboles por hectrea, para estas remanencias se utilizaron los mtodos de cajas de marcacin dobles y simple;
donde se tomaron en cuenta las variables de crecimiento y productividad: DAP (cm), altura total (m), AB (m2 ha-1), Volumen (m3 ha-1), calidad del fuste y
calidad de trozas. Para alcanzar los objetivos de esta evaluacin se efectuaron mediciones antes y despus del raleo, con parcelas permanentes de
monitoreo.
Despus de ejecutar el marqueo se encontr que las cajas simples son ms efectivas en relacin a las densidades deseadas, al implementar el raleo se
encontr que la corta de los individuos a travs de los productos obtenidos para biomasa y exportacin fueron de 0.67 m3 ha-1, 5.37 m3 ha-1 y 3.41 m3 ha-1
exportable respectivamente, segn las densidades remanentes de cada escenario; a travs del muestreo de productos se determin que un 56.61% es de alta
calidad y un 36.95% de calidad aceptable, ambos para el mercado de Teca. Esto confirma que con la ejecucin del raleo, inicia el mejoramiento en la calidad
de las plantaciones. Se gener la ecuacin de Volumen Comercial (m3) = 0.00003 * (DAP cm) 2.9241 a obtener por rbol a partir del DAP (cm). Otra
evaluacin que se realiz fue el costo por hectrea la cual dio Q. 609.75, Q. 829.22 y Q. 849.48, correspondiente a las densidades iniciales post-raleo.
Palabras claves: Teca, raleo, productividad, crecimiento, plantaciones.

Hensy Froilan Caal Chamm


Universidad Rafael Landivar
Guatemala
Email: hensyfor0502@hotmail.com

Edwin Estuardo Vaides


Gerencia Tcnica
Tripan
Guatemala

Manuel Mollinedo
Carrera Ingeniera Forestal
Campus La Verapaz
Guatemala
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

Mejoramiento tecnolgico de suelos para el incremento de la productividad en plantaciones de Tectona grandis:


incremento en biomasa de races finas
Elemer Briceo, Mario Guevara, Edwin Esquivel, Dagoberto Arias and Sara Molina
Tierras tradicionalmente bajo cultivo de teca (Tectona grandis), estn sujetas a adversidades fsicas y qumicas que requieren un mayor estudio y soluciones
especficas. Costa Rica requiere que mantener las reas reforestadas bajo el mismo uso; sin embargo hasta el momento no existe una discusin sobre la
segunda rotacin ha tenido lugar ni ninguna consideracin respecto a continuar con la misma especie o no. Consideraciones en estado nutricional del sitio
post-cosecha o qu paquete tecnolgico asegurar una produccin sostenible tampoco est bajo discusin. Lo prioritario es que estas plantaciones ya sean de
moderada a alta productividad, deben mantener la produccin de madera. El presente proyecto ha establecido varios tratamientos de mejora fsica de suelos
en plantaciones con aparente deficiencia en crecimiento e historia de compactacin. Se estableci un diseo experimental de tres bloques utilizando ocho
tratamientos, que combinan el efecto de dos niveles de labranza profundos y tres "intensidades" de implementos de labranza, utilizando 1,3 y 5 arados de
cincel; adems, dos tratamientos ms, incluyendo un tratamiento no fertilizado de inclinacin y una parcela de control. Adems de los efectos en las variables
normales de crecimiento (dimetro y altura y consecuentemente volumen) se espera un cambio en el desarrollo radical, donde la intensidad de los
tratamientos estimulen un mayor desarrollo radical, mayor rea de absorcin de nutrientes y razonablemente crecimiento. Los resultados aqu expuestos
buscan mostrar el efecto de tratamientos en la demografa de races en estas plantaciones y recomendar la mejor intensidad a seguir en trminos tcnicos y
econmicos.
Palabras clave:Tectona grandis, produccin sostenible, biomasa de races, subsoleo.

Elemer Briceo, Mario Guevara, Edwin Esquivel, Dagoberto Arias and Sara Molina
Instituto Tecnolgico de Costa Rica
Escuela Ingeniera Forestal
Costa Rica
Email: ebriceno@itcr.ac.cr
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Modelacin Calidad de Sitio en Plantacin Juvenil de Teca


Nohelia Bedoya Velsquez
Como proceso para el establecimiento, manejo y evaluacin continua de una plantacin juvenil de teca, previo a la siembra en zona de uso agroforestal en el
norte del Urab Chocoano, Costa Caribe, Colombia, Sur Amrica se realiz la calificacin de sitio por mtodo indirecto (topografa, edafologa y clima),
identificndose buena aptitud de uso. Posteriormente al ao y medio de siembra se realiz el monitoreo del crecimiento en la etapa juvenil con el
establecimiento de 31 parcelas circulares de 300 m, bajo el criterio de muestreo estratificado por calidad de sitio. Los datos recabados durante cuatro aos
se utilizaron para el clculo de IS con base en las ecuaciones de Schumacher, Korf y Richard-Chapman. Las regresiones arrojaron estadgrafos de R
Schumacher (67,2446 %), Korf (67,5393 %) y Richard-Chapman (67,4306%), la comparacin para muestras pareadas indic no diferencia significativa entre los
dos ltimos modelos. Los resultados para edad de referencia (12 aos) en la familia de curvas IS promedio indican con Korf un lmite superior 22,62 m. e
inferior 12,57 m., Schumacher 19,94 m y 11,80 m. y Richard-Chapman 22,28 m y 13,25 m. El anlisis ANOVA y prueba de comparacin de los rangos IS Korf
con los hallados por (Torres, Delvalle y Restrepo, 2011) regin Caribe Colombia, IS superior 24,7 metros e inferior 9,8 m., ubica los valores estimados al
interior de estos niveles. El anlisis por parcela present igual comportamiento.
Palabras Clave: Teca, ndice de sitio, modelacin crecimiento, plantacin juvenil, Korf, Richard Chapman, Schumacher

Nohelia Bedoya Velsquez


Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias
Departamento de Ciencias Forestales
Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Sede Medelln
Colombia
Email: nbedoya49@hotmail.com
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Manejo de Plantaciones de TecaAplicando Modelos de Distribucin Diamtrica


Juan Camilo Patio Zabala
Para las plantaciones forestales de produccin de madera fina, el objetivo de produccin puede llegar a ser no tanto la cantidad de volumen de madera
producida, sino que est mucho ms relacionado con alcanzar las mayores dimensiones por pieza de madera, reflejo de dimetros gruesos en los rboles. Por
eso, la modelacin de la distribucin diamtrica de una plantacin forestal es de gran inters para su evaluacin y monitoreo y para la programacin de los
esquemas de manejo correspondientes. A partir de la medicin sistemtica durante 11 aos de 173 parcelas permanentes en plantaciones de teca de
diferentes edades en la costa ecuatoriana, se pudieron ajustar y caracterizar modelos para la distribucin diamtrica con relacin al paso del tiempo,
mediante el uso de matrices de transicin y procesos de difusin que permitieron simular escenarios ptimos de intervencin y estimar con mayor precisin
la produccin futura a partir del comportamiento de las categoras de dimetro definidas. Estos anlisis incluyen la calibracin de un modelo logstico
multinomial, para determinar la influencia la relacin de las intervenciones con el desarrollo de la plantacin en trminos de la distribucin diamtrica.

Juan Camilo Patio Zabala


Posgrado en Bosques y Conservacin Ambiental
Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Sede Medelln
Colombia
Email: jcpatino@unal.edu.co
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Historia y Manejo Actual de Plantaciones de Teca en Venezuela


Mauricio Jerez, Isabel Schargel, Gregorio Hernando, Yajaira Moret, Ana Quevedo, Mara A. Quintero, Lawrence Vincent
Venezuela fue uno de los pases pioneros en el cultivo de teca en Suramrica, donde fue introducida en 1936 en Rancho Grande, estado Aragua. Pese a que
desde los aos 70 se han establecido plantaciones con excelentes resultados (15-20 m3 ha-1 ao-1) basados en investigacin y experiencias sobre el
crecimiento y adaptacin a las condiciones climticas y de suelo de Venezuela; el mercado de la teca tuvo poco desarrollo, principalmente debido a polticas
forestales y la predominancia de los mercados de maderas del bosque natural. En este trabajo se hace un recuento de la historia del establecimiento y
manejo de plantaciones de teca en Venezuela; las principales investigaciones y experiencias con especial referencia a los resultados provenientes de parcelas
permanentes de aclareo y rendimiento con seguimiento por ms de 40 aos. Se destacan los logros en la biometra, crecimiento y rendimiento, calidad de
sitio y regmenes de manejo silvicultural, que han permitido desarrollar simuladores para optimizar el rendimiento biolgico y financiero, a escala de rodal
individual y mltiples rodales, proyectos para la produccin simultnea de madera y secuestro de carbono. Se analizan experiencias actuales de
establecimiento y manejo intensivo en condiciones de sitio ptimas y en otras tradicionalmente consideradas sub-ptimas para el crecimiento de la teca. Se
describe el estado actual de las plantaciones y las caractersticas del mercado en Venezuela, resaltando las ventajas y limitaciones que existen para su
expansin. Finalmente, se discute la participacin e impacto del cultivo de la teca a nivel comunitario en plantaciones a pequea escala, en sistemas
agroforestales a la luz de las condiciones sociopolticas particulares existentes en Venezuela.

Mauricio Jerez, Yajaira Moret, Ana Quevedo, Mara A.


Quintero andLawrence Vincent
Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales
Universidad de Los Andes, Mrida
Venezuela
Email:jerezorama@gmail.com

Isabel Schargel and Gregorio Hernando


Universidad Nacional Experimental de Los
Llanos Occidentales Ezequiel Zamora,
Guanare
Venezuela

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List of Participants
ALEMANIA
1.

Sinan Hagenah
University of Goettingen
Alemania
Email:
sinan.hagenah@forst.uni-goettingen.de

AUSTRIA
5.

AUSTRALIA
2.

Henri Bailleres
Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and
Forestry
Agri-Science Queensland,
Australia
Email: henri.bailleres@bigpond.com

3.

Geoff Smith
University of New England
Australia

4.

Timothy Fleming
The International Woodland Company
Australia
Email: tf@iwc.dk

Michael Kleine
International Union of Forest Research
Organizations (IUFRO)
Austria
Email: kleine@iufro.org

9.

Alfredy Alvarez
FORESTECA
Bolivia
Email: saenzfx@hotmail.com

10.

Assaad Daher
FORESTECA
Bolivia
Email: saenzfx@hotmail.com

11.

Annette Daher
FORESTECA
Bolivia
Email: adaher@paperking.com.bo

BOLIVIA
6.

Andres Carrasco Pereira


PLANT-FOR
Bolivia
Email: a.carrasco@plant-for.com

7.

Marcelino Montero
FORESTECA
Bolivia
Email: saenzfx@hotmail.com

12.

Francisco X. Senz Cabezas


FORESTECA
Bolivia
Email: saenzfx@hotmail.com

Luiz Gonzaga de Oliveira Filho


Tiete Agricola Ltda
Brasil
Email: luiz@tieteagricola.com.br

13.

Gilberto Francischetto
Cia Vale do Araguaia
Brasil
Email: aferraz@ambarpar.com.br

8.

BRASIL

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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

14.

Helaine Carrer
University of Sao Paulo/ESALQ
Brasil
Email: hecarrer@usp.br

20.

Fernando Torres
PROTECA
Brasil
Email: fernando@proteca.com.br

15.

Carmen Sanchis
NOBLEINVEST
Brasil
Email: carmen@nobleinvest.com

21.

Rodrigo Vieira
PROTECA
Brasil
Email: rodrigo@proteca.com.br

16.

17.

18.

19.

Paulo Popenmayer Neto


ECOFLORESTAL
Brasil
Email: paulo.ecoflorestal@gmail.com
Alexandre Baldasso
GUAVIR
Brasil
Email: alexandre@guavira.com.br
Carolina Torres
PROTECA
Brasil
Email: carolina@proteca.com.br
Erick Espinoza
PROTECA
Brasil
Email: erick@proteca.com.br

22.

Sylvio De Andrade Coutinho


FLORESTECA
Brasil
Email:
verena.rodrigues@floresteca.com.br

23.

Cassiano Massakazu Sasaki


FLORESTECA
Brasil
Email:
verena.rodrigues@floresteca.com.br

24.

Fausto Hissashi Takizawa


FLORESTECA S.A.
Brasil
Email:
verena.rodrigues@floresteca.com.br

25.

Daniel Leandro Costa Oliveira


FLORESTECA
Brasil
Email: daniel.oliveira@floresteca.com.br

26.

Joao Vicente De Figueiredo Latorraca


Universidade Federal Rural Do Rio de
Janeiro
Brasil
Email: latorraca@hotmail.com

27.

Luit Smith
Tectona Agroflorestal Ltda
Brasil
Email: luitsmit@terra.com.br

28.

Przemyslaw Jan Walotek


WAKA Forest Investment Services Ag
Brasil
Email: p.walotek@waka-fis.ch

29.

Selton Vieira
Oito Florestal Ltda
Brasil
Email: selton.vieira@globo.com

30.

Fernando Passos
Bacaeri Florestal Ltda
Brasil
Email: fernandompassos@gmail.com

31.

Sueza Basso
UNICENTRO
Brasil
Email: fernandompassos@gmail.com
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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

CANADA
32.

33.

37.

Roger Hernndez
Universidad Laval
Canada
Email: roger.hernandez@sbf.ulaval.ca
Eduardo Gutierrez
Particular
Canada
Email: edu_ge67@hotmail.com

35.

Alexis Wainer
Tripan Guatemala S.A.
Chile
Email: awainer@tripan.cl
Diego Frederick
Greenwood Resources Inc.
Chile
Email: diego.frederick@gwrglobal.com
CHINA

36.

Guihua Huang
Research Institute of Tropical Forestry,
Chinese Academy of Forestry
China
Email: hghcom@sina.com

43.

Juan Camilo Patio Zabala


Grupo Htm
Colombia
Email: jcpatino@unal.edu.co

44.

Andres Correa
Reforestadora Caracoli
Colombia
Email: drewscorrea@hotmail.com

45.

Maria Camila Villegas Piedrahita


Fundacin Grupo Argos
Colombia
Email: mvillegas@grupoargos.com

46.

Julio Alfonso Pinedo Mejia


Piloto de Colombia
Colombia
Email: gerencia@proyectarinnova.com

Reynaldo Escobar Perez


JAEMSAS
Colombia
Email:
rey1escobar@yahoo.com.mx

47.

Nelson Silva
Universidad de La Salle
Colombia
Email: nelsoneduardosilva@gmail.com

Luz Nohem Restrepo Builes


Laefm Colombia Ltda.
Colombia
Email: nrestrepo@laef.com

48.

Juan Rodrguez Santamaria


Maderas Ts S.A.S
Colombia
Email:
ambiental@maderasts.com

COLOMBIA
38.

CHILE
34.

Liang Kunnan
Research Institute of Tropical Forestry,
Chinese Academy of Forestry
China
Email: chinateak@163.net

39.

40.

41.

42.

Juan Piedrahita
Reforestadora Lomaverde
Colombia
Email: jrpiedrahita@yahoo.es
Jose Luis Romero
EQUIFOREST
Colombia
Email: romero@equiforest.com

Fernando Velez-Escobar
Independent Professional
Colombia
Email: fernando.velez52@gmail.com

90

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

49.

Nohelia Bedoya Velsquez


Nacional de Colombia Sede Medelln
Colombia
Email: nbedoya49@hotmail.com

50.

Ramiro Salazar Bernal


Universidad de Antioquia
Colombia
Email:
ramirosalazar@reforestadorasi.com

54.

55.

Luis Ugalde
International Forestry and Agroforestry
(INFOA)
Costa Rica
Email: laugalde@gmail.com

Renato Satta Espinosa


Austral Andes
Colombia
Email: rsatta@australandes.com

56.

Ricardo Lujan
Barca S.A.
Costa Rica
Email: ricardo_lujan@brinkman.ca

52.

Juan Guillermo Toro


TEKIA
Colombia
Email: jtoros@tekia.com.co

57.

Jose Corrales
Barca Sa
Costa Rica
Email: jose_corrales@brinkman.ca

58.

Carlos A. Urcuyo
Cuestamoras Agropecuaria S.A.
Costa Rica
Email: curcuyo@cuestamoras.com

59.

Silvia Obando
Cuestamoras Agropecuaria
Costa Rica
Email: curcuyo@cuestamoras.com

53.

Folkert Kottman
Panamerican Woods Plantations
Costa Rica
Email: pawplant@pawcr.com

Marcela Arguedas
Instituto Tecnolgico de Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Email: marguedas@itcr.ac.cr

61.

Mario Guevara Bonilla


Instituto Tecnolgico de Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Email: maguevara@itcr.ac.cr

62.

Mara Rodrguez
Instituto Tecnolgico de Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Email: maria.rodriguez@itcr.ac.cr

63.

Elemer Briceo
Instituto Tecnolgico de Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Email: ebriceno@itcr.ac.cr

64.

Mario Espinoza
NOVELTEAK
Costa Rica
Email: mario.espinoza@novelteak.com

65.

Francisco Xavier Matamoros Hernndez


NOVELTEAK
Costa Rica
Email:
francisco.matamoros@novelteak.com

Diego Perez
Life Forestry Group
Costa Rica
Email: d.perez@lifeforestry.com

51.

COSTA RICA

60.

91

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

66.

Luis Diego Jimnez Alvarado


CATIE
Costa Rica
Email: djimenez@catie.ac.cr

67.

Andres Marten
TECA GKM de Panam
Costa Rica
Email: amarten@tecagkmpana.com

68.

69.

70.

71.

Juan Jose Jimenez


C & M Investment Gruop
Costa Rica
Email: jjjimenez@candminvestment.com
Juan Luis Fallas Zniga
GFA Certification Gmbh
Costa Rica
Email: juan.fallas@gfa-certification.de

72.

73.

74.

75.

Raunak Bhatia
Associate Group
Costa Rica
Email: raunak.bhatia@panamexim.com
Sudesh Pillai
Gujarat University
Costa Rica
Email: sudi.13@gmail.com

Josue Brenes
Adoniss Limited
Costa Rica
Email: josuebrenes@gmail.com

77.

Teodoro Malo
ASOTECA
Ecuador
Email: tmalo@corporacionlanec.com

DENMARK

78.

Poul Elgaard
Tectona Production, Panama
Dinamarca
Email: pe@tectonaproduction.com

Xavier Elizalde
ASOTECA
Ecuador
Email: xelizalde@asoteca.org.ec

79.

Lars Graudal
University of Copenhagen
Dinamarca
Email: lgr@ign.ku.dk

Yuchi Cen
Ecuawood Sa
Ecuador
Email: sales@ecuawood.com

80.

Erick Anderzen
The International Woodland Company
Dinamarca
Email: ean@iwc.dk

Andres Moral
MAGAP
Ecuador
Email: amoral@magap.gob.ec

81.

Jill Peralta Benites


MAGAP
Ecuador
Email: jperalta@magap.gop.ec

82.

Jose Ramos
MAGAP
Ecuador
Email: jramosg@magap.gob.ec

ECUADOR
76.

Antonio Pino
ASOTECA
Ecuador
Email: apino@forescan.com.ec

92

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

83.

Enrique Garcia
MAGAP
Ecuador

84.

85.

86.

87.

88.

89.

Darwin Salvatierra
MAGAP
Ecuador
Email: dslvatierra31@hotmail.com

Freddy Magdama
MAGAP
Ecuador

90.

Carlos Cabrera
MAGAP
Ecuador
Email:
carloscabrera2708@gmail.com

Juliana Gonzalez
MAGAP
Ecuador
Email: jugonca@yahoo.com

91.

Luis Calderon
MAGAP
Ecuador

Carlos Muoz
MAGAP
Ecuador
Email:
cdmunoz1948@hotmail.com

92.

Sebastin Garzn
MAGAP
Ecuador
Email: sgarzon@forhega.com

93.

Pablo N Noboa
MAGAP
Ecuador
Email: jperalta@magap.gop.ec

94.

Mayra Luna
REFOREI
Ecuador

Nestor Medrano
MAGAP
Ecuador
Email: menproe@hotmail.com
Jose Ricardo Rivas Barzola
MAGAP
Ecuador
Email: jrivas007@hotmail.com

95.

Ismael Olmedo
REFOREI
Ecuador

96.

Carlos Giler
REFOREI
Ecuador

97.

David Montes
MENPROE
Ecuador
Email: vidohotmail.montes@hotmail.com

98.

Andreas Haessler
SYNERGY
Ecuador

99.

Emanuel Carrasco
Hawa Solutions
Ecuador
Email: emanuelcarrasco@gmail.com

100.

Alexandra Calero
RICATIK
Ecuador
Email:alexandra.calero@organigranja.om

101.

Marcos Medina
Particular
Ecuador

102.

Eduardo Ubilla
Particular
Ecuador
Email: eubillla@ecuasabor.com
93

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

103.

Gustavo Alfredo Davila Moncayo


Hacienda Caaguate
Ecuador
Email: jaive23d@hotmail.com

109.

Sebastian Bustamante
Loyola Marymount University
Ecuador
Email: sebas_bus5@hotmail.com

115.

Felipe Pazmio
Aglomerados Cotopaxi
Ecuador
Email: fpazmino@cotopaxi.com.ec

104.

Luis Bolivar Davila Silva


La Pata del Lobo
Ecuador
Email: luisdavilasilva@hotmail.com

110.

Maggic Arroyo
Retratorec
Ecuador
Email: maggicarroyo_p@hotmail.com

116.

Bianca Dager Jervis


SAMBITO
Ecuador
Email: bdsambito@gmym.com

105.

Victor Borbor Cordova


AGROPIEMER
Ecuador
Email: agropelmer@gmail.com

111.

Tamara Panchana Bello


Petroradia Sa
Ecuador
Email: tamyalex19@hotmail.com

117.

Francesca Achi
SAMBITO
Ecuador
Email: fachi@sambito.com.ec

106.

Heidemarie Sonnenholzner
Planet Wood
Ecuador
Email: heidisoonnee@hotmail.com

112.

Gustavo Antonio Davila Silva


Hacienda Caaguate
Ecuador
Email: chico_davila_silva@hotmail.com

118.

Anand Somani
Nirmala International Pte Ltd
Ecuador
Email: snb@nipl.sg

107.

Luis Antonio Cruz


Particular
Ecuador
Email: antonio.cruz.ec@hotmail.com

113.

Fernando Montenegro
Neo Forests Sa
Ecuador
Email: fdomontenegro@hotmail.com

119.

Ashish Kumar
Nirmala International Pte Ltd
Ecuador
Email: snb@nipl.sg

108.

Alberto Jalil
Asisbane
Ecuador
Email: betojalil@gmail.com

114.

Julio Alberto Salazar Valle


Particular
Ecuador

120.

Kyra Peareta
DHL Global Forwarding Ecuador
Ecuador
Email: kyra.penareta@dhl.com

94

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

121.

Christian Cordova
DHL Global Forwarding Ecuador
Ecuador
Email: christian.cordova@dhl.com

127.

Pablo Burbano
PROFAFOR Latinoamrica
Ecuador
Email: pburbano@lafabril.com.ec

133.

Cynthia Castro
OLAM
Ecuador
Email: cynthia.castro@olem.com

122.

Andrea Celi
DHL Global Forwarding Ecuador
Ecuador
Email: andrea.celi@dhl.com

128.

Juan Carlos Salazar


PROFAFOR Latinoamrica
Ecuador
Email: juan_cactus_agro@yahoo.com

134.

Sohil Kumar Chovatiya


Madhav
Ecuador
Email: gerencia@nirmalaintnl.com

123.

Ivan Leon
PROFAFOR Latinoamrica
Ecuador
Email: ileon@profafor.com

129.

Jos Morn
PROFAFOR Latinoamrica
Ecuador
Email: jmoranf85@hotmail.com

135.

Becker Anasi
Cecomex S.A.
Ecuador
Email: becker.anasi@cecomex.com.ec

124.

Luis Fernando Jara


PROFAFOR Latinoamrica
Ecuador
Email: luisjara@profafor.com

130.

Jose Vicente Palacios


SEFNOR
Ecuador
Email: heavymaq@gmail.com

136.

Gabriela Belica
Cecomex S.A.
Ecuador
Email: gabriela.belica@cecomex.com.ec

125.

Pablo Mogrovejo
PROFAFOR Latinoamrica
Ecuador
Email: pmogrovejo@profafor.com

131.

Jorge Roman
Forestal Bosquepalm Cia Ltda
Ecuador
Email: romanj@endesabotrosa.com

137.

Rodrigo Anda
Cecomex S. A.
Ecuador
Email: rodrigo.anda@cecomex.com.ec

126.

Maria Jose Zambrano


PROFAFOR Latinoamrica
Ecuador
Email: majozq@hotmail.com

132.

Juan Antonio Rivas


OLAM
Ecuador
Email: jrivas@olamnet.com

138.

Kit Combay
Hacienda 5 Amigas
Ecuador
Email: kcomby@gmail.com
95

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

139.

Rolando Minda
Fundacion Wilson Popenoe
Ecuador
Email: rolandominda1985@hotmail.com

145.

Maria Cevallos Abad


Hacienda San Jos De Cerecita
Ecuador
Email: mcevallosabad@gmail.com

140.

Fernando Torres
Agridole S.A.
Ecuador
Email: ftb@aifasa.com

146.

Alberto Pealver Romeo


Universidad Catolica Santiago de
Guayaquil
Ecuador
Email: ekofoerest@hotmail.com

141.

142.

143.

144.

Toni Marlon Flores Velastegui


Tropibosques S.A
Ecuador
Email: izambrano@tropibosques.com

147.

Eddy Loor Aveiga


Universidad Catolica Santiago de
Guayaquil
Ecuador
Email: expofla-tk@hotmail.com

Jorge Guzman Restrepo


Tropibosques S.A
Ecuador
Email: izambrano@tropibosques.com

148.

Jose Castro Gaviria


Tropibosques S.A
Ecuador
Email: izambrano@tropibosques.com

Juan Pablo Cedeo


Forestal Cabo Pasado
Ecuador
Email: jpcedeno@agroifabril.com

149.

Tania Wazhima Pulla


Exportadora de Maderas Tropicales
Ecuador
Email: twazhima@multiteak.com

Eduardo Estrada
Zamoranoteak S.A.
Ecuador
Email: zamoranoteak@gmail.com

150.

Ricardo William Naula Espinoza


Sinergy Teak Managment
Ecuador
Email: ricardo.naula@sinergy.com.ec

151.

Oscar Nuez
Sociedad Agricola E Industrial San Carlos
S.A.
Ecuador
Email: onunez@isc.com.ec

152.

Gilberto Decker
Sociedad Agricola E Industrial San Carlos
S.A.
Ecuador
Email: gdecker@isc.com.ec

153.

Jorge Chavez
POLIDIST
Ecuador
Email: jchavez@polidist.com

154.

George Aguirre Diaz


Particular
Ecuador
Email: gaguirre.ab.ing@gmail.com

155.

Rodrigo Izurieta
Particular
Ecuador
Email: rodrigo@izurieta.com

156.

Rafael Altamirano
COPROCL
Ecuador
Email: r.altamirano@yahoo.com
96

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

157.

158.

159.

160.

Sixto Valeriano Manobanda Alvarez


EXP e Imp Manobal C. Ltda.
Ecuador
Email:
grodriguez@grupomanobanda.com

163.

Antonio Acosta
PVS Internacional S.A. Salumbers
Ecuador
Email: agarcia@pvsinternational.com

169.

Leonidas Yugcha Quisatasig


CHEMCROP
Ecuador
Email: lyugcha@chemcrop.com

164.

170.

Winston Jose Torres Quionez


EXP e Imp Manobal C. Ltda
Ecuador
Email:
grodriguez@grupomanobanda.com

Sergio Muoz
PVS Internacional Sa Salumbers
Ecuador
Email: agarcia@pvsinternational.com

Ever Sequeira Aguinaga


Ecuatimber S.A.
Ecuador
Email: esequeira@ecuatimber.com

165.

171.

Denis Mieles
Sociedad Agricola Manabi
Ecuador
Email: holger.mieles@web.de

Saurabh Sagar
PVS Internacional S.A. Salumbers
Ecuador
Email: agarcia@pvsinternational.com

Marjorie Patricia Mendoza Palma


Agrimen S.A
Ecuador
Email: yponce@agrimen.com

166.

172.

Orlando Zambrano
Madetec S.A.
Ecuador
Email: ozambrano@madetec.com.ec

Adriana Garcia
PVS Internacional Sa Salumbers
Ecuador
Email: agarcia@pvsinternational.com

Darwin Goyes Marcillo


Universidad Estatal Tcnica de Quevedo
Ecuador
Email: dgoyes@ecuavegetal.com.ec

167.

Diego Medina
CHEMCROP
Ecuador
Email: diego.medina@croplant.com

173.

Jaime Davila Silva


Finca La Bonita
Ecuador
Email: jaime23d@hotmail.com

168.

Jaime Sanchez Vasquez


CHEMCROP
Ecuador
Email: jsanchez@chemcrop.com

174.

Luis Meneses
INIAP
Ecuador
Email: santiago.meneses@iniap.gob.ec

161.

Edwin Jimenez
CFN
Ecuador
Email: ejimenez@cfn.fin.ec

162.

German Rigoberto Espinoza Jumbo


CFN
Ecuador
Email: geespinoza@cfn.fin.ec

97

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

175.

Diana Almeida Arteaga


INIAP
Ecuador
Email: diana.almedida@iniap.gob.ec

181.

Carlos Zambrano
Nirmala International Pte Ltd
Ecuador
Email: snb_export@yahoo.com

187.

Yovanny Buste
La Vanguardia Forestal
Ecuador
Email: ppalacios@palamarti.com

176.

Ricardo Limongi
INIAP
Ecuador
Email: ricardo.limongi@iniap.gob.ec

182.

Rodny Garrido
ECUAFORESTAL
Ecuador
Email: forestalgarrido@gmail.com

188.

Martin Umpierrez
La Vanguardia Forestal
Ecuador
Email: ppalacios@palamarti.com

177.

Danilo Isaac Vera


INIAP
Ecuador
Email: danilo.vera@iniap.gov.ec

183.

Gonzalo Quillupangui
Particular
Ecuador
Email: qg1964@gmail.com

189.

Jhon Marcelo Ormaza Ponce


Unversidad Tecnica De Manabi
Ecuador
Email: jmop_7@hotmail.com

178.

Ernesto Caarte
INIAP
Ecuador
Email: ecanarte2002@yahoo.com

184.

Vineeth Menon
ARON Global Pte Ltd
Ecuador
Email: vineeth@aronglobal.com

190.

Xavier Perez Mac Collum


Permac Agricola Los Potreros S. A.
Ecuador
Email: permac@gye.satnet.net

179.

Rafael Elizalde
Nirmala International Pte Ltd
Ecuador
Email: r.elizalde@yahoo.com

185.

Rahul Kaul
Pamposh International S.A.
Ecuador
Email: rahulkaul.14@gmail.com

191.

Sucre Hernan Perez Baquerizo


Permac Agricola Los Potreros S. A.
Ecuador
Email: permac@gye.satnet.net

180.

Guillermo Ortega
Nirmala International Pte Ltd
Ecuador
Email: gortegaro@yahoo.com

186.

Paul Palacios
La Vanguardia Forestal
Ecuador
Email: ppalacios@palamarti.com

192.

Cesar Arboleda Lucero


Permac Agricola Los Potreros S. A.
Ecuador
Email: permac@gye.satnet.net

98

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

193.

Fernando Muirragui
Negcorpbis S.A.
Ecuador
Email: sluna@palmardelrio.com

199.

Romulo Patricio Gonzalez Peaherrera


Reybanpac, Reybanano Del Pacifico C.A
Ecuador
Email: jsandoval@favoritafc.com

205.

Juan Martin Gomez


Agroeleonor
Ecuador
Email: juan_mgomez@hotmail.com

194.

Juan Salgado
Negcorpbis S.A.
Ecuador
Email: sluna@palmardelrio.com

200.

Sandro Navas
Morondava S.A.
Ecuador
Email: sandronavas@latinversa.com

206.

Boanerges Pereira
Heightwood S.A.
Ecuador
Email: boapereira@hotmail.com

195.

Mohit Maheshwari
Royal Global Exports
Ecuador
Email: m.maheshwari@royal.com.sg

201.

Stephanie Navas
Morondava S.A.
Ecuador
Email: sandronavas@latinversa.com

207.

Anand Motha
Particular
Ecuador
Email: anand@royalglobalexp.com.sg

196.

Juan Carlos Ludea Velasquez


Reybanpac, Reybanano Del Pacifico C.A
Ecuador
Email: jsandoval@favoritafc.com

202.

Csar Nogales
Zamorano
Ecuador
Email: cesar.nogales@syngenta.com

Jose Alberto Sandoval Muoz


Reybanpac, Reybanano Del Pacifico C.A
Ecuador
Email: jsandoval@favoritafc.com

203.

Rafael Wong
Reybanpac, Reybanano Del Pacifico
Ecuador
Email: rwong@favoritafc.com

204.

197.

198.

Knut Radicke
Life Forestry Ecuador S.A.
Ecuador
Email: k.radicke@lifeforestry.com
Manuel Bonifaz
Capaltec S.A.
Ecuador
Email: bonifazm@hotmail.es

EMIRATOS ARABES UNIDOS


208.

Vikash Nihalani
PVS Internacional Sa Salumbers
Emiratos Arabes Unidos
Email: agarcia@pvsinternational.com

209.

Vijay Nihalani
PVS Internacional Sa Salumbers
Emiratos Arabes Unidos
Email: agarcia@pvsinternational.com

99

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

ESTADOS UNIDOS
210.

211.

212.

213.

214.

215.

Felipe Veliz
Times International
Estados Unidos
Email: fveliz@sucafinausa.com
Mark Willhite
World Forest Investment, Inc
Estados Unidos
Email: mark.willhite@juno.com
Adam Watson
Terrasource Valuation LLC
Estados Unidos
Email: awatson@tsvalue.com
Jeff Wikle
Terrasource Valuation LLC
Estados Unidos
Email: awatson@tsvalue.com

216.

217.

218.

219.

220.

Juan Luis Lopez


NC State University
Estados Unidos
Email: jjlopez@ncsu.edu
William Andrew Whittier
NC State University/ Camcore
Estados Unidos
Email: wawhitti@ncsu.edu

221.

Rafael De La Torre
Arborgen Inc
Estados Unidos
Email: rdelat@hotmail.com
Luis Osorio
University of Florida
Estados Unidos
Email: lfosorioa@gmail.com
John Turland
RISI Inc.
Estados Unidos
Email: jturland@risi.com
Alex Finkral
The Forestland Group
Estados Unidos
Email:
alex@forestlandgroup.com

FRANCE
222.

Olivier Monteuuis
CIRAD
Francia
Email: olivier.monteuuis@cirad.fr

223.

Pierre-Yves Comte
571 Chemin De La Tuilerie
Francia
Email: p.y.comte@wanadoo.fr

224.

Roberto Bacilieri
INRA Montpellier
Francia
Email: bacilieri@supagro.inra.fr
GHANA

225.

Richard Andrew
Hemisphere Forest Investment LP
Estados Unidos
Email:
rickandrew2@gmail.com
Ravichandran Sarojanam
Particular
Estados Unidos

Hugh Brown
Forestry Commission
Ghana
Email: hughbrown03@hotmail.com
GUATEMALA

226.

Hensy Froilan Caal Chamam


Consultorias Agrcolas Y Forestales
Guatemala
Email: hensyfor0502@hotmail.com
100

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

227.

Luis Alvarado
GFP
Guatemala
Email: luis.alvarado@gfplp.com

228.

Edwin Estuardo Vaides Lpez


Tripan Guatemala
Guatemala
Email: evaides.tripan@gmail.com

229.

Kurt Schneider
CORVIGLIA Sa
Guatemala
Email: kurt.schneider11@gmail.com

230.

Mario Alberto Hurtado Montenegro


HOLZ
Guatemala
Email: mario.hurtadp@holzinternational.com

232.

Biswajeet Singh
OLAM
India
Email: biswajeet.singh@olamnet.com

238.

Darshan Raiyani
OLAM
India
Email: darshan@olamnet.com

233.

Vikram Aditya Watal


OLAM
India
Email: vikramaditya@olamnet.net

239.

Bhanu Avasthi
OLAM
India
Email: bhanu.avasthi@olamnet.com

234.

Vignesh Tj
OLAM
India
Email: vignrsh.tj@olamnet.com

240.

Rakesh Semwal
OLAM
India
Email: raquesh.semwel@oalmet.com

235.

Priyank Pradeep
OLAM
India
Email: p.pradeep@olamnet.com

241.

Raja Shekhar Bogireddy


OLAM
India
Email: r.shekar@olemnet.com

236.

Veronica Flores
OLAM
India
Email: veronica.flores@olamnet.com

242.

Kartar Singh
Matharu
India
Email: singh@olamnet.com

237.

Ashish Malik
OLAM
India
Email: ashish.malik@olemnet.com

243.

Sreelakshmy M.P
TEAKNET
India
Email: secretariat@teaknet.org

INDIA
231.

Koustubha Bhutra
OLAM
India
Email: k.bhutra@olamnet.com

101

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

244.

Thulasidas P.K
Kerala Forest Research Institute
India
Email: coordinator@teaknet.org

245.

Siddhartha Bhargava
APP Timber
India
Email: siddhartha@apptimber.com

246.

Anoop Elaveettil Vasu


Kerala Agricultural University
India
Email: anoop.ev@kau.in

247.

Ashwani Kumar
Indian Council of Forestry Research And
Education
India
Email: ashwani133@hotmail.com

248.

Gaurav Agicha
Associate Group
India
Email: info@panamexim.com

249.

Narendra Agicha
Associate Group
India
Email: info@panamexim.com

250.

Prateek Garg
Madhav
India
Email:
prateeksohil@madhavoverseas.com

255.

INDONESIA
251.

James Roshetko
World Agroforestry Centre (Icraf)
Indonesia
Email: j.roshetko@cgiar.org

252.

Thomas Akuarin Tanjung


HARFAM Afforestation Indonesia
Indonesia
Email: asm.marcomm@harfam.co.id

253.

254.

Novinci Muharyani
Research And Development Center of
Perum Perhutani
Indonesia
Email: novincimuharyani@yahoo.co.id
Erlangga Abdillah
Research And Development Center of
Perum Perhutani
Indonesia
Email: abdillahjoe09@gmail.com

Eko Sudaryanto
Research And Development Center of
Perum Perhutani
Indonesia
Email: esudaryanto95@yahoo.com

IRAN
256.

Amir Sohrabi
Particular
Irn
Email: amirkrs@organigranja.com
ITALY

257.

Walter Kollert
FAO of the United Nations
Italia
Email: walter.kollert@fao.org

258.

Graciela Andrade
FAO of the United Nations
Italia
Email:
gracielamaria.andrademoreno@gmail.co
m

102

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

JAPAN
259.

260.

Tetra Yanuariadi
ITTO, Yokohoma
Japn
Email: tetra@itto.int
Rahmayanti Rahmayanti
ITTO, Yokohoma
Japn
Email: tetra@itto.int
MALAYSIA

261.

262.

263.

Abdullah Mohd Zaki


Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
Malasia
Email: zaky@frim.gov.my

264.

265.

266.

267.

Ahmad Yahya
Forest Research Institute Malaysia
Malasia
Email: zuhaidi@frim.gov.my
Doreen Ks Goh
Sabah Foundation
Malasia
Email: dorngoh@hotmail.com

268.

MEXICO

269.

Jose Cibrian
Forestal Milenium
Mxico
Email: jcibriantovar@hotmail.com

Jurgen Stock
PROTEAK
Mxico
Email: eespinosa@proteak.com

270.

Gaston Mauvezin
PROTEAK
Mxico
Email: eespinosa@proteak.com

271.

Raul Alvarez
Multimedios
Mxico
Email: raul.alvarez@multimedios.com

272.

Ruben Quezada
Multimedios
Mxico
Email:
quezada.rodriguez@yahoo.com.mx

Victor Fernandez
Agropecuaria Santa Genoveva Sapi de Cv
Mxico
Email:
victor.fernandez@genoveva.com.mx
Carlos Rojas
Agropecuaria Santa Genoveva Sapi de Cv
Mxico
Email: carlos.rojas@genoveva.com.mx
Mauricio Blanco
Agropecuaria Santa Genoveva Sapi de Cv
Mxico
Email:
mauricio.blanco@genoveva.com.mx
Enrique Espinoza
PROTEAK
Mxico
Email: eespinosa@proteak.com

MYANMAR
273.

Yazar Minn
Forest Research Institute
Myanmar
Email: yazarminn@gmail.com

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Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

274.

Ohn Lwin
University of Forestry
Myanmar
Email: ohnpyone@gmail.com

280.

Jinmy Jos Hernndez Robles


Nicaforestal S.A.
Nicaragua
Email: jimmyhdez@gmail.com

286.

Salvador Zuiga
Teca GKM de Panam
Panam
Email: szuniga@tecagkmpana.com

275.

Than Swe
CONCORD Commodities
Myanmar
Email: ayeaye5862@gmail.com

281.

Eugenio Robelo
EQUIFOREST
Nicaragua
Email: erobelo@equiforest.com

287.

Elvis Yanguez
Teca GKM de Panam
Panam
Email: eyanguez@tecagkmpana.com

276.

Sameer Kaushal
Organization
Myanmar
Email: Ayeaye5862@Gmail.Com

288.

Robert Kroesen
United Nature, Inc.
Panam
Email: robert@unitednature.com

289.

Juan Carlos Arenas


United Nature, Inc.
Panam
Email: robert@unitednature.com

290.

Ariel Urriola
United Nature, Inc.
Panam
Email: robert@unitednature.com

291.

Abraham Nuez
United Nature, Inc.
Panam
Email: robert@unitednature.com

277.

Aye Thiha
Royal Tree Services
Myanmar
Email: ayethiha@royaltreeservices.biz

PANAMA
282.

283.

NICARAGUA
278.

279.

Carlos Domke
MLR Forestal
Nicaragua
Email: cdomke@mlr.com.ni

284.

Ove Faurby
Norteak Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Email: faurby@norteak.no

285.

Ariel Uriola
United Nature
Panam
Email: ariel@unitednature.com
Ashish Parik
Nirmala International Pte Ltd
Panam
Email: panabharat@nipl.sg
Fardeen Chhapra
Matrix Green Central America Inc
Panam
Email: matrixgreen@cwpanama.net
Hessel Van Straten
Panamerican Reforestation Services Sa
Panam
Email: hesselvanstraten@hotmail.com

104

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

292.

Edgar Guerra
United Nature, Inc.
Panam
Email: robert@unitednature.com

298.

Diego Dipieri
BARCA
Panam
Email: diego_dipieri@brinkman.ca

303.

Robert Herea
Banati Bosque Sac
Per
Email: robert.herena@banatibosque.pe

293.

Martin Johansson
Ecotopia Group
Panam
Email: martin@ecotopiateak.com

299.

Naveen Singh Rawat


Alkemal Singapore Pte Ltd
Panam
Email: naveen@alkemal.com

304.

Franco Herea
Banati Bosque Sac
Per
Email: robert.herena@banatibosque.pe

294.

Luis Rios
ANARAP
Panam
Email: recepcion@batipa.com

305.

Felipe Koechlin
Universidad Pacifico
Per
Email: felipe.koechlin@ramsa.pe

Freddy Cspedes
Atlantexco Forestal Sac
Per
Email: freddycespedesratto@gmail.com

306.

Duberli Elera
Universidad Nacional de Cajamarca
Per
Email: duberli.elera@ramsa.pe

Gonzalo de Aliaga
Reforestal S.A.C.
Per
Email: gdealiaga@gmail.com

307.

Mariano Bustamante
Reforestal
Per
Email: mbustamante@ememsa.com

308.

Jos Chlimper
Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria North
Carolina State University
Per
Email: jchlimper@agrokasa.com.pe

295.

296.

297.

Ana Selena Lacayo


ANARAP
Panam
Email: recepcion@batipa.com
Carlos Omlin Navarro
Empresas Darien S.A
Panam
Email: c.omlin@edsa-stihl.com
Melanio Aguilar
Empresas Darien S.A
Panam
Email: m.aguila24@gmail.com

PERU
300.

301.

302.

Mauricio Scheelje
Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina
Per
Email:
mauricio.scheelje@ramsa.pe

105

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

REPBLICA CHECA
309.

310.

311.

312.

314.

319.

Petr Madera
Mendel University in Brno
Repblica Checa
Email: petrmad@mendelu.cz

Rahul Ahuja
ARON Global Pte Ltd
Singapur
Email: rahul@aronglobal.com

Juan Carlos Vega Malo


Arbofino Switzerland Ag
Suiza
Email: dominic@arbofino.ch

315.

320.

Josef Cafourek
Mendel University in Brno
Repblica Checa
Email: cafourek@trnet.cz

SP Biyani
Nirmala International Pte Ltd
Singapur
Email: biyani@nipl.sg

Egon Fink
Life Forestry Switzerland
Suiza
Email: e.fink@lifeforestry.com

316.

Himanshu Biyani
Nirmala International Pte Ltd
Singapur
Email: himanshu@nipl.sg

Peter Haninec
Mendel University in Brno
Repblica Checa
Email: xhaninec@node.mendelu.cz
Martin Smola
Lesprojekt Vychodni Cechy
Repblica Checa
Email: smola.martin@seznam.cz

Reetesh Dalmia
ROYAL
Singapur
Email:
m.maheshwari@royalglobalexp.com.sg

321.

Leon Viljoen
Kilomero Valley Teak Company
Tanzania
Email: hlemm@kvtc-tz.com

322.

Hans Lemm
Kilombero Valley Teak Company
Tanzania
Email: hlemm@kvtc-tz.com

323.

Harbert Marwa
Tanzania
Email:
marwaharbert@gmail.com

SWEDEN
317.

SINGAPUR
313.

TANZANIA

Fredrik Lundberg
VIMEK AB
Suecia
Email: fredrik.lundberg@vimek.se
SWITZERLAND

318.

Dominic Ziegler
Arbofino Switzerland Ag
Suiza
Email: dominic@arbofino.ch

106

Strengthening Global Teak Resources and Markets for Sustainable Development

VENEZUELA

UGANDA
324.

325.

326.

327.

328.

329.

Nelly Grace Bedijo


Sawlog Production Grant Scheme(SPGS)
Uganda
Email: nbedijo@hotmail.com

330.

Bueno Dickens Sande


Sawlog Production Grant Scheme (SPGS)
Uganda
Email: bdsande@gmail.com

331.

Sim Katende
Katende. Ssempebwa and Co. Advocates
Uganda
Email: sim@kats.co.ug

332.

Andrew Ireland
Beaver Biotech Uganda Limited
Uganda
Email: andrewedwardireland@gmail.com

333.

Felician Kilahama
Beaver Biotech Uganda Ltd
Uganda
Email: sim@kafs.co.ug

334.

Abdul Safiq
Beaver Biotech Uganda Ltd
Uganda
Email: nettshoppe@africaonline.co.ug

335.

336.

Mauricio Jerez-Rico
Universidad de Los Andes
Venezuela
Email: jerezorama@gmail.com

Mounir Jos Kabche El Douaihi


Inversiones Britmar Ca
Venezuela
Email: mkabche@hotmail.com

337.

Ana Moret
Universidad de Los Andes
Venezuela
Email: anayajaira.moret.@gmail.com

Helena Evelyn Dahdah


Inversiones Britmar Ca
Venezuela
Email: helena.dahdah@gmail.com

338.

Mara Isabel Gamboa Gessen


Inversiones Britmar Ca
Venezuela
Email: marisagamboa82@gmail.com

339.

Kevin Higinio Muoz Cantor


Inversiones Britmar Ca
Venezuela
Email: kevin_h83@hotmail.com

340.

Neil Deivis Martnez Cantor


Inversiones Britmar Ca
Venezuela
Email:
neil.martinez1978@gmail.com

341.

Luis Brito Arismendi


Inversiones Britmar Ca
Venezuela
Email:
luis.brito@gmix.com

Ana Mercedes Quevedo-Rojas


Universidad de Los Andes
Venezuela
Email: anamer2@gmail.com
Isabel Schargel
UNELLEZ
Venezuela
Email: ischargel@gmail.com
Gregorio Hernando
Agropecuaria La Filera
Venezuela
Email: boixini@gmail.com
Karim Jos Kabche El Douaihi
Inversiones Britmar Ca
Venezuela
Email: karimkabche@hotmail.com

107